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Sample records for biofuels program overview

  1. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  2. Biofuels. An overview. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this desk study is to get an overview of the most relevant liquid biofuels especially in the African context, and more specifically in the Netherlands' relevant partner countries. The study will focus on biofuels for transport, but will also consider biofuels for cooking and power generation. Biogas as the result of anaerobic fermentation which can be used for cooking, lighting and electricity generation will not be considered in this study. Liquid biofuels are usually divided into alcohols that are used to substitute for gasoline and oils that are used to substitute for diesel and are often called Biodiesel, and this division will be followed in this study. In chapter 2 we will analyse several aspects of the use of alcohols particularly ethanol, in chapter 3 the same analysis will be done for oils, using as example the very promising Jatropha oil. In chapter we will analyse socio-economic issues of the use of these biofuels

  3. Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program overview describes the following resources and facilities; laser facilities, main laser room, target room, energy storage, laboratory area, building support systems, general plant project, and the new trailer complex

  4. Biofuels feedstock development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires

  5. Overview on Biofuels from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    In light of the recently developed European Union (EU) Biofuels Strategy, the literature is reviewed to examine (a) the coherency of biofuel production with the EU nonindustrial vision of agriculture, and (b) given its insufficient land base, the implications of a proposed bioenergy pact to grow biofuel crops in the developing world to meet EU…

  6. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  7. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  8. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  9. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  10. Panorama 2014 - Overview of second-generation biofuel projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second-generation biofuels produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass are now one of the main technological options for reducing the climatic impacts imposed by fuels used in transportation. These processes are designed to significantly boost the quantities of biofuels available and to take over from their first-generation counterparts, given the ready availability of raw materials and their excellent environmental performances. They are already the subject of multiple pre-industrial scale projects in many regions of the world as part of R and D programs, and the first industrial installations are already operational or under construction, the majority of them in Europe and the United States. They now require a stable regulatory framework in order to progress to the industrial learning stage required for them to become fully competitive. This is why the current uncertainties surrounding regulations in Europe and to a lesser extent in the United States could delay their development. (authors)

  11. BMDO photovoltaics program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caveny, Leonard H.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    This is an overview of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) Photovoltaic Program. Areas discussed are: (1) BMDO advanced Solar Array program; (2) Brilliant Eyes type satellites; (3) Electric propulsion; (4) Contractor Solar arrays; (5) Iofee Concentrator and Cell development; (6) Entech linear mini-dome concentrator; and (7) Flight test update/plans.

  12. Assessment of environmental stresses for enhanced microalgal biofuel production-an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eCheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  13. LANL HED Programs Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flippo, Kirk Adler [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-04-23

    The Powerpoint presentation provides an overview of High-Energy Density (HED) Physis, ICF and Burning Plasma research programs at Los Alamos National Lab. in New Mexico. Work in nuclear diagnostics is also presented, along with a summary of collaborations and upcoming projects.

  14. An overview of biofuel technologies, markets and policies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For fuels produced from biomass, various conversion routes are available that follow from the different types of biomass that can serve as a feedstock. These conversion technologies are discussed in both technological and economic terms. For each route, the fuel characteristics of the biofuel are described and compared to those of the fossil fuel it can replace, either petrol or diesel. Currently, the European biofuel market only consists of biodiesel (e.g. Rapeseed Methyl Ester, RME) and ethanol (and its derivative ETBE). The production and application of these biofuels is discussed for the most important biofuel countries in the European Union and the countries in which the use of biofuels is less developed. The report also describes national and European policies aimed at stimulating the production and application of biofuels. There is a special focus on two European Directive proposals on the promotion of the use of biofuels in transport and the process towards adoption of these Directives

  15. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP, which was published in this publication on June 12, 2009 (74 FR 27998). All payments will be made based upon the terms and conditions... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels AGENCY: Rural...

  16. Panorama 2014 - Overview of biofuel sectors throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is all of the organic matter derived from the animal and plant organisms that make up our environment. Nowadays, it is possible to efficiently convert biomass into energy - biofuels in particular, which can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels - thanks to the increased use of new technologies. After a number of years of extremely high growth until 2008, world production of biofuels has continued to increase, but at a slower rate. Investment in them is starting to fall, mainly as a result of a more constrained global economy and the volatility of regulations governing how they can be used. The outlook does, however, look good for biofuels: a number of new promising technologies, still in the R and D stage, are starting to emerge. To a very great extent, their viability will be determined by the development of various state policies on biofuels. (authors)

  17. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  18. 1996 ICF program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, D

    1996-09-30

    The continuing objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is the demonstration of thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. The underlying theme of all ICF activities as a science research and development program is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Defense Programs (DP) science-based Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SSM) Program. The extension of current program research capabilities in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is necessary for the ICF Program to satisfy its stewardship responsibilities. ICF resources (people and facilities) are increasingly being redirected in support of the performance, schedule, and cost goals of the NIF. One of the more important aspects of ICF research is the national nature of the program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) ICF Program falls within DOE's national ICF Program, which includes the Nova and Beamlet laser facilities at LLNL and the OMEGA, Nike, and Trident laser facilities at the University of Rochester (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, UR/LLE), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), respectively. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA) and Saturn pulsed-power facilities are at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). General Atomics, Inc. (GA) develops and provides many of the targets for the above experimental facilities. LLNL's ICF Program supports activities in two major interrelated areas: (1) target physics and technology (experimental, theoretical, and computational research); and (2) laser science and optics technology development. Experiments on LLNL's Nova laser primarily support ignition and weapons physics research. Experiments on LLNL's Beamlet laser support laser science and optics technology development. In addition, ICF sciences and technologies, developed as part of the DP mission goals, continue to support additional DOE objectives. These objectives are (1) to

  19. 1996 ICF program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuing objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is the demonstration of thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. The underlying theme of all ICF activities as a science research and development program is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Defense Programs (DP) science-based Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SSM) Program. The extension of current program research capabilities in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is necessary for the ICF Program to satisfy its stewardship responsibilities. ICF resources (people and facilities) are increasingly being redirected in support of the performance, schedule, and cost goals of the NIF. One of the more important aspects of ICF research is the national nature of the program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) ICF Program falls within DOE's national ICF Program, which includes the Nova and Beamlet laser facilities at LLNL and the OMEGA, Nike, and Trident laser facilities at the University of Rochester (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, UR/LLE), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), respectively. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA) and Saturn pulsed-power facilities are at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). General Atomics, Inc. (GA) develops and provides many of the targets for the above experimental facilities. LLNL's ICF Program supports activities in two major interrelated areas: (1) target physics and technology (experimental, theoretical, and computational research); and (2) laser science and optics technology development. Experiments on LLNL's Nova laser primarily support ignition and weapons physics research. Experiments on LLNL's Beamlet laser support laser science and optics technology development. In addition, ICF sciences and technologies, developed as part of the DP mission goals, continue to support additional DOE objectives. These objectives are (1) to achieve diversity in energy sources

  20. PETROBRAS, an energy company and the Brazilian biofuel program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Fernando; Diehl Filho, Rubin P.; Fernandes Valle, Luiz Alberto

    2010-09-15

    Ever since the launches of Proalcool (ETHANOL PROGRAM) and PNPB (BIODIESEL PROGRAM), PETROBRAS (as an energy company) has been actively participating in these national projects and investing in tankage collection and storage, shipment and marine terminals, distribution infrastructure, biodiesel and ethanol plants and second-generation biofuels. It has also been the pioneer in offering these products at its service stations to final consumers. PETROBRAS in its 2008-2012 Business Plan intends to invest US$ 1.5 billion in biofuel business and act globally in biofuel commercialization and logistics, leading national biodiesel production and expanding its presence in the ethanol business.

  1. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  2. Biofuels, Biolubricants and the BioPreferred(SM) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BioPreferred(SM) Program is a U.S. government initiative intended to encourage the development and widespread use of biofuels, biolubricants, and other biobased products in the U.S. The program consists of the preferred procurement and the voluntary labeling programs. Companies wishing to have t...

  3. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  4. An overview of biofuel policies across the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade biofuel production has been driven by governmental policies. This article reviews the national strategy plans of the world's leading producers. Particular attention is dedicated to blending targets, support schemes and feedstock use. Individual country profiles are grouped by continent and include North America (Canada and the US), South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia), Europe (the European Union, France, and Germany), Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Australia.

  5. Biofuel from biomass via photo-electrochemical reactions: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Minggu, L. J.

    2014-08-01

    Biomass is attracting a great deal of attention as a renewable energy resource to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Converting biomass from municipal, agricultural and livestock into biofuel and electrical power has significant environmental and economic advantages. The conversion of biomass into practical energy requires elegant designs and further investigation. Thus, biomass is a promising renewable energy source due to its low production cost and simple manufacturing processes. Biofuel (hydrogen and methanol) from biomass will be possible to be used for transportation with near-zero air pollution, involves efficient uses of land and major contribution to reduce dependence on insecure source of petroleum. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactions study has potential pathway for producing fuel from biomass and bio-related compound in the near future. This review highlights recent work related to the PEC conversion of biomass and bio-related compounds into useful biofuels and electricity. This review covers different types of photochemical reaction cells utilizing various types of organic and inorganic waste. It also presents recent developments in photoelectrodes, photocatalysts and electrolytes as well as the production of different types of fuel from PEC cells and highlights current developments and problems in PEC reactions.

  6. Biofuels and Land use in Sweden - An overview of land-use change effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, J. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Ahlgren, S. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Grahn, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sundberg, C. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    Supported by policies, biofuel production has been continuously increasing worldwide during recent years owing to a scientific consensus that human-induced global warming is a reality and the need to reduce import dependency of fossil fuels. However, concerns have been raised that bio-fuels, often advocated as the future substitute for greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive fossil fuels, may cause negative effects on the climate and the environment. When assessing GHG emissions from biofuels, the production phase of the biofuel crop is essential since this is the phase in which most of the GHG emissions occur during the life cycle of the fuel (not accounting for biogenic CO{sub 2} from the tailpipe). Much research has been focusing on the GHG performance of biofuels, but there are also a range of other possible environmental effects of biofuel production, often linked to land use and land management. Changes in land use can result from a wide range of anthropogenic activities including agriculture and forestry management, livestock and biofuel production. Direct effects of land-use change (LUC) range from changes of carbon stock in standing biomass to biodiversity impacts and nutrient leakage. Beside the direct effects, indirect effects can influence other uses of land through market forces across countries and continents. These indirect effects are complex to measure and observe. This report provides an overview of a much debated issue: the connection between LUC and bio-fuel production and associated potential impacts on a wide range of aspects (i.e., soil chemistry, biodiversity, socio economics, climate change, and policy). The main purpose of the report is to give a broad overview of the literature on LUC impacts from biofuel production, not only taking into account the link between LUC and GHG, which has been addressed in many other studies. The report first presents a review of the literature in the different scientific areas related to LUC and biofuel production

  7. A stochastic programming approach towards optimization of biofuel supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy has been recognized as an important source of energy that will reduce dependency on petroleum. It would have a positive impact on the economy, environment, and society. Production of bioenergy is expected to increase. As a result, we foresee an increase in the number of biorefineries in the near future. This paper analyzes challenges with supplying biomass to a biorefinery and shipping biofuel to demand centers. A stochastic linear programming model is proposed within a multi-period planning framework to maximize the expected profit. The model deals with a time-staged, multi-commodity, production/distribution system, facility locations and capacities, technologies, and material flows. We illustrate the model outputs and discuss the results through numerical examples considering disruptions in biofuel supply chain. Finally, sensitivity analyses are performed to gain managerial insights on how profit changes due to existing uncertainties. - Highlights: • A robust model of biofuel SC is proposed and a sensitivity analysis implemented. • Demand of products is a function of price and GBM (Geometric Brownian Motion) is used for prices of biofuels. • Uncertainties in SC network are captured through defining probabilistic scenarios. • Both traditional feedstock and lignocellulosic biomass are considered for biofuel production. • Developed model is applicable to any related biofuel supply chain regardless of region

  8. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF BIOFUELS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; French, T.

    2010-02-03

    The South Carolina Bio-Energy Research Collaborative is working together on the development and demonstration of technology options for the production of bio-fuels using renewable non-food crops and biomass resources that are available or could be made available in abundance in the southeastern United States. This collaboration consists of Arborgen LLC, Clemson University, Savannah River National Laboratory, and South Carolina State University, with support from Dyadic, Fagen Engineering, Renewed World Energies, and Spinx. Thus far, most work has centered on development of a fermentation-based process to convert switchgrass into ethanol, with the concomitant generation of a purified lignin stream. The process is not feed-specific, and the work scope has recently expanded to include sweet sorghum and wood. In parallel, the Collaborative is also working on developing an economical path to produce oils and fuels from algae. The Collaborative envisions an integrated bio-fuels process that can accept multiple feedstocks, shares common equipment, and that produces multiple product streams. The Collaborative is not the only group working on bio-energy in South Carolina, and other companies are involved in producing biomass derived energy products at an industrial scale.

  10. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  11. SSCL quality program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quality Program for the Superconducing Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) was developed for a number of reasons. The need for a quality program not only is a contractual requirement, but it also makes good economic sense to implement such a program. The quality program is the device used to coordinate the activities of different Laboratory organizations, such as Engineering and Procurement, and to improve operational reliability and safety. To be successful, the QA Program not only must satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and provide for flowdown of requirements to performing organizations, but must also be flexible enough so that the program is tailored to meet the needs of each internal organization. The keys to success are management support, acceptance by personnel, and cost effectiveness. These three items are assured by involving appropriate management at each step of program development, by personnel training and by feedback, and by programs to reduce defects and improve quality. Equally valuable is involvement of key organizations in program development. We will describe the basic SSCL Quality Program requirements, how the requirements are tailored to the needs of Laboratory organizations, and how the effectiveness of the program is validated

  12. The social and environmental impacts of biofuels in Asia: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the social and environmental costs and benefits of biofuels in Asia. The major factors that will determine the impacts of biofuels are: (1) their contribution to land-use change, (2) the feedstocks used, and (3) issues of technology and scale. Biofuels offer economic benefits, and in the right circumstances can reduce emissions and make a small contribution to energy security. Feedstocks that involve the conversion of agricultural land will affect food security and cause indirect land-use change, while those that replace forests, wetlands or natural grasslands will increase emissions and damage biodiversity. Biofuels from cellulose, algae or waste will avoid some of these problems, but come with their own set of uncertainties and risks. In order to ensure net societal benefits of biofuel production, governments, researchers, and companies will need to work together to carry out comprehensive assessments, map suitable and unsuitable areas, and define and apply standards relevant to the different circumstances of each country. The greatest benefits may come from feedstocks produced on a modest scale as co-products of smart technologies developed for phytoremediation, waste disposal and emissions reduction.

  13. Program overview: Subsurface science program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OHER Subsurface Science Program is DOE's core basic research program concerned with subsoils and groundwater. These practices have resulted in contamination by mixtures of organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and radionuclides. A primary long-term goal is to provide a foundation of knowledge that will lead to the reduction of environmental risks and to cost-effective cleanup strategies. Since the Program was initiated in 1985, a substantial amount of research in hydrogeology, subsurface microbiology, and the geochemistry of organically complexed radionuclides has been completed, leading to a better understanding of contaminant transport in groundwater and to new insights into microbial distribution and function in the subsurface environments. The Subsurface Science Program focuses on achieving long-term scientific advances that will assist DOE in the following key areas: providing the scientific basis for innovative in situ remediation technologies that are based on a concept of decontamination through benign manipulation of natural systems; understanding the complex mechanisms and process interactions that occur in the subsurface; determining the influence of chemical and geochemical-microbial processes on co-contaminant mobility to reduce environmental risks; improving predictions of contaminant transport that draw on fundamental knowledge of contaminant behavior in the presence of physical and chemical heterogeneities to improve cleanup effectiveness and to predict environmental risks

  14. Laser fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  15. Better Plants Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  16. Hydrogen program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  17. Laser program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Fusion program are to understand and develop the science and technology of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and to utilize ICF in short- and long-term military applications, and, in the long-term, as a candidate for central-station civilian power generation. In 1984, using the Novette laser system, the authors completed experiments showing the very favorable scaling of laser-plama interactions with short-wavelength laser light. Their Novette experiments have unequivocally shown that short laser wavelength, i.e., less than 1 μm, is required to provide the drive necessary for efficient compression, ignition, and burn of DT fusion fuel. In other experiments with Novette, the authors made the first unambiguous observation of amplified spontaneous emission in the soft x-ray regime. The authors also conducted military applications and weapons physics experiments, which they discuss in detail in the classified volume of our Laser Program Annual Report. In the second thrust, advanced laser studies, they develop and test the concepts, components, and materials for present and future laser systems. Over the years, this has meant providing the technology base and scientific advances necessary to construct and operate a succession of six evermore-powerful laser systems. The latest of these, Nova, a 100-TW/100-kJ-class laser system, was completed in 1984. The Nd:glass laser continues to be the most effective and versatile tool for ICF and weapons physics because of its scalability in energy, the ability to efficiently convert its 1=μm output to shorter wavelengths, its ability to provide flexible, controlled pulse shaping, and its capability to adapt to a variety of irradiation and focusing geometries. For these reasons, many of our advanced laser studies are in areas appropriate to solid state laser technologies

  18. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  19. The U.S. Department of Energy biofuels research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Program has focused mainly on liquid fuels such as ethanol, methanol, biocrude-derived gasoline, and plant-oil-derived diesel fuel with some emphasis on gaseous fuels such as biogas. Researchers have improved the economics off the wood to ethanol process to approximately $1.35/gal by developing a method to ferment ethanol from the xylose fraction of wood with greater than 70% efficiency. The program goal of $0.60/gal would provide ethanol at a competitive cost without tax credits. DOE has increased the emphasis on cooperative ventures with industry and is developing plans for a cost-shared project to scale up gasification technologies for both syngas and methanol fuel production testing. Development of successful methods for cleaning and conditioning the raw syngas from the gasifier is expected to reduce methanol costs from $0.75/gal to $0.55/gal. Scientists have made substantial progress in testing process concepts for hydrotreating and zeolite catalyst upgrading of pyrolysis oils to produce gasoline. The cost of gasoline from biomass by this process is currently projected at $1.60/gal with a goal of $0.85/gal. With adequate research and development investments, biofuels can have a much greater impact on the liquid transportation fuels sector in the future, even without legislation or federal regulations to stimulate the industry. Therefore, biofuels costs are projected to be competitive with oil costs at $25-$30/bbl within the next 5-10 years; however, the development time frame depends on the research and development investment level

  20. Overview of the CAPTAIN program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuguang; CAPTAIN Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Liquid argon time projection chamber detectors are taking center stage for the next large projects that the high-energy physics society will pursue. A series of tens of kiloton liquid argon detectors are under development to be used to measure the neutrino oscillation parameters, the CP violation in the neutrino sector, and the neutrino mass hierarchy, while also for the opportunity to the search for proton decay and supernova measurement as part of the DUNE program. However, several smaller liquid argon detectors are needed to study cross-sections and perform studies at various energies. The CAPTAIN Collaboration is building a 10-ton liquid argon detector as well as a prototype detector to perform measurements that include neutron interactions in liquid argon using the beam at LANSCE and neutrino measurements using the beam at Fermilab. The prototype experiment, MiniCAPTAIN, has been commissioned and is successfully running with laser operations, cosmic rays, and recently with neutrons from LANSCE. I will present an overview and status of the CAPTAIN program.

  1. An Overview of the Scala Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Odersky, Martin; Altherr, Philippe; Cremet, Vincent; Emir, Burak; Maneth, Sebastian; Micheloud, Stéphane; Mihaylov, Nikolay; Schinz, Michel; Stenman, Erik; Zenger, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Scala fuses object-oriented and functional programming in a statically typed programming language. It is aimed at the construction of components and component systems. This paper gives an overview of the Scala language for readers who are familar with programming methods and programming language design.

  2. Assessment of environmental stresses for enhanced microalgal biofuel production-an overview

    OpenAIRE

    DanCheng

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel productio...

  3. The U.S. Department of Energy biofuels research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that biomass encompasses agricultural and forestry residues, woody and herbaceous energy crops, municipal solid waste, and underutilized traditional forests. The contribution of biomass to the nation's energy supply stands at 3.1 quads per year and is continuing to grow. Increasing our use of fuels derived from biomass can improve air quality, mitigate global warming, reduce dependency on foreign oil imports, and strengthen a weak farm economy. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Biofuels and Municipal Waster Technology Program has focuses mainly on liquid fuels such as ethanol, methanol, biocrude-derived gasoline, and plant-oil-derived diesel fuel, with some emphasis on gaseous fuels such as biogas. Researchers have improved the economics of the wood to ethanol process to approximately $1.35/gas by developing a method to ferment ethanol from the xylose fraction of wood with greater than 70% efficiency. The program goal of $0.60/gal would provide ethanol at a competitive cost without tax credits. Doe has increased the emphasis on cooperative ventures with industry and it developing plans for a cost-shared project to scale up gasification technologies for both syngas and methanol fuel production testing

  4. Biofuels feedstock development program. Annual progress report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Martin, S.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires.

  5. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008, including market overview and federal role, program vision, mission, design and structure, and goals and multi-year targets.

  6. 75 FR 20085 - Subpart B-Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ...., Washington, DC 20250-0742. Hand Delivery/Courier: Submit written comments via Federal Express Mail or other... wide range of feedstock to be used in the production of advanced biofuel. For example, sunflower...

  7. USNRC HTGR safety research program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of current activities and planned research efforts of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) HTGR Safety Program. On-going research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory are outlined. Tables include: HTGR Safety Issues, Program Tasks, HTGR Computer Code Library, and Milestones for Long Range Research Plan

  8. Seismic safety margins research program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiyear seismic research program has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This program, the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The program is designed to develop a probabilistic systems methodology for determining the seismic safety margins of nuclear power plants. Phase I, extending some 22 months, began in July 1978 at a funding level of approximately $4.3 million. Here we present an overview of the SSMRP. Included are discussions on the program objective, the approach to meet the program goal and objectives, end products, the probabilistic systems methodology, and planned activities for Phase I

  9. Program definition and assessment overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-03-01

    The implementation of a program level assessment of thermal energy storage technology thrusts for the near and far term to assure overall coherent energy storage program is considered. The identification and definition of potential thermal energy storage applications, definition of technology requirements, and appropriate market sectors are discussed along with the necessary coordination, planning, and preparation associated with program reviews, workshops, multi-year plans and annual operating plans for the major laboratory tasks.

  10. Overview of Nuclearelectrica training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve and maintain high levels of performance, Cernavoda NPP needs highly qualified and experienced personnel. To support this goal appropriate staff training and qualification programs are in place at the plant and kept under the constant review to ensure their relevance. The Cernavoda NPP Personnel Training and Licensing Department has the task of training operation teams for both Unit 1 CNE-PROD and Unit 2 CNE-INVEST staff to ensure a safe, efficient and low-cost operation of the power unit. The training programs were based on the Systematic Approach of Training (SAT) methodology implemented by the Cernavoda NPP training Department. The initial and and continuing programs of training for all plant personnel are continuously improved based on internal and external evaluations and on IAEA Guides referring to NPP Personnel Training and Qualification as well on INPO/WANO recommendations. The paper is structured as follows; 1. Introduction; 2. Cernavoda NPP training concept; 3. Implementation of SAT; 4. Training Programs; 4.1. JOB Family programs; 4.1.1. Operations - SS/CRO; 4.1.2. Plant operators; 4.1.3. Maintenance; 4.1.4. Technical personnel (Initial training/Continuing training); 4.1.5. Managers and supervisors (Initial training); 4.1.6. Trainers; 5.Training facilities and equipment; 6. Training program and course evaluation; 7. Conclusion

  11. An economic analysis of a major bio-fuel program undertaken by OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel are creating a new demand for agricultural output and for agriculture land in Canada. However, the participation of other large countries with a large demand potential is necessary for bio-fuels to have a significant impact on the price of grains and oilseeds. This paper quantified the potential impact that a major bio-fuel program initiated by OECD countries has on grain and oilseed prices. The program was initiated for the period 1999 to 2006. There is considerable interest by Canadian producers to stimulate grain and oilseed prices by increasing demand of biofuels. This renewable energy source produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions than petroleum products. The analysis presented in this paper only considered ethanol from corn or wheat and bio-diesel from vegetable oils. It also focused only on the use of bio-fuels in the OECD transportation sector. The analysis was undertaken with AGLINK, a multi-commodity multi-country policy-specific dynamic model of the international agricultural markets built by the OECD with member countries. It was shown that the increase in world and domestic prices for grains and vegetable oils will remain strong, particularly toward 2006. It was also shown that a major bio-fuel program for all OECD countries would be beneficial to Canadian agriculture. It was concluded that ultimately, an increase in OECD bio-fuels usage has a direct impact on the demand for grains and oilseeds which are important feed-stocks in biofuel production. The analysis presumes an increase in renewable fuel use, but does not consider factors such as financial incentives and regulatory requirements that could bring about this increase. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Overview of DOE space nuclear propulsion programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Department of Energy space nuclear propulsion programs is presented in outline and graphic form. DOE's role in the development and safety assurance of space nuclear propulsion is addressed. Testing issues and facilities are discussed along with development needs and recent research activities.

  13. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

  15. Agrigenomics for microalgal biofuel production: an overview of various bioinformatics resources and recent studies to link OMICS to bioenergy and bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Microalgal biofuels offer great promise in contributing to the growing global demand for alternative sources of renewable energy. However, to make algae-based fuels cost competitive with petroleum, lipid production capabilities of microalgae need to improve substantially. Recent progress in algal genomics, in conjunction with other "omic" approaches, has accelerated the ability to identify metabolic pathways and genes that are potential targets in the development of genetically engineered microalgal strains with optimum lipid content. In this review, we summarize the current bioeconomic status of global biofuel feedstocks with particular reference to the role of "omics" in optimizing sustainable biofuel production. We also provide an overview of the various databases and bioinformatics resources available to gain a more complete understanding of lipid metabolism across algal species, along with the recent contributions of "omic" approaches in the metabolic pathway studies for microalgal biofuel production. PMID:24044362

  16. 78 FR 34975 - Notice of Contract Proposals (NOCP) for the Advanced Biofuels Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Contract Proposals (NOCP) for the Advanced Biofuels Payment Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice of Contract Proposals announces the acceptance of applications and...

  17. Biofuel's energetic paradigm and its implications: A global overview and the Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade biofuels have become a feasible answer given the global need for alternative energy sources. Its increasing demand has been reflected in the expansion of raw materials' crops, with implications in several topics: land use change, ecosystem services relating hydric resources, Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG), food security and land property. The objective of this article is a critical analysis of these issues based on a revision of international literature, but also approaching the Colombian case, particularly African oil palm expansion and its social implications. The main results point out that crop expansion will occur in tropical countries. This generates negative impacts that contribute to conflicts around water and land accessibility in regions characterized by their high social and ecosystem vulnerability. Additionally, it is necessary to improve information systems and to refine methodologies and models that allow an adequate evaluation of biofuel production impacts on human well being.

  18. Does the biofuel industry, with the aid of certification programs, contribute to sustainable development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulff, James Michael

    Despite being a source of alternative energy and an avenue for broad economic development, a number of biofuel producers have demonstrated that the biofuel industry has significant potential for unleashing social, environmental and economic harm. To largely avoid such perils, the industry must demonstrate that it is operating in a sustainable manner, contributing to the sustainable development of all stakeholders who rely upon the industry's responsible operation. Recently minted, internationally developed certification programs have been developed to move the industry into sustainable compliance and to offer a means by which stakeholders can incentivize the industry toward greater levels of sustainability practice. Using OLS regression analysis, this dissertation estimates that the industry is currently operating within the bounds of sustainable development as measured through the World Bank's sustainability model. This conclusion, however, is made with some caution. Many biofuel industry certification programs, despite covering a number of sustainable issues, have created loopholes within their criteria that must be resolved to avert greater long term damage to sustainable development. This work will conclude with methods and additional criteria that can be used to help move the biofuel industry toward more stable and sustainable development activity.

  19. Bio-fuel Chains – An Overview on the Structure and the Value Chain Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dautzenberg, Kirsti; Hanf, Jon Henrich

    2007-01-01

    Structural change in the agricultural sector as well as in the whole agricultural value chain is an ongoing dynamic process and creates a number of diverse phenomena. The EU Strategy for Biofuels (2006) and the Biomass action plan (2005) set a clear signal that the EU wishes to establish and to support the bio energy-industry. The perceivable aim of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) consists in reducing food production and in enlarging the non-food production. Another driver for the attrac...

  20. Energy programs/energy markets: overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains the technical details of the forecasting work of the energy policy study conducted during 1979 and 1980 by the Office of Applied Analysis, Energy Information Administration. A companion volume, Energy Programs/Energy Markets: Overview (DOE/EIA--0201/16), contains a description of the study, its background, and results. The first three chapters of this volume deal with the major energy supply markets; oil and gas, coal, and electricity. In each of these chapters, the focus is first on the effects of those Federal programs that are aimed primarily at the market for that particular fuel. Next, the discussion centers on the effects in that market (i.e., oil and gas, coal, and electricity) of Federal programs directed primarily at other energy markets. The consumer side of the energy market is discussed in Chapter 4. This chapter contains the analysis of various demand-management programs that attempt to encourage conservation. Chapter 5 describes a set of Federal programs that are designed to stimulate new suppy technologies, whereas Chapter 6 analyzes one particular trade-off opportunity in the energy-environment interface. A list of acronyms, glossary, and a complete index are included. This report is Volume 17 of the Energy Policy Study series. 11 figures, 37 tables.

  1. Photovoltaic energy: Program overview, fiscal year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This summary is prepared each year to provide an overview of the government-funded activities within the National Photovoltaics Program. The 1990 PV Program Achievements are listed. Launched the PV Manufacturing Technology initiative, designed to systematically lower PV module costs. Inaugurated the PV Concentrator Technologies Initiative by signing eight multiyear, cost-shared technology development subcontracts with concentrator companies. Established the PV Polycrystalline Thin-Film Initiative by signing six multiyear, cost-shared technology development subcontracts with six polycrystalline thin-film companies. Continued the Amorphous Silicon Project by awarding three new research and development contracts. Focused the resources of three program laboratories on finding solutions to industry's manufacturing problems: the Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories and the Module Failure Analysis Laboratory and the Encapsulant Research Laboratory at SERI. Established an ongoing program to assist utilities in using PV for cost-effective, high-value applications. Completed nearly all of the construction planned for the first phase of PVUSA at Davis, California. Worked with the crystalline silicon PV industry on novel, low-cost cell fabrication processes and on resolving encapsulant problems. Took part in the development of qualification procedures tests for thin- and thick-film flat-plate modules and concentrator modules.

  2. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  3. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M.; Lin, Yolanda; Bierwagen, Britta G.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Morefield, Philip E.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian W.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  4. 75 FR 42745 - Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of Program Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ..., ``Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels; Reverse Auction Procedures and Standards,'' (74 FR 52867... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of..., biofuels producers and other interested parties are invited to submit pre-auction eligibility...

  5. Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program: Final Subcontract Report, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This report is a compilation of studies done to develop an integrated set of strategies for the production of energy from renewable resources in Hawaii. Because of the close coordination between this program and other ongoing DOE research, the work will have broad-based applicability to the entire United States.

  6. PETROBRAS: an energy company and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Fernando Martins; Valle, Luiz Alberto Fernandes; Diehl Filho, Rubin Pedro [PETROBRAS University, Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). School of Gas and Energy Science and Technology], e-mail: fernandotorres@com.br, e-mail: lavalle@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rubin@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Global warming and other climate changes have been occurring because of human activities, mainly the burning of fossil fuels. This releases greenhouse gases, chief among them carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere. Brazil's answer was to launch of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975, in response to the first oil shock (in 1973). This was intensified with the second oil shock (in 1979-80). Under this program, the gasoline used in the transportation segment was replaced by: anhydrous ethanol in vehicles manufactured to consume gasoline, up to a proportion of 25%; hydrated ethanol in vehicles especially manufactured to consume this renewable fuel. The impact of these efforts was extremely significant, as demonstrated by the the effects of the first and second oil shocks on the country's trade balance and balance of oil and derivatives in 1973-74 and 1979-80 can be clearly seen. At the time of the second shock, the increase in imports in the trade balance basically coincided with the increased imports of oil and refined products. (author)

  7. Panorama 2011: New bio-fuel production technologies: overview of these expanding sectors and the challenges facing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerous research programmes looking at new-generation biofuels that were initiated over the last ten years are now starting to bear fruit. Although no plants are producing and marketing biofuels yet, the large-scale, industrial feasibility of second-generation bio-fuel production at competitive cost may be demonstrated in the short-term. As far as third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass are concerned, there is a great deal of R and D interest in the sector, but the technology is still only in its infancy. (author)

  8. An Overview of the Scala Programming Language (2. Edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Odersky, Martin; Altherr, Philippe; Cremet, Vincent; Dragos, Iulian; Dubochet, Gilles; Emir, Burak; McDirmid, Sean; Micheloud, Stéphane; Mihaylov, Nikolay; Schinz, Michel; Spoon, Lex; Stenman, Erik; Zenger, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Scala fuses object-oriented and functional programming in a statically typed programming language. It is aimed at the construction of components and component systems. This paper gives an overview of the Scala language for readers who are familar with programming methods and programming language design.

  9. DSN RFI susceptibility models development program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    The RFI model development described intended to provide an understanding of the interference susceptibility of DSN receivers. An overview of interference types and effects, analytic modelling and experimental verification is presented.

  10. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  11. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this...

  12. DMF - A New Biofuel Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guohong; Daniel, Ritchie; Xu, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts...

  13. Human Genome Program Report. Part 1, Overview and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 1 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 1 consists of the program overview and report on progress.

  14. Human genome program report. Part 1, overview and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 1 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 1 consists of the program overview and report on progress.

  15. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  16. The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

  17. Overview of the Argonne National Laboratory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design activities and experimental R and D program of the heavy-ion fusion program at Argonne are discussed. A 1 MJ, 160 TW rf linac - accumulator system reference design is described, and a status report on the experimental program is given

  18. Global Land Use Changes and Consequent CO2 Emissions due to US Cellulosic Biofuel Program: A Preliminary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2011-01-01

    The economic and land use consequences of US biofuel programs and their contributions to GHG emissions have been the focal point of many debates and research studies in recent years. However, most of these studies focused on the land use emissions due to the first generation of biofuels such as corn ethanol, sugarcane ethanol, and biodiesel (e.g. [1, 2] [3, 4]). A quick literature review indicates that only a few attempts have been made to estimate these emissions for the second generation of...

  19. Photovoltaics: Program overview, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The US DOE`s Photovoltaics program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in the laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. This document is divided into the following sections: 1992 PV program accomplishments, expanding markets for photovoltaic systems, developing today`s systems with utilities and industry, working with industry to advance the technology, cooperative research to improve materials and devices, selected achievements in cooperative R and D, and PV program services. Figs, tabs.

  20. Overview of the DOE/SERI Biochemical Conversion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J D

    1986-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute manages a program of research and development on the biochemical conversion of renewable lignocellulosic materials to liquid fuels for the Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division. The Biochemical Conversion Program is mission oriented so effort is concentrated on technologies which appear to have the greatest potential for being adopted by the private sector to economically convert lignocellulosic materials into high value liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol. The program is structured to supply the technology for such fuels to compete economically first as an octane booster or fuel additive, and, with additional improvements, as a neat fuel. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. An overview of the Structural Aging Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural Aging Program is conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program has the overall objective of preparing an expandable handbook or report which will provide NRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in nuclear power plant evaluations for continued service. Initial focus of the program is on concrete and concrete-related materials which comprise safety-related (Category I) structures in light-water reactor facilities. The program is organized into four tasks: Task S.1 -- Program Management, Task S.2 -- Materials Property Data Base, Task S.3 -- Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Task S.4 -- Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Objectives, background information, and accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  2. Overview-absorption/Rankine solar cooling program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlig, M.; Heitz, A.; Boyce, B.

    1980-03-01

    The tasks being performed in the absorption and Rankine program areas run the gamut from basic work on fluids to development of chillers and chiller components, to field and reliability testing of complete cooling systems. In the absorption program, there are six current and five essentially completed projects. In the Rankine program, there are five current projects directly supported by DOE, and three projects funded through and managed by NASA/MSFC (Manned Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama). The basic features of these projects are discussed. The systems under development in five of these current projects were selected for field testing in the SOLERAS program, a joint US-Saudi Arabian enterprise. Some technical highlights of the program are presented.

  3. DOD's advanced thermionics program an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) manages a congressionally mandated program in advanced thermionics research. Guided by congressional language to advance the state-of-the-art in the US and support the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program, DSWA efforts concentrate on four areas: an electrically testable design of a high-performance, in-core thermionic fuel element (TFE), the ISUS program, a microminiature thermionic converter and several modeling efforts. The DSWA domestic program is augmented by several small contracts with Russian institutes, awarded under the former TOPAZ International Program that the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization transferred to DSWA. The design effort at General Atomics will result in an electrically testable, multi-cell TFE for in-core conversion, involving system design and advanced collector and emitter technologies. For the ISUS program, DSWA funded a portion of the engine ground demonstration, including development of the power management system and the planar diodes. Current efforts supporting ISUS include continued diode testing and developing an advanced planar diode. The MTC program seeks to design a mass producable, close-spaced thermionic converter using integrated circuit technologies. Modeling and analysis at DSWA involves development of the Reactor System Mass with Thermionics estimation model (RSMASS-T), developing a new thermionic theory, and reviewing applications for the MTC technology. The Russian deliverables include several reports and associated hardware that describe many of its state-of-the-art thermionic technologies and processes

  4. Overview of EPRI's human factors research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human factors engineering program in the Nuclear Power Division, EPRI is dedicated to the resolution of man-machine interface problems specific to the nuclear power industry. Particularly emphasis is placed on the capabilities and limitations of the people who operate and maintain the system, the tasks they must perform, and what they need to accomplish those tasks. Six human factors R and D projects are being conducted at the present time. In addition, technical consultation is being furnished to a study area, operator aids, being funded by another program area outside the human factors program area. All of these activities are summarized

  5. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  6. Overview of the DOE nuclear data program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous researchers receive support from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear data program; others work closely with it, attending coordination meetings and contributing to data activities. Since fiscal year (FY) 1988, the nuclear data program has been included in the budget of the Division of Nuclear Physics in the DOE's Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics. The budget for nuclear data consists of two budget categories: nuclear data compilation and evaluation and nuclear data measurements, both of which are contained within the low-energy nuclear physics program. The program has become essentially the sole supporter of the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Center coordinates the production of the ENSDF data base and Nuclear Data Sheets as well as, through the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG138), the production of the ENDF. Two rather large accelerator facilities, completely supported by the program, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator and the fast neutron generator at Argonne National Laboratory, form the core of the nuclear data measurement activity together with measurement programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LAMPF/WNR facility, and at accelerator laboratories at Ohio University, Duke University, the University of Lowell, the University of Michigan, and the Colorado School of Mines. Some history is discussed and future modernizing plans are identified

  7. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  8. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbeck, D.W. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with industry, has set new performance standards for industrial gas turbines through the creation of the Industrial Advanced Turbine System Program. Their leadership will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in this size class (3-to-20 MW). The DOE has already created a positive effect by encouraging gas turbine system manufacturers to reassess their product and technology plans using the new higher standards as the benchmark. Solar Turbines has been a leader in the industrial gas turbine business, and is delighted to have joined with the DOE in developing the goals and vision for this program. We welcome the opportunity to help the national goals of energy conservation and environmental enhancement. The results of this program should lead to the U.S. based gas turbine industry maintaining its international leadership and the creation of highly paid domestic jobs.

  9. Overview of the Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation addresses the rationale, history, strategy, and management techniques used in the development of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) for both high level waste and spent fuel. The three subsections will summarize first, the US Department of Energy (DOE) high level waste and spent fuel waste disposal strategy and the position that the SDP occupies within that strategy; second, the technical and administrative tools developed to support the long range research and engineering plans defined by the DOE, program management, and program participants and employed to facilitate the day-to-day operation of the SDP; and third, the current studies and plans for addressing the legal, political, and international uncertainties that must be addressed before the SDP reaches the final engineering phases

  10. Overview of DARPA MTO GPU program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Dennis; Braunreiter, Dennis; Furtek, Jeremy; Chen, Hai-Wen

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the DARPA MTO STAP-BOY program for both Phase I and II. The STAP-BOY program conducts fast covariance factorization and tuning techniques for space-time adaptive process (STAP) Algorithm Implementation on Graphics Processor unit (GPU) Architectures for Embedded Systems. Emerging capabilities in stream and multi-core computation, along with high speed memory bandwidths in commercial GPU architectures, are enabling breakthrough low-cost and low-power teraflop computing solutions to DoD-embedded computing challenges. Under the DARPA MTO STAP-BOY program, SAIC and Duke University, in cooperation with commercial graphics processor companies, have been mapping complex signal processing algorithms to GPU architectures. Algorithms undergoing implementation include STAP applications for radar adaptive beamforming and spin-image surface matching applications for object recognition in 3-D range-image data.

  11. Thermionic fuel element Verification Program - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Richard J.; Dahlberg, Richard C.; Dutt, Dale S.; Wood, John T.

    The TFE Verification Program is in the sixth year of a program to demonstrate the performance and lifetime of thermionic fuel elements for high power space applications. Data from accelerated tests in FETF and EBR-II show component lifetimes longer than 7 yr. Alumina insulators have shown good performance at high fast fluence. Graphite-cesium reservoirs based on isotropic graphite also meet requirements. Three TFEs are currently operating in the TRIGA reactor, the oldest having accumulated 15,000 hr of irradiation as of 1 October 1990.

  12. Overview of NRC PRA research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.A.; Drouin, M.T.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; VanderMolen, M.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The NRC`s research program in probabilistic risk analysis includes a set of closely-related elements, from basic research to regulatory applications. The elements of this program are as follows: (1) Development and demonstration of methods and advanced models and tools for use by the NRC staff and others performing risk assessments; (2) Support to agency staff on risk analysis and statistics issues; (3) Reviews of risk assessments submitted by licensees in support of regulatory applications, including the IPEs and IPEEEs. Each of these elements is discussed in the paper, providing highlights of work within an element, and, where appropriate, describing important support and feedback mechanisms among elements.

  13. Data systems and computer science programs: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.; Hunter, Paul

    1991-01-01

    An external review of the Integrated Technology Plan for the Civil Space Program is presented. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: onboard memory and storage technology; advanced flight computers; special purpose flight processors; onboard networking and testbeds; information archive, access, and retrieval; visualization; neural networks; software engineering; and flight control and operations.

  14. Subseabed Disposal Program plan. Volume I. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the most stable geologic formations are underneath the deep oceans. Purpose of this program is to assess the technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of packaged high-level waste and/or repackaged spent reactor fuel in these formations

  15. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations.

  16. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations

  17. Geothermal Program Overview: Fiscal Years 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-11-01

    Geothermal energy represents the largest U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. This overview looks at the basic science behind the various geothermal technologies and provides information on DOE Geothermal Energy Program activities and accomplishments.

  18. Overview of ARB's Greenhouse Gas Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Chen, Y.; Kuwayama, T.; Vijayan, A.; Herner, J.; Croes, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since the passage of the California Global Warming Solutions Act (or AB32) in 2006, California Air Resources Board (ARB) has established and implemented a comprehensive plan to understand, quantify, and mitigate the various greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source sectors in the state. ARB has also developed a robust and multi-tiered in-house research effort to investigate methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gas emission sources. This presentation will provide an overview of ARB's monitoring and measurement research efforts to study the regional and local emission sources of these pollutants in California. ARB initiated the first subnational GHG Research Monitoring Network in 2010 to study the regional GHG emissions throughout the state. The network operates several high precision analyzers to study CH4, N2O, CO and CO2 emissions at strategically selected regional sites throughout California, and the resulting data are used to study the statewide emission trends and evaluate regional sources using statistical analyses and inverse modeling efforts. ARB is also collaborating with leading scientists to study important emission sources including agriculture, waste, and oil and gas sectors, and to identify "hot spot" methane sources through aerial surveys of high methane emitters in California. At the source level, ARB deploys Mobile Measurement Platforms (MMP) and flux chambers to measure local and source specific emissions, and uses the information to understand source characteristics and inform emissions inventories. Collectively, all these efforts are offering a comprehensive view of regional and local emission sources, and are expected to help in developing effective mitigation strategies to reduce GHG emissions in California.

  19. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  20. US RERTR Program: overview, status and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief review of the accomplishments which the RERTR Program, in cooperation with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1983 in the area of LEU research reactor fuels development and application, emphasis is placed on the RERTR Program developments which took place during 1984 and on current plans and schedules. The RERTR progress in 1984 has been significant, with solid accomplishments and few surprises. Most LEU U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al irradiation tests with 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/ have been successfully completed, and contract negotiations are under way for the procurement of a whole-core demonstration of this fuel in the ORR. The demonstration is to begin in mid-1985 and to last for approximately eighteen months. Qualification of U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel with 7 g U/cm/sup 3/ is scheduled for 1989. International cooperation among fuel developers, commercial vendors, and reactor operators has been essential to the progress which has been achieved. With continued international cooperation, it will be feasible to significantly reduce HEU usage in research reactors in the next few years.

  1. Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Margaret H.

    1996-01-01

    This overview discusses articles published in this special 30th Anniversary of Medicare issue of the Health Care Financing Review. The authors whose work appears in this special commemorative issue all participated in a policy symposium held on May 6, 1996, at the Lyndon B. Johnson Library in Austin, Texas. The symposium, Medicare: Advancing Towards the 21st Century, was held in honor of the 30th anniversary of the implementation of the Medicare program. Co-sponsors of the symposium included ...

  2. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in...... majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several...

  3. M-C Power commercialization program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    Competition in the electric generation market will increase, owing to unbundling and repackaging of electric energy services. One technology that will enable electric companies to expand their role in the energy services marketplace is the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Distributed power plants using MCFCs can fill the demand for localized, efficient, and environmentally friendly energy supplies at the lowest possible cost. This type of equipment will allow electric companies to supply the majority of a customer`s electric and thermal energy needs from small power plants located at the customer`s facilities. M-C Power`s mission is the development and commercialization of MCFC stacks. Advanced separator plates were designed, and cost of non-repeat hardware was reduced. In the technology development phase of the commercialization program, a 250 KW MCFC demonstration plant at the Naval Air Station Miramar in Sand Diego is the culminating event in the product development test project. Product requirements, economic analysis, and market entry are discussed. This is the 2nd year of a 5-year program.

  4. Overview of the Heavy Ion Fusion Program

    CERN Document Server

    Celata, C M

    2000-01-01

    The world Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program for inertial fusion energy is looking toward the development and commissioning of several new experiments. Recent and planned upgrades of the facilities at GSI, in Russia, and in Japan greatly enhance the ability to study energy deposition in hot dense matter. Worldwide target design developments have focused on non-ignition targets for nearterm experiments and designs which, while lowering the energy required for ignition, tighten accelerator requirements. The U.S program is transitioning between scaled beam dynamics experiments and high current experiments with power-plant-driver-scale beams. Current effort is aimed at preparation for the next-step large facility, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)-- an induction linac accelerating multiple beams to a few hundred MeV, then focusing to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. The goal is to study heavy ion energy deposition, and to test all of the components and physics needed for an engineering test of a power p...

  5. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Science and Technology (formerly the Office of Technology Development), as part of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites and wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety, and the environment and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with federal, state, and local regulations by the year 2019. The Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) is charged with developing and implementing new technologies that are safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than current methods. To focus resources and address opportunities, EM-50 has targeted four major remediation and waste management problem areas within the DOE complex for action based on risk, prevalence, or need for technology development to meet environmental requirements and regulations. Other areas may be added or current areas further partitioned to ensure that research technology development programs remain focused on EM's most pressing remediation and waste management needs. These major problem areas, called Focus Areas are: high-level waste tank remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; subsurface contaminants; and facility transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition

  6. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, K.D. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Harness, J.L. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuhn, W.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Science and Technology (formerly the Office of Technology Development), as part of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites and wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety, and the environment and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with federal, state, and local regulations by the year 2019. The Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) is charged with developing and implementing new technologies that are safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than current methods. To focus resources and address opportunities, EM-50 has targeted four major remediation and waste management problem areas within the DOE complex for action based on risk, prevalence, or need for technology development to meet environmental requirements and regulations. Other areas may be added or current areas further partitioned to ensure that research technology development programs remain focused on EM`s most pressing remediation and waste management needs. These major problem areas, called Focus Areas are: high-level waste tank remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; subsurface contaminants; and facility transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition.

  7. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the mainstream biofuels narrative. The EROI (Energy Return on Investment of biofuels reaches a few units, while the EROI of fossil fuels is 20–30 or higher and has a power density (W/m2 thousands of times higher than the best biofuels, such as sugarcane in Brazil. When metabolic approaches are used it becomes clear that biomass cannot represent an energy carrier able to meet the metabolism of industrialized societies. For our industrial society to rely on “sustainable biofuels” for an important fraction of its energy, most of the agricultural and non-agricultural land would need to be used for crops, and at the same time a radical cut to our pattern of energy consumption would need to be implemented, whilst also achieving a significant population reduction.

  8. Department of Energy Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the national Department of Energy (DOE) program for managing hazardous waste. An overview of the DOE Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), including its mission, organizational structure, and major program elements, is given. The paper focuses on the contractor support role assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the establishment of the HAZWRAP Support Contractor Office (SCO). The major SCO programs are described, and the organization for managing the programs is discussed. The HAZWRAP SCO approaches to waste management planning and to technology research, development, and demonstration are presented. The role of the SCO in the DOE Environmental Restoration Program and the development of the DOE Waste Information network are reviewed. Also discussed is the DOE Work for Others Program, where waste management decentralized support, via interagency agreements between DOE and the Department of Defense and DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency, is provided for those sponsors planning remedial response actions. 2 refs

  9. Overview of Japanese Earth observation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa

    2015-10-01

    Six programs, i.e. AMSR-E, ASTER, GOSAT, GCOM-W1, GPM and ALOS-2 are going on in Japanese Earth Observation programs. ASTER has lost its short wave infrared channels. AMSR-E stopped its operation, but it started its operation from Sep. 2012. GCOM-W1 was launched on 18, May, 2012 and is operating well as well as GOSAT. ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) was successfully launched on 24th Jan. 2006. ALOS carries three instruments, i.e., PRISM (Panchromatic Remote Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping), AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), and PALSAR (Phased Array L band Synthetic Aperture Radar). Unfortunately, ALOS has stopped its operation on 22nd, April, 2011 by power loss. GOSAT (Greenhouse Gas Observation Satellite) was successfully launched on 29, January, 2009. GOSAT carries 2 instruments, i.e. a green house gas sensor (TANSO-FTS) and a cloud/aerosol imager (TANSO-CAI). The main sensor is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and covers 0.76 to 15 μm region with 0.2 to 0.5 cm-1 resolution. SMILES (Super-conducting Millimeter wave Emission Spectrometer) was launched on September 2009 to ISS and started the observation, but stopped its operation on April 2010. GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) core satellite was launched on Feb. 2014. GPM is a joint project with NASA and carries two instruments. JAXA has developed DPR (Dual frequency Precipitation Radar) which is a follow on of PR on TRMM. ALOS F/O satellites are divided into two satellites, i.e. SAR and optical satellites. The first one of ALOS F/O is called ALOS 2 and carries L-band SAR. It was launched on May 2014. JAXA is planning to launch follow on of optical sensors. It is now called Advanced Optical Satellite and the planned launch date is fiscal 2019. Other future satellites are GCOM-C1 (ADEOS-2 follow on), GOSAT-2 and EarthCare. GCOM-C1 will be launched on 2016 and GOSAT-2 will be launched on 2017. Another project is EarthCare. It is a joint project with ESA and JAXA is

  10. Overview of the NASA Space Radiation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Nelson, Greg; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long-duration, manned space missions. Outside the Earth’s protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high-energy, high-charge (HZE) particles as well as high-energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. Understanding the quantitative and qualitative differences in biological responses produced by galactic cosmic radiation compared to Earth-based radiation is imperative for accurate risk mitigation and is a major focus of the NASA Space Radiation Program’s research strategy. The main health risks of concern are epithelial carcinogenesis and leukemias, central nervous system effects that may result in acute (in-flight) cognitive impairment and/or late neurological disorders, degenerative tissue effects including circulatory and heart disease, and the possibility of acute radiation syndromes resulting from an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Space Radiation Program is focused on the characterization and mitigation of these health risks and understanding possible interactions with other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this presentation, evidence for health risks associated with heavy ion exposure will be presented.

  11. HSX Program Overview and Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Simon; HSX Group Team

    2015-11-01

    HSX is a neoclassical-transport optimized stellarator. Research has concentrated on neoclassical transport, turbulent transport and concept optimization, and the plasma edge. For neoclassical transport, an optimized diagnostic has improved equilibrium reconstruction. Counter-streaming Pfirsch-Schluter flow measurements have been made to examine the core electron-root Er . Turbulent transport studies have included heat transport stiffness and direct comparisons with non-linear GENE calculations. Optimization of the HSX magnetic configuration to turbulent transport has been initiated. Edge studies have concentrated on measurements of 2D edge profiles and comparison to EMC3-EIRENE. The HSX program will continue in these main areas, with extension into energetic ion confinement with DNB injection. Diagnostic upgrades will permit direct Er measurements through MSE, and improvements in density and temperature fluctuation measurements will improve understanding of turbulent transport and facilitate continued GENE modeling. Edge studies will be extended to measure neutral fueling and recycling, which will permit use of a single reservoir particle balance model to provide a complete particle inventory. This work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222.

  12. Systems overview of the Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is considering high-level waste (HLW) disposal in the oceanic geologic formations as a possible longer term complement to mined geologic repositories. The approach to safety assessment is to compute occupational exposure for all processes, predict the consequences and probabilities of pre-emplacement accidents and controlled release from the sediments, and analyze of all pathways to man and resulting health effects. Models are being developed to form a physical/mathematical computer description of each process; to measure as well as possible associated phenomena and properties in the laboratory; to make predictions and run confirming in-situ experiments; and to modify predictive methods if required. Models have been developed to describe heat transfer, fluid flow, mechanical response of the sediment, nuclide migration in the sediment, physical and biologic oceanography, land transport accidents, dose to man, and health effects. The largest systems effort in FY-82 has been in the area of sensitivity analyses for the purposes of eliminating unnecessary R and D, quantifying general requirements to obtain specific criteria, defining model requirements, specifying significant variables, defining accuracy requirements for data acquisition, and providing input to the first round of safety assessments scheduled for FY-83

  13. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  14. Overview of the NASA Suborbital Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    2014-08-01

    The NASA Suborbital Program consists of Sounding Rocket and Balloon Projects managed, respectively, by the Heliophysics and Astrophysics Divisions of the Science Mission Directorate, which maintains “Program” Offices at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. Suborbital missions have for several decades enabled investigations with significant results from relatively modest investments. Some have been competitive with orbital missions, while others have enabled orbital missions. NASA launches suborbital missions from sites established in the U.S. and around the world to meet investigators’ needs. A sea change in scientific ballooning occurred with the inauguration of 8 - 20 day flights around Antarctica in the early 1990’s. The U.S. National Science Foundation supports these circumpolar flights, which have been spectacularly successful with many investigations utilizing multiple flights of payloads that are recovered, refurbished, and reused to minimize life-cycle costs. The attainment of 25 - 32 day and 35 - 55 day flights in two and three circumnavigations, respectively, of the Antarctic continent has greatly increased expectations of scientific users. The 55-day Super-TIGER flight over Antarctica during the 2012-13 season broke the 42-day CREAM record during the 2004-05 season, as well as the 54-day super pressure balloon test flight in 2008-09. Qualification of super pressure flights to support 1000 kg science instruments for up to 100 days at 33 km have proceeded in parallel with plans to increase the altitude for less massive instruments requiring less atmospheric overburden. The nearly constant volume of super-pressure balloons allows stable altitude flights at non-polar latitudes. Long-duration flights in both polar and non-polar regions will confirm the important contributions that ballooning can make in traditional Astrophysics, Solar and Heliophysics, and Earth Science disciplines. With two comets approaching the sun in 2013-14, the Planetary Science

  15. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    This documents presents a programmatic overview and program element plan summaries for conceptual design and assessment; physics; computation and modeling; system engineering science and technology; electronics, photonics, sensors, and mechanical components; chemistry and materials; special nuclear materials, tritium, and explosives.

  16. Federal Energy Efficiency through Utility Partnerships: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencies' implementation of energy and water efficiency methods and renewable energy projects

  17. Extremophiles in biofuel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Desire; Casanueva, Ana; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The current global energy situation has demonstrated an urgent need for the development of alternative fuel sources to the continually diminishing fossil fuel reserves. Much research to address this issue focuses on the development of financially viable technologies for the production of biofuels. The current market for biofuels, defined as fuel products obtained from organic substrates, is dominated by bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol and biogas, relying on the use of substrates such as sugars, starch and oil crops, agricultural and animal wastes, and lignocellulosic biomass. This conversion from biomass to biofuel through microbial catalysis has gained much momentum as biotechnology has evolved to its current status. Extremophiles are a robust group of organisms producing stable enzymes, which are often capable of tolerating changes in environmental conditions such as pH and temperature. The potential application of such organisms and their enzymes in biotechnology is enormous, and a particular application is in biofuel production. In this review an overview of the different biofuels is given, covering those already produced commercially as well as those under development. The past and present trends in biofuel production are discussed, and future prospects for the industry are highlighted. The focus is on the current and future application of extremophilic organisms and enzymes in technologies to develop and improve the biotechnological production of biofuels. PMID:20662378

  18. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented

  19. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  20. Considering Trade Policies for Liquid Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami; Mitchell, Donald; Ward, William

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses the issues associated with trade in liquid biofuels is a second Energy Sector Management Assistance Program report on biofuels, and part of a broader assessment of bioenergy undertaken by the World Bank. The report asks how liberalizing trade in liquid biofuels might affect biofuel production and consumption. Bioenergy is playing an increasingly important role as an a...

  1. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  2. Overview of AEOD's program for trending reactor operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the trending program being performed by AEOD. The major elements of the program include: (1) system and component reliability trending and analysis, (2) special data collection and analysis (e.g., IPE and PRA component failure data, common cause failure event data), (3) risk assessment of safety issues based on actual operating experience, (4) Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program, and (5) trending US industry risk. AEOD plans to maintain up-to-date safety data trends for selected high risk or high regulatory profile components, systems, accident initiators, accident sequences, and regulatory issues. AEOD will also make greater use of PRA insights and perform limited probabilistic safety assessments to evaluate the safety significance of qualitative results. Examples of a system study and an issue evaluation are presented, as well as a summary of the common cause failure event database

  3. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  4. Overview of the Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program endeavors to quickly develop a compact fusion power plant with favorable commercial economics and military utility. An overview of the concept and its diamagnetic, high beta magnetically encapsulated linear ring cusp confinement scheme will be given. The analytical model of the major loss mechanisms and predicted performance will be discussed, along with the major physics challenges. Key features of an operational CFR reactor will be highlighted. The proposed developmental path following the current experimental efforts will be presented. ©2015 Lockheed Martin Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

  5. An overview of the NASA rotary engine research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, P. R.; Hady, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    A brief overview and technical highlights of the research efforts and studies on rotary engines over the last several years at the NASA Lewis Research Center are presented. The test results obtained from turbocharged rotary engines and preliminary results from a high performance single rotor engine were discussed. Combustion modeling studies of the rotary engine and the use of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter to confirm the studies were examined. An in-house program in which a turbocharged rotary engine was installed in a Cessna Skymaster for ground test studies was reviewed. Details are presented on single rotor stratified charge rotary engine research efforts, both in-house and on contract.

  6. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior; Abílio Neves Garcia; Ribeiro Fabrício N.; Daniel Ferreira V. Mattos

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis ...

  7. Overview of Babcock and Wilcox involvement in the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Fuel Division (NFD) of the Babcock and Wilcox (BandW) Company is fully committed to the goals/objectives of the RERTR program. In support of this program, the NFD has fabricated and shipped two full size ORR elements of U3Si2. In addition, developmental work has been done with U3SiAl. This paper provides an overview of this manufacturing experience, discusses the facility modifications both for LEU and increased capacity, and briefly reviews manufacturing changes for LEU fuels. Overall, the fabrication of the ORR silicide elements proceeded smoothly. To better improve the efficiency, additional information is being gathered on crushing schedules, blending times, and dies. (author)

  8. 7 CFR 3402.5 - Overview of National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overview of National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral... § 3402.5 Overview of National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program. (a) The program... Fellows who have completed their doctoral degrees, the program will also provide postdoctoral...

  9. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  10. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  11. Overview of the EUROfusion Medium Size Tokamak program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Piero; Beurskens, Marc; Coda, Stefano; Eich, Thomas; Meyer, Hendrik; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2015-11-01

    As a result of the new organization of the European fusion programme, now under the umbrella of the EUROfusion Consortium, the MST (Medium Size Tokamaks) task force is in charge of executing the European science programme in the ASDEX Upgrade, TCV and MAST-U tokamaks. This paper will present an overview of the main results obtained in the 2014 campaign-where only ASDEX upgrade was operating-and the preliminary achievements of the recently started 2015/16 campaign, where also TCV will contribute. The main subjects of the experimental campaigns are (i) the development of scenarios relevant for the ITER Q=10 goal, in an all metal wall device (ii) the understanding of ELM mitigation/suppression with pellets and resonant magnetic perturbations, and in particular the effect of density versus collisionality, (iii) the understanding and optimization of methods for disruption mitigation or avoidance and runaway electrons control and (iv) the exploration of ITER and DEMO relevant scenarios with high normalized separatrix power flux, Psep / R , (Psep is the power through the separatrix, R the major radius) and tolerable target heat loads. The overview of the future programs in MST will be given. http://www.euro-fusionscipub.org/mst1

  12. The second generation biofuels from the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  13. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  14. Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Technology Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, B. Thai; Clampin, M.; Werneth, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Office was established in FY11 and resides at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The office serves as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters for PCOS Program related matters. We present an overview of the Program’s technology management activities and the Program’s technology development portfolio. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology needs and the Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations. This process improves the transparency and relevance of technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and leverages the technology investments of external organizations by defining a need and a customer. Goals for the PCOS Program envisioned by the National Research Council’s (NRC) “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” (NWNH) Decadal Survey report include science missions and technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray, and inflation probe science.

  15. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined

  16. An overview of solution methods for multi-objective mixed integer linear programming programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Allan; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    Multiple objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMIP) problems are notoriously hard to solve to optimality, i.e. finding the complete set of non-dominated solutions. We will give an overview of existing methods. Among those are interactive methods, the two phases method and enumeration...... methods. In particular we will discuss the existing branch and bound approaches for solving multiple objective integer programming problems. Despite the fact that branch and bound methods has been applied successfully to integer programming problems with one criterion only a few attempts has been made to...

  17. Overview of the DOE-EM Packaging Certification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Transportation, in 49 CFR 173.7(d) grants the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) the power to use 'packagings made by or under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy... for the transportation of Class 7 materials when evaluated, approved and certified by the Department of Energy against packaging standards equivalent to those specified in 10 CFR part 71'. Via DOE Order 460.1B, DOE has established the DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) within the Department of Environmental Management for purposes including the certification of radioactive materials packages for DOE use. This paper will provide an overview of the programs and activities currently undertaken by the PCP in support of the safe transport of radioactive materials, including technical review of Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging, development of guidance documents and training courses, a quality assurance audit and field assessment program, database and docket management, and testing and test methodology development. The paper will also highlight the various organizations currently utilized by the PCP to meet the requirements of DOE O 460.1B, as well as some creative and effective methods that are being used to meet program objectives. The DOE Package Certification Program's primary function is to perform technical reviews of SARPs in support of the packaging certification process to ensure that the maximum protection is afforded to the public, all federal regulations are met, and the process is as time-effective and cost-effective as possible. Five additional specific functions are also supported by the PCP: development of guidance documents, training courses, a QA audit and field assessment program, database and docket management, and testing methods development. Each of these functions individually contributes to the overall mission of the PCP as defined in DOE O 460.1B. Taken as a whole, these functions represent a robust program to ensure the safety of workers

  18. Overview of the DIII-D program computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer systems pervade every aspect of the DIII-D National Fusion Research program. This includes real-time systems acquiring experimental data from data acquisition hardware; cpu server systems performing short term and long term data analysis; desktop activities such as word processing, spreadsheets, and scientific paper publication; and systems providing mechanisms for remote collaboration. The DIII-D network ties all of these systems together and connects to the ESNET wide area network. This paper will give an overview of these systems, including their purposes and functionality and how they connect to other systems. Computer systems include seven different types of UNIX systems (HP-UX, REALIX, SunOS, Solaris, Digital UNIX, Ultrix, and IRIX), OpenVMS systems (both BAX and Alpha), MACintosh, Windows 95, and more recently Windows NT systems. Most of the network internally is ethernet with some use of FDDI. A T3 link connects to ESNET and thus to the Internet. Recent upgrades to the network have notably improved its efficiency, but the demand for bandwidth is ever increasing. By means of software and mechanisms still in development, computer systems at remote sites are playing an increasing role both in accessing and analyzing data and even participating in certain controlling aspects for the experiment. The advent of audio/video over the interest is now presenting a new means for remote sites to participate in the DIII-D program

  19. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotope Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotopes Program. The charter of the Isotope Programs covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials, and related isotope services

  20. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  1. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis and tests were performed at IAE. The fatigue critical locations (FCLs were presumed based upon structural design and maintenance data and also from exchange of technical information with other users of the airplane around the world. Following that work, BAF started in 2002 the extension of the operational life of the BAF T-25 “Universal”. The T-25 is the basic training airplane used by AFA - The Brazilian Air Force Academy. This airplane was also designed under the “safe-life” concept. As the T-25 fleet approached its service life limit, the Brazilian Air Force was questioning whether it could be kept in flight safely. The answer came through an extensive Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA program, briefly described in this paper. The current work on aircraft structural integrity is being performed for the BAF F-5 E/F that underwent an avionics and weapons system upgrade. Along with the increase in weight, new configurations and mission profiles were established. Again, a DTA program was proposed to be carried out in order to establish the reliability of the upgraded F-5 fleet. As a result of all the work described, the BAF has not reported any accident due to structural failure on aircraft submitted to Damage Tolerance Analysis.

  2. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  3. Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

    2005-01-14

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

  4. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  5. Transgenic woody plants for biofuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Anna Y.Tang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic trees as a new source for biofuel have brought a great interest in tree biotechnology. Genetically modifying forest trees for ethanol production have advantages in technical challenges, costs, environmental concerns, and financial problems over some of crops. Genetic engineering of forest trees can be used to reduce the level of lignin, to produce the fast-growing trees, to develop trees with higher cellulose, and to allow the trees to be grown more widely. Trees can establish themselves in the field with less care of farmers, compared to most of crops. Transgenic crops as a new source for biofuel have been recently reviewed in several reviews. Here, we overview transgenic woody plants as a new source for biofuel including genetically modified woody plants and environment; main focus of woody plants genetic modifications;solar to chemical energy transfer; cellulose biosynthesis;lignin biosynthesis;and cellulosic ethanol as biofuel.

  6. Biofuels made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been said and written in Australia since the Federal Government introduced its Clean Fuels Policy in September 2001. Various biofuel projects are now being considered in different states of Australia for the manufacture of bioethanol and biodiesel from renewable resources. However, the economic viability required to establish an Australian liquid biofuels industry is predicated on supportive government legislation and an encouraging fuel excise regime. On the other hand, the benefits of such an industry are also in debate. In an attempt to clarify some of the concerns being raised, this paper endeavours to provide an overview of the current use of bioethanol and biodiesel around the world, to summarise the process technologies involved, to review the benefits and non-benefits of renewable fuels to the transport industry and to address the issues for such an industry here in Australia

  7. Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article contains a short overview of biomass consumption in Eu countries. The market share of biomass comparing with the other renewable energy sources, analysis, figures of development options and potential barriers are presented. Some special paragraphs were devoted to liquid biofuels like ethanol, methanol and bio-diesel oils. Lacking of the distribution system of liquid biofuels is one of the barriers in implementation. The granulated wood pellets is going to be one of the most widespread bio fuel for households in Austria and Southern Germany and for small scale district heating in Denmark and Sweden. From the analyse follows, that in countries with the state support and subsidies, the biomass consumption is much more developed and is competing with the fossil fuels in heat and power market. But in countries without this support the share of biofuels is decreasing. The last paragraph is describing the situation of biomass consumption in Estonia. Up to now here are positive as well as negative examples of biomass boilers implementation. Comparison of the heat prices in Estonia and in E U countries is presented in Fig. 2. Considering that our heat prices are about 2 times less than the E U average, implementation of the quite expensive western burning technology in Estonia would be more complicated than in E U countries. This points out even bigger necessity of the state support or subsidizing in Estonia. But there is another, economically more feasible way for subsidizing - to start the production of the small bio-fuelled boilers and the fuel handling technology in Estonia. This should reduce the total investment cost of the bio-fuelled heating systems. (author)

  8. Economic and social implications of biofuel use and production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential role of biofuels in meeting Canadian commitments to greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The characteristics of various biofuels were presented, including ethanol, methanol, biodiesel and biogas. Benefits of biofuels included a reduction in air contaminants as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Federal and provincial programs are currently in place to encourage production and use of biofuels. The Federal Ethanol Expansion Plan was outlined with reference to its target to increase ethanol production from 238 m litres to 1400 m litres by 2010. The main instruments of the program include excision of the gasoline tax exemption, ethanol expansion and the fact that ethanol can operate a polyfuels vehicle fleet. Provincial policies on ethanol were outlined, driven by characteristics of provincial economies. Provincial tax exemptions for ethanol were provided and an overview of the global ethanol market was presented. A map of existing and projected ethanol projects in Canada was presented, along with a forecast of Canadian ethanol production capacity. A time-line of Nebraska's ethanol production from the years 1985 to 2004 was provided. Economic drivers for ethanol include additional markets for products of agricultural, marine and forestry industries; the enhancement and diversification of rural and regional economies; employment; and energy security. Challenges to growth in biofuel production include technological knowledge and a lack of public awareness concerning the benefits of biofuel. The production and use of biofuels may increase environmental amenities but decrease economic growth. Issues concerning the economics of biofuel research were reviewed. The demand for biofuels has grown slowly in Canada, but has been promoted or mandated federally and in several provinces. The costs of biofuel production were reviewed, with a chart presenting ethanol production costs by plant size. Barriers to trade include the complexity of provincial tax

  9. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  10. Nye County, Nevada 1992 nuclear waste repository program: Program overview. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the Nye County FY92 Nuclear Waste Repository Program (Program). Funds to pay for Program costs will come from the Federal Nuclear Waste Fund, which was established under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). In early 1983, the Yucca Mountain was identified as a potentially suitable site for the nation's first geologic repository for spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Later that year, the Nye County Board of County Commissioners (Board) established the capability to monitor the Federal effort to implement the NWPA and evaluate the potential impacts of repository-related activities on Nye County. Over the last eight years, the County's program has grown in complexity and cost in order to address DOE's evolving site characterization studies, and prepare for the potential for facility construction and operation. Changes were necessary as well, in response to Congress's redirection of the repository program specified in the amendments, to the NWPA approved in 1987. In early FY 1991, the County formally established a project office to plan and implement its program of work. The Repository Project Office's (RPO) mission and functions are provided in Section 2.0. The RPO organization structure is described in Section 3.0

  11. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  12. An overview of DHR studies for Indian FBR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian Fast Reactor Program is entering into an important phase. Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam, after it was made critical with a small core in October 1985, was operated at low power levels until the mid 1992. Various tests were performed and the tests were completed with the demonstration that thermal power up to 1 MWt could be safely removed solely by natural convection in the steam generator casing air flow path. Theoretical studies performed using simplified thermal and hydraulic models of the FBTR reactor system satisfactorily predicted the natural circulation heat removal capability of the reactor system. It was indeed predicted that natural convection in primary and secondary sodium circuit could also be depended upon for heat removal while keeping all the temperatures within limits. 1 MWt of thermal power being the short term post shutdown fission product decay power level for a full 40 MWth core, the above test has convincingly demonstrated that natural convection mode of decay heat removal can be relied upon. Further theoretical studies has shown that, with a primary flow halving time of 17s, even an unprotected (or without reactor trip) total power failure situation from full power operation can be sustained with reactor power reducing gradually to decay power levels because of the negative reactivity feedback and with all the temperatures well within the limits. This paper brings out the details of the tests performed and the results of the various theoretical predictions. Presently FBTR is poised to be operated up to a power level of 10 MWt. Simultaneously preliminary design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a 500 MWe, 1200 MWt LMFBR has been completed. Presently it is in a detailed design phase. In this overview, the various options available for post shutdown decay heat removal in PFBR, the argument for selection of the normal heat transport path and Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System (SGDHRS) as two diverse paths of heat

  13. Scenarios for world agriculture and the Brazilian biofuels program; Cenarios para a agricultura mundial e o programa brasileiro de biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: anto1810@fec.unicamp.br, cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Three scenarios are elaborated denominated: 'tendency', 'sustainable development' and 'equilibrium'. The scenario 'tendency' tries to show how serious issues such as environmental, economic and social will be pushed to the limit, if current trends persist. The level of awareness of population, businesses and governments about the severity of current and future environmental problems does not change. In the 'sustainable development' scenario are introduced changes in economic, ecological and social developments seeking to reach the sustainable development in long term. There is a slow change in the current economic paradigm for the economic 'sustainable' and also the level of awareness of the population. The competitive paradigm gives way slowly to the place of community cooperation. Some of the technologies type 'end of pipe' and the substitution of dangerous technologies to the environment are introduced. In the 'equilibrium' scenario deep changes are proposed in the man's relationship with the nature and of man himself. The current economic paradigm is changed to the state stable in the medium term. The level of awareness of the population increases greatly, resulting in the reduction of waste, leading to demand for products with greater durability and repairability and agricultural products without pesticides. The competitive paradigm is changed to the community cooperation. The main conclusion is that it is necessary to do a strategic evaluation of the brazilian biofuels program.

  14. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Office of Energy Research (ER) manages fundamental science and basic energy research programs in several areas: high-energy physics; nuclear physics; the physical, biological, and mathematical sciences; magnetic fusion energy; and environmental and health effects. ER also supports many scientific user facilities that are used by universities and private-sector researchers and manages the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and the R ampersand D Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Brief descriptions of technology transfer accomplishments in each of these areas are given

  15. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  16. Overview of national bird population monitoring programs and databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, G.S.; Peterjohn, B.; Ralph, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    A number of programs have been set up to monitor populations of nongame migratory birds. We review these programs and their purposes and provide information on obtaining data or results from these programs. In addition, we review recommendations for improving these programs.

  17. Biogeochemistry of uranium mill wastes program overview and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major findings and conclusions are summarized for research on uranium mill tailings for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. An overview of results and interpretations is presented for investigations of 222Rn emissions, revegetation of tailings and mine spoils, and trace element enrichment, mobility, and bioavailability. A brief discussion addresses the implications of these findings in relation to tailings disposal technology and proposed uranium recovery processes

  18. Quick scan with regard to biofuels, focusing on the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a quick scan insight is given in the short-term and long-term chances for biofuels in the Dutch agricultural sector, taking into account all the links in the biofuel chain. An overview is given of the policy with regard to biofuels in the Netherlands, Europe and the rest of the world. Also attention is paid to so-called first-generation biofuels (bio-ethanol, biodiesel and vegetable oils) and second-generation biofuels (from lignocellulose)

  19. 75 FR 18171 - Overview Information; Race to the Top Fund Assessment Program; Notice Inviting Applications for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... the world leader in college graduates. Through the Race to the Top Fund Assessment Program, the... public provided input in response to questions, published in the Federal Register (see 74 FR 54795-54800... Overview Information; Race to the Top Fund Assessment Program; Notice Inviting Applications for New...

  20. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  1. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotope Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carty, J.

    2004-10-05

    This presentation provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotopes Program. The charter of the Isotope Programs covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials, and related isotope services.

  2. NASA’S PLANETARY GEOLOGIC MAPPING PROGRAM: OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA’s planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT...

  3. 78 FR 47717 - The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013: Overview of Applicability to HUD Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013: Overview of Applicability to... overview of the applicability to HUD programs of the recently enacted Violence Against Women... date. This notice is issued to provide an overview of the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act...

  4. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  5. Overview of Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joe

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the work done at NASA's Glenn Research Center on the ultra-efficient engine technology (UEET) program. The intent at the program's outset in 1998 was to establish a foundation for the next generation of aircraft engines for both commercial and military applications. A primary focus of this program was to be the development and utilization of technologies which would improve both subsonic and high-speed flight capabilities. Included in the presentation are details on the development of propulsion systems for varied types of aircraft, and results from attempts at reduction of emissions.

  6. Overview of implementation of DARPA GPU program in SAIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunreiter, Dennis; Furtek, Jeremy; Chen, Hai-Wen; Healy, Dennis

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the implementation of DARPA MTO STAP-BOY program for both Phase I and II conducted at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The STAP-BOY program conducts fast covariance factorization and tuning techniques for space-time adaptive process (STAP) Algorithm Implementation on Graphics Processor unit (GPU) Architectures for Embedded Systems. The first part of our presentation on the DARPA STAP-BOY program will focus on GPU implementation and algorithm innovations for a prototype radar STAP algorithm. The STAP algorithm will be implemented on the GPU, using stream programming (from companies such as PeakStream, ATI Technologies' CTM, and NVIDIA) and traditional graphics APIs. This algorithm will include fast range adaptive STAP weight updates and beamforming applications, each of which has been modified to exploit the parallel nature of graphics architectures.

  7. Research program on radioactive wastes - Overview report for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the program's main points of interest and the work done in the year 2011 along with the results obtained. The aims of the program are recapitulated. The research program is co-ordinated by a working group comprising the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI, the Commission on Nuclear Waste Disposal and the Commission for Safety in Nuclear Installations, Some highlights of the research program are briefly described and discussed. Topics covered concern the marking of nuclear waste repositories, value judgement and opinion building, waste management as well as repository design, including dimensioning and monitoring systems, National and international co-operation is also discussed

  8. Marshall Island radioassay quality assurance program an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrado, C.L.; Hamilton, T.F.; Kehl, S.R.; Robison, W.L.; Stoker, A.C.

    1998-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed an extensive quality assurance program to provide high quality data and assessments in support of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Program. Our quality assurance objectives begin with the premise of providing integrated and cost-effective program support (to meet wide-ranging programmatic needs, scientific peer review, litigation defense, and build public confidence) and continue through from design and implementation of large-scale field programs, sampling and sample preparation, radiometric and chemical analyses, documentation of quality assurance/quality control practices, exposure assessments, and dose/risk assessments until publication. The basic structure of our radioassay quality assurance/quality control program can be divided into four essential elements; (1) sample and data integrity control; (2) instrument validation and calibration; (3) method performance testing, validation, development and documentation; and (4) periodic peer review and on-site assessments. While our quality assurance objectives are tailored towards a single research program and the evaluation of major exposure pathways/critical radionuclides pertinent to the Marshall Islands, we have attempted to develop quality assurance practices that are consistent with proposed criteria designed for laboratory accre

  9. Overview of method on biofuel production made from microalgae%水生微藻制备生物燃料的方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄远星; 张道方; 陶红; 李亮

    2012-01-01

    近年来,将生物质能转化为生物燃料的研究发展迅速.本文介绍了以微藻为原料制造两种生物燃料-生物柴油和生物油的技术,并重点介绍了从微藻细胞体内提取微生物油脂的几种细胞破碎工艺.微生物油脂提取工艺的高成本对其工业化生产造成了阻碍,因此亟待研发新的高效廉价的微生物油脂提取技术.另外,一些技术瓶颈限制了由微藻细胞通过热化学法直接制取生物油的规模化应用,为改进微藻制油技术,仍需做大量细致的研究.%In recent years, the research transfering biomass energy into biofuels has developed quickly. This paper introduced the technologies of producing biodiesel and bio oil by microalgaea, and emphasized the microalgae cell disruption techniques to extract oil from microalgae. However, the high cost as well as some technique bottlenecks hampered its application, it' s technology needs further improvement, thus more research effort is necessary for making biofuel from microalgae.

  10. Overview of the French program in chemical separations and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-range effort has begun in France that is aimed at the reduction of the volume and activity level of wastes containing long half-life radionuclides. This effort constitutes the SPIN (SeParations-INcineration) Program which investigates separations techniques that can improve current reprocessing technologies coupled with destruction of long-lived species through transmutation. Removal and destruction of specific radionuclides (e.g., neptunium, americium, technetium, iodine, cesium, and strontium) will be emphasized. Advanced solvent extraction chemistry focusing, for example, on development and implementation of diamides for actinide-lanthanide separations constitutes an important component of the SPIN program. The second component of the program focuses on inventory reductions through transmutation of such long-lived nuclides in fast reactor systems (Super Phenix). Accelerator-based systems are also being evaluated as a possible long-term option. Both of these components of the SPIN program are aimed at further reduction of the potential radiotoxicity and radiological impact of high-level wastes destined for geological storage. In this presentation, major activities of the SPIN Program will be described with emphasis on activities related to advanced chemical separations

  11. Overview of the GCFR core engineering development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) core development plan has been described as an incremental extension of the LMFBR program. The basis for this contention is reviewed along with some additional gas-cooled reactor precedence. Ideally, in the development of a reactor concept, it would be desirable to demonstrate the perforance of a full-sized fuel assembly under the anticipated irradiation and coolant conditions. Practically, however, this is seldom possible, particularly in fast reactors where fluence-to-burnup ratios increase with reactor power. Because of this limitation, the GCFR development program is based on qualifying the assemblies for the low distortions that occur during the swelling incubation period (approx. 50 MWd/kg). Extended burnup will be demonstrated in the operation of the GCFR demonstration plant core. The overall core development program and the related assumptions are discussed and the design goals stated. A multistage development approach is described and illustratd with an abbreviated program network. Major areas of the development program are briefly described

  12. Overview of US Fusion Energy Programs: January 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Fusion Program is in open-quotes Transition.close quotes This happens so infrequently that no one knows exactly what to expect; it makes everyone a little skittish. Program leadership does make a difference; Secretary Watkins was a positive force for fusion. Energy Research Director Happer remains in his position and is a positive force for scientific quality. Secretary O'Leary has stated that open-quotes Fusion energy holds great promise as an element of the nation's long-term energy supply.close quotes While new leaders may seek new directions with important implications for fusion, it seems reasonable to expect that, for fusion, such changes are likely to emerge slowly. Thus the assumption now is that the fusion priorities remain unchanged. In the spirit of optimism surrounding the new administration, the Fusion Energy Program's intention is to make as much progress as possible on the course presently established

  13. Overview of the EPA quality system for environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Formalized quality assurance program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than a decade. During this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. Many issues, such as ozone depletion and global climate warming, have become international concerns among the world environmental community. Other issues, such as hazardous waste cleanup and clean air, remain a focus of national environmental concerns. As the environmental issues of the 1980`s evolved, the traditional quality assurance (QA) program was transformed through the use of quality management principles into a Quality System to help managers meet the needs of the 1990`s and beyond.

  14. Overview of the EPA quality system for environmental programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formalized quality assurance program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than a decade. During this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. Many issues, such as ozone depletion and global climate warming, have become international concerns among the world environmental community. Other issues, such as hazardous waste cleanup and clean air, remain a focus of national environmental concerns. As the environmental issues of the 1980's evolved, the traditional quality assurance (QA) program was transformed through the use of quality management principles into a Quality System to help managers meet the needs of the 1990's and beyond

  15. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  16. Energy-Related Inventions Program: an overview of the evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Bronfman, L.M.; Rorke, M.G.

    1983-09-01

    The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) is jointly administered by the US Departments of Energy and Commerce. Grants were awarded for 165 of 208 inventions recommended by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Of the 165 inventions, 46 have been able to acquire follow-on financing from a variety of sources. Further, 35 of the inventions have reached the marketplace, and their cumulative sales to date total $178 million. An additional 10 inventions are now starting into production. Jobs that have been created directly by production related to the inventions total 756; additional spin-off jobs attributable to the inventions include component and material suppliers, jobbers, franchisees, and distributors. The program was recently evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the following conclusions: (1) the evaluation process at NBS has been successful in identifying technically and economically feasible inventions, (2) the success rate for the program is about equivalent to the reported success rates of private venture capital firms, (3) the program is supporting inventions at a point in their development where they are supported by neither the venture capital community nor industry, and (4) the one-time DOE grants and the associated ERIP support to inventors have been successful in readying inventors for follow-on financing from the private sector.

  17. Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Program's goal is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communication technologies

  18. Biomass Power: Program overview fiscal years 1993--1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Biomass Power Program and industry are developing technologies to expand the use of biomass that include methods of feedstock production and the equipment to convert feedstocks into electric power or process heat. With the help of advanced biomass power technologies and new feedstock supply systems, as much as 50,000 megawatts (MW) of biomass power capacity will be in place by the year 2010. The Biomass Power Program supports the development of three technologies -- gasification, pyrolysis, and direct combustion -- from the laboratory bench scale to the prototype commercial scale. Gasification equipment produces biogas that is burned in high-efficiency turbine-generators developed for the electric power industry. Pyrolysis processes produce oils from renewable biomass that burn like petroleum to generate electricity. In direct combustion technology, power plants today burn bulk biomass directly to generate electricity. Improving the direct combustion technology of these plants increases efficiency and reduces emissions. In addition to developing these three technologies, the Biomass Power Program supports joint ventures to plan and construct facilities that demonstrate the benefits of biomass power. The program is supporting joint ventures to conduct 10 case studies of dedicated feedstock supply systems.

  19. Overview of Gas Research Institute environmental research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a private not-for-profit membership organization of natural gas pipelines, distribution companies and natural gas producers. GRI's purpose is to plan, to manage and to develop financing for a gas-related research and development (R and D) program on behalf of its members and their customers. GRI does not do any research itself. GRI's R and D program is designed to provide advanced technologies for natural gas supply, transport, storage, distribution and end-use applications in all markets. In addition, basic research is conducted for GRI in these areas to build a foundation for future technology breakthroughs. Work in the Environment and Safety Research Department includes sections interested in: supply related research, air quality research, end use equipment safety research, gas operations safety research, and gas operations environmental research. The Natural Gas Supply Program has research ongoing in such areas as: restoration of pipeline right-of-ways; cleaning up town gas manufacturing sites; the development of methanogenic bacteria for soil and groundwater cleanup; development of biological fluidized carbon units for rapid destruction of carbonaceous compounds; research on liquid redox sulfur recovery for sulfur removal from natural gas; research on produced water and production wastes generated by the natural gas industry; environmental effects of coalbed methane production; and subsurface effects of natural gas operations. The western coalbed methane and ground water programs are described

  20. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I final report - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a multiyear, multiphase program whose overall objective is to develop improved methods for seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants, using a probabilistic computational procedure. The program is being carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Phase I of the SSMRP was successfully completed in January 1981: A probabilistic computational procedure for the seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology is implemented by three computer programs: HAZARD, which assesses the seismic hazard at a given site, SMACS, which computes in-structure and subsystem seismic responses, and SEISIM, which calculates system failure probabilities and radioactive release probabilities, given (1) the response results of SMACS, (2) a set of event trees, (3) a family of fault trees, (4) a set of structural and component fragility descriptions, and (5) a curve describing the local seismic hazard. The practicality of this methodology was demonstrated by computing preliminary release probabilities for Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant north of Chicago, Illinois. Studies have begun aimed at quantifying the sources of uncertainty in these computations. Numerous side studies were undertaken to examine modeling alternatives, sources of error, and available analysis techniques. Extensive sets of data were amassed and evaluated as part of projects to establish seismic input parameters and to produce the fragility curves. (author)

  1. A Fifty-State Survey of School Finance Policies and Programs: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.; Jordan, Teresa S.

    2009-01-01

    This overview provides a synthesis of a comprehensive survey of school finance programs in the 50 states conducted in 2006-07. Information was provided by chief state school finance officers or persons with expertise in a state's public school funding-allocation system. Brief descriptions of the major Pre-K-12 funding formulae, district-based…

  2. 75 FR 43510 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants to Non... an individual, you can obtain a TIN from the Internal Revenue Service or the Social Security... Deputy Secretary for Innovation and Improvement. BILLING CODE 4000-01-P...

  3. Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program: Program Overview and Philadelphia Project Highlight (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Case Study with WIPP program overview, information regarding eligibility, and successes from Pennsylvania's Commission on Economic Opportunity (CEO) that demonstrate innovative approaches that maximize the benefit of the program. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recently launched the Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP) to accelerate innovations in whole-house weatherization and advance DOE's goal of increasing the energy efficiency and health and safety of homes of low-income families. Since 2010, WIPP has helped weatherization service providers as well as new and nontraditional partners leverage non-federal financial resources to supplement federal grants, saving taxpayer money. WIPP complements the Weatherization Assistance program (WAP), which operates nation-wide, in U.S. territories and in three Native American tribes. 16 grantees are implementing weatherization innovation projects using experimental approaches to find new and better ways to weatherize homes. They are using approaches such as: (1) Financial tools - by understanding a diverse range of financing mechanisms, grantees can maximize the impact of the federal grant dollars while providing high-quality work and benefits to eligible low-income clients; (2) Green and healthy homes - in addition to helping families reduce their energy costs, grantees can protect their health and safety. Two WIPP projects (Connecticut and Maryland) will augment standard weatherization services with a comprehensive green and healthy homes approach; (3) New technologies and techniques - following the model of continuous improvement in weatherization, WIPP grantees will continue to use new and better technologies and techniques to improve the quality of work; (4) Residential energy behavior change - Two grantees are rigorously testing home energy monitors (HEMs) that display energy used in kilowatt-hours, allowing residents to monitor and reduce their

  4. Research program on regulatory safety - Overview report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the program's main points of interest, work done in the year 2010 and the results obtained. The main highlights of the research program, which was co-ordinated by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI are reported on. Topics reported on include nuclear fuels and materials, the development of a data base on damage and internal incidents, external incidents and human factors. Also, system behaviour and hazardous accident events are reported on, as are radiation protection and waste disposal. Project highlights include the KORA II project, which examined corrosion crack development in austenitic structural materials, the OECD's Halden Reactor Project in the man-technology-organisational area, and work done in the Mont Terri rock research laboratory. Also, national and international co-operation is briefly looked at and work to be done in 2011 is reviewed. A list of current and completed projects completes the report

  5. Overview of the NASA Systems Approach to Crashworthiness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa E.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Program was developed in response to the federal government's goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within 10 years. Accident Mitigation is a primary element of the Aviation Safety Program. The overall Accident Mitigation goal is to provide technology to the air transport industry to enable a decrease in the rate of fatalities and injury from crash loads and from in-flight and post-crash explosion and/or fire. Accident Mitigation is divided into two main elements - Fire Prevention and Systems Approach to Crashworthiness. The Systems Approach to Crashworthiness goal is to develop and promote technology that will increase the human survival rate or reduce the fatality rate in survivable accidents. The technical background and planning, selected technical activities, and summary of future efforts will be presented in this paper.

  6. Integrated gasification combined cycle overview of FETC--S program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changing market conditions, brought about by utility deregulation and increased environmental regulations, have encouraged the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) to restructure its Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) program. The program emphasis, which had focused on baseload electricity production from coal, is now expanded to more broadly address the production of a suite of energy and chemical products. The near-term market barrier for baseload power applications for conventional IGCC systems combines with increasing opportunities to process a range of low- and negative-value opportunity feedstocks. The new program is developing a broader range of technology options that will increase the versatility and the technology base for commercialization of gasification-based technologies. This new strategy supports gasification in niche markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in industrial coproduction applications today, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation and coproduction as these markets begin to open

  7. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript on lifecycle analysis (LCA) of biofuels for transportation has three major parts: * I. An analysis of greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuels, estimated using the Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM). * II. A review of recent LCAs of biofuels. * III. A comprehensive conceptual framework for doing LCAs of biofuels.

  8. Rover nuclear rocket engine program: Overview of rover engine tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finseth, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The results of nuclear rocket development activities from the inception of the ROVER program in 1955 through the termination of activities on January 5, 1973 are summarized. This report discusses the nuclear reactor test configurations (non cold flow) along with the nuclear furnace demonstrated during this time frame. Included in the report are brief descriptions of the propulsion systems, test objectives, accomplishments, technical issues, and relevant test results for the various reactor tests. Additionally, this document is specifically aimed at reporting performance data and their relationship to fuel element development with little or no emphasis on other (important) items.

  9. Structural dynamics: Probabilistic structural analysis methods. Program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1991-01-01

    A brief description is provided of the fundamental aspects of a quantification process. Progress since the last structural durability conference in 1989 is summarized. The methodology to date and that to be developed during the life of the program is presented. The uncertain factors are presented. The approach is outlined that is required to achieve component and/or system certification in the shortest possible time for affordable reliability risk. Two new elements appear in a block diagram: (1) uncertainties in human factor, and (2) uncertainties in the computer code. Research to quantify the uncertainties in the human factor was initiated and is discussed.

  10. An overview of the NASA textile composites program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. Benson

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is conducting and sponsoring research to explore the benefits of textile reinforced composites for civil transport aircraft primary structures. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the potential of affordable textile reinforced composite materials to meet design properties and damage tolerance requirements of advanced aircraft structures. In addition to in-house research, the program includes major participation by the aircraft industry and aerospace textile companies. The major program elements include development of textile preforms, processing science, mechanics of materials, experimental characterization of materials, and development and evaluation of textile reinforced composite structural elements and subcomponents. The NASA Langley in-house research is focused on science-based understanding of resin transfer molding (RTM), development of powder-coated towpreg processes, analysis methodology, and development of a performance database on textile reinforced composites. The focus of the textile industry participation is on development of multidirectional, damage-tolerant preforms, and the aircraft industry participation is in the areas of innovative design concepts, cost-effective fabrication, and testing of textile reinforced composite structural elements and subcomponents. Textile processes such as 3-D weaving, 2-D and 3-D braiding, and knitting/stitching are being compared with conventional laminated tape processes for improved damage tolerance. Through-the-thickness reinforcements offer significant damage tolerance improvements. However, these gains must be weighed against potential loss in in-plane properties such as strength and stiffness. Analytical trade studies are underway to establish design guidelines for the application of textile material forms to meet specific loading requirements. Fabrication and testing of large structural components are required to establish the full potential of textile

  11. General overview of the TOPFLOW-PTS experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident, cold emergency core cooling water may be injected in a partially uncovered cold leg, and related two-phase CFD simulations are required to demonstrate the reactor pressure vessel integrity further to the resulting pressurized thermal shock. To complement the physical validation of the two-phase CFD codes in this configuration, a dedicated integral-type experimental program - TOPFLOW-PTS - has been setup; this paper (i) supports the validation data needs, (ii) presents the related experimental setup, and (iii) provides the general guidelines of the test matrix definition and test procedure. (author)

  12. Severe accident sequence assessment for boiling water reactors: program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Severe Accident Sequence Assessment (SASA) Program was started at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in June 1980. This report documents the initial planning, specification of objectives, potential uses of the results, plan of attack, and preliminary results. ORNL was assigned the Brown's Ferry Unit 1 Plant with the station blackout being the initial sequence set to be addressed. This set includes: (1) loss of offsite and onsite ac power with no coolant injection; and (2) loss of offsite and onsite ac power with high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) and reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) as long as dc power supply lasts. This report includes representative preliminary results for the former case

  13. Overview of solid radioactive wastes management program for Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Concept for Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant has been established as part of Documentation of Radiation Safety Program for Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant Solid Radioactive Waste Management - Reference Document RD-01364-RP1. The Program is based on operating experience from nuclear power facilities including CANDU Plants. It is based on operating experience from nuclear power facilities including CANDU Plants. The Radioactive Waste Management Concept for Cernavoda NPP established the general approach required for the collection, handling, conditioning and storage of solid radioactive waste while maintaining acceptable levels of safety for workers, public and environment. The concept developed ensures the necessary facilities to adequately manage solid radioactive waste from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and will be capable of expansion when other units will be brought into service. This concept does not address the management of spent nuclear fuel and the permanent disposal of the solid radioactive wastes. For Cernavoda NPP there were defined three types of solid radioactive waste as fallows: - Low Activity Radioactive Waste, type 1, namely, solid radioactive waste with a gamma dose rate of less than 2 mSv/h on contact with the container; - Medium Activity Radioactive Waste, type 2, namely, solid radioactive waste with gamma dose rate of 2 mSv/h to 125 mSv/h on contact with the container; - Medium Activity Radioactive Waste, type 3, namely, solid radioactive waste with gamma dose rate higher than 125 mSv/h on contact with the container. The design objectives for the solid radioactive waste management facilities are defined according to their specific characteristics. Design considerations are presented for solid radioactive waste interim storage facilities as well as the operating program and monitoring program for solid radioactive waste facility. Future plans are presented for short-term strategy including gamma improvement characterisation

  14. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. PMID:24956589

  15. Overview of NRC's human factors regulatory research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human factors research program is divided into distinct and interrelated program activities: (1) Personnel Performance measurement, (2) Personnel Subsystem, (3) Human-System Interface, (4) Organization and Management, and (5) a group of Reliability Assessment activities. The purpose of the Personnel Performance Measurement activity is to improve the Agency's understanding of the factors influencing personnel performance and the effects on the safety of nuclear operations and maintenance by developing improvements to methods for collecting and managing personnel performance data. Personnel Subsystem research will broaden the understanding of such factors as staffing, qualifications, and training that influence human performance in the nuclear system and will develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to reduce any adverse impact of these influences on nuclear safety. Research in the Human-System Interface activity will provide the technical basis for ensuring that the interface between the system and the human user supports safe operations and maintenance. Organization and Management research will result in the development of tools for evaluating organization and management issues within the nuclear industry. And finally, the Reliability Assessment group of activities includes multidisciplinary research that will integrate human and hardware considerations for evaluating reliability and risk in NRC licensing, inspection, and regulatory decisions

  16. Overview of the NRC nuclear waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC has firmly established waste management as a high-priority effort and has made the commitment to act rapidly and methodically to establish a sound regulatory base for licensing waste management activities. We believe the priorities for NRC work in waste management are consistent with the needs of the overall national waste management program. Present licensing procedures and criteria are adequate for the short term, and priority attention is being given to the longer term, when the quantities of waste to be managed will be greater and licensing demands will increase. Recognizing that its decision will affect industry, other governmental jurisdictions, private interest groups, and the public at large, NRC has encouraged and will continue to encourage their participation in planning our program. We also recognize that the problems of nuclear waste management are international in scope. Many waste management problems (e.g., potential for contamination of oceans and atmosphere, need for isolation of some wastes for longer periods than governments and political boundaries have remained stable in the past), require a set of internationally acceptable and accepted solutions. The wastes from the U.S. nuclear industry will account for only about one third of the nuclear waste generated in the world. Therefore, we propose to cooperate and where appropriate take the lead in establishing acceptable worldwide policies, standards and procedures for handling nuclear wastes

  17. Liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a brief conference paper on the use of biofuels in vehicles, especially in Sweden. Vegetable oils replace only diesel. In Sweden, the vegetable oil most often used is rape-seed oil. These oils are not very efficient in ''raw'' form and are used as basis in esters, such as rape-seed methyl ester (RME). Although RME is renewable, biobased and reduces the atmospheric CO2 emission, it increases the emission of nitrogen oxides, it may cause startup problems in cold weather and is not stable when stored for long. Most RME available in Sweden is imported and the potential for increased Swedish production is very limited. By using methanol and ethanol both petrol and diesel can be replaced. While mixtures of petrol and alcohols are being used increasingly, mixtures of diesel and alcohols are unstable and their use requires technological development

  18. Fuelling biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government has recently committed to legislation ensuring that all transportation fuels will be supplemented with biofuels by 2010. This article provided details of a position paper written by the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association in response to the legislation. Details of new research to optimize the future biodiesel industry were also presented. Guiding principles of the paper included the creation of open markets across provincial boundaries; the manipulation of tax structures to make products competitive in the United States; and establishing quality standards via the Canadian General Standards Board. It is expected that the principles will reassure petroleum producers and retailers, as ethanol behaves differently than gasoline in storage tanks. As ethanol is water-absorbing, retailers must flush and vacuum their tanks to remove water, then install 10 micron filters to protect fuel lines and dispenser filters from accumulated gasoline residue loosened by the ethanol. Refineries are concerned that the average content of ethanol remains consistent across the country, as refiners will be reluctant to make different blends for different provinces. Critics of biodiesel claim that it is not energy-intensive enough to meet demand, and biodiesel crops are not an efficient use of soils that could otherwise be used to grow food crops. However, researchers in Saskatchewan are committed to using a variety of methods such as reduced tillage systems to make biodiesel production more efficient. Laboratory research has resulted in improved refining processes and genetic manipulation of potential biodiesel crops. Membrane technology is now being used to select water from ethanol. A process developed by the Ottawa company Iogen Corporation uses enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the tough fibres found in corn stalks, leaves, wood and other biomass into sugars. Scientists are also continuing to improve oil content yields in canola and soybean crops. It was

  19. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  20. General overview of CANDU advanced fuel cycles program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R and D program for CANDU advanced fuel cycles may be roughly divided into two components which have a near-and long-term focus, respectively. The near-term focus is on the technology to implement improved once-through cycles and mixed oxide (plutonium-uranium oxides) recycle in CANDU and on technologies to separate zirconium isotopes. Included is work on those technologies which would allow a CANDU-LWR strategy to be developed in a growing nuclear power system. For the longer-term, activities are focused on those technologies and fuel cycles which would be appropriate in a period when nuclear fuel demand significantly exceeds mined uranium supplies. Fuel cycles and systems under study are thorium recycle, CANDU fast breeder systems and electro-nuclear fissile breeders. The paper will discuss the rationale underlying these activities, together with a brief description of activities currently under way in each of the fuel cycle technology areas

  1. Urban Dispersion Program Overview and MID05 Field Study Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-07-31

    The Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) was a 4-year project (2004–2007) funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security with additional support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also contributed to UDP through funding a human-exposure component of the New York City (NYC) field studies in addition to supporting an EPA scientist in conducting modeling studies of NYC. The primary goal of UDP was to improve the scientific understanding of the flow and diffusion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of NYC. The overall UDP project manager and lead scientist was Dr. Jerry Allwine of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. UDP had several accomplishments that included conducting two tracer and meteorological field studies in Midtown Manhattan.

  2. Overview of the United States steam generator development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LMFBR steam generator development program of the USA was initiated to support the development of reliable designs and meaningful performance data for these critical components. Since the steam generators include the structural boundary between heated sodium and water, the consequences of small flaws in the materials that form the boundary are significant. Successful development and demonstration of commercial LMFBR power plants requires the consideration of many factors in addition to the design, construction and operation of a particular plant. Additional factors which must be assessed include: economics, reliability, safety, environment, operability, maintainability and conservation of the resources. In terms of the steam generator these items led to the selection of a single wall tube design using a forced recirculating system for the present Clinch River Breeder Reactor. There are strong economic incentives to use a once-through steam generating system in future designs

  3. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6 percent of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the U.S. public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99 percent of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98 percent. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future U.S. energy markets.

  4. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  5. Overview of Westinghouse`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, R.L.; Bevc, F.P.; Diakunchak, I.S.; Huber, D.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Westinghouse`s experience with land based gas turbines started in 1945 with the development of a 2000 hp gas turbine-generator set that consisted of a single reduction gear, compressor, 12 combustors and turbine. A thermal efficiency of 18% was obtained. By 1954, Westinghouse had developed a 15 MW unit (with a regenerator and intercooler) that was designed for a full-load simple cycle efficiency of 29%. As the initial step in the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, Westinghouse has already developed a 230 MW gas turbine that has a simple cycle efficiency of 38.5% without the use of regeneration and intercooler concepts. In 1967, Westinghouse developed its first gas turbine combined cycle, a synergistic combination of the Brayton and the Rankine cycles. In a combined cycle the heat rejected by the higher temperature topping cycle is recovered in the lower temperature bottoming cycle to produce additional power from the energy initially released by the fuel. In this first Westinghouse combined cycle, a 1450{degrees}F burner outlet temperature gas turbine, rated at 25 MW, supplied exhaust heat which was used in a boiler to furnish steam to drive an 85 MW steam turbine. This plant achieved an annual average efficiency of 39.6%.

  6. An Overview of Recent PISCES Program PMI Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, George; Doerner, Russell; Abe, Shota; Baldwin, Matthew; Barton, Joseph; Chen, Renkun; Gosselin, Jordan; Hollmann, Eric; Nishijima, Daisuke; Simmonds, Michael; Wang, Yong; Yu, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The PISCES Program is focused on fundamental PMI studies of Be and W-based solid plasma facing components under steady-state and transient conditions. We will show results from studies in W, Be and mixed W-Be material systems. Topics of investigation include formation of near-surface nanobubbles from He plasma ion implantation, growth of W-fuzz from these bubbles in steady-state and transient conditions, D retention in Be and W and development of a D-retention model for both H/D isotope exchange and displacement damage experiments. Initial studies of PMI in displacement damaged W are also presented, showing the effect of damage and exposure temperature on D retention, D diffusion, W thermal conductivity. Be-based results include morphology evolution under high plasma flux exposure, Be erosion mechanisms, and retention in Be-based materials. Future plans and connections to fusion energy system requirements will be discussed. This work supported by grant DE-FG02-07ER54912.

  7. An overview of the contaminant analysis automation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has significant amounts of radioactive and hazardous wastes stored, buried, and still being generated at many sites within the United States. These wastes must be characterized to determine the elemental, isotopic, and compound content before remediation can begin. In this paper, the authors project that sampling requirements will necessitate generating more than 10 million samples by 1995, which will far exceed the capabilities of our current manual chemical analysis laboratories. The Contaminant Analysis Automation effort (CAA), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as to the coordinating Laboratory, is designing and fabricating robotic systems that will standardize and automate both the hardware and the software of the most common environmental chemical methods. This will be accomplished by designing and producing several unique analysis systems called Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). Each SAM will automate a specific chemical method, including sample preparation, the analytical analysis, and the data interpretation, by using a building block known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). This concept allows the chemist to assemble an automated environmental method using standardized SLMs easily and without the worry of hardware compatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs

  8. Overview of the aerial radiological measuring system (ARMS) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960 EG and G, Inc. has developed and maintained for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) a state-of-the-art radiation surveillance program called the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). Radiological surveys covering more than 300,000 square miles have been performed. In addition to the radiation detector gear, the system includes an inertial navigation system, radar altimeter, meteorological probes, air sampler, air sample analyzer, multispectral cameras, aerial mapping camera and infrared scanner. The recently improved data acquisition system, REDAR, records all inputs digitally on magnetic tape and is readily mounted in fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters. The data analysis system, REDAC, is mounted in a mobile processing laboratory which accompanies the aircraft on surveys. Radiation isopleth maps, both for gross counts and selected isotopes, can be prepared in the field. Special computer software enables the ARMS to detect changes of less than 1.0 μR/hr in exposure rates between successive surveys of a given site

  9. An overview of the Nuclear Materials Focus Area research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) is responsible for providing comprehensive needs identification, integration of technology research and development activities, and technology deployment for stabilization, packaging, and interim storage of surplus nuclear materials within the DOE complex. The NMFA was chartered in April 1999 by the Office of Science and Technology (OST), an organizational component of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). OST manages a national program to conduct basic and applied research, and technology development, demonstration, and deployment assistance that is essential to completing a timely and cost-effective cleanup of the DOE nuclear weapons complex. DOE/EM provides environmental research results, as well as cleanup technologies and systems, to meet high-priority end-user needs, reduce EM's major cost centers and technological risks, and accelerate technology deployments. The NMFA represents the segment of EM that focuses on technological solutions for re-using, transforming, and disposing excess nuclear materials and is jointly managed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and the DOE Idaho Operations Office

  10. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Program Overview - A Focus on RPS Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; McCallum, Peter W.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. To meet this goal, the RPS Program manages investments in RPS technologies and RPS system development, working closely with the Department of Energy. This paper provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status, its collaborations with potential RPS users, and the approach employed to maintain the readiness of RPS to support future NASA mission concepts.

  11. Overview of the United States spent nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, the mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has shifted from an emphasis on nuclear weapons development and production to an emphasis on the safe management and disposal of excess nuclear materials including spent nuclear fuel from both production and research reactors. Within the US, there are two groups managing spent nuclear fuel. Commercial nuclear power plants are managing their spent nuclear fuel at the individual reactor sites until the planned repository is opened. All other spent nuclear fuel, including research reactors, university reactors, naval reactors, and legacy material from the Cold War is managed by DOE. DOE's mission is to safely and efficiently manage its spent nuclear fuel and prepare it for disposal. This mission involves correcting existing vulnerabilities in spent fuel storage; moving spent fuel from wet basins to dry storage; processing at-risk spent fuel; and preparing spent fuel in road-ready condition for repository disposal. Most of DOE's spent nuclear fuel is stored in underwater basins (wet storage). Many of these basins are outdated, and spent fuel is to be removed and transferred to more modern basins or to new dry storage facilities. In 1995, DOE completed a complex-wide environmental impact analysis that resulted in spent fuel being sent to one of three principal DOE sites for interim storage (up to 40 years) prior to shipment to a repository. This regionalization by fuel type will allow for economies of scale yet minimize unnecessary transportation. This paper discusses the national SNF program, ultimate disposition of SNF, and the technical challenges that have yet to be resolved, namely, release rate testing, non-destructive assay, alternative treatments, drying, and chemical reactivity

  12. Overview of the NARSTO-NE-OPS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NARSTO-NE-OPS (NorthEast Oxidant and Particle Study) is an investigation of the coupling of the meteorological and chemical processes that control the evolution of air pollution events. The project includes three major field programs carried out at a field site in northeast Philadelphia during the summers of 1998, 1999 and 2001. The activity brings together the research groups from 13 universities, 5 government laboratories and representatives of the electric power industry to apply the most advanced measurement techniques to understanding the physical and chemical processes contributing to air quality issues. Results have been obtained from three ground sites, two instrumented aircraft, many different instrumented balloon platforms, and several remote sensing techniques including satellites. In addition, the database used includes the ground-based measurements conducted at several surrounding state and city operated sites in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, New York and Maryland. The results have shown the importance of developing the 3-dimensional regional scale picture of the atmosphere to understand and properly model air pollution events. It has been shown that only from such a perspective, which includes the vertical distribution and a regional context, can one hope to properly model and predict ozone and particulate pollution. A combination of photochemical and dynamical processes transport, both horizontal and vertical, accumulate pollutants that then mix with the locally produced chemical species to cause the more severe episodes of air pollution. Efforts have also focused on developmental testing of several new approaches to improved measuring techniques for better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the airborne particulate matter

  13. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  14. Graphene based enzymatic bioelectrodes and biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Anahita; Othman, Ali; Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Stanciu, Lia; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-04-01

    The excellent electrical conductivity and ease of functionalization make graphene a promising material for use in enzymatic bioelectrodes and biofuel cells. Enzyme based biofuel cells have attracted substantial interest due to their potential to harvest energy from organic materials. This review provides an overview of the functional properties and applications of graphene in the construction of biofuel cells as alternative power sources. The review covers the current state-of-the-art research in graphene based nanomaterials (physicochemical properties and surface functionalities), the role of these parameters in enhancing electron transfer, the stability and activity of immobilized enzymes, and how enhanced power density can be achieved. Specific examples of enzyme immobilization methods, enzyme loading, stability and function on graphene, functionalized graphene and graphene based nanocomposite materials are discussed along with their advantages and limitations. Finally, a critical evaluation of the performance of graphene based enzymatic biofuel cells, the current status, challenges and future research needs are provided.

  15. Canada and the International Space Station program: Overview and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Graham; Sachdev, Savi

    2002-07-01

    The twelve months since IAF 2000 have been perhaps the most exciting, challenging and rewarding months for Canada since the beginning of our participation in the International Space Station program in 1984. The highlight was the successful launch, on-orbit check out, and the first operational use of Canadarm2, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System, between April and July 2001. The anomalies encountered and the solutions found to achieve this success are described in the paper. The paper describes, also, the substantial progress that has been made, during the twelve months since IAF 2000, by Canada as it continues to complete work on all flight-elements of its contribution to the International Space Station and as we transition into real-time Space Station operations support and Canadian utilization. Canada's contribution to the International Space Station is the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), the external robotic system that is key to the successful assembly of the Space Station, the maintenance of its external systems, astronaut EVA support, and the servicing of external science payloads. The MSS ground segment that supports MSS operations, training, sustaining engineering, and logistics activities is reaching maturity. The MSS Engineering Support Center and the MSS Sustaining Engineering Facility are providing real-time support for on-orbit operations, and a Canadian Payloads Telescience Operations Center is now in place. Mission Controllers, astronauts and cosmonauts from all Space Station Partners continue to receive training at the Canadian Space Agency. The Remote Multi Purpose Room, one element of the MSS Operations Complex, will be ready to assume backroom support in 2002. Canada has completed work on identifying its Space Station utilization activities for the period 2000 through 2004. Also during the past twelve months the CSA drafted and is proceeding with the approval of a Canadian Space Station Commercialization Policy. Canadian astronauts have

  16. An Overview of the NASA Aeronautics Test Program Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. leadership in aeronautics depends on ready access to technologically advanced, efficient, and affordable aeronautics test capabilities. These systems include major wind tunnels and propulsion test facilities and flight test capabilities. The federal government owns the majority of the major aeronautics test capabilities in the United States, primarily through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD), however an overarching strategy for management of these national assets was needed. Therefore, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2006 NASA established the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) as a two-pronged strategic initiative to: (1) retain and invest in NASA aeronautics test capabilities considered strategically important to the agency and the nation, and (2) establish a strong, high level partnership with the DoD Test Resources Management Center (TRMC), stewards of the DoD test and evaluation infrastructure. Since then, approximately seventy percent of the ATP budget has been directed to underpin fixed and variable costs of facility operations within its portfolio and the balance towards strategic investments in its test facilities, including maintenance and capability upgrades. Also, a strong guiding coalition was established through the National Partnership for Aeronautics Testing (NPAT), with governance by the senior leadership of NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) and the DoD's TRMC. As part of its strategic planning, ATP has performed or participated in many studies and analyses, including assessments of major NASA and DoD aeronautics test capabilities, test facility condition evaluations and market research. The ATP strategy has also benefitted from unpublished RAND research and analysis by Ant n et al. (2009). Together, these various studies, reports and assessments serve as a foundation for a new, five year strategic plan that will guide ATP through FY 2014. Our vision for the future is a balanced

  17. Biofuel Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    As concerns regarding increasing energy prices, global warming and renewable resources continue to grow, so has scientific discovery into agricultural biomass conversion. Plant Biomass Conversion addresses both the development of plant biomass and conversion technology, in addition to issues surrounding biomass conversion, such as the affect on water resources and soil sustainability. This book also offers a brief overview of the current status of the industry and examples of production...

  18. An Overview of the Integration of Problem Based Learning into an existing Computer Science Programming Module

    OpenAIRE

    O'Kelly, Jackie; Mooney, Aidan; Bergin, Susan; Gaughran, Peter; Ghent, John

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the use of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in a first year Computer Science programming module.PBL was not employed in any of the programmong modules within the Department of Computer Science and assessment and learning for this module was on an individual student basis. We outline the problems that we encountered with our previous approach for teaching this module and our rationale for enhancing our approach through PBL.

  19. Overview of experimental programs on core melt progression and fission product release behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of experimental programs that have been conducted to better understand core melt progression phenomena and fission product behaviour during severe reactor accidents in water reactors is presented. This discussion principally focuses on the melting and liquefaction of core materials at different temperatures, materials oxidation and relocation, hydrogen generation behaviour, and the release and transport of fission products and aerosols. A comparison of fission product release results from annealing and in-reactor experiments is also presented. (author)

  20. Developing acoustic magnetized target fusion: an overview of the science and development program at General Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an alternative approach to fusion which proposes to meet Lawson's criterion for net gain by the rapid compression of a compact toroid plasma using a conductive metal wall. This paper provides an overview of the science behind MTF and General Fusion's systematic development program to design, test, and demonstrate the ability to produce energy using its acoustic MTF technology. (author)

  1. Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status and future plans for gas and glass laser research are described. Some special systems studies described are: (1) power production with laser fusion, (2) laser engineering research facility, and (3) laser isotope separation. (U.S.)

  2. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microalgae offer solution of wastewater treatment, CO2 sequestration, and energy crises. • Microalgal biofuel is renewable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly option. • Integration of wastewater treatment with biofuels production has made them more cost effective. • This article details out the potential production process and benefits of microalgal biofuels. - Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with

  3. Overview of ORNL/NRC programs addressing durability of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of reinforced concrete relative to its applications as either safety-related structures in nuclear power or engineered barriers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is described. Factors that can affect the long-term durability of reinforced concrete are identified. Overviews are presented of the Structural Aging Program, which is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants, and the Permeability Test Methods and Data Program, which is identifying pertinent data and information for use in performance assessments of engineered barriers for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  4. Overview and status of NRC's high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conducting its review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) license application, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff will rely, not only on the information presented in the application, but on a foundation consisting of its ongoing work during the pre-license consultation phase. Within the NRC program, the NRC staff is working in many different areas to develop its review capability. This paper provides an overview of the work presently being carried out at the NRC to accomplish its mission in the high-level waste repository program

  5. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  6. Biofuels. Environment, technology and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)

  7. Biofuels of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Oxburgh, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are good biofuels and bad biofuels. The good ones offer the prospect of transport fuels that have much lower environmental impact than fossil fuels and could before long be less expensive as well. Bad or irresponsibly produced biofuels may at best bring little environmental advantage; at worst they may also cause serious environmental damage, habitat destruction and food shortages. The biofuel industry of the future will make a significant contribution to the greening of the world’s veh...

  8. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  9. Biofuel production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, le L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel production has continued to develop and is driven by government support around the world. A comprehensive analysis of biofuel production and the policy implementation is crucial for the biofuel sustainability development. The objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG em

  10. Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation in India: Implications for Food Security and Rural Livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Kavi Kumar; R.S. Soundar Rajan; R. Manivasagan

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are acquiring importance due to their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The two most important biofuels – viz., bioethanol and bio-diesel, are largely considered supplementary to the transport fuels. India has extensive programs and aims to blend 20 percent of transport fuels with biofuels by 2017. This paper focuses on three aspects in the context of biofuel production and policy in India. First, the paper looks at feasibility of meeting the biofuel blending targets en...

  11. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor and...

  12. Allies in Biofuels. Opportunities in the Dutch - Argentinean biofuels trade relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First generation biofuels as an environmental solution are showing their own negative environmental, social and economic side effects. These need to be dealt with, because it is apparent that those same biofuels can be produced in a sustainable manner, thereby contributing to a healthier planet. Since both Argentina and the Netherlands would benefit from sustainable biofuels trade, policy measures need to be taken to guide the proper way. In what manner could bilateral cooperation concerning biofuels, optimize trade and policy output in both countries? By answering this question, one can hand solutions to upcoming problems - barriers to a sustainable energy structure - while at the same time facilitating trade between Argentina and the Netherlands. Besides providing information about the European, Dutch and Argentine market, this report presents an overview of biofuel policies. Special attention is given to the issue of sustainable biofuel production, in order to spread the necessary awareness, create wide support for corresponding politics, and offer opportunities for cooperation to prevent future entrapment. An entrapment, which could easily occur when actors in politics and business ignore international requirements for sustainable biofuel production. The research aims to produce the following output: Policy recommendations regarding the promotion of environmentally sound biofuels in both countries; A set arena to support a policy dialogue between both countries; An overview of current Dutch and Argentinean biofuel policies; Up to date information on current volumes of production, consumption and trade; Data with contact information of partners in both countries. Argentina shows an extremely professional agricultural sector, producing large quantities of vegetable oils, specifically of soybean. This sector has started to turn its attention towards biofuels - particularly to biodiesel. Projected production (for 2007-2008) is astonishingly high. The sector mainly

  13. Early Childhood Caries and the Impact of Current U.S. Medicaid Program: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bussma Ahmed Bugis

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric dental caries is the most common chronic disease among children. Above 40% of the U.S. children aged 2–11 years have dental caries; more than 50% of them come from low-income families. Under dental services of the Medicaid program, children enrolled in Medicaid must receive preventive dental services. However, only 1/5 of them utilize preventive dental services. The purpose of this overview is to measure the impact of Medicaid dental benefits on reducing oral health disparities amon...

  14. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  15. Limits to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  16. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  17. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  18. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  19. Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Hanford Dose Overview Program: standardized methods and data for Hanford environmental dose calculations. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a guide to Hanford contractors for obtaining or performing Hanford-related environmental dose calculations. Because environmental dose estimation techniques are state-of-the-art and are continually evolving, the data and standard methods presented herein will require periodic revision. This document is scheduled to be updated annually, but actual changes to the program will be made more frequently if required. For this reason, PNL's Occupational and Environmental Protection Department should be contacted before any Hanford-related environmental dose calculation is performed. This revision of the Hanford Dose Overview Program Report primarily reflects changes made to the data and models used in calculating atmospheric dispersion of airborne effluents at Hanford. The modified data and models are described in detail. In addition, discussions of dose calculation methods and the review of calculation results have been expanded to provide more explicit guidance to the Hanford contractors. 19 references, 30 tables

  2. Hanford dose overview program: standardized methods and data for Hanford environmental-dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Dose Overview Program is a Hanford site-wide service established to provide a method of assuring the consistency of Hanford-related environmental dose assessments. This document serves as a guide to the Hanford contractors for obtaining or performing Hanford-related environmental dose calculations. The program serves as a focal point for Hanford environmental dose calculation activities and provides a number of services for Hanford contractors involved in calculation of environmental doses. Site specific input data and assumptions have been compiled and are maintained for use by the contractors in calculating Hanford environmental doses. The data and assumptions, to the extent they apply, should be used in Hanford calculations. These data are not all inclusive and will be modified should additional or more appropriate information become available

  3. Biomass, biogas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the different ways to produce biofuels. It appears that there are 3 generations of biofuels. The first generation was based on the use of the energetic reserves of the plants for instance sugar from beetroot or starch from cereals or oil from oleaginous plants. The second generation is based on a more complete use of the plant, the main constituents of the plant: cellulose and lignin are turned into energy. The third generation of biofuels relies on the use of energy plants and algae. The second generation of biofuels reduces drastically the competition between an alimentary use and a non-alimentary use of plants. In 2008 the production of biofuels reached 43 Mtep which represents only 2% of all the energy used in the transport sector. The international agency for energy expects that the production of biofuels would be multiplied by a factor 6 (even 10 if inciting measures are taken) by 2030. (A.C.)

  4. Biofuel goes underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, Norm

    2011-09-15

    Kirkland Lake Gold, a gold producer, is switching to a blend of biofuel to power the mine's underground equipment. Kirkland Lake Gold is using a soy-based product which has several advantages: less expensive: for example, the soybean-based biofuel used by Kirkland Lake Gold is 10 cents a liter less expensive than diesel; cleaner: biofuel can reduce emissions by up to 80 per cent compared to conventional diesel; and safer: biofuel is safer than miner's diesel because it has a much higher flash point. Testing with soybean-based biofuel began in the early 90s but its price was too high at that time. The federal government's regulation of renewable fuel quotas has led to the better availability of biofuel now. The supply should be doubled to meet government quotas.

  5. Motor-operated Valve Program at NPP Krsko (NEK) - Status and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basics of US NRC Generic Letter 89-10 Safety-related Motor-operated Valve Testing and Surveillance and subsequent generic letters, Motor-operated Valve (MOV) Program at NEK has been developing. Namely, the holders of nuclear power plant operating licenses has to verify the design basis capability of safety-related e.g. important-to-safety MOVs, as well as to ensure the same for the life of the plant. In light of that, each plant should establish a program to address stressed issues for each program MOV (124 at NEK). Such comprehensive task requires significant effort in many aspects, and basically multidisciplinary skills. NEK MOV Program represents a blend of engineering and in-plant testing, comprised of three phases: Phase I Engineering, Phase II Field Implementation and Phase III Trending. Currently, the program is about the end of Phase I and II, as well as in development of engineering basis for launching Phase III. Overview of the major programmatic issues will be given in this paper along with ongoing activities: testing process, gear-ratio modification, pressure locking/thermal binding susceptibility screening and preventive maintenance. (author)

  6. The second generation biofuels from the biomass; Les biocarburants de deuxieme generation issus de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  7. Biofuels and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  8. Biofuels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  9. LCA of Transportation Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Adlam, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    An increasing need to find alternatives to fossil fuels, and a growing awareness of the global warming effect has resulted in substantial research and development on biofuels. Biofuels are being considered a potential substitution of petroleum based fuels in the transport sector.With this increasing interest in biofuels comes the need to establish the environmental effect of the fuels. Results from several life cycle assessments reviewed in this report show that there are some benefits of bio...

  10. Microbiological aspects of biofuel production: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa S. Elshahed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel research is currently an area of immense interest due to the increase in global energy demand by emerging economies and the recent increases in global oil prices. Multiple approaches are currently being researched for the use of microorganisms in the production of various biofuel (e.g. alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, and biogas from multiple starting materials. This review provides a brief overview on the research currently underway on laboratory and industrial scales in the area of biofuels, with specific emphasis on the economic viability of various approaches currently being utilized.

  11. Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: The emergence of second generation (2G) biofuels is widely seen as a sustainable response to the increasing controversy surrounding the first generation (1G). Yet, sustainability credentials of 2G biofuels are also being questioned. Drawing on work in Science and Technology Studies, we argue that controversies help focus attention on key, often value-related questions that need to be posed to address broader societal concerns. This paper examines lessons drawn from the 1G controversy to assess implications for the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels. Scope: We present an overview of key 1G sustainability challenges, assess their relevance for 2G, and highlight the challenges for policy in managing the transition. We address limitations of existing sustainability assessments by exploring where challenges might emerge across the whole system of bioenergy and the wider context of the social system in which bioenergy research and policy are done. Conclusions: Key lessons arising from 1G are potentially relevant to the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels depending on the particular circumstances or conditions under which 2G is introduced. We conclude that sustainability challenges commonly categorised as either economic, environmental or social are, in reality, more complexly interconnected (so that an artificial separation of these categories is problematic). - Highlights: • Controversy surrounding 1G biofuels is relevant to sustainability appraisal of 2G. • Challenges for policy in managing the transition to 2G biofuels are highlighted. • A key lesson is that sustainability challenges are complexly interconnected

  12. Overview of GNSS-R Research Program for Ocean Observations at Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kaoru; Ebinuma, Takuji; Akiyama, Hiroaki; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2015-04-01

    GNSS-R is a new remote-sensing method which uses reflected GNSS signals. Since no transmitters are required, it is suitable for small satellites. Constellations of GNSS-R small satellites have abilities on revolutionary progress on 'all-time observable' remote-sensing methods . We have started a research program for GNSS-R applications on oceanographic observations under a contract with MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN) as a'Space science research base formation program'. The duration of research program is 3 years (2015-2017). The one of important focuses of this program is creation of a new community to merge space engineering and marine science through establishment on application plans of GNSS-R. Actual GNSS-R data acquisition experiments using multi-copters, ships, and/or towers are planned, together with in-situ sea truth data such as wave spectrum, wind speed profiles and sea surface height. These data are compared to determine the accuracy and resolution of the estimates based on GNSS-R observations. Meanwhile, preparation of a ground station for receiving GNSS-R satellite data will be also established. Whole those data obtained in this project will be distributed for public. This paper introduces the overview of research plan..

  13. Nanobiocatalysts for biofuel cells and biosensor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje M. Prodanović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This overview summarizes the application of enzymes in the manufacture and design of biofuel cells and biosensors. The emphasis will be put on the protein engineering techniques used for improving the properties of enzymes such as nanobiocatalysts, e.g. immobilization orientation, stability, activity and efficiency of electron transfer between immobilized enzymes and electrodes. Some possible applications in the military and some future designs of these electric devices will be discussed as well.

  14. Early childhood caries and the impact of current u.s. Medicaid program: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugis, Bussma Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric dental caries is the most common chronic disease among children. Above 40% of the U.S. children aged 2-11 years have dental caries; more than 50% of them come from low-income families. Under dental services of the Medicaid program, children enrolled in Medicaid must receive preventive dental services. However, only 1/5 of them utilize preventive dental services. The purpose of this overview is to measure the impact of Medicaid dental benefits on reducing oral health disparities among Medicaid-eligible children. This paper explains the importance of preventive dental care, children at high risk of dental caries, Medicaid dental benefits, utilization of dental preventive services by Medicaid-eligible children, dental utilization influencing factors, and outcome evaluation of Medicaid in preventing dental caries among children. In conclusion, despite the recent increase of children enrolled in Medicaid, utilizing preventive dental care is still a real challenge that faces Medicaid. PMID:22496690

  15. Telecommunications, navigation and information management concept overview for the Space Exploration Initiative program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Stephens, Elaine; Barton, Gregg

    1991-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts for telecommunications, information systems, and navigation (TISN), and engineering and architecture issues are discussed. The SEI program data system is reviewed to identify mission TISN interfaces, and reference TISN concepts are described for nominal, degraded, and mission-critical data services. The infrastructures reviewed include telecommunications for robotics support, autonomous navigation without earth-based support, and information networks for tracking and data acquisition. Four options for TISN support architectures are examined which relate to unique SEI exploration strategies. Detailed support estimates are given for: (1) a manned stay on Mars; (2) permanent lunar and Martian settlements; short-duration missions; and (4) systematic exploration of the moon and Mars.

  16. Early Childhood Caries and the Impact of Current U.S. Medicaid Program: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussma Ahmed Bugis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dental caries is the most common chronic disease among children. Above 40% of the U.S. children aged 2–11 years have dental caries; more than 50% of them come from low-income families. Under dental services of the Medicaid program, children enrolled in Medicaid must receive preventive dental services. However, only 1/5 of them utilize preventive dental services. The purpose of this overview is to measure the impact of Medicaid dental benefits on reducing oral health disparities among Medicaid-eligible children. This paper explains the importance of preventive dental care, children at high risk of dental caries, Medicaid dental benefits, utilization of dental preventive services by Medicaid-eligible children, dental utilization influencing factors, and outcome evaluation of Medicaid in preventing dental caries among children. In conclusion, despite the recent increase of children enrolled in Medicaid, utilizing preventive dental care is still a real challenge that faces Medicaid.

  17. Socio-economic aspects of different biofuel development pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.

  18. Overview of the DOE PRDA program and its impact on the waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), a clear policy was established for the management of spent fuel and high-level wastes in the United States. The challenge for the government is to design and implement a waste management system that is safe, efficient, cost-effective, and can be implemented in a timely manner. The possible functions, facilities, and considerations that must be addressed in designing the waste management system are illustrated. Soon after the NWPA was promulgated, the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) turned to the nuclear industry for ideas, and in March 1984, a competitive solicitation called a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) was issued. The objective of this PRDA was to invite industry to identify and develop technical and institutional alternatives for near-term and long-term handling, packaging, shipping, and storing of spent fuel in ways that could facilitate and/or minimize handling and packaging for final disposal. The DOE encouraged a systems approach, i.e., the study of the waste packaging and handling system as an integrated whole. Five contracts were awarded to study a variety of ideas. The PRDA program provided supporting data allowing the screening of the potentially beneficial concepts proposed by industry and the selection of those concepts that ought to be pursued further in the near future

  19. An overview of the waste characterization program at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last five years, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) placed 17,000 m3 of wastes into storage (excluding contaminated soil and fill). Almost half of the waste was generated off-site. CRNL is now developing IRUS, an Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure, and the IST, an Improved Sand Trench, to replace storage with safe, permanent disposal. IRUS will be used to dispose of wastes with radiologically hazardous lifetimes between 150 and 500 years duration and the IST will be used for wastes with radiologically hazardous lifetimes of less than 150 years. A comprehensive Waste Characterization Program (WCP) is in place to support disposal projects. The WCP is responsible for (1) specifying the manifests for waste shipments; (2) developing and maintaining central databases for waste inventories and analytical data; and (3) developing the technologies and procedures to characterize the radiological and the physical/chemical properties of wastes. WCP work is being performed under the umbrella of a newly developed waste management quality assurance (QA) program. This paper gives an overview of the WCP with an emphasis on the requirements for determining radionuclide inventories in wastes, for implementing record-keeping systems and for maintaining a QA program for disposal operations

  20. An overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reynolds, E.L. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Early in 1992 the idea of purchasing a Russian designed and fabricated space reactor power system and integrating it with a US designed satellite went from fiction to reality with the purchase of the first two Topaz II reactors by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (now the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO). The New Mexico Alliance was formed to establish a ground test facility in which to perform nonnuclear systems testing of the Topaz II, and to evaluate the Topaz 11 system for flight testing with respect to safety, performance, and operability. In conjunction, SDIO requested that the Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD propose a mission and design a satellite in which the Topaz II could be used as the power source. The outcome of these two activities was the design of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) satellite which combines a modified Russian Topaz II power system with a US designed satellite to achieve a specified mission. Due to funding reduction within the SDIO, the Topaz II flight program was postponed indefinitely at the end of Fiscal Year 1993. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the NEPSTP mission and the satellite design at the time the flight program ended.

  1. Overview of the US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. McCarthy; D. L. Williams; R. Reister

    2012-05-01

    The US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is focused on the long-term operation of US commercial power plants. It encompasses two facets of long-term operation: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the nuclear industry that support implementation of performance improvement technologies. An important aspect of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is partnering with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The Department of Energy research, development, and demonstration role focuses on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and/or unique Department of Energy laboratory expertise and facilities and are applicable to all operating reactors. This paper gives an overview of the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, including vision, goals, and major deliverables.

  2. Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview (revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This four-page publication describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) streamlined energy savings performance contracting, or ''Super ESPC,'' process, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Under a Super ESPC, a qualifying energy service company (ESCO) from the private sector pays for energy efficiency improvements or advanced renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic systems, wind turbines, or geothermal heat pumps, among others) for a facility of a government agency. The ESCO is then repaid over time from the agency's resulting energy cost savings. Delivery orders under these contracts specify the level of performance (energy savings) and the repayment schedule; the contract term can be up to 25 years, although many Super ESPCs are for about 10 years or less

  3. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the

  4. Potential for Biofuels for Transport in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami; Johnson, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This note is based on a longer report published by ESMAP in 2005. The report responds to the increasing number of requests from developing countries to help assess the commercial viability of biofuels for transport in the next 5 to 10 years. This brief draws from the successful Brazil experience and illustrates socioeconomic considerations for establishing biofuel programs in developing co...

  5. Overview of the joint US/Russia surety program in the Sandia National Laboratories Cooperative Measures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated many joint research and development projects with the two premier Russian nuclear laboratories, VNIIEF and VNIITF, (historically known as Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70) in a wide spectrum of areas. One of the areas in which critical dialogue and technical exchange is continuing to take place is in the realm of system surety. Activities primarily include either safety or security methodology development, processes, accident environment analyses and testing, accident data-bases, assessments, and product design. Furthermore, a continuing dialog has been established between the organizations with regard to developing a better understanding of how risk is perceived and analyzed in Russia versus that in the US. The result of such efforts could reduce the risk of systems to incur accidents or incidents resulting in high consequences to the public. The purpose of this paper is to provide a current overview of the Sandia surety program and its various initiatives with the Russian institutes, with an emphasis on the program scope and rationale. The historical scope of projects will be indicated. A few specific projects will be discussed, along with results to date. The extension of the joint surety initiatives to other government and industry organizations will be described. This will include the current status of a joint Sandia/VNIIEF initiative to establish an International Surety Center for Energy Intensive and High Consequence Systems and Infrastructures

  6. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  7. Overview of experimental program, REBUS, and experimental results of reference core and core analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has been conducting an experimental program that aims to obtain a comprehensive data base for validation of core analysis methods applied to a full MOX ABWR and also for preparation of licensing of high burn-up MOX fuel expected in the future. As part of this program, JNES participated in an international physics experimental program REBUS, which was organized by Belgonucleaire and SCK/CEN in Belgium, and obtained the measured data. The REBUS program is aimed at directly measuring reactivity differences between fresh and irradiated fuels by implementing critical experiments of the cores that are loaded by fresh and irradiated MOX and UO2 test fuel bundles. The irradiated fuel bundles were fabricated from fuel rods irradiated in commercial reactors. The measured data in the program are useful in validation of nuclear design methods for high burn-up MOX and UO2 cores and critical safety analysis related to burnup credit. In the REBUS program, there are five experimental cores that each contain test fuel bundle fabricated by (1) irradiated MOX fuel rods of BR3 (PWR) and (2) fresh MOX fuel rods of the same plant, (3) irradiated MOX fuel rods of Gundremmingen (BWR), (4) irradiated UO2 fuel rods of Neckar GKN II and (5) corresponding fresh UO2 fuel rods, and one reference core. In the experiments, criticality mass, water level reactivity coefficients, fission distributions and neutron flux distributions were measured. In addition, burnup measurements were performed gamma-spectrometry and fuel composition measurement for actinide and fission product nuclides by radiochemical assay for the irradiated fuels used in core physics experiments. This report presents an overview of the REBUS program and describes the core configuration, the geometrical specification, the composition and the measured data in the core physics experiment of the reference core. Results of core analyses with a continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation

  8. Space nuclear power studies in France - overview of the Erato program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cooperative program about nuclear space power systems has been initiated in 1982 by both CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) with a view to assessing the feasibility, the lead time, and the cost of nuclear space power systems of the 20 to 400 kWe class. A first study phase, completed in mid 1986, has been devoted to preliminary feasibility and cost studies of a reference 200 kWe turboelectric power system ERATO compatible with the ARIANE V launcher. The present three-year study phase is mainly oriented toward the assessment of the potential advantages of nuclear power systems over solar dynamic and photovoltaic systems, within the 20 kWe power range, which corresponds to the expected power needs of the first european space missions. This paper is intended to give an overview of the present program phase, with emphasis on the design studies dedicated to three concepts of 20 kWe nuclear turboelectric power systems selected for comparison against non nuclear power systems

  9. The biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO2 accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  10. Biofuels: which interest, which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a synthesis of several studies concerning the production and utilization of bio-fuels: energy balance and greenhouse effect of the various bio-fuel systems; economical analysis and profitability of bio-fuel production; is the valorization of bio-fuel residues and by-products in animal feeding a realistic hypothesis?; assessment of the cost for the community due to tax exemption for bio-fuels

  11. A freshman orientation program to provide an overview of the medical learning roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Terumichi; Nemoto, Takehiro; Takayanagi, Kazue; Kashimura, Masami; Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    International accreditation of medical education was introduced in Japan in 2013 and is planning to be applied in late 2014 or 2015. Students will need to cope with the resulting changes and to recognize by what route they will learn medicine. Therefore, a freshman orientation course, which was based on problem-based learning (PBL) and had been held for first-year students, was modified as an awareness reform program in which students would learn "how to learn medicine." We investigated whether this program has led to useful changes in students' recognition of the way of learning in medical school and their directions as learners. The program was held for 114 first-year medical school students in 2013 and consisted of PBL tutorials, large-classroom lectures, simulation learning using role-play with simulated patients, and team-based learning (TBL), presented in this order. Learning modules that is made with an integration of the clinical sciences with the basic biomedical and the behavioral and social sciences were provided. A nonanonymous questionnaire survey asking" what learning methods are effective for you?" was conducted before and after completion of the course. Furthermore, group answers obtained in TBL were investigated. The score for the question" To what extent can you imagine your route of learning during your 6 years?" significantly increased from 3.1±0.99 (mean±SD) before the course to 3.5±0.88 (pinterview skills. We believe students should acquire active learning attitudes as adults early in their 6 years of medical school. The level of understanding of" how to learn as adults" was 3.7 and indicated a moderate result. This course employed many educational strategies, and we believe it helped students understand what they learn and how to learn during their 6 years of medical and to get an overview of the learning roadmap. PMID:25744481

  12. A modelling approach to estimate the European biofuel production: from crops to biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clodic, Melissa [Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (IFP/INRA), Paris (France). Instituto Frances do Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Today, in the context of energy competition and climate change, biofuels are promoted as a renewable resource to diversify the energy supply. However, biofuel development remains controversial. Here, we will present a way to make an environmental and economic cost and benefit analysis of European biofuels, from the crops until the marketed products, by using a linear programming optimization modelling approach. To make this European biofuel production model, named AGRAF, possible, we decided to use different independent linear programming optimization models which represent the separate parts of the process: European agricultural production, production of transforming industries and refinery production. To model the agricultural and the refining sections, we have chosen to improve existing and experimented models by adding a biofuel production part. For the transforming industry, we will create a new partial equilibrium model which will represent stake holders such as Sofiproteol, Stereos, etc. Data will then be exchanged between the models to coordinate all the biofuel production steps. Here, we will also focus on spatialization in order to meet certain of our requirements, such as the exchange flux analysis or the determination of transport costs, usually important in an industrial optimization model. (author)

  13. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  14. Market possibilities for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for biofuels in Sweden after introduction of a proposed CO2-tax on fossil fuels is forecast. The competition between biofuels, fossil fuels and electricity is described for important market segments such as: Paper industry, Sawmills, Other energy-intensive industry, Power and heat producers, small Heat producers, and for Space heating of one-family houses. A market increase of the use of biofuels is probable for the segment small (district) heating centrals, 10 TWh in the next ten year period and even more during a longer period. Other market segments will not be much affected. An increased use of biofuels in paper and pulp industry will not influence the fuel market, since the increase will happen in the industry's normal lumber purchase. (2 figs., 18 tabs.)

  15. The biofuels, situation, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic change with the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, sees the development of ''clean'' energy sources. Meanwhile the biofuels remain penalized by their high production cost, the interest is increasing. Facing their development ecologists highlight the environmental and social negative impacts of the development of the biofuels. The author aims to take stock on the techniques and the utilizations. (A.L.B.)

  16. Microalgae: biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Babita Kumari; Vinay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels....

  17. Turbomachinery in Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Görling, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the production processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel production process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...

  18. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the transportation sector and can address many of the problems associated with mineral oil. Many biofuels are conceivable. Biodiesel (from oil crops) and ethanol from sugar beets or grains are already used in pr...

  19. Public acceptance of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 Euro /L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 Euro /L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels.

  20. Public acceptance of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  1. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the twentieth century drew to a close, there was considerable support for the use of biofuels as a source of renewable energy. To many people, they offered significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, an opportunity for reduced dependency on oil for transport, and potential as a counter weight to increasing oil prices. They also promised an opportunity for rural economies to benefit from a new market for their products and a chance of narrowing the gap between rich and poor nations. Biofuel development was encouraged by government subsidies, and rapid growth occurred in many parts of the world. Forty per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is used for biofuel production, for example, as is almost a quarter of maize grown in the United States. Although only around 1 per cent of arable land is cultivated to grow feedstock for biofuels, there has been increasing concern over the way a largely unchecked market has developed, and about its social and environmental consequences. Recent research has confirmed that food prices have been driven significantly higher by competition for prime agricultural land and that savings in greenhouse gas emissions are much smaller - and in some cases entirely eliminated - when environmentally important land, such as rainforest, is destroyed to grow biofuels. As a result, many now believe that the economic benefits of biofuels have been obtained at too high a social and environmental price, and they question whether they can be a truly sustainable source of energy. The United Kingdom has always had sustainability at the heart of its biofuel policies and set up the Renewable Fuels Agency to ensure that this goal was met. The direct effects of biofuel production are already being assessed through five measures of environmental performance and two measures of social performance, as well as measures of the energy efficiency of the production processes used and of the greenhouse gas savings achieved

  2. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Goel, Supriya; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2013-08-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a voluntary national scoring system for commercial buildings to help building owners and managers assess a building’s energy-related systems independent of operations. The goal of the score is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system, known as the Commercial Building Energy Asset Score, will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrades over time. The system will also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building investors, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset scoring tool. The alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach are described in the Program Overview and Technical Protocol Version 1.0.

  3. Yucca Mountain Project - Science and Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined

  4. Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) Experimental Aerodynamics Test Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Scott D.; Woods, William C.; Engelund, Walter C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the experimental aerodynamics test program to ensure mission success for the autonomous flight of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV). The HXRV is a 12-ft long, 2700 lb lifting body technology demonstrator designed to flight demonstrate for the first time a fully airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system. Three flights are currently planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10, beginning in the fall of 2000. The research vehicles will be boosted to the prescribed scramjet engine test point where they will separate from the booster, stabilize. and initiate engine test. Following 5+ seconds of powered flight and 15 seconds of cowl-open tares, the cowl will close and the vehicle will fly a controlled deceleration trajectory which includes numerous control doublets for in-flight aerodynamic parameter identification. This paper reviews the preflight testing activities, wind tunnel models, test rationale. risk reduction activities, and sample results from wind tunnel tests supporting the flight trajectory of the HXRV from hypersonic engine test point through subsonic flight termination.

  5. Shellside flow-induced tube vibration in typical heat exchanger configurations: Overview of a research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, H.; Chenoweth, J. M.; Wambsganss, M. W.

    A comprehensive research program is being conducted to develop the necessary criteria to assist designers and operators of shell-and-tube heat exchangers to avoid detrimental flow-induced tube vibration. This paper presents an overview of the insights gained from shellside water-flow testing on a horizontal, industrial-sized test exchanger that can be configured in many ways using interchangeable tube bundles and replaceable nozzles. Nearly 50 different configurations have been tested representing various combinations of triangular, square, rotated-triangular, and rotated-square tubefield layouts; odd and even numbers of crosspasses; and both single- and double-segmental baffles with different cut sizes and orientations. The results are generally consistent with analytical relationships that predict tube vibration response by the combined reinforcing effect of the vibration mode shape and flow velocity distribution. An understanding of the vibration and instability performance is facilitated by recognizing that the excitation is induced by three separate, though sometimes interacting, flow conditions. These are the crossflows that generate classic fluidelastic instabilities in the interior of the tube bundle, the entrance and exit bundle flow from and into the shell nozzles, and the localized high velocity bypass and leakage stream flows. The implications to design and/or possible field remedies to avoid vibration problems are discussed.

  6. A LCA Based Biofuel Supply Chain Analysis Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喆轩; 邱彤; 陈丙珍

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) based biofuel supply chain (SC) analysis framework which enables the study of economic, energy and environmental (3E) performances by using multi-objective opti-mization. The economic objective is measured by the total annual profit, the energy objective is measured by the average fossil energy (FE) inputs per MJ biofuel and the environmental objective is measured by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per MJ biofuel. A multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) model with multi-conversion pathways is formulated based on the framework and is solved by using theε-constraint method. The MOLFP prob-lem is turned into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem by setting up the total annual profit as the optimization objective and the average FE inputs per MJ biofuel and GHG emissions per MJ biofuel as constraints. In the case study, this model is used to design an experimental biofuel supply chain in China. A set of the weekly Pareto optimal solutions is obtained. Each non-inferior solution indicates the optimal locations and the amount of biomass produced, locations and capacities of conversion factories, locations and amount of biofuel being supplied in final markets and the flow of mass through the supply chain network (SCN). As the model reveals trade-offs among 3E criteria, we think the framework can be a good support tool of decision for the design of biofuel SC.

  7. Fuel cell program - Overview reports 2007; Programm Brennstoffzellen inkl. Wasserstoff - Ueberblicksberichte der BFE-Programmleiter 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzi, A.; Spirig, M.

    2008-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the overview reports made by SFOE Heads of Program on work done in 2007. Projects reported on in the natural gas-fired fuel cell area include the EU-project REAL-SFOC, the long-term testing of anode-supported SOFC stacks, intermediate-temperature fuel cells based on proton conducting electrolytes, the interdisciplinary ONEBAT project and lifetime-enhancement of SOFC stacks for CHP applications. In the polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) area, projects concerning proton-conducting polymer membranes, factors limiting the lifetime of fuel cell membranes, a new highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications, the enhancement of PEFC durability and reliability, model-based investigation of PEFC performance, and local gas analysis of PE fuel cells are briefly reported on. Long-term research activities in the hydrogen technology area reported on include those concerning the photo-chemical conversion and storage of solar energy and the storage of hydrogen in metallic and complex hydrides. Further projects reported on include those concerning the physical aspects of hydrides for system integration and safety and new, complex metal hydrides. Swiss national and international co-ordination is reviewed in the areas of fuel cell technology and hydrogen technology. Work done in several projects run within the framework of the IEA's Advanced Fuel Cells Program is reviewed. Several pilot and demonstration (P and D) projects are also reported on in the natural-gas SOFC and PEFC areas. Comments on the 2007 results and a review of work to be done in 2008, along with a list of R, D, P and D projects, complete the report.

  8. Overview of space power electronic's technology under the CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    1994-01-01

    The Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a NASA Program targeted at the development of specific technologies in the areas of transportation, operations and science. Each of these three areas consists of major elements and one of the operation's elements is the High Capacity Power element. The goal of this element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA initiatives. The High Capacity Power element is broken down into several subelements that includes energy conversion in the areas of the free piston Stirling power converter and thermoelectrics, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental compatibility and system's lifetime. A recent overview of the CSTI High capacity Power element and a description of each of the program's subelements is given by Winter (1989). The goals of the Power Management subelement are twofold. The first is to develop, test, and demonstrate high temperature, radiation-resistant power and control components and circuits that will be needed in the Power Conditioning, Control and Transmission (PCCT) subsystem of a space nuclear power system. The results obtained under this goal will also be applicable to the instrumentation and control subsystem of a space nuclear reactor. These components and circuits must perform reliably for lifetimes of 7-10 years. The second goal is to develop analytical models for use in computer simulations of candidate PCCT subsystems. Circuits which will be required for a specific PCCT subsystem will be designed and built to demonstrate their performance and, also, to validate the analytical models and simulations. The tasks under the Power Management subelement will now be described in terms of objectives, approach and present status of work.

  9. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology research programs are to develop and provide the technology base for the utilization of biomass (biologically produced sources) and municipal solid waste (MSW) as energy resources in those technical areas where the risks of technology development are too great for industry to assume. DOE research is providing for the development of advanced innovative biofuels technologies are applying biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques to improve the growth, productivity, and energy characteristics of woody, herbaceous, and aquatic biofuel feedstocks. Advances in thermochemical and biochemical conversion technologies are also being pursued for economical and environmentally sound production of steam, electricity, and liquid and gaseous fuels. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biofuels energy consumption in the United States for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. The report is based on existing data collection surveys and is not based on any assumptions provided by the requester

  10. Production of Liquid Biofuels from Biomass: Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an overview of the emerging technologies that have been developed recently or are in the process of development for ethanol (biofuel) production from agricultural residues. In this direction numerous advances have been made. Problems associated with inhibitor generation and detoxification,...

  11. Thermochemistry in BWR. An overview of applications of program codes and databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish work on thermodynamics of metal-water systems relevant to BWR conditions has been ongoing since the 70ies, and at present time a compilation and adaptation of codes and thermodynamic databases are in progress. In the previous work, basic thermodynamic data were compiled for parts of the system Fe-Cr-Ni-Co-Zn-S-H2O at 25-300 °C. Since some thermodynamic information necessary for temperature extrapolations of data up to 300 °C was not published in the earlier works, these data have now been partially recalculated. This applies especially to the parameters of the HKF-model, which are used to extrapolate the thermodynamic data for ionic and neutral aqua species from 25 °C to BWR temperatures. Using the completed data, e.g. the change in standard Gibbs energy (ΔG0) and the equilibrium constant (log K) can be calculated for further applications at BWR/LWR conditions. In addition a computer program is currently being developed at Studsvik for the calculation of equilibrium conductivity in high temperature water. The program is intended for PWR applications, but can also be applied to BWR environment. Data as described above will be added to the database of this program. It will be relatively easy to further develop the program e.g. to calculate Pourbaix diagrams, and these graphs could then be calculated at any temperature. This means that there will be no limitation to the temperatures and total concentrations (usually 10-6 to 10-8 mol/kg) as reported in earlier work. It is also easy to add a function generating ΔG0 and log K values at selected temperatures. One of the fundamentals for this work was also to overview and collect publicly available thermodynamic program codes and databases of relevance for BWR conditions found in open sources. The focus has been on finding already done compilations and reviews, and some 40 codes and 15 databases were found. Codes and data-bases are often integrated and such a package is often developed for applications

  12. BioFuels Atlas (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation for biennial merit review of Biofuels Atlas, a first-pass visualization tool that allows users to explore the potential of biomass-to-biofuels conversions at various locations and scales.

  13. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

    1996-01-01

    The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

  14. Overview and current status of DOE/UPVG`s TEAM-UP Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, S.

    1995-11-01

    An overview is given of the Utility Photovoltaic Group. The mission is to accelerate the use of small-scale and large scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of the electric utilities and their customers.

  15. The legitimacy of biofuel certification

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The biofuel boom is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with the most crucial consequences in the agri-food sector. The biofuel industry is responding by initiating private governance and certification. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Cramer Commission, among others, have formulated criteria on ?sustainable? biofuel production and processing. This article explores the legitimacy of private governance and certification by the biofuel...

  16. Microalgae biofuel potentials (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Naseri, A T; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Mobasher, M A; Dabbagh, F

    2012-01-01

    With the decrease of fossil based fuels and the environmental impact of them over the planet, it seems necessary to seek the sustainable sources of clean energy. Biofuels, is becoming a worldwide leader in the development of renewable energy resources. It is worthwhile to say that algal biofuel production is thought to help stabilize the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decrease global warming impacts. Also, among algal fuels' attractive characteristics, algal biodiesel is non toxic, with no sulfur, highly biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae are capable of producing in excess of 30 times more oil per acre than corn and soybean crops. Currently, algal biofuel production has not been commercialized due to high costs associated with production, harvesting and oil extraction but the technology is progressing. Extensive research was conducted to determine the utilization of microalgae as an energy source and make algae oil production commercially viable. PMID:22586908

  17. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  18. The Danish Biofuel Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    from the molecular level and envisions positive synergies in the use of biomass. The other is a holistic bioscarcity perspective originating in life-cycle analysis and ecology. This perspective works downwards from global resource scope conditions, and envisions negative consequences from an increased...... of biofuels enrol scientific authority to support their positions? The sociological theory of functional differentiation combined with the concept of advocacy coalition can help in exploring this relationship between scientific claims-making and the policy stance of different actors in public debates...... about biofuels. In Denmark two distinct scientific perspectives about biofuels map onto the policy debates through articulation by two competing advocacy coalitions. One is a reductionist biorefinery perspective originating in biochemistry and neighbouring disciplines. This perspective works upwards...

  19. Biogas and biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European union countries are becoming more and more interested by the characteristics of biogas in terms of environment and energy production and are developing their proper channels of valorization according to their potential. In this way, biogas production reached nearly 5,3 million tons oil equivalent in 2006, representing a 13,6% increase with respect to 2005. Statistical data are provided on the primary energy production of biogas, the electricity production from biogas, gross heat production from biogas, and the representative firms of the biogas sector. In a second part the biofuels barometer is presented. The agricultural environment and landscape of the European Union countries is redefined a little more each year by energy crops for biofuel production. According to the first estimates for 2006, biofuel consumption reached 5,38 Mtoe last year in the EU, corresponding to a 1,8% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport. (A.L.B.)

  20. OVERVIEW OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM THE DIII-D ADVANCED TOKAMAK PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURRELL,KH

    2002-11-01

    OAK A271 OVERVIEW OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM THE DIII-D ADVANCED TOKAMAK PROGRAM. The DIII-D research program is developing the scientific basis for advanced tokamak (AT) modes of operation in order to enhance the attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Since the last International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) meeting, the authors have made significant progress in developing the building blocks needed for AT operation: (1) the authors have doubled the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stable tokamak operating space through rotational stabilization of the resistive wall mode; (2) using this rotational stabilization, they have achieved {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89} {le} 10 for 4 {tau}{sub E} limited by the neoclassical tearing mode; (3) using real-time feedback of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) location, they have stabilized the (m,n) = (3,2) neoclassical tearing mode and then increased {beta}{sub T} by 60%; (4) they have produced ECCD stabilization of the (2,1) neoclassical tearing mode in initial experiments; (5) they have made the first integrated AT demonstration discharges with current profile control using ECCD; (6) ECCD and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) have been used to control the pressure profile in high performance plasmas; and (7) they have demonstrated stationary tokamak operation for 6.5 s (36 {tau}{sub E}) at the same fusion gain parameter of {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89}/q{sub 95}{sup 2} {approx} 0.4 as ITER but at much higher q{sub 95} = 4.2. They have developed general improvements applicable to conventional and advanced tokamak operating modes: (1) they have an existence proof of a mode of tokamak operation, quiescent H-mode, which has no pulsed, ELM heat load to the divertor and which can run for long periods of time (3.8 s or 25 {tau}{sub E}) with constant density and constant radiation power; (2) they have demonstrated real-time disruption detection and mitigation for vertical disruption events using high pressure gas jet

  1. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  3. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension....

  4. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the tran

  5. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  6. The rationality of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an editorial of a recent issue of a known academic journal, Prof. Hartmut Michel affirmed that “…the production of biofuels constitutes an extremely inefficient land use… We should not grow plants for biofuel production.”, after comparing the area occupied with plants for bioenergy production with the one required for photovoltaic cells to supply the same amount of energy for transportation. This assertion is not correct for all situations and this comparison deserves a more careful analysis, evaluating the actual and prospective technological scenarios and other relevant aspects, such as capacity requirements, energy consumed during the life cycle of energy systems and the associated impacts. In this communication this comparison is revaluated, presenting a different perspective, more favorable for the bioenergy routes. - Highlights: • Energy systems and life cycle impacts are compared under equal conditions. • The comparison is done between biofuels and photovoltaic/battery in mobility uses. • Biofuels are a valuable option when produced sustainably by efficient routes

  7. Biofuel seeks endorsement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, C.; Rentmeester, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane and cellulose ‘waste’ are theoretically sustainable, as their combustion releases no more CO2 than is absorbed during production. Even so, they are also controversial, because they are believed to be grown at the expense of food crops, or because areas of rai

  8. Biofuels from urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass from urban landscapes is an untapped resource. Lawn thatch and clippings, fallen leaves and tree limbs are all potential sources of biofuels. Most cities already collect and transport these materials to disposal sites; but, alternatively could collect and transport these materials to a loc...

  9. Biofuel on contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  10. Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, Poonam Singh [Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Singh, Anoop [Biofuels Research Group, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    This article is an up-to-date review of the literature available on the subject of liquid biofuels. In search of a suitable fuel alternative to fast depleting fossil fuel and oil reserves and in serious consideration of the environmental issues associated with the extensive use of fuels based on petrochemicals, research work is in progress worldwide. Researchers have been re-directing their interests in biomass based fuels, which currently seem to be the only logical alternative for sustainable development in the context of economical and environmental considerations. Renewable bioresources are available globally in the form of residual agricultural biomass and wastes, which can be transformed into liquid biofuels. However, the process of conversion, or chemical transformation, could be very expensive and not worth-while to use for an economical large-scale commercial supply of biofuels. Hence, there is still need for much research to be done for an effective, economical and efficient conversion process. Therefore, this article is written as a broad overview of the subject, and includes information based on the research conducted globally by scientists according to their local socio-cultural and economic situations. (author)

  11. An Overview of the WIN Program: Its Objectives, Accomplishments, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Work Incentive (WIN) program is supposed to help recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) to get jobs through a program of training, work experience, and employment while reducing the cost of the AFDC program. Because of concerns raised about the program, the Government Accounting Office (GAO) assessed the program to…

  12. An overview of heat exchanger technology in the Canadian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the Canadian approach to the reliability and serviceability of heat exchange equipment used in nuclear power stations and heavy water plants. Current work in vibration and fretting predictions, thermal-hydraulic analyses, and corrosion research is described. Procedures developed for in-service inspection, in situ tube replacment and chemical cleaning of corrosion products are also outlined

  13. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  14. Trends in Canadian faculties of education: An overview of graduate programs, curricular offerings, exit requirements, and modes of delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Abreu Ellis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This research investigated universities registered with the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC whose primary instructional language was English. A content analysis was performed on university web pages related to the following content: (a frequency of graduate programs being offered, (b types of degrees being offered, (c frequency and variation of program of study offerings, (d variation of exit requirements, and (e modalities of course delivery. This research provides an overview and analysis of graduate level programs, more precisely Masters and Doctorate degrees, offered through faculties of education in Canada. An understanding of the findings of this research may benefit Canadian university administrative bodies in providing a source in which they may compare findings with their current offerings and programming. Prospective students of graduate programs in education may also benefit from the information provided in this study when choosing a program of study by ameliorating their knowledge of current programs, curriculum offerings, and modes of course delivery being offered by faculties of education in Canada.

  15. The Agricultural Ethics of Biofuels: The Food vs. Fuel Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Thompson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based transportation fuels were the focus of extended criticism in the press, especially during 2008 when a portion of the blame for a spike in global food prices was associated with growth of the United States’ corn ethanol industry. The critique is based on an unsophisticated portrayal of the ethical issues at stake in the food security implications of biofuel. Three ethical critiques can be leveled at the food vs. fuel debate. First, although market drivers of biofuels indeed skew consumption of agricultural grains, this is not a problem that is unique to biofuels. Second, the critique does not reflect an adequate understanding of the way that rising food prices and changes in agricultural technology affect the food security of the poorest people. Third, although rising food prices could be beneficial to poor farm producers among the world’s poor, it is unlikely that benefits will materialize in the absence of concerted programs to deliberately select biofuel development strategies that are targeted to strengthen food security for poor and small-holding producers. An adequate agricultural ethics for biofuels will require commitment by both private and public sector biofuel developers to ensure that potentially positive attributes of biofuel development are realized.

  16. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  17. Biofuels and Food Security: Implications of an Accelerated Biofuels Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  18. Fermentative biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

  19. Microalgae: biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.

  20. Carbon-negative biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem, in ways that are already technically feasible and practicable. The key to carbon negativity is to see it not as technically determined but as an issue of strategic choice, whereby farmers and fuel producers can decide how much carbon to return to the soil. Biochar amendment to the soil not only sequesters carbon but also enhances the fertility and vitality of the soil. The time is approaching when biofuels will be carbon negative by definition, and, as such, they will sweep away existing debates over their contribution to the solution of global warming. (author)

  1. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  2. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from ''seed to wheel'', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its ''Plan Climat'' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (author)

  3. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  4. Biofuels barometer: Crops pending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actors and production capacities have changed only little in the biofuel sector from year to another. Nevertheless, it is interesting to take stock of the development of this sector at the end of 2002, so as to update the more complete barometer published in issue 144 of Systemes Solaires. Indeed, European ethanol production grew by 13% and that of bio-diesel by more than 20% in 2001. (authors)

  5. Biofuels - the UFIP position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 a directive promote the biofuels use. The industry is then using them in ETBE (Ethyl Tertio Butyl Ether) fuels and in diesel oil of vegetal oils esters EMHV. Meanwhile some of them present technical difficulties and must free themselves from fiscal incentives which make them competitive. For these reasons, the UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) do not agree their obligatory incorporation. (A.L.B.)

  6. Mexico; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update: Technical Note: Derivatives Market: Overview and Potential Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note provides an overview of Mexico’s derivatives markets, and describes concisely the derivatives regulatory framework and risk management practices in financial institutions active in these markets. The most important derivatives market in Mexico is the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market, which is fully integrated with the global derivatives market. The origin of the OTC derivatives market can be traced back to the 1994 Mexican crisis that forced Mexico to abandon it...

  7. Plants producing biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    Biofuels are currently produced primarily from five plants, namely corn, canola, sugar cane, palm oil, jatropha. However, research and development efforts are underway around the world produce biofuels from other sources, particularly from algae. This paper described the characteristics of the top 5 plants and their role in the production of biofuels. Countries where these plants are cultivated were also summarized. The article indicated that producing ethanol from corn, is not very efficient since growing corn requires more fertilizer and pesticides than most other crops, plus the corn kernels have to undergo energy-intensive distillation and chemical extraction processes. China is the world's largest producer of rapeseed oil, with an annual production of 12 million tons. The countries of the European Union collectively produce another 16 million tons, of which nearly 4 million tons were used in 2006 to produce biodiesel. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, and accounts for about 45 per cent of global ethanol production. Malaysia and Indonesia are the key players in the palm oil market, accounting for 85 per cent of global production. India has identified more than 11 million hectares that would be suitable for growing jatropha, whose seeds contain up to 40 per cent oil that can be burned in a conventional diesel engine after extraction. 1 tab.

  8. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  9. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  10. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  11. BIOFUELS: FROM HOPES TO REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    José Osvaldo Beserra CARIOCA; Friedrich, Horst E.; Ehrenberger, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the research for biofuels processing development with the vehicle conception to focus on realistic scenarios for biofuels to attend vehicle specifications and future green mobility. Actually, these are two important segments of fuels and biofuels context which should converge to a sustainable and realistic model. Recently, due to the climate changes versus fossil fuels use, and its consequences, the United Nations System addressed to the world a report on green economy ind...

  12. Biofuel cells and their development

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, R.A.; Arnot, T.C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2006-01-01

    This review considers the literature published since 1994 on microbial and enzymatic biofuel cells. Types of biofuel cell are classified according to the nature of the electrode reaction and the nature of the biochemical reactions. The performance of fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications is considered. The current direction of development of biofuel cells is carefully analysed. While considerable chemical development of enzyme electrodes has occurred, relati...

  13. Biofuel technology handbook. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, Dominik; Janssen, Rainer

    2008-01-15

    This comprehensive handbook was created in order to promote the production and use of biofuels and to inform politicians, decision makers, biofuel traders and all other relevant stakeholders about the state-of-the-art of biofuels and relevant technologies. The large variety of feedstock types and different conversion technologies are described. Explanations about the most promising bio fuels provide a basis to discuss about the manifold issues of biofuels. The impartial information in this handbook further contributes to diminish existing barriers for the broad use of biofuels. Emphasis of this handbook is on first generation biofuels: bio ethanol, Biodiesel, pure plant oil, and bio methane. It also includes second generation biofuels such as BTL-fuels and bio ethanol from lingo-cellulose as well as bio hydrogen. The whole life cycle of bio fuels is assessed under technical, economical, ecological, and social aspect. Characteristics and applications of bio fuels for transport purposes are demonstrated and evaluated. This is completed by an assessment about the most recent studies on biofuel energy balances. This handbook describes the current discussion about green house gas (GHG) balances and sustainability aspects. GHG calculation methods are presented and potential impacts of biofuel production characterized: deforestation of rainforests and wetlands, loss of biodiversity, water pollution, human health, child labour, and labour conditions.

  14. Biofuel Subsidies and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Bhaumik, Sumon; Wall, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores optimal biofuel subsidization in the context of a general equilibrium trade model. The focus is on biofuels such as corn-based ethanol, which diverts corn from use as food to use as an intermediate input in energy production. In the small-country case, when a Pigouvian tax on conventional fuels such as crude is in place, the optimal biofuel subsidy is zero. When the tax on crude is not available as a policy option, however, a second-best biofuel subsidy (or tax) is opti...

  15. Challenges and opportunities for future production of food, feed and biofuel - A land use perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hallström, Elinor; Ahlgren, Serina; Börjesson, Pål

    2011-01-01

    The world is facing of a number of great challenges as the population is growing and living habits are getting more resource demanding. At the same time as food security has to be assured, growth in biofuel and meat production pose a risk for increasing land use conflicts and negative environmental consequences. In this report production of food, feed and biofuels are discussed from a land use perspective. The report provides an overview of available knowledge and critical issues regardin...

  16. A Healthy Lifestyle Program for Latino Daughters and Mothers: The BOUNCE Overview and Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma N.; Knox, Brook; Scherer, Rhonda; Maldonado, Gabriela; Sharma, Shreela V.; Alastuey, Lisa; Bush, Jill A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Few family-based healthy lifestyle programs for Latinos have been conducted, especially family programs targeting mother-daughter dyads. Purpose: To assess the acceptability and feasibility of the Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition Counseling and Exercise (BOUNCE) program designed for Latino mother-daughter pairs. Methods: 92…

  17. The biofuel support policy. Public thematic report. Assessing a public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first part, this detailed report gives an overview of some key facts regarding biofuels: energy context, biofuels and energy, biofuels and agriculture, multiple and superimposed regulation levels, financial data, and international comparisons. The second part analyses the positions of the different actors (oil industry and dealers, car manufacturers, bio-diesel producers, ethanol producers, farmers producing raw materials, consumer associations, defenders of the environment, public bodies). The third part reports the assessment of the French public policy in terms of efficiency. Some recommendations are made

  18. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  19. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  20. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  1. The price for biofuels sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, low-carbon energy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introduced sustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were then confronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were that sustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review of recent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whether sustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market for sustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differently between 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence between biofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certification in the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in terms of finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements. - Highlights: • EU biofuel sustainability rules were once thought to reward compliant producers with price-premiums. • Premiums for certified biofuels, however, have been small for biodiesel and almost non-existent for ethanol. • As sustainable biofuels became the new norm, premiums disappeared almost completely in 2012. • Early stages of supply chains concentrate the highest compliance costs, affecting specially developing country producers. • Producers are now in a market where sustainable biofuels have become the new norm

  2. CONNECTICUT BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGY PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTONE, ERIK

    2010-09-28

    DBS Energy Inc. (“DBS”) intends on using the Connecticut Biofuels Technology Project for the purpose of developing a small-scale electric generating systems that are located on a distributed basis and utilize biodiesel as its principle fuel source. This project will include research and analysis on the quality and applied use of biodiesel for use in electricity production, 2) develop dispatch center for testing and analysis of the reliability of dispatching remote generators operating on a blend of biodiesel and traditional fossil fuels, and 3) analysis and engineering research on fuel storage options for biodiesel of fuels for electric generation.

  3. Biofuels: Project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  4. 76 FR 13137 - Equity Assistance Centers Program; Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... agencies in the preparation, adoption, and implementation of plans for the desegregation of public schools...'s technical assistance programs: Program Goal: To support access and equity in public schools and..., 2010 (75 FR 78486). Competitive Priorities: For FY 2011 these priorities are competitive...

  5. 75 FR 6007 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; School Leadership Grant Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... programs in instructional leadership and management. Providing incentives that are appropriate for teachers... Stabilization Fund Program (74 FR 58436, 58487), School Improvement Grants (74 FR 65618, 65652), and Race to the Top Fund (74 FR 59836, 59840). The definition of persistently lowest-achieving school is in...

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description: Overview and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document (Parts 1 and 2) describes the requirements that must be implemented during the design and construction phases for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Quality Assurance Program. This program is being implemented to ensure the acceptability of high-level radioactive canistered waste forms produced by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant for disposal in a licensed federal repository

  7. An Overview of a Peer Health Education Program at a Student Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sabina A.

    1994-01-01

    The article describes the Peer Health Education (PHE) programs of the University of California at Santa Barbara Student Health Service. The PHE programs involve training and placement components and focus on relationships, nutrition, eating disorders, stress and laughter, alcohol/drug responsibility, cold care, sexuality, leadership, blood…

  8. 75 FR 37415 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Training Program for Federal TRIO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Purpose of Program: The Training Program provides grants to train the staff and leadership personnel... applicable priority or priorities. The training must be tailored to the specific needs of TRIO staff and.... Training on: assessment of student needs; proven retention and graduation strategies, including...

  9. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: Severe reactor accident overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. Severe Reactor Accident Overview is the second in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes elementary perspectives on severe accidents and accident assesment. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  10. Overview of Evaluation Methods for R&D Programs. A Directory of Evaluation Methods Relevant to Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emeral Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-03-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others.

  11. Analysis of advanced biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, John E.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Welz, Oliver; Yang, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. Rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols efficiently. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially replace ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. The elementary autoignition reactions of isopentanol is investigated by analyzing product formation from laser-photolytic Cl-initiated isopentanol oxidation. Carbon-carbon bond-scission reactions in the low-temperature oxidation chemistry may provide an explanation for the intermediate-temperature heat release observed in the engine experiments. Overall, the results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

  12. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  13. Overview of medical and research activities in the Cuban Chernobyl Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cuban Program for the medical attention of children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident was created in 1990. The main objective of the program is to offer highly specialised medical attention and to develop, in an appropriate atmosphere, a rehabilitation plan, with integral health actions. Up to the moment, more than 23 067 children and adults had been assisted in the program, with a significant set of medical procedures done. The more significant medical attention activities include the treatment of 289 children with haematological disorders, including 6 bone marrow transplantation, more than 100 surgeries, and the treatment of 117 children with solid tumours. The program is not design to carry out epidemiological studies or to establish any correlation between the accident and the health status of the children. Nevertheless, dosimetric, biomedical and psychological research had been carried out as part of the program. The dosimetric results on more than 7000 children are including in a database with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. Chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage have been also evaluated. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. (author)

  14. Techniques and Programs Used in Bidding and Playing phases of Imperfect Information Game – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M DHARMALINGAM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bridge is an international imperfect information game played with similar rules all over the world and it is played by millions of players. It is an intelligent game; it increases creativity and knowledge of human mind. Many of the researchers analyses the Bridge bidding and playing phases, and they developed many programs for getting better results. The programs were performing well and it is also matter of time before the computer beats most human bridge players. As such, the researchers mainly focused on the techniques and computer programs which were used in bridge bidding and playing phases

  15. Thermal ageing of cast duplex stainless steel primary components. Overview of the research program conducted by EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoud, J.P.; Jayet-Gendrot, S.; Le Delliou, P.; Semete, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Churier-Bossenec, H.; Ignaccolo, S. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Direction de l`Equipment, SEPTEN; Bezdikian, G. [Electricite De France (EDF), 92 - Paris la Defense (France)

    1997-04-01

    The integrity assessment of cast duplex stainless steel components from the primary circuit of the PWR units relies on several research and development studies: the ageing surveillance programme on test ingots (cast at the same time as components) and on special products cast for studies has enabled us to develop prediction formulas of end-of-life toughness properties applicable to every component; tests on large-sized elbows containing analytical notches have shown their satisfactory behaviour even in severe situations (low toughness an high loadings); the development of a numerical tool (called ASCOUF) aimed to easily perform 3-D calculations; tests on mock-ups containing casting defects have shown that the resistance of shrinkage cavities to fatigue and to ductile tearing is much higher than the resistance of the envelope notches that are considered in mechanical analyses. The research program aiming at investigating the above issues is overviewed. (author) 8 refs.

  16. An Overview of the Society of Actuaries and Its Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Stuart; Long, Gena

    2014-01-01

    The Society of Actuaries (SOA) is the world's largest actuarial organization. This article describes the SOA with particular attention paid to its education and qualification processes and resources available for university and college programs.

  17. Supporting the Pathway to the Professoriate: A Descriptive Overview of a Faculty Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; Flowers, Lamont A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Asa G. Hilliard III and Barbara A. Sizemore Research Institute on African Americans and Education, a future faculty program designed to encourage doctoral students to enter the professoriate and study the African American experience in education.

  18. Combating Political Police: An Overview of National Action’s Counterintelligence Program, 1982–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Whitford

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the mid to late 1980s the radical nationalist group National Action was targeted by domestic intelligence agencies. Known as “Operation Odessa” it was part of Australian Security Intelligence Organisation’s (ASIO program to combat what it saw as a rise in politically motivated violence. ASIO and state police Special Branch officers placed the group under surveillance and sent agents to disrupt meetings and recruit informants. Concurrently, National Action had developed its own counterintelligence program structuring the group in an effort to preserve secrecy, educating its membership in situational awareness and designating a senior member as an intelligence officer. Ultimately National Action counterintelligence program was unable to match the highly resourced government agencies and internal discipline issues meant the group was eventually disbanded. However, National Action’s effort to develop a counterintelligence program provides some examples of what low resourced Issue Motivated Groups are capable of achieving.

  19. OVERVIEW 2010 OF ARL PROGRAM ON NETWORK SCIENCE FOR HUMAN DECISION MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    BruceJWest

    2011-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the...

  20. Overview of the biomedical and environmental programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 6 chapters presented by the six divisions involved in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The introduction is not covered by an abstract and deals with the environmental, health and safety considerations of energy technology decisions, the major initiatives now being taken by these 6 divisions, and recent major accomplishments in the biomedical and environmental science program

  1. A model for sustainable land use in biofuel production: An application to the state of Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Fuel Standard aims to increase the production of biofuels to improve energy efficiency and decrease carbon dioxide emissions in the US. The effectiveness of this regulation is being debated by the scientific community regarding carbon emissions from direct and indirect land-use change. A valid alternative may be to design policies that stimulate sustainable land use in biofuel production. This article develops a model that simulates a voluntary program to increase the land use efficiency in production of biofuels. This stochastic dynamic model optimizes the sustainability of biofuels producible by including climate information and participatory decisions on land use. The model is parameterized using the Maximum Entropy econometric technique to present a simulation of the program in the State of Alabama. The results of this simulation show that participatory decisions on land-use may increase the net energy value of produced biofuel up to 215.68% and reduce the carbon emissions by 19.67% towards the state energy goals. - Highlights: ► We develop a dynamic model that optimizes the land-use efficiency of biofuels. ► This model simulates the impact of a voluntary program on sustainability of biofuels. ► Entropy econometrics are used to calibrate the model for the state of Alabama. ► Participatory decisions on land-use may increase producible bioenergy in the state. ► A sustainability program may reduce carbon emissions in biofuel production

  2. Road-map for 2. generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents road-map issues concerning the requirements for biofuels of second generation, and defines the priorities addressed by a demonstrator program. It recalls the context created by the challenges of climate change and the excessive dependence on fossil fuels, and the objectives defined by the European Union in terms of biofuel share in the global consumption. Then, it describes the candidate technologies for the production of this second generation of biofuels, those based on thermo-chemical processes (mainly the pyrolysis-gasification of biomass), and those based on biochemical processes (enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of biomass). It highlights the technological challenges for these processes, and describes the various objectives of research projects supported by a 'demonstrator fund'. It discusses the necessity to develop demonstrators, and mentions some current projects of private companies, competitiveness clusters, and public research institutions. An agenda is defined from 2009 to 2020 which encompasses the research, demonstration and operation phases. An appendix provides brief presentations of thermo-chemical or biological demonstrators currently under operation or under construction in foreign countries (Germany, Finland, United States of America, Sweden, Spain, Canada, Japan, and Denmark)

  3. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food; Coproduits des biocarburants en France: perspectives et consequences en alimentation animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  4. The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey program: Overview, context, and near-term prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Nancy A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1996, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS initiated the development of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS. It is the first national survey to measure the quality of life and functional health status of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in managed care. The program seeks to gather valid and reliable health status data in Medicare managed care for use in quality improvement activities, public reporting, plan accountability and improving health outcomes based on competition. The context that led to the development of the HOS was formed by the convergence of the following factors: 1 a recognized need to monitor the performance of managed care plans, 2 technical expertise and advancement in the areas of quality measurement and health outcomes assessment, 3 the existence of a tested functional health status assessment tool (SF-36®1, which was valid for an elderly population, 4 CMS leadership, and 5 political interest in quality improvement. Since 1998, there have been six baseline surveys and four follow up surveys. CMS, working with its partners, performs the following tasks as part of the HOS program: 1 Supports the technical/scientific development of the HOS measure, 2 Certifies survey vendors, 3 Collects Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set(HEDIS®2 HOS data, 4 Cleans, scores, and disseminates annual rounds of HOS data, public use files and reports to CMS, Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs, Medicare+Choice Organizations (M+COs, and other stakeholders, 5 Trains M+COs and QIOs in the use of functional status measures and best practices for improving care, 6 Provides technical assistance to CMS, QIOs, M+COs and other data users, and 7 Conducts analyses using HOS data to support CMS and HHS priorities. CMS has recently sponsored an evaluation of the HOS program, which will provide the information necessary to enhance the future administration of the program. Information collected to date reveals that the

  5. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  6. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  7. Second line of defense program overview LA-UR-00-5161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The illicit trafficking of nuclear material is a major concern for non-proliferation and global stability. The nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program provides the first line of defense in protecting nuclear materials within Russia by upgrading safeguards and security measures at Russian nuclear facilities. Second Line of Defense (SLD) is a cooperative program between the Russian Federation State Customs Committee (RF SCC) and the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to minimize illicit trafficking of restricted nuclear materials through Russian border control points. This partnership was solidified with the signing of a protocol between DOE and the RF SCC in June 1998. The relationship will soon be formalized in a Memorandum of Understanding that will outline the working relationships and commitments to successful implementation of the SLD Program

  8. An overview of the U.S. programs on properties of primary circuit materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of U.S. Breeder Reactor Programs associated with primary circuit structural materials is to develop the design data base and associated design technology on existing commercially available materials as well as new alloys. This will permit economic operation of components at acceptable levels of plant availability and at up to 40-yr lifetimes for inaccessible components. Long-term component reliability, elevated-temperature service within the creep range, and resistance to sodium attack and irradiation damage, along with design in compliance with ASME Codes and RDT Specifications, have required that the U.S. Programs be directed toward contributing knowledge in a number of areas. These areas, relating to material deformation, failure modes, compatibility, fabrication, long-term behavior, irradiation damage, and availability will be discussed. The U.S. Structural Material Programs concerned with primary-circuit components will be reviewed, and their current and future contributions to knowledge of these areas will be explained. (author)

  9. Driving biofuels in Europe. A research on the interaction between external regulation and value chain governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    major contribution of this theory is the ability to identify the contributions of different actors to the decision-making process. Although both parts of the analytical framework - value chain analysis and the network approach - independently make valuable contributions, an integrated perspective will enhance their insights considerably. Chapter Three provides an introduction into biofuels. Bio-ethanol and biodiesel, two of the most commonly used biofuels in Europe, are discussed. Conversion routes are addressed and a discussion of the environmental aspects, costs, technical properties and socio-economic impact is drawn. Since biofuels are often divided into first and second generation, a short explanation of the similarities and differences is given. The aim of this glance at biofuels is to give a first insight in biofuels and to touch the contours of the biofuel value chains in Europe. Chapter Four discusses some methodological issues linked to the research design. It provides an overview of the data collection methods and reveals how data analysis has been performed. Chapter Five analyzes the biofuel value chains in Europe and the regulatory framework. Since there are little characteristics of a common market, this chapter emphasizes Europe's largest biofuel states in terms of production and consumption: France and Germany. The analysis concentrates on the biodiesel value chains in both countries. Regarding the external regulatory framework, the 2003 EU biofuel directives are taken as unit of analysis. It includes a review of the decision-making processes and analysis of the network environment. Specific attention is given to the role of biofuel value chain actors. To discover how external regulations and value chain governance interact, emphasis is on the role of powerful actors in governing the chain and dealing with the regulatory environment. Chapter Six presents the main conclusions of this research and provides an overview of the empirical findings in the

  10. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  11. 76 FR 14379 - Advanced Placement Incentive Program; Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Cambridge International A and AS Levels administered by Cambridge University International Examinations. As... placement courses and tests. The program expands opportunities for low-income students to take college-level...: Promoting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education and the competitive...

  12. An Overview of OOPS+, an Object-Oriented Database Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenens, Els; Vermeir, Dirk

    This paper provides a brief introduction to the OOPS+ knowledge-representation language. While basically object-oriented, OOPS+ integrates database concepts as well as classical knowledge-representation techniques such as rule-based inference and demons. In addition, the language supports types as first-class objects, inheritance, imperative function definition, and query facilities based on logic programming.

  13. 76 FR 4322 - Charter Schools Program (CSP); Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... I of the ESEA. (75 FR 78509). High-poverty school means a school in which at least 50 percent of...) by evaluating the effects of charter schools, including their effects on students, student academic... discretionary grant programs, published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78486)....

  14. Selection and Use of General-Purpose Programming Languages--Overview. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, John V.

    This study presents a review of selection factors for the seven major general-purpose programming languages: Ada, BASIC, C, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, and PL/I. The factors covered include not only the logical operations within each language, but also the advantages and disadvantages stemming from the current computing environment, e.g., software…

  15. 76 FR 7175 - Native Hawaiian Education Program; Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... development. (d) Cognition and general knowledge, including early numeracy and early scientific development... discretionary grant programs, published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78486). Competitive..., 2010 (75 FR 78486). Graduation rate means a four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate consistent...

  16. 75 FR 24671 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... prevent truancy and reduce and prevent bullying and harassment; and programs to improve the physical and... Race to the Top Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for FY 2010, 74 FR 59836, 59866 (November... 2010, 74 FR 59836, 59866 (November 18, 2009), or may include another model of sufficient...

  17. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  18. Overview about the fuel cell bus demonstration programs CUTE, ECTOS and STEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The paper will give an overview about the CUTE, ECTOS and STEP projects. The aim of the projects is to develop and demonstrate a emission-free and low-noise transport system, including the accompanying energy infrastructure, which has great potential for reducing the global greenhouse effect according to the Kyoto protocol, improving the quality of the atmosphere and life in densely populated areas and conserving fossil resources. For this purpose the application of the innovative hydrogen-based fuel cell technology is established by using fuel cell powered buses in an urban environment together with novel hydrogen production and support systems as part of a European Union wide demonstration scheme. The project demonstrates also to European Society the availability of the FC technology as a safe and reliable transportation technology. The major objectives are as follows: Demonstration of more than 20 fuel cell powered regular service buses over a period of two years in several European inner city areas to illustrate the different operating conditions to be found in Europe; Design, construction and operation of the necessary infrastructure for hydrogen production, including the required refuelling stations; Collection of findings concerning the construction and operating behaviour of hydrogen production for mobile use, and exchange of experiences including bus operation under differing conditions among the numerous participating companies; and, the research work of IKP and PE comprises the ecological analysis of the entire life cycle and comparison with conventional alternatives (diesel driven buses, CNG-buses). It also includes the economical analysis of the hydrogen infrastructure. First experiences from CUTE and ECTOS were presented. (author)

  19. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Clean Biofuels from Biomass Using FeCuZnAIK Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-bai Qiu; Yong Xu; Tong-qi Ye; Fei-yan Gong; Zhi Yang; Mitsuo Yamamoto; Yong Liu; Quan-xin Li

    2011-01-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of clean biofuels using the bio-syngas obtained from biomass gasification was performed over Fe1.5Cu1Zn1Al1K0.117 catalyst.The maximum biofuel yield from the bio-syngas reaches about 1.59 kg biofuels/(kgcatal·h) with a contribution of 0.57 kg alcohols/(kgcatal·h) and 1.02 kg liquid hydrocarbons/(kgcatal·h).The alcohol products in the resulting biofuels were dominated by the C2+ alcohols (mainly C2-C6 alcohols) with a content of 73.55%-89.98%.The selectivity of the liquid hydrocarbons (C5+) in the hydrocarbon products ranges from 60.37% to 70.94%.The synthesis biofuels also possess a higher heat value of 40.53-41.49 MJ/kg.The effects of the synthesis conditions,including temperature,pressure,and gas hourly space velocity,on the biofuel synthesis were investigated in detail.The catalyst features were characterized by inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction,temperature programmed reduction,and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements.The present biofuel synthesis with a higher biofuel yield and a higher selectivity of liquid hydrocarbons and C2+ alcohols may be a potentially useful route to produce clean biofuels and chemicals from biomass.

  20. Program director`s overview report for the Office of Health & Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, D. [ed.

    1994-02-01

    LBL performs basic and applied research and develops technologies in support of the Office of Health and Environmental Research`s mission to explore and mitigate the long-term health and environmental consequences of energy use and to advance solutions to major medical challenges. The ability of the Laboratory to engage in this mission depends upon the strength of its core competencies. In addition, there are several key capabilities that are cross-cutting, or underlie, many of the core competencies. Attention is focused on the following: Facilities and resources; research management practices; research in progress; program accomplishments and research highlights; program orientation; work for non-OHER organizations DOE; critical issues; and resource orientation.

  1. The DOE/NREL Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NG-NGV) Program that is led by the U.S. Department Of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of this program is to develop and implement one Class 3-6 compressed natural gas (CNG) prototype vehicle and one Class 7-8 liquefied natural gas (LNG) prototype vehicle in the 2004 to 2007 timeframe. OHVT intends for these vehicles to have 0.5 g/bhp-hr or lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 2004 and 0.2 g/bhp-hr or lower NOx by 2007. These vehicles will also have particulate matter (PM) emissions of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or lower by 2004. In addition to ambitious emissions goals, these vehicles will target life-cycle economics that are compatible with their conventionally fueled counterparts

  2. NASA Applied Sciences Program. Overview Presentation; Discovering and Demonstrating Innovative and Practical Applications of Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Goal 1: Enhance Applications Research Advance the use of NASA Earth science in policy making, resource management and planning, and disaster response. Key Actions: Identify priority needs, conduct applied research to generate innovative applications, and support projects that demonstrate uses of NASA Earth science. Goal 2: Increase Collaboration Establish a flexible program structure to meet diverse partner needs and applications objectives. Key Actions: Pursue partnerships to leverage resources and risks and extend the program s reach and impact. Goal 3:Accelerate Applications Ensure that NASA s flight missions plan for and support applications goals in conjunction with their science goals, starting with mission planning and extending through the mission life cycle. Key Actions: Enable identification of applications early in satellite mission lifecycle and facilitate effective ways to integrate end-user needs into satellite mission planning

  3. Controls-structures interaction guest investigator program: Overview and phase 1 experimental results and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Taylor, Rudeen; Tanner, Sharon E.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator program is described in terms of its support of the development of CSI technologies. The program is based on the introduction of CSI researchers from industry and academia to available test facilities for experimental validation of technologies and methods. Phase 1 experimental results are reviewed with attention given to their use of the Mini-MAST test facility and the facility for the Advance Control Evaluation of Structures. Experiments were conducted regarding the following topics: collocated/noncollocated controllers, nonlinear math modeling, controller design, passive/active suspension systems design, and system identification and fault isolation. The results demonstrate that significantly enhanced performance from the control techniques can be achieved by integrating knowledge of the structural dynamics under consideration into the approaches.

  4. An overview of the US Department of Energy Plant Lifetime Improvement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a brief summary of the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE's) cooperative effort with the nuclear industry to develop technology to manage the effects of material degradation in systems, structures and components (SSCs) that impact plant safety or can significantly improve plant performance/economics and to establish and demonstrate the license renewal process. Also included are efforts to reduce decontamination/decommission costs, and reduce the uncertainty in long-term service-life decision making. During 1995, the Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program was renamed the Commercial Operating Light Water Reactor (COLWR) Program activities are focused on sustaining the LWR option for domestic electricity generation by supporting operation of existing LWRs as long as they are safe, efficient, and economical. The status of the key projects is discussed in this paper

  5. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  6. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established in 1974 to address residual radiological contamination at sites where work was performed for the Manhattan Engineer District and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Initially, FUSRAP activities began with a records search for sites that had the potential to contain residual radiological contamination; 46 sites were identified that were eligible for and required remediation. Remedial action began in 1979. In 1997, Congress assigned responsibility for the remediation of FUSRAP sites to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). DOE retains responsibility for determining if sites are eligible for FUSRAP remediation and for providing long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) of remediated FUSRAP sites. DOE LTS and M activities are designed to ensure that FUSRAP sites remain protective of human health and the environment and to preserve knowledge regarding FUSRAP sites. Additional elements include eligibility determinations, transition of remediated sites from USACE to DOE, LTS and M operations such as inspections and institutional controls management, stakeholder support, preservation of records, and real property and reuse. DOE maintains close coordination with USACE and regulators to ensure there is no loss of protectiveness when sites transition to DOE for LTS and M. Over the life of the FUSRAP program from 1974 to the present, DOE's primary mission and responsibility has been to ensure that FUSRAP sites remain protective of human health and the environment. In fulfilling this mission, the DOE program includes the following key elements: eligibility determinations, transition of remediated sites from USACE to DOE, LTS and M operations such as inspections and institutional controls management, stakeholder support, preservation of records, and real property and reuse. DOE maintains close communication stakeholders as well as state and federal regulators. DOE

  7. Magnetic fusion program in the United States: an overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing technical progress in magnetic fusion energy research and a coherent national program involving national laboratories, industry and universities has won strong support from the new Department of Energy. This review presents recent technical progress and examines fusion in relation to other long term energy supply options. Fusion is seen as a technology which, because of its apparently minimal environmental impacts and promise of reasonable cost, has a good chance of competing successfully with the other inexhaustible energy sources

  8. Meeting the global demand for biofuels in 2021 through sustainable land use change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2013 renewable energy policy mandates adopted in twenty-seven countries will increase the need for liquid biofuels. To achieve this, ethanol produced from corn and sugarcane will need to increase from 80 to approximately 200 billion l in 2021. This could be achieved by increasing the productivity of raw material per hectare, expansion of land into dedicated biofuels, or a combination of both. We show here that appropriate land expansion policies focused on conservationist programs and a scientific basis, are important for sustainable biofuel expansion whilst meeting the increasing demand for food and fiber. The Brazilian approach to biofuel and food security could be followed by other nations to provide a sustainable pathway to renewable energy and food production globally. One sentence summary: Conservationist policy programs with scientific basis are key to drive the expansion of biofuel production and use towards sustainability

  9. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km2. The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  10. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnasissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy Laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. Each laboratory was assigned a geographic region of the United States. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km2. The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  11. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-07-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnasissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy Laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. Each laboratory was assigned a geographic region of the United States. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km/sup 2/. The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies.

  12. Overview of the Government of Canada Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program - 13551

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from more than 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada. The liabilities are located at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario and Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba, as well as three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec that are being maintained in a safe storage state. Estimated at about $7.4 billion (current day dollars), these liabilities consist of disused nuclear facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The Government of Canada renewed the NLLP in 2011 with a $439-million three-year second phase that ends March 31, 2014. The projects and activities carried out under the Program focus on infrastructure decommissioning, environmental restoration, improving the management of legacy radioactive waste, and advancing the long-term strategy. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for implementing the program of work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. (authors)

  13. Research program on nuclear technology and nuclear safety - Overview report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the program's main points of interest, work done in the year 2010 and the results obtained. The main highlights of the research program, which was co-ordinated by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI are presented and discussed. Work done within the STARS program on third-generation nuclear power stations is discussed, as is that carried out on probabilistic safety analyses and human reliability. Analysis of activated materials and MOX nuclear fuel assemblies is discussed. A further project examined aging mechanisms in pressure-loaded components. Processes involved in serious accidents and cooling media loss were also examined. Other fluid-dynamic processes involved, along with other factors, are discussed. Work done on the upgrade of the PROTEUS experimental reactor is discussed, as is that done in connection with PSI's hot laboratory and on radiation-induced creeping in structural materials. Fuel cycles and the disposal of radioactive wastes are looked at and the optimisation of safety in sodium-cooled reactors is discussed. Energy economics aspects and national and international co-operation are briefly looked at and work to be done in 2011 is reviewed. A list of current and completed projects completes the report

  14. The NIH Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats Program: overview and special challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Intentional exposures to toxic chemicals can stem from terrorist attacks, such as the release of sarin in the Tokyo subway system in 1995, as well as from toxic industrial accidents that are much more common. Developing effective medical interventions is a critical component of the overall strategy to overcome the challenges of chemical emergencies. These challenges include the rapid and lethal mode of action of many toxic chemicals that require equally fast-acting therapies, the large number of chemicals that are considered threats, and the diverse demographics and vulnerabilities of those who may be affected. In addition, there may be long-term deleterious effects in survivors of a chemical exposure. Several U.S. federal agencies are invested in efforts to improve preparedness and response capabilities during and after chemical emergencies. For example, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Program supports investigators who are developing therapeutics to reduce mortality and morbidity from chemical exposures. The program awards grants to individual laboratories and includes contract resource facilities and interagency agreements with Department of Defense laboratories. The range of high-quality research within the NIH CounterACT Program network is discussed. PMID:27398820

  15. An overview of the Noncyanide Metal Stripper program conducted at Kelly Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyle, M.D.; Cowan, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Noncyanide Metal Stripper Program was a waste minimization effort aimed at identifying and testing suitable noncyanide stripping solutions that could replace the cyanide stripping solutions found in the United States Air Force (USAF) Air Logistics Centers (ALC). The program started with laboratory testing of commercial stripping solutions. The performance of these solutions was compared with the cyanide process solutions C-101 and C-106 targeted for replacement. Plate metal stripping rate, basis metal corrosion, and compatibility with masking materials and biodegradability were all used to determine the performance of each product. Those products that passed the acceptance criteria were field tested using 25 to 50-gallon solutions to determine optimum operating conditions, stripper maintenance requirements, and maximum solution loading and longevity. The program included investigating any adverse effects these new products might have on existing chemical and biological waste treatment processes. All cyanide stripping solutions at the San Antonio Air Logistics Command Center have been successfully replaced with commercial noncyanide products. Generally, these replacements were less toxic and generated less waste and had longer lifetimes than their cyanide counterparts.

  16. Overview of NASA's Space Solar Power Technology Advanced Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Mankins, John C.; Davis, N. Jan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the 'fresh look' study, and during 1998 in an SSP 'concept definition study', and during 1999-2000 in the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. As a result of these efforts, during 2001, NASA has initiated the SSP Technology Advanced Research and Development (STAR-Dev) program based on informed decisions. The goal of the STAR-Dev program is to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt to gigawatt-class space solar power (SSP) systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). Specific objectives include: (1) Release a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for SSP Projects; (2) Conduct systems studies; (3) Develop Component Technologies; (4) Develop Ground and Flight demonstration systems; and (5) Assess and/or Initiate Partnerships. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related research and development investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (commercial, science, and other government).

  17. Overview of nuclear development strategy and fusion research program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear development strategy and fusion research program in Japan are reviewed. The Council for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP) of Japan, chaired by the prime minister and responsible for the entire science and technology policy in Japan, emphasizes the importance of energy development for the national economy and security as well as from global environmental aspects. Atomic Energy Commission of Japan regards fusion as an important basic program that is expected to lead to a candidate of an innovative energy technology in the future. To utilize uranium resource efficiently and ensure energy security, the introduction of fast breeder reactor cycle around 2050 is a key step for next-generation energy resource after light water reactor, and the development of fusion reactor is thought to be alternative one. Japan is promoting research and development aimed at the establishment of a FBR cycle using the prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju' and by conducting FBR cycle R and D in engineering scale. The fusion program of Japan places a clear stress on energy-oriented R and Ds in two areas: those directly to ITER and those for high performance and more challenging options of FNT components and systems. Collaboration between JAERI, universities, NIFS and industries has been strongly encouraged to attain the goal. Recent activities including development of solid and liquid breeding blankets and other FNT issues like PMI, tritium process, fusion safety, inertial fusion and modeling, are also reviewed. (author)

  18. Second line of defense program overview LA-UR-00-5161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The illicit trafficking of nuclear material is a major concern for non-proliferation and global stability. The nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program provides the first line of defense in protecting nuclear materials within Russia by upgrading safeguards and security measures at Russian nuclear facilities. Second Line of Defense (SLD) is a cooperative program between the Russian Federation State Customs Committee (RF SCC) and the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to minimize illicit trafficking of restricted nuclear materials through Russian border control points. This partnership was solidified with the signing of a protocol between DOE and the RF SCC in June 1998. The relationship will soon be formalized in a Memorandum of Understanding that will outline the working relationships and commitments to successful implementation of the SLD Program. The Russians first acknowledged the threat of nuclear smuggling at a Nuclear Safety Summit in Moscow in April 1996. Nikolai Kravehenko, head of the Regional Information and Technical Customs Department of the RF SCC, subsequently stated in a July 1998 interview, 'In order to stop trafficking and illegal shipment to other countries we [also] have to tighten security at the facilities and equip our borders with reliable technology.' At the September 1998 U.S.-Russia Presidential Summit, the then Chairman of the RF SCC, Valery Draganov, highlighted the illicit trafficking challenge confronting Russia and requested U.S. assistance. Since 1991, a myriad of cases associated with the diversion and recovery of nuclear materials appear to be linked to the FSU. In the majority of cases, the material's origin was attributed to Russia. With more than 20,000 km of border contiguous to fourteen other countries, and more than 350 customs and border sites, addressing the threat posed by nuclear smuggling in Russia is not only an urgent but also an expansive problem requiring joint U

  19. Overview of the C-2U Advanced Beam-Driven FRC Experimental Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, H.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Barnes, D.; Dettrick, S.; Garate, E.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Yang, X.; Ivanov, A. A.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    The world's largest compact toroid (CT) device, C-2, has recently been upgraded to C-2U at Tri Alpha Energy to seek for a sustainment of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma by neutral-beam (NB) injection. The C-2 experimental program was successfully completed with dramatic improvements in confinement and stability of FRC plasmas, as well as demonstrated plasma pressure increase and plasma heating by NB injection. To enhance the NB injection effect and further improve the FRC performance, the C-2U experimental program has started with following key system upgrades: (i) increased total NB input power to 10 + MW (15 keV hydrogen) with tilted injection angle; (ii) enhanced edge-biasing capability for stability control; (iii) upgraded particle inventory control systems. The initial C-2U experiment has already demonstrated much further improvements, revealing advanced beam-driven FRC plasmas. In the best operating regime we have successfully achieved plasma sustainment up to 5 + ms; while, in the longer-pulsed regime the plasma lifetime can be extended up to the end of NB pulse-duration (8 + ms). The overall C-2U experimental program and the initial experimental results will be presented at the meeting.

  20. Overview of the Government of Canada Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program - 13551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, D.; McCauley, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E4 (Canada); Miller, J.; Brooks, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from more than 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada. The liabilities are located at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario and Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba, as well as three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec that are being maintained in a safe storage state. Estimated at about $7.4 billion (current day dollars), these liabilities consist of disused nuclear facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The Government of Canada renewed the NLLP in 2011 with a $439-million three-year second phase that ends March 31, 2014. The projects and activities carried out under the Program focus on infrastructure decommissioning, environmental restoration, improving the management of legacy radioactive waste, and advancing the long-term strategy. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for implementing the program of work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. (authors)

  1. An overview of PETC`s gas-to-liquids technology R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiegel, G.J.; Bose, A.C.; Srivastava, R.D.

    1995-04-01

    The overall goal of the Gas-to-Liquids Program at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to develop technologies for the production of hydrocarbon fuels and premium chemicals from light alkane gases. PETC`s current Gas-to-Liquids Program comprises the development of four primary advanced conversion technologies, namely, partial oxidation, oxidative coupling, oxyhydrochlorination, and novel conversion processes. Based on the current state of development, it can be concluded that, in the near future, one or more of these technologies will reach proof-of-concept demonstration. Oxyhydrochlorination is the most advanced direct conversion technology, and the synthesis of lower cost methyl chloride from natural gas would impact several commercial technologies that utilize methyl chloride as an intermediate to high value products. Technology development for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using ceramic membranes could result in significant savings in synthesis gas generation costs by eliminating the air separation plant and replacing the conventional synthesis gas generation loop. A mixed conducting membrane has been developed, and sustained proof-of-principle tests have shown commercially relevant methane conversions and CO selectivities. A multichannel reactor development and demonstration program has been proposed.

  2. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  3. Third generation biofuels from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Giuliano; Fernandes, Bruno Daniel; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Biofuel production from renewable sources is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels and a viable means for environmental and economic sustainability. Microalgae are currently being promoted as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate, CO2 fixation ability and high production capacity of lipids; they also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Microalg...

  4. An overview of Egypt's human resources strategy for the nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Because of the limited fossil fuel energy resources and the almost fully utilized hydro energy, Egypt has been considering for sometime the introduction of nuclear energy for electric power generation. Egypt initiated a nuclear energy program in the 1970s but it came to a halt following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Since that time the government has commissioned several feasibility studies, which supported the case for embarking on the nuclear plan. Egypt's electricity demand has been increasing by almost 10% per year over the past decade, and power consumption is likely to continue to increase rapidly. In September 2006 the Egyptian government announced that it is considering the nuclear energy as an option for electricity generation because of the improvement in nuclear safety and the pressures on the energy sector due to the sharp increase in oil prices. In Oct 2007 President Mubarak announced that Egypt is to build several nuclear power stations, which represents strong national commitment to the nuclear power programme. Following that the government will develop the program in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 'within a framework of transparency and respect of commitments to the nuclear nonproliferation system.' The current activities includes establishing the master plan of the nuclear program based on Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, the concern now is directed to Phase 2: Preparatory work for the construction of a nuclear power plant after a policy decision has been taken, which is linked to Milestone 2 - Ready to invite bids for the first nuclear power plant, for which the Human Resources Management plays a key role. The objective of this paper is to highlight human resources management policy, workforce planning as well as training requirements and related considerations for the nuclear power plant project in Egypt. (author)

  5. Overview of the University of Washington's Pre-Major in Astronomy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Daryl; Pre-Major in Astronomy Program

    2015-01-01

    The fraction of science PhDs awarded to women, African American, Latino, and other minority students is currently far smaller than the fraction of the general population that these groups constitute (NSF 06-320, NSF 04-317). The future of Physics and Astronomy in the United States depends on recruiting and retaining these students in STEM majors and careers (Norman et al., 2009). The greatest obstacles for persistence in science reported by students are loss of interest, intimidation, poor advising, and lack of acceptance (Seymour & Hewitt, 1997). In 2005, a group of University of Washington graduate students created the Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) to connect incoming undergraduate students to authentic research experiences as a means of recruiting and retaining them in STEM. Pre-MAP was one of only 13 initiatives supported by the President's Diversity Appraisal Implementation Fund and has proved to be one of its greatest success stories. At its core is a 10-week seminar in which undergraduates learn astronomical research techniques (e.g., computing, data analysis, documentation, statistics, and literature review) and apply them to projects conducted in small groups, under the supervision of faculty and postdocs. Now in its tenth year, Pre-MAP has engaged more than 100 undergraduates — its ongoing success has made it a model for similar programs at UW and other universities.I will outline the beginnings, funding streams, and structure of this long-running diversity program. The Pre-MAP sessions that follow will highlight our best practices and lessons learned, and feature first-hand accounts from several of our fantastic Pre-MAP alumni.

  6. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NOx, smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  7. Overview of the radioactive waste management programe of the OECD/NEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NEA activities in this area are supervised by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), assisted by two main advisory groups: the Performance Assessment Advisory Group (PAAG), and the Co-ordinating Group on Site Evaluat ion and Design of Experiments for Radioactive Waste Disposal (SEDE), as well as by a number of standing or ad hoc specialized expert groups. The emphasis of the NEA programe is placed on high-level waste disposal aspects, particularly on safety assessment issues and in situ research and site characterization matters which are important for performance assesment, the setting and design of disposal systems

  8. The analysis of the program to develop the Nuclear Waste Management System: Executive overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is executing a plan for improvement of the Nuclear Waste Management Program. As part of the plan, OCRWM is performing a systems engineering analysis of both the physical system, i.e., the Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS), and the programmatic functions that must be accomplished to bring the physical system into being. The functional analysis effort is being performed by two separate teams working in parallel -- one team is addressing the physical system functions, and the other is addressing the programmatic functions. This report presents the results of the analysis of the programmatic functions completed to date. 11 refs., 22 figs

  9. An overview of the United States Department of Energy Plant Lifetime Improvement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE'S Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues, including degradation of long-lived components, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement management approaches, and analytical methodologies to characterize RPV integrity. (author)

  10. The Laser Mega-Joule : LMJ & PETAL status and Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.-L.; Lion, C.; Vivini, P.

    2016-03-01

    The laser Megajoule (LMJ), developed by the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), will be a cornerstone of the French Simulation Program, which combines improvement of physics models, high performance numerical simulation, and experimental validation. The LMJ facility is under construction at CEA CESTA near Bordeaux and will provide the experimental capabilities to study High-Energy Density Physics (HEDP). One of its goals is to obtain ignition and burn of DT-filled capsules imploded, through indirect drive scheme, inside rugby-shape hohlraum. The PETAL project consists in the addition of one short-pulse (ps) ultra-high-power, high-energy beam (kJ) to the LMJ facility. PETAL will offer a combination of a very high intensity multi-petawatt beam, synchronized with the nanosecond beams of the LMJ. This combination will expand the LMJ experimental field on HEDP. This paper presents an update of LMJ & PETAL status, together with the development of the overall program including targets, plasma diagnostics and simulation tools.

  11. Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined, usually during the breeding season. Data from monitoring efforts are used to assess the environmental impacts of Hanford operations and calculate the overall radiological dose to humans onsite, at the Site perimeter, or residing in nearby communities. Chinook salmon spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter nesting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. Measured exposure to penetrating radiation and calculated radiation doses to the public are well below applicable regulatory limits

  12. Joint Task Force on Undergraduate Physics Programs (J-TUPP): Overview and Major Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula

    2016-03-01

    The Joint Task Force on Undergraduate Physics Programs (JTUPP) was formed in response to growing awareness in the physics community that physics majors pursue a wide range of careers after graduation, with very few ending up in academia. The task force is charged with identifying the skills and knowledge that undergraduate physics degree holders should possess to be well prepared for a diverse set of careers, and providing guidance for physicists considering revising the undergraduate curriculum to improve the education of a diverse student population. Task force members represent large and small universities, professional societies, and industry, and have expertise in a broad range of areas including entrepreneurship, physics education research and systemic change in education. We reviewed employment data, surveys of employers, and reports generated by other disciplines. We also met with physicists in selected industries to get their views on the strengths and weaknesses of physics graduates, commissioned a series of interviews with recent physics graduates employed in the private sector, and identified exemplary programs that ensure that all of their students are well prepared to pursue a wide range of career paths. The findings and recommendations will be summarized.

  13. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology program overview: Impact of civil space technology initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Propulsion Technology Program is dedicated to advancing rocket engine technologies for the development of fully reusable engine systems that will enable space transportation systems to achieve low cost, routine access to space. The program addresses technology advancements in the areas of engine life extension/prediction, performance enhancements, reduced ground operations costs, and in-flight fault tolerant engine operations. The primary objective is to acquire increased knowledge and understanding of rocket engine chemical and physical processes in order to evolve more realistic analytical simulations of engine internal environments, to derive more accurate predictions of steady and unsteady loads, and using improved structural analyses, to more accurately predict component life and performance, and finally to identify and verify more durable advanced design concepts. In addition, efforts were focused on engine diagnostic needs and advances that would allow integrated health monitoring systems to be developed for enhanced maintainability, automated servicing, inspection, and checkout, and ultimately, in-flight fault tolerant engine operations.

  14. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan: Program overview and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, L.D.; Berry, J.B.; Butterworth, G.E.; du Mont, S.P.; Easterday, C.A.; Geisler, A.H.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Pudelek, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1988-04-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The docuemnt also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document: it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) Management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. The near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a realistic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts preceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. Beyond the immediate time frame, the document reflects the strategy and the project and funding estimates as a snapshot at the time of publication. Annual revision will reflect the continuing evoltuion and development of environmental and waste management processes, characterizations, remedial actions, regulations, an strategies for the establishment and conduct of a comprehensive environmental and waste management program. 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. US waste management overview, new legislation, and status and plans of the disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provided a comprehensive master plan for the United States to locate a nuclear waste repository. Details of this process, which began with 9 sites, are well known. One repository was to be provided with a 70,000 metric ton limit on capacity. Provisions were to be made for transportation and a proposed MRS facility, and for activities leading to the potential siting of a second repository. A decision analysis technique was used by DOE in nominating three repository sites for characterization. The second repository program, which had become a matter of political controversy, was stopped because the first repository would have enough capacity for all commercial spent fuel for some time to come. A court decision to drop the MRS was later overruled. DOE still wants a vigorous international program along with work concerned with any rock medium that can be of potential value to the US repository effort. WIPP will continue to be of interest and emphasis as a repository project in salt for defense transuranic wastes. High-level wastes will not be permanently isolated at WIPP

  16. Status of the RERTR program: overview, progress and plans. [Reduced Enrighment Research and Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A.

    1985-01-01

    The status of the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a summary of the accomplishments which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1984 with its many international partners, emphasis is placed on the progress achieved during 1985 and on current plans and schedules. A new miniplate series, concentrating on U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al fuels, was fabricated and is well into irradiation. The whole-core ORR demonstration is scheduled to begin in November 1985, with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/. Altogether, 921 full-size test and prototype elements have been ordered for fabrication with reduced enrichment and the new technologies. Qualification of U/sub 3/Si-Al fuel with approx.7 g U/cm/sup 3/ is still projected for 1989. This progress could not have been achieved without the close international cooperation which has existed since the beginning, and whose continuation and intensification will be essential to the achievement of the long-term RERTR goals.

  17. A critical overview of recent stopping power programs for positive ions in solid elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Helmut, E-mail: Helmut.Paul@jku.at [Atomic Physics and Surface Science, Institute for Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstrasse 69, Linz A-4040 (Austria); Sánchez-Parcerisa, Daniel [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiation Oncology, TRC 4 West, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Several tables exist in the literature containing stopping power data for different targets and projectile ions. Moreover, Monte Carlo transport codes often incorporate their own implementation of electronic stopping power. In this article, we compare recent stopping power publications to our large collection of experimental stopping data for positive ions, in order to test their validity. We consider stopping codes by Barbui et al., Javanainen, and Diwan et al., and also the stopping power descriptions built into Monte Carlo transport codes: “Bethe” in libdEdx/SHIELD-HIT, Geant4-DNA, FLUKA, and MNCPX. We use graphical comparisons for significant single ion/target combinations, and we use our statistical program “Judge” to analyse larger data sets for those ions and targets where many experimental results are available. Only solid elemental targets are considered. The performance of the codes is evaluated in terms of how well they describe the available experimental data, in comparison with previously analyzed programs. Although interesting new approaches have been used in some of the codes, both SRIM and MSTAR still seem to be slightly better at reproducing the available data.

  18. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan: Program overview and summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this report is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The docuemnt also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document: it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) Management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. The near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a realistic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts preceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. Beyond the immediate time frame, the document reflects the strategy and the project and funding estimates as a snapshot at the time of publication. Annual revision will reflect the continuing evoltuion and development of environmental and waste management processes, characterizations, remedial actions, regulations, an strategies for the establishment and conduct of a comprehensive environmental and waste management program. 15 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Overview of PbBi-Cooled Reactor Development and ADS Program in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of China's electricity is produced from fossil fuels. Rapid growth in demand has given rise to power shortages, and the reliance on fossil fuels has led to much air pollution. Nuclear power has an important role for the China energy safety and environmental protection. According to the current layout of nuclear power development, by around 2040, pressurized water reactors are expected to level off at 200 GWe. However, the nuclear fuel shortage and the spent fuel accumulation will restrict the healthy development of nuclear energy in China. So the innovative nuclear system is expected to solve these problems. Accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) is an important approach to incinerate the long-lived high-level nuclear waste, which is focused by many countries. Liquid Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has many unique nuclear, thermophysical and chemical attributes that is potential candidate coolant for ADS subcritical reactors. In addition, lead and bismuth can produce copious spallation neutrons when bombarded with energetic protons. This makes LBE one of the top candidates for a high-power spallation target and coolant in an accelerator-driven subcritical system. In China, the fundamental research of ADS was carried out 10 years ago supported by Ministry of Science and Technology. From 2009, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) carried out a project of the ADS prophase research to develop the key technologies about superconducting accelerator, LBE loop, materials et al. In 2011, a large scaled ADS development program to transmute the nuclear waste has been launched by CAS named ''advanced nuclear fission energy''. In this program, CAS plan to develop the ADS system by 3 phases. In the first phase, form 2011-2017, an ADS verification facility named ADS-VF will be build. The ADS-VF consists of a LBE cooled reactor coupled with a proton accelerator and liquid metal spallation target. For the second phase in this program, an ADS experimental reactor named ADS

  20. Practical implementation of liquid biofuels: The transferability of the Brazilian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic analysis of the particularities and trends pertaining to the development of biofuels in Brazil—a country which has demonstrated its leadership in this field during the last 40 years. The Brazilian experiences with biofuels are often used as references for decision making by other developed and developing countries. The transferability of Brazil's biofuels practices would be appreciated by many researchers and energy policy markers across the world. This work uses an adapted 5W2H (what, when, where, why, who, how, and how much) analysis technique to answer a variety of questions about the subject. The data, facts, and figures herein are offered as resources for other researchers and policy makers seeking benchmarking. Also, this work discusses the main certainties and uncertainties of the sugarcane agro-industry, and also goes into detail about the ethanol supply chain structure, its management, and particularities. Finally, this research analyzes the central aspects of biofuels implementation in Brazil, lists the most important aspects to consider during a selection of possible standard biofuels, and presents the main aspects of the National Program of Biodiesel Production and its sustainability. - Highlights: • A systemic cause–effect analysis was carried out on biofuel program success. • Main questions concerning implementation of liquid biofuels in Brazil were studied. • Main weakness aspects of biofuel logistic were treated. • During selection of benchmarking strategy. What needs to take into account?

  1. An overview of federal government financial involvement in the Canadian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Canada has had a financial involvement with the nuclear industry in four areas: nuclear power development, including expenditures for research and development, prototype reactors, and regulation; uranium industry support, including the operations of Eldorado Nuclear Ltd. and the uranium stockpiling program; the financing of nuclear reactors, activities in which the federal government has acted as a banker for the sale of reactors; and heavy water production. Up to 1978-79 total federal expenditures of around $3.4 billion in current collars had been invested. Of this amount, about 56 percent was associated with nuclear power development, 2 percent with uranium industry support, 22 percent with heavy water, and 22 percent with financing reactor sales

  2. Overview of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is focused on preparing for a National Ignition Facility. Target physics research is addressing specific issues identified for the Ignition Facility target, and materials experts are developing target fabrication techniques necessary for the advanced targets. We are also working with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the design of the National Ignition Facility target chamber. Los Alamos is also continuing to develop the KrF laser-fusion driver for ICF. We are modifying the Aurora laser to higher intensity and shorter pulses and are working with the Naval Research Laboratory on the development of the Nike KrF laser. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan: Program overview and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, L.D.; Berry, J.B.; Butterworth, G.E.; du Mont, S.P. III; Easterday, C.A.; Geisler, A.H.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Pudelek, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1987-12-01

    The primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirments. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implenent the current plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a realistic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and relects the efforts preceived to be necesary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. Beyond the immediate time frame, the document reflects the strategy and the project and funding estimates as a snapshot at the time of publication. 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste characterization and certification program - an overview of capabilities and capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has full capability to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for its projected opening. LANL TRU waste management operations also include facilities to repackage both drums of waste found not to be certifiable for WIPP and oversized boxes of waste that must be size reduced for shipment to WIPP. All characterization activities and repackaging are carried out under a quality assurance program designed to meet Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) requirements. The flow of waste containers through characterization operations, the facilities used for characterization, and the electronic data management system used for data package preparation and certification of TRU waste at LANL are described

  5. Overview of the program on soft x-ray lasers and their applications at Princeton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last several years, rapid progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers (SXL) has been observed at a number of laboratories worldwide. Although SXLs are very ''young'' devices they have already been used for microscopy and holography, and new ideas emerging for broader application of SXLs to microscopy, holography and lithography. This paper describes the work at Princeton University on the development of a soft x-ray imaging transmission microscopy using a SXL as a radiation source and work on the development of a novel soft x-ray reflection microscope and its application to biological cell studies and lithography. Progress in the development of a photopumped VUV laser (60 nm), and programs for the development of a small scale SXL and for the application of a powerful subpicosecond KrF laser system are also discussed. 35 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  6. ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan: Program overview and summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirments. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implenent the current plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a realistic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and relects the efforts preceived to be necesary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. Beyond the immediate time frame, the document reflects the strategy and the project and funding estimates as a snapshot at the time of publication. 15 figs., 10 tabs

  7. THE DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE PROGRAM: OVERVIEW OF TECHNICAL TASKS AND RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.; Fox, K.; Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2009-12-08

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM's International Cooperative Program. Over the past 15 years, collaborative work has been conducted through this program with researchers in Russia, Ukraine, France, United Kingdom and Republic of Korea. Currently, work is being conducted with researchers in Russia and Ukraine. Efforts aimed at evaluating and advancing technologies to support U.S. high-level waste (HLW) vitrification initiatives are being conducted in collaboration with Russian researchers. Work at Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) is targeted at improving the throughput of current vitrification processes by increasing melting rate. These efforts are specifically targeted at challenging waste types identified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. The objectives of current efforts at SIA Radon are to gain insight into vitrification process limits for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology. Previous demonstration testing has shown that the CCIM offers the potential for dramatic increases in waste loading and waste throughput. However, little information is known regarding operational limits that could affect long-term, efficient CCIM operations. Collaborative work with the Russian Electrotechnical University (ETU) 'LETI' is aimed at advancing CCIM process monitoring, process control and design. The goal is to further mature the CCIM technology and to establish it as a viable HLW vitrification technology. The greater than two year effort conducted with the International Radioecology Laboratory in the Ukraine recently completed. The objectives of this study were: to assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); and to provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

  8. The Doe Office Of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Overview Of Technical Tasks And Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM's International Cooperative Program. Over the past 15 years, collaborative work has been conducted through this program with researchers in Russia, Ukraine, France, United Kingdom and Republic of Korea. Currently, work is being conducted with researchers in Russia and Ukraine. Efforts aimed at evaluating and advancing technologies to support U.S. high-level waste (HLW) vitrification initiatives are being conducted in collaboration with Russian researchers. Work at Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) is targeted at improving the throughput of current vitrification processes by increasing melting rate. These efforts are specifically targeted at challenging waste types identified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. The objectives of current efforts at SIA Radon are to gain insight into vitrification process limits for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology. Previous demonstration testing has shown that the CCIM offers the potential for dramatic increases in waste loading and waste throughput. However, little information is known regarding operational limits that could affect long-term, efficient CCIM operations. Collaborative work with the Russian Electrotechnical University (ETU) 'LETI' is aimed at advancing CCIM process monitoring, process control and design. The goal is to further mature the CCIM technology and to establish it as a viable HLW vitrification technology. The greater than two year effort conducted with the International Radioecology Laboratory in the Ukraine recently completed. The objectives of this study were: to assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); and to provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) based

  9. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Overview of Technical Tasks and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM's International Cooperative Program. Over the past 15 years, collaborative work has been conducted through this program with researchers in Russia, Ukraine, France, United Kingdom and Republic of Korea. Currently, work is being conducted with researchers in Russia and Ukraine. Efforts aimed at evaluating and advancing technologies to support U.S. high-level waste (HLW) vitrification initiatives are being conducted in collaboration with Russian researchers. Work at Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) is targeted at improving the throughput of current vitrification processes by increasing melting rate. These efforts are specifically targeted at challenging waste types identified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. The objectives of current efforts at SIA Radon are to gain insight into vitrification process limits for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology. Previous demonstration testing has shown that the CCIM offers the potential for dramatic increases in waste loading and waste throughput. However, little information is known regarding operational limits that could affect long-term, efficient CCIM operations. Collaborative work with the Russian Electrotechnical University (ETU) 'LETI' is aimed at advancing CCIM process monitoring, process control and design. The goal is to further mature the CCIM technology and to establish it as a viable HLW vitrification technology. The greater than two year effort conducted with the International Radioecology Laboratory in the Ukraine recently completed. The objectives of this study were: to assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); and to provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) based

  10. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  11. From Biomass to Biofuels: NREL Leads the Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-01

    This brochure covers how biofuels can help meet future needs for transportation fuels, how biofuels are produced, U.S. potential for biofuels, and NREL's approach to efficient affordable biofuels.

  12. Scientific Overview of Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems (TEMPEST) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, C. V.; Reising, S. C.; Kummerow, C. D.; van den Heever, S. C.; Todd, G.; Padmanabhan, S.; Brown, S. T.; Lim, B.; Haddad, Z. S.; Koch, T.; Berg, G.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Munchak, S. J.; Luo, Z. J.; Boukabara, S. A.; Ruf, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half, we have gained a better understanding of the role of clouds and precipitation on Earth's water cycle, energy budget and climate, from focused Earth science observational satellite missions. However, these missions provide only a snapshot at one point in time of the cloud's development. Processes that govern cloud system development occur primarily on time scales of the order of 5-30 minutes that are generally not observable from low Earth orbiting satellites. Geostationary satellites, in contrast, have higher temporal resolution but at present are limited to visible and infrared wavelengths that observe only the tops of clouds. This observing gap was noted by the National Research Council's Earth Science Decadal Survey in 2007. Uncertainties in global climate models are significantly affected by processes that govern the formation and dissipation of clouds that largely control the global water and energy budgets. Current uncertainties in cloud parameterization within climate models lead to drastically different climate outcomes. With all evidence suggesting that the precipitation onset may be governed by factors such atmospheric stability, it becomes critical to have at least first-order observations globally in diverse climate regimes. Similar arguments are valid for ice processes where more efficient ice formation and precipitation have a tendency to leave fewer ice clouds behind that have different but equally important impacts on the Earth's energy budget and resulting temperature trends. TEMPEST is a unique program that will provide a small constellation of inexpensive CubeSats with millimeter-wave radiometers to address key science needs related to cloud and precipitation processes. Because these processes are most critical in the development of climate models that will soon run at scales that explicitly resolve clouds, the TEMPEST program will directly focus on examining, validating and improving the parameterizations

  13. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  14. The biofuels excellence network; Rede de excelencia em biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo de Tarso; Nascimento Filho, Lenart Palmeira do; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network, inside PROMINP - the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas, has the objective of improving the actions of technical innovation and management in the chain of Oil, Gas Natural and Biofuels, through the optimized use of physical, financial, technological resources, of information and staff, with maximum qualification in areas of the human knowledge, whose purpose is to make decisions on specific problems of improvement of processes and/or products, besides promoting actions for the development and reinforcement of the markets of ethanol and biodiesel. The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network became necessary, in order to enable Brazil to reach vanguard standards in biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) in a sustainable, competitive and environmentally responsible way. Among the main reasons for the creation of the Biofuels Excellence Network are: to speed up the acquisition of knowledge and innovation, through partnerships with academical, technological, and government institutions; to contribute with PETROBRAS Strategical Planning planned goals; to capture synergies through the accomplishment of Projects of the Strategical Partners interest; to create sustainable economic value as a result of the Network Projects; to foster specialized professional qualification for the alcohol industry. (author)

  15. Overview of the French R&D program for the development of minor actinides separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the scientific and technical feasibility demonstration on 15kg of spent fuel of the Am+Cm separation by DIAMEX-SANEX process, CEA has launched in the framework of the law 2006 R&D program aimed to improve and optimize the minor actinides separation processes for the different recycling modes: • GANEX process for recycling the MA (Np, Am et Cm) with plutonium in the fast reactor core in an homogeneous recycling route; • SANEX-TODGA process for the separation of americium and curium for the heterogeneous transmutation route in the fast reactor blankets; • EXAm process for the separation of the sole americium for the transmutation in heterogeneous concept in dilution on uranium support (UAmO2). Furthermore, additional studies were performed to enlarge the results towards the by-process for the management of the effluents and the development of piloting tool. The demonstration on the genuine solutions of the feasibility of these various separation processes were carried out in the Atalante CBP hot cell between 2008 and 2010 and the main results will be presented. (author)

  16. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score System: Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Gorrissen, Willy J.

    2013-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a national voluntary energy asset score system that includes an energy asset score tool to help building owners evaluate their buildings with respect to the score system. The goal of the energy asset score system is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrade progress over time. The system can also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building operators, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from their operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset score tool. This report also describes alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach. Finally, this report describes a few features of the program where alternative approaches are still under evaluation.

  17. An overview of the HSST Full-Thickness Shallow-Crack Clad Beam Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A testing program is described that will utilize full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow flaws in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow flaws in the beam specimen include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. Fracture toughness tests focusing on shallow flaws in plate and weld material will also provide data for evaluating the relative influence of absolute and normalized crack depth on constraint conditions. Pretest finite-element analyses are described that provide near-tip stress and strain fields for characterization of constraint in the shallow-crack specimens in terms of the Q-stress. Analysis results predict a constraint loss in the shallow-crack clad beam specimen similar to that determined for a previously tested shallow-crack single-edge notch homogeneous bend specimen with the same normalized crack depth

  18. H0LiCOW I. H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring: Program Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Suyu, S H; Courbin, F; Fassnacht, C D; Rusu, C E; Sluse, D; Treu, T; Wong, K C; Auger, M W; Ding, X; Hilbert, S; Marshall, P J; Rumbaugh, N; Sonnenfeld, A; Tewes, M; Tihhonova, O; Agnello, A; Blandford, R D; Chen, G C -F; Collett, T; Koopmans, L V E; Liao, K; Meylan, G; Spiniello, C

    2016-01-01

    Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images are a powerful probe of cosmology and astrophysics. In particular, the time-delay distance from such a system is primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark energy, neutrino physics, and the spatial curvature of the Universe, as well as discovering new physics. We present H0LiCOW (H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring), a program that aims to measure H0 with <3.5% uncertainty in precision and accuracy from five lens systems (B1608+656, RXJ1131-1231, HE0435-1223, WFI2033-4723 and HE1104-1805). We have acquired or are in the process of acquiring (1) time delays through COSMOGRAIL and Very Large Array monitoring, (2) high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging for the lens mass modeling, (3) wide-field imaging and spectroscopy to characterize the lens environment, and (4) moderate-resolution spectroscopy for obtaining the stellar velocity dispersion of the lenses and, thus, to further constrain our lens...

  19. Integrated design and synthesis of smart material systems: an overview of the ARPA SPICES program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1995-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Each team member possesses a specialty in the area of smart structures which has been focused towards the development of several actively controlled smart material systems. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it is the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multiorganizational team for future incorporation of this new technology into each members respective product lines. To accomplish this task, the disciplines of materials, manufacturing, analytical modeling, actuation, sensing, signal processing, and control had to be synthesized into a unified approach between all ten consortium members. The process developed for intelligent structural systems can truly be classified as multiorganization/multidiciplined Integrated Product Development. This process is described in detail as it applies to the SPICES development articles and smart material fabrication in general.

  20. An overview of the United States Department of Energy plant lifetime improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US. The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: (1) establishment of the regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; (2) development, verification, and validation of the various technical criteria and bases for needed monitoring, refurbishment, or replacement of plant equipment; and (3) demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE's Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues, including degradation of long-lived components, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement management approaches, and analytical methodologies to characterize RPV integrity

  1. OVERVIEW OF HEAVY ION FUSION PROGRAM IN U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, Denis

    1978-02-01

    The current national program comprises the following major activities: (1) preliminary design, systems studies, and cost estimates for a reference 'pilot-plant' driver [Beam energy = 1 MJ; Beam power on target = 100 TW; specific energy deposition {ge} 20 MJ/gm]; (2) consequent upon this reference design, definition of an intermediate Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE) to test the accelerator technology and to begin to probe the scaling behavior of the heavy-ion target behavior, current thinking suggests that the beam energy should be about 100 kJ, or roughly one-tenth that of the reference design, in present DOE plans, HIDE is assumed to be operating in FY1985 or FY1986. (3) Design of targets optimized for heavy-ion driver; relaxation of the high beam-power requirements would allow accelerator designs to produce lower kinetic energy for the ion and permit a longer final pulse duration, thus easing a difficult demand on present-day accelerator behavior; (4) development of a clear understanding of the design implications of the beam space-charge limits, both longitudinal and transverse, several of the accelerator system design parameters, e.g apertures, number of final beams, size of final focusing magnets, are sensitive to assumptions about the six-dimensional phase-space density and volume of the beam. Creatoni and preservation of a suitable density is intimately related to various of the space-charge limits which in turn have an impact on the cost of the driver; (5) demonstration of suitable heavy-ion sources and acceleration of the beams to modest energies as a bench-test of a pre-accelerator; and (6) definition of the final focusing procedures including the final beam propagation and stability in a reactor vessel environment.

  2. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Overview and Policy Context of UF6 Cylinder Tracking Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, J. Michael [ORNL; White-Horton, Jessica L. [ORNL; Durbin, Karyn R. [NNSA

    2012-07-12

    Thousands of cylinders containing uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) move around the world from conversion plants to enrichment plants to fuel fabrication plants, and their contents could be very useful to a country intent on diverting uranium for clandestine use. Each of these large cylinders can contain close to a significant quantity of natural uranium (48Y cylinder) or low-enriched uranium (LEU) (30B cylinder) defined as 75 kg {sup 235}U which can be further clandestinely enriched to produce 1.5 to 2 significant quantities of high enriched uranium (HEU) within weeks or months depending on the scale of the clandestine facility. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) kicked off a 5-year plan in April 2011 to investigate the concept of a unique identification system for UF{sub 6} cylinders and potentially to develop a cylinder tracking system that could be used by facility operators and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The goal is to design an integrated solution beneficial to both industry and inspectorates that would improve cylinder operations at the facilities and provide enhanced capabilities to deter and detect both diversion of low-enriched uranium and undeclared enriched uranium production. The 5-year plan consists of six separate incremental tasks: (1) define the problem and establish the requirements for a unique identification (UID) and monitoring system; (2) develop a concept of operations for the identification and monitoring system; (3) determine cylinder monitoring devices and technology; (4) develop a registry database to support proof-of-concept demonstration; (5) integrate that system for the demonstration; and (6) demonstrate proof-of-concept. Throughout NNSA's performance of the tasks outlined in this program, the multi-laboratory team emphasizes that extensive engagement with industry stakeholders, regulatory authorities and inspectorates is essential to its success.

  3. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  4. Overview of recent experimental results from the DIII-D advanced tokamak program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D III-D research program is developing the scientific basis for advanced tokamak (AT) modes of operation in order to enhance the attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Since the last International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) meeting, we have made significant progress in developing the building blocks needed for AT operation: 1) We have doubled the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stable tokamak operating space through rotational stabilization of the resistive wall mode; 2) Using this rotational stabilization, we have achieved βNH89 ≥ 10 for 4 τE limited by the neoclassical tearing mode; 3) Using real-time feedback of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) location, we have stabilized the (m,n) = (3,2) neoclassical tearing mode and then increased βT by 60%; 4) We have produced ECCD stabilization of the (2,1) neoclassical tearing mode in initial experiments; 5) We have made the first integrated AT demonstration discharges with current profile control using ECCD; 6) ECCD and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) have been used to control the pressure profile in high performance plasmas; and 7) We have demonstrated stationary tokamak operation for 6.5 s (36 τE) at the same fusion gain parameter of βNH89/q952 ≅ 0.4 as ITER but at much higher q95 = 4.2. We have developed general improvements applicable to conventional and advanced tokamak operating modes: 1) We have an existence proof of a mode of tokamak operation, quiescent H-mode, which has no pulsed, ELM heat load to the divertor and which can run for long periods of time (3.8 s or 25 τE) with constant density and constant radiated power; 2) We have demonstrated real-time disruption detection and mitigation for vertical disruption events using high pressure gas jet injection of noble gases; 3) We have found that the heat and particle fluxes to the inner strike points of balanced, double-null divertors are much smaller than to the outer strike points. (author)

  5. Global production of biofuels in the context of food security

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiak, Ewa; Łopaciuk, Wiesław; Szajner, Piotr; Grochowska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is the issue of global production of biofuels in the context of food security. Production of biofuels and food security – competition and correlations. Raw materials for production of biofuels as compared to conditions on global markets. Global market of biofuels. Impact of production of biofuels on cereal market. Impact of production of biofuels on oilseed market.

  6. Earth2Class Overview: An Innovative Program Linking Classroom Educators and Research Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M.; Iturrino, G. J.; Baggio, F. D.; Assumpcao, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth2Class (E2C) workshops, held at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), provide an effective model for improving knowledge, teaching, and technology skills of middle and high school science educators through ongoing interactions with research scientists and educational technology. With support from an NSF GeoEd grant, E2C has developed monthly workshops, web-based resources, and summer institutes in which classroom teachers and research scientists have produced exemplar curriculum materials about a wide variety of cutting-edge geoscience investigations suitable for dissemination to teachers and students. Some of the goals of this program are focused to address questions such as: (1) What aspects of the E2C format and educational technology most effectively connect research discoveries with classroom teachers and their students? (2) What benefits result through interactions among teachers from highly diverse districts and backgrounds with research scientists, and what benefits do the scientists gain from participation? (3) How can the E2C format serve as a model for other research institution-school district partnerships as a mechanism for broader dissemination of scientific discoveries? E2C workshops have linked LDEO scientists from diverse research specialties-seismology, marine geology, paleoclimatology, ocean drilling, dendrochronology, remote sensing, impact craters, and others-with teachers from schools in the New York metropolitan area. Through the workshops, we have trained teachers to enhance content knowledge in the Earth Sciences and develop skills to incorporate new technologies. We have made a special effort to increase the teaching competency of K-12 Earth Sciences educators serving in schools with high numbers of students from underrepresented groups, thereby providing greater role models to attract students into science and math careers. E2C sponsored Earth Science Teachers Conferences, bringing together educators from New York and New

  7. An overview of fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) product requirements and qualification programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebizlioglu, Osman S.; Gallo, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    North American deployments of FTTP architectures have been rapidly increasing. While the FTTP market is being driven by major telecommunications service providers, equipment suppliers have been scrambling to bring products to market that will ensure them a piece of this high-stakes market. In this invited presentation/paper, we propose to examine the technical requirements that are needed to support the new FTTP network with a host of new products that have been in development. To enable service providers select the best new products for FTTP deployment, product selection needs to be based on the analysis and testing of new products for performance and reliability, Telcordia, in its traditional role of telecommunications standards development, has been publishing generic requirements (GR) documents that have been used by suppliers, service providers and the industry at large. Product qualification programs based on the established performance and reliability requirements/standards have been designed to evaluate products to determine if they can 1) withstand the rigors of the outside plant deployment environment and perform for extended periods of time, 2) be upgradeable, and 3) craft friendly. The outside plant is a tough environment to live in. A product must perform under the extreme conditions of cold down -40°C (-40°F) and hot up to 46°C (115°F) with high humidity of 95%, rain, snow, sleet, vibration due to traffic, lightning, heating due to solar loads, high winds, ice, sand storms, and products are even tested to demonstrate if they can continue to operate in an earthquake, a wild fire and a shotgun blast. All FTTP products are not only expected to perform, but they must meet stringent optical performance criteria of low insertion loss and reflectance / return loss at a broad range of wavelengths from 1310, 1490, 1550 and 1625 nm. While the upstream (from the customer to the CO) voice and data transmission is currently planned over 1310-nm wavelength, the

  8. Biofuels system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels, or fuels produced from biomass resources, represent an environmentally responsible source of liquid fuels. The combustion of petroleum and coal releases large volumes of carbon dioxide which have been stored millions of years ago that contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Biomass resources sequester carbon during their growing period, and when processed, this recently stored carbon is released as carbon dioxide. If biomass is replanted after harvesting, the carbon is again sequestered, resulting in a short cycle carbon loop. Another growing problem is waste disposal. Biomass wastes such as wood residues and municipal solid waste (MSW) often are landfilled and produce methane, another greenhouse gas. Diverting these wastes to a processing facility can eliminate methane production from landfilling. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is developing technology to convert biomass resources to fuels, chemicals, and solid residue that can be used for power generation. There is an estimated 1,118 to 2,945 million tons of biomass resources available annually that can be converted to renewable fuels using newly developed conversion processes. Economic evaluation of these processes have shown promise. This paper compares the economics of six biomass conversion systems. Prices and costs vary for site-specific areas, and the cost numbers used in the TVA comparison represent general systems. The rate of return on investments vary from 15.5% to 19.8% depending on the feedstock, process, and products. TVA is continuing research and development activities to improve economics of biomass systems and make them more attractive to commercial users. These technologies are environmentally friendly and can help to reduce the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane accumulation

  9. Final report on the potential of local biofuels development to the Environmental and Renewable Industries Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is significant interest in renewable and sustainable energy technologies, particularly biofuels, because of the growing crisis in the agricultural and forestry sectors, rising fuel prices, dwindling energy supply and growing awareness of the impact of traditional energy resources on the environment. Biofuels represent a possible opportunity to move towards a sustainable bio-economy in which agricultural and forestry products, co-products, and waste materials are utilized to produce energy. This report discussed the policy context for biofuels. The key local drivers for biofuel development in Prince Edward Island (PEI) were presented. These include rising energy prices; dependence on fossil fuels; climate change; and agricultural industry challenges. Biofuel policies and initiatives in a federal context, in central and western Canada, in New England, and in Atlantic Canada were also addressed. Prince Edward Island feedstocks such as forestry, agriculture, marine-based, and waste resources were examined. The report also identified the biofuel potential in PEI with reference to biocombustibles; pure plant oils; biodiesel; ethanol; and biogas. Last, the report outlined several biofuel projects, proposal, and initiatives and presented conclusions and recommendations. Several appendices were also included on resource materials; federal funding programs; Canadian renewable fuel standards and tax incentives; and the PEI biofuels evaluation framework. It was concluded that biomass feedstocks such as wood, cereals, straw, grasses, and crop residues offer significant potential for space and water heating applications and electricity generation. refs., tabs

  10. Biofuels and Sustainable Transport: A Conceptual Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey Gilpin; Erling Holden

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for sustainably using biofuels must be thoroughly assessed at several levels. First, the use of biofuels must comply with sustainable development’s main dimensions. Second, the use of biofuels must comply with sustainable transport’s main dimensions. Third, gains from using biofuels strategies must compare favorably to gains from other sustainable transport strategies, such as altering transport patterns and reducing transport volume. Fourth, the gains must compare favorably to...

  11. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. PMID:26874262

  12. Biofuels, a bad thing?; Boeser Biokraftstoff?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.; Bensmann, M.

    2008-05-15

    The discussions over biofuels are still going on. Critics claim that biofuels ruin engine components, destroy rainforests and cause high food prices and global hunger. According to this contribution, the Federal government's biofuels policy was wrong and was doomed to fail. (orig.)

  13. Biofuels in Africa : Opportunities, Prospects, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels offer new opportunities for African countries. They can contribute to economic growth, employment, and rural incomes. They can become an important export for some countries and provide low-cost fuel for others. There is also a potentially large demand for biofuels to meet the rapidly growing need for local fuel. Abundant natural resources and low-cost labor make producing biofuel ...

  14. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. PMID:25281367

  15. Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

  16. Panorama 2007: Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current leader on the world bio-diesel market, Europe is, after the United States and Brazil, one of the regions driving the production and utilization of biofuels. Its ambitious bio-fuel content targets for motor fuels (5.75% by 2010 and 8% by 2015) encourage Member States to significantly develop those pathways. This raises certain questions, especially about available biomass resources. It is likely that, beyond 2010, technologies other than those in existence today, using ligno-cellulosic biomass, will have to be implemented. (author)

  17. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  18. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  19. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  20. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Advancing Biofuels: Balancing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with most technologies, use of biofuels has both benefits and risks, which vary by feedstock. Expected benefits include increased energy independence, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, reduced emission of greenhouse gases and invigorated rural economies. Anticipated risks include potential com...

  2. An Outlook on Microalgal Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Microalgae are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuels. The productivity of these photosynthetic microorganisms in converting carbon dioxide into carbon-rich lipids, only a step or two away from biodiesel, greatly exceeds that of agricultural oleaginous crops, without competing

  3. Four myths surrounding U.S. biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth of biofuels has elicited claims and predictions concerning the current and future role of these fuels in the U.S. vehicle-fuel portfolio. These assertions are at times based on a false set of assumptions concerning the biofuel's market related to the petroleum and agricultural commodities markets, and the nonmarket consequences of our automobile driving. As an aid in clarifying these market relations, the following four biofuel myths are presented: (1) biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil, (2) biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving, (3) biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue), and (4) biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel. - Highlights: → Biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil. → Biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving. → Biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue). → Biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel.

  4. Resetting global expectations from agricultural biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive renewable energy policies have helped the biofuels industry grow at a rate few could have predicted. However, while discourse on the energy balance and environmental impacts of agricultural biofuel feedstocks are common, the potential they hold for additional production has received considerably less attention. Here we present a new biofuel yield analysis based on the best available global agricultural census data. These new data give us the first opportunity to consider geographically-specific patterns of biofuel feedstock production in different regions, across global, continental, national and sub-national scales. Compared to earlier biofuel yield tables, our global results show overestimates of biofuel yields by ∼100% or more for many crops. To encourage the use of regionally-specific data for future biofuel studies, we calculated complete results for 20 feedstock crops for 238 countries, states, territories and protectorates.

  5. Technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Assessment Program, funded by the ERDA Division of Technology Overview, is the mechanism by which health, environmental, social, economic and institutional factors are combined into a form useful for energy planning and decision making. This program selectively combines information about effects of alternative energy technologies (such as waste releases, land and water use, and social effects) to produce broad-based assessments of the advantages and disadvantages of energy and conservation options. As a corollary, needs for further research, development, and technology transfer are identified. The program is focused on four interrelated activities: supporting systems analysis to develop and improve methods for use in assessing and comparing impacts of energy and conservation options; integrated technological impact assessment, applying these methods to help select technologies for development that are safe, clean, and environmentally acceptable; regional comparative assessments, applying the results of the technological impact assessments to identification of regional energy strategies; and a regional outreach effort to assist regional and state agencies in their energy planning programs

  6. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  7. Biofuel implementation agendas. A review of Task 39 Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels for use in the transportation sector have been produced on a significant scale since the 1970's, using a variety of technologies. The biofuels widely available today are predominantly sugar- and starch-based bioethanol, and oilseed- and waste oil-based biodiesel, although new technologies under development may allow the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Measures to promote the use of biofuels include renewable fuel mandates, tax incentives, and direct funding for capital projects or fleet upgrades. This paper provides a review of the policies behind the successful establishment of the biofuel industry in countries around the world. The impact of direct funding programs and excise tax exemptions are examined using the United States as a case study. It is found that the success of five major bioethanol producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota) is closely related to the presence of funding designed to support the industry in its start-up phase. The study concludes that successful policy interventions can take many forms, but that success is equally dependent upon external factors which include biomass availability, an active industry, and competitive energy prices

  8. Multicriteria analysis of agricultural raw materials: A case study of BSBIOS and PETROBRAS BIOFUELS in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy crises reverberate within societies and encourage worldwide change in this industry. In this context, Brazil has been consolidating the National Program for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel—PNPB). This article analyzes BSBIOS and PETROBRAS BIOFUELS, which is a company that is incorporated under the PNPB. After providing an overview, the manuscript focuses on the criteria used for the selection of the agricultural raw materials used in the biodiesel industry. A reference model that considered the economic, technological, and social dimensions was developed; these dimensions were analyzed in relation to the production matrices of the soybean, canola, sunflower, and castor plants. The company strategically opted to establish programs for promoting the production of only soybean and canola. In the short term, the company has accepted the evidence that the main source of raw materials is soybean production. This decision was made considering the multicriteria analysis that was developed, which involved a number of economic, technological, and social aspects. Consequently, this analysis used in the decision-making process exhibits both a macro (the national and international environment) and a micro perspective (the companies’ reality). - Highlights: • The economic viability of biodiesel production in Brazil hinges on crop production. • Biodiesel production in Brazil requires developing an efficient production chain. • Oleaginous crops will be diversified by creating a network of suppliers. • Raw material production is diversifying based on an analysis of relevant factors

  9. From first generation biofuels to advanced solar biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Roadmaps towards sustainable bioeconomy, including the production of biofuels, in many EU countries mostly rely on biomass use. However, although biomass is renewable, the efficiency of biomass production is too low to be able to fully replace the fossil fuels. The use of land for fuel production also introduces ethical problems in increasing the food price. Harvesting solar energy by the photosynthetic machinery of plants and autotrophic microorganisms is the basis for all biomass production. This paper describes current challenges and possibilities to sustainably increase the biomass production and highlights future technologies to further enhance biofuel production directly from sunlight. The biggest scientific breakthroughs are expected to rely on a new technology called "synthetic biology", which makes engineering of biological systems possible. It will enable direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel from inexhaustible raw materials: sun light, water and CO2. In the future, such solar biofuels are expected to be produced in engineered photosynthetic microorganisms or in completely synthetic living factories. PMID:26667057

  10. Sustainable Biofuels A Transitions Approach to Understanding the Global Expansion of Ethanol and Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottes, Jeffrey Jacob

    Between 1998 and 2008, the promise of biofuels to increase rural development, enhance energy security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions stimulated their diffusion across international markets. This rapid expansion of ethanol and biodiesel encouraged many jurisdictions to implement biofuels expansion policies and programs. Global biofuels, characterised by mass production and international trade of ethanol and biodiesel, occurred despite their long history as marginal technologies on the fringe of the petroleum-based transportation energy regime. The first purpose of this dissertation is to examine the global expansion of ethanol and biodiesel to understand how these recurrent socio-technological failures co-evolved with petroleum transportation fuels. Drawing from the field of socio-technical transitions, this dissertation also assesses the global expansion of ethanol and biodiesel to determine whether or not these first generation biofuels are sustainable. Numerous studies have assessed the technical effects of ethanol and biodiesel, but effects-based technical assessments of transport biofuels are unable to explain the interaction of wider system elements. The configuration of multi-level factors (i.e., niche development, the technological regime, and the socio-technical landscape) informs the present and emerging social functions of biofuels, which become relevant when determining how biofuels might become a sustainable energy option. The biofuels regimes that evolved in Brazil, the United States, and the European Union provide case studies show how ethanol and biodiesel expanded from fringe fuels to global commodities. The production infrastructures within these dominant biofuels regimes contribute to a persistence of unsustainable first generation biofuels that can inhibit the technical development and sustainability of biofuels. However, new and emerging ethanol and biodiesel markets are relatively small in comparison to the dominant regimes, and can

  11. An overview of experimental results obtained under the prestressed concrete nuclear pressure vessel development program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Prestressed Concrete Nuclear Pressure Development Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, various aspects of Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessels (PCPVs) are investigated with respect to reliability, structural performance, constructability, and economy. These investigations are conducted under the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Program and the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) Program. The objectives are to: (1) provide technical support to ongoing PCPV design activities, (2) contribute to the overall technological data base, and (3) provide independent review and evaluations. Specific areas of interest at present include finite-element analysis development, materials and structural behaviour tests, instrumentation evaluations and development, and structural model tests. The following provides an overview of both the HTGR and GCFR PCPV activities and a summary of recent experimental results

  12. Toward nitrogen neutral biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Wernick, David G; Liao, James C

    2012-06-01

    Environmental concerns and an increasing global energy demand have spurred scientific research and political action to deliver large-scale production of liquid biofuels. Current biofuel processes and developing approaches have focused on closing the carbon cycle by biological fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and conversion of biomass to fuels. To date, these processes have relied on fertilizer produced by the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, and have not addressed the global nitrogen cycle and its environmental implications. Recent developments to convert protein to fuel and ammonia may begin to address these problems. In this scheme, recycling ammonia to either plant or algal feedstocks reduces the demand for synthetic fertilizer supplementation. Further development of this technology will realize its advantages of high carbon fixation rates, inexpensive and simple feedstock processing, in addition to reduced fertilizer requirements. PMID:22054644

  13. LANL capabilities towards bioenergy and biofuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Min S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unkefer, Clifford J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    LANL invented technology for increasing growth and productivity of photosysnthetic organisms, including algae and higher plants. The technology has been extensively tested at the greenhouse and field scale for crop plants. Initial bioreactor testing of its efficacy on algal growth has shown promising results. It increases algal growth rates even under optimwn nutrient supply and careful pH control with CO{sub 2} continuously available. The technology uses a small organic molecule, applied to the plant surfaces or added to the algal growth medium. CO{sub 2} concentration is necessary to optimize algal production in either ponds or reactors. LANL has successfully designed, built and demonstrated an effective, efficient technology using DOE funding. Such a system would be very valuable for capitalizing on local inexpensive sources of CO{sub 2} for algal production operations. Furthermore, our protein engineering team has a concept to produce highly stable carbonic anhydyrase (CA) enzyme, which could be very useful to assure maximum utilization of the CO{sub 2} supply. Stable CA could be used either imnlobilized on solid supports or engineered into the algal strain. The current technologies for harvesting the algae and obtaining the lipids do not meet the needs for rapid, low cost separations for high volumes of material. LANL has obtained proof of concept for the high volume flowing stream concentration of algae, algal lysis and separation of the lipid, protein and water fractions, using acoustic platforms. This capability is targeted toward developing biosynthetics, chiral syntheses, high throughput protein expression and purification, organic chemistry, recognition ligands, and stable isotopes geared toward Bioenergy applications. Areas of expertise include stable isotope chemistry, biomaterials, polymers, biopolymers, organocatalysis, advanced characterization methods, and chemistry of model compounds. The ultimate realization of the ability to design and synthesize materials that mimic or are inspired by natural systems will lead to entirely new applications in the bioenergy areas. In addition, there are new developments in this capability that involve development of catalytic methods for the production of carbon chains from the most abundant carbohydrate on the planet, glucose. These carbon chains will be useful in the production of high density fuels which defined characteristics. In addition, these methods/capabilities will be used to generate feedstocks for industrial processes. LANL is the second largest partner institution of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI), and specializes in high throughput genome finishing and analysis in support of DOE missions in energy, bioremediation and carbon sequestration. This group is comprised of molecular biology labs and computational staff who together focus on the high-throughput DNA sequencing of whole microbial genomes, computational finishing and bioinformatics. The applications team focuses on the use of new sequencing technologies to address questions in environmental science. In addition to supporting the DOE mission, this group supports the Nation's national security mission by sequencing critical pathogens and near neighbors in support of relevent application areas.

  14. 76 FR 7935 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Federal Register on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 20085), with a 60-day comment period that ended June 15, 2010... production and new producers. 6. Allowing the blender to issue a certificate of analysis (see Sec. 4288.105(a)(3)), and adding a definition of the term ``blender'' to Sec. 4288.102. 7. Changing the approach...

  15. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improve...

  16. MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF SOLID BIOFUELS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRDİL, Gürkan A.K; Malaťák, Jan; Vaculík, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Solid biofuels are preferred as alternative source of energy in recent years. Although it’s not yet popular in Turkey but, there’s a big potential concerning agricultural residues. With the depletion of fossil fuels world wide researches for alternative energy sources, especially efforts for obtaining the energy from agricultural non-food products became important. Generally, two methods are used in mechanical processing of biofules obtained from plants and agricultural residues. These are pe...

  17. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  18. Food Aid and Biofuels: The Effects of Biofuel Policies on Procurement and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, Ryan T.; Kerr, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The food-aid community almost unanimously condemns policies that encourage crop production for fuel. Both food-aid donors and recipients are concerned that biofuels will increase foodgrain prices and leave donors unable to meet commitments. The effects of biofuel-induced higher cereal prices on food-aid recipients are complicated functions of several factors, each of which must be considered in an analysis of the effects of biofuel policies. These factors include the level of biofuel-induced ...

  19. Contrasts and synergies in different biofuel reports

    OpenAIRE

    Michalopoulos, A; Landeweerd, L.; Van der Werf-Kulichova, Z.; Puylaert, P. G. B.; Osseweijer, P.

    2011-01-01

    The societal debate on biofuels is characterised by increased complexity. This can hinder the effective governance of the field. This paper attempts a quantitative bird's eye meta-analysis of this complexity by mapping different stakeholder perspectives and expected outcomes as seen in the secondary literature on biofuels, along the lines of the People-Planet-Profit framework. Our analysis illustrates the tension between stated and actual drivers of large scale biofuel development, especially...

  20. Private governance in the biofuel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2010-01-01

    "The boom of biofuel is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with most crucial consequences in the agro-food sector. For instance, spurred by the increasing use of corn for ethanol, tortilla prices in Mexico suddenly tripled in early 2007. While the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food Jean Ziegler is demanding an international five-year ban on producing biofuels to combat soaring food prices, the biofuel industry is responding with first ini...

  1. Oil price, biofuels and food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels, but this issue has yet to be fully investigated in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65% increase in oil price in 2020 from the 2009 level would increase the global biofuel penetration to 5.4% in 2020 from 2.4% in 2009. If oil prices rise 150% from their 2009 levels by 2020, the resulting penetration of biofuels would be 9%, which is higher than that would be caused by current mandates and targets introduced in more than forty countries around the world. The study also shows that aggregate agricultural output drops due to an oil price increase, but the drop is small in major biofuel producing countries as the expansion of biofuels would partially offset the negative impacts of the oil price increase on agricultural outputs. An increase in oil price would reduce global food supply through direct impacts as well as through the diversion of food commodities and cropland towards the production of biofuels. - Highlights: ► A global CGE model to analyze impacts of oil price on biofuels and food supply. ► Global biofuel penetration increases from 2.4% (2009) to 5.4% (2020) in baseline. ► A 150% rise of oil price boosts biofuels more than current mandates and targets do. ► Biofuels partially offset drops in agricultural outputs caused by oil price rise. ► Biofuels as well as oil price rise negatively affect global food supply.

  2. Liquid biofuels emergence, development and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Domingos Padula, Antonio; Benedetti Santos, Omar Inácio; Borenstein, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Discusses the debate on the emergence and diffusion of liquid biofuels as an energy source Presents the different elements that compose the debate on public policy, industry organization, competitiveness and sustainability of different systems for the production of liquid biofuels Covers the Brazilian experience of producing Ethanol and Biodiesel, as well as the experiences of other leading countries in the production of biofuels Bioenergy is coming to be seen as a priority on the international agenda, with the use of liquid biofuels a key strategy in the attempt to meet both the

  3. World experience of formation and development trends of market biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchuk, O.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the current trends of the world market for biofuels. Substantiated the main factors underlying the formation of the biofuels market and the possible prospects of its development. Perspective directions of development of the biofuel industry in the world

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health System Strategic Partnership ACS Archives Board of Governors Advisory Councils Quality Programs Quality Programs Overview About ... FAQs Newsletters Newsletters Overview Newsletters Overview Board of Governors News The CoC Source Committee on Trauma News ...

  5. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of the most promising African countries. Favorable growing conditions and the availability of land, water and labor are mentioned as major drivers behind this potential. Moreover, the potential of biofuel production to generate socio-economic benefits is reflected in the government's policy objectives for the development of the sector, such as reducing fuel import dependency and creating rural employment. This article provides an overview of biofuel developments in Mozambique and explores to what extent reality matches the suggested potential in the country. We conclude that biofuel developments mainly take place in areas near good infrastructure, processing and storage facilities, where there is (skilled) labor available, and access to services and goods. Moreover, our analysis shows the need to timely harmonize current trends in biofuel developments with the government's policy objectives as the majority of existing and planned projects are not focusing on remote rural areas, and - in absence of domestic markets - principally target external markets. (author)

  6. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of the most promising African countries. Favorable growing conditions and the availability of land, water and labor are mentioned as major drivers behind this potential. Moreover, the potential of biofuel production to generate socio-economic benefits is reflected in the government's policy objectives for the development of the sector, such as reducing fuel import dependency and creating rural employment. This article provides an overview of biofuel developments in Mozambique and explores to what extent reality matches the suggested potential in the country. We conclude that biofuel developments mainly take place in areas near good infrastructure, processing and storage facilities, where there is (skilled) labor available, and access to services and goods. Moreover, our analysis shows the need to timely harmonize current trends in biofuel developments with the government's policy objectives as the majority of existing and planned projects are not focusing on remote rural areas, and - in absence of domestic markets - principally target external markets.

  7. Examining the potential for liquid biofuels production and usage in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perennial political and social upheavals in major oil-producing regions, the increasing energy demand from emerging economies, the global economic crisis and even environmental disasters, like the recent major oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, all contribute to price fluctuations and escalations. Usually price instability affects the least-developed countries with the most fragile economies, like Ghana, the most. This paper gives a brief overview of the Ghanaian energy situation, describes the liquid biofuel production processes and examines the possibility of replacing some of the fossil fuels consumed annually, with locally produced renewable biofuels. Various scenarios for substituting different portions of petrol and diesel with biofuels derived from cassava and palm oil are examined. Based on 2009 crop production and fuel consumption data, replacement of 5% of both petrol and diesel with biofuels would require 1.96% and 17.3% of the cassava and palm oil produced in that year, respectively; while replacement of 10% of both fossil fuels would need 3.91% and 34.6% of the corresponding biofuels. Thus while petrol replacement could be initiated with little difficulty, regarding raw material availability, biodiesel would require enhanced palm oil production and/or oil supplement from other sources, including, potentially, jatropha. An implementation strategy is proposed.

  8. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program: Annual progress report for 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranney, J.W.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; Layton, P.A.; McNabb, W.A.; Wright, L.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress of the individual research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) as well as synthesizing the results for an overview of the program. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and has the goal of developing a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for biofuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, alcohol, and medium Btu gas in the United States. The most significant accomplishments have been the productivity rates achieved with Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest, the establishment of monoculture viability trials, the bioengineering developments of Populus spp. (hybrid poplar), and the initiation of wood-energy quality definitions in cooperation with biofuel conversion specialists. The most serious challenges are now seen as control of diseases in Populus, lowering cutting and handling costs, increasing productivity on moderate to poor soils in the South and Midwest, local matching and development of clones with sites in monoculture trials, and identifying and learning about the physiological and genetic variability of important growth qualities within model species for genetic improvement. 39 refs.

  9. Biofuels and biodiversity: principles for creating better policies for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Martha J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Townsend, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    Biofuels are a new priority in efforts to reduce dependence on fossil fuels; nevertheless, the rapid increase in production of biofuel feedstock may threaten biodiversity. There are general principles that should be used in developing guidelines for certifying biodiversity-friendly biofuels. First, biofuel feedstocks should be grown with environmentally safe and biodiversity-friendly agricultural practices. The sustainability of any biofuel feedstock depends on good growing practices and sound environmental practices throughout the fuel-production life cycle. Second, the ecological footprint of a biofuel, in terms of the land area needed to grow sufficient quantities of the feedstock, should be minimized. The best alternatives appear to be fuels of the future, especially fuels derived from microalgae. Third, biofuels that can sequester carbon or that have a negative or zero carbon balance when viewed over the entire production life cycle should be given high priority. Corn-based ethanol is the worst among the alternatives that are available at present, although this is the biofuel that is most advanced for commercial production in the United States. We urge aggressive pursuit of alternatives to corn as a biofuel feedstock. Conservation biologists can significantly broaden and deepen efforts to develop sustainable fuels by playing active roles in pursuing research on biodiversity-friendly biofuel production practices and by helping define biodiversity-friendly biofuel certification standards. PMID:18261147

  10. Second-generation pilot biofuel units worldwide - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of biofuels from agricultural raw material is attracting great interest for many reasons, among them global warming, oil price hikes, the depletion of oil reserves and the development of new agricultural markets. However, the technologies currently under development are hindered by the fact that available land is limited and by a risk of competition with food crops. In the last few years, research and development efforts have sought to alleviate these limitations by exploring new pathways to convert little-used plant feedstocks to biofuels with better efficiencies. Large-scale research programs concentrating on these new technologies are underway in the U.S. and Europe, with industrial development expected between 2012 and 2020

  11. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  12. Biofuels Drying Process Efficiency Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldas Šlepikas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with biofuel drying process efficiency opportunities.Research was carried out with a special stand and performingexperiments. Experimental rig consists of an ultrasonic generator,ultrasonic transducer, a drying chamber and the humidity,temperature gauge. Tests were used for wood pellets. During theexperiment, they were irrigated with water, dried with hot air andadditionally exposed to different frequency ultrasonic vibrations.The tests results have showed that the convective drying processis combined with the ultrasonic vibrations, the drying time isreduced, which means a positive impact on the ultrasonic process.Studies have confirmed that the effectiveness of convectivedrying method combined with operating ultrasonic vibrationsincreases.

  13. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  14. Next generation of liquid biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2012-01-01

    More than 99% of all currently produced biofuels are classified as “first generation” (i.e. fuels produced primarily from cereals, grains, sugar crops and oil seeds) (IEA, 2008b). “Second generation” or “next generation” biofuels, on the other hand, are produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks such

  15. BIOFUEL: Robbing Peter to Pay Paul?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the worsening global climate has worried people around the world,there is a rush to find answers.Many countries begin to substitute the greenhouse gas-emitting fossil fuels with biofuel,a kind of new energy processed from plants.There are two kinds of biofuel:ethanol,processed from sugarcane or corn,and biodiesel,made from biomass.

  16. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. - Research highlights: → The likelihood of a significant cellulosic ethanol industry in the US looks dim. → Drop-in biofuels made from cellulosic feedstocks have a more promising future. → The spatial dimension of markets for cellulosic feedstocks will be limited. → Corn ethanol will be a tough competitor for cellulosic ethanol.

  17. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  18. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  19. Microbial Stress Tolerance for Biofuels: Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book provides comprehensive up-to-date understanding and frontier research addressing mechanisms of microbial stress tolerance involved in biofuels using a systems biology approach. It ties closely with the cutting edge technology with a focus on the challenging subject of biofuels. The develo...

  20. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…