WorldWideScience

Sample records for biofuels fuels genome

  1. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  2. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  3. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  4. BioFuels Atlas (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation for biennial merit review of Biofuels Atlas, a first-pass visualization tool that allows users to explore the potential of biomass-to-biofuels conversions at various locations and scales.

  5. In Bio-Fuel We Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Annette

    2006-01-01

    In bio-fuel we trust. Or do we? In this chapter, ethnographic material from Sweden is used to discuss ways sin which trust may influence the choice of bio-fuel for heating purposes. The meaning and substance of trust or distrust, as well as the very conditions for trust, are elaborated on in relation to solar and bio-pellet systems, district heating with bio-fuel, and traditional fireplaces. An important conclusion of this chapter is that the degree to which people perceive others as being li...

  6. Round table on bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  7. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  8. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  9. Bio-fuels: the rush to industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambitious goals of the French government fire with enthusiasm the bio-fuel sector which is in the fair way to become an industry at a whole. However, in order to build in time the requested ethanol and bio-diesel units the government will have to speed up the approval procedures and to maintain the financial incentive policy. (J.S.)

  10. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  11. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  12. RECENT STUDIES ON BIO-FUELS: INSIGHTS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    A. Prasada Rao

    2015-01-01

    Research on bio-fuels gain momen tum as it replaces the use of fossil fuels and in turn claims environ mental and economic benefits. Energy crisis made remarkable change in exploration of novel energy and have started taken diverse measures worldwide. Recent studies on bio-fuels mainly focus on discovery of cellulose rich plant sources from non-food crops for generation of carbon neutral biofuels. In the recent past, research on bio-fuels mainly address on cost effective production of bio-...

  13. Biofuels – alternative to the traditional fuels in transport

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2011-01-01

    In the article there is made a critical survey of some possibilities and issues, connected with the use of biofuels as an alternative to the traditional fuels in transport, for which there is used the descriptive - analytical method. There is clarified the n ature of biofuels, the kinds of biofuels, their advantages and disadvantages. Also presented is the state and development of the production of biofuels in Bulgaria. There is traced the evolution and the localization of the production of b...

  14. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  15. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  16. Fuel taxes and biofuel promotion: a complementary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public support for renewable energy technologies is usually justified in terms of its contribution to reducing energy dependency; an improvement in environmental quality and a stimulation of economic activity and employment. In the case of biofuels, greenhouse gas emissions reduction has received significant attention. Nevertheless, nowadays there is a lively debate surrounding the convenience of biofuels. This is a consequence of the potentially negative impacts revealed from their production on a large scale. The aim of the present work is to analyses the potential contribution of biofuels to the main impact categories identified above. This paper tries to analyze the role of biofuel promotion in the context of fuel taxes. Based on the assessment of biofuels in Spain related to environmental damage and economic impacts, it shows that fuel taxes and biofuel promotion should be considered as complementary tools and treated accordingly. (full text)

  17. Does a Renewable Fuel Standard for Biofuels Reduce Climate Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Mads Greaker; Michael Hoel; Knut Einar Rosendahl

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature on biofuels has questioned whether biofuels policies are likely to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Our analysis explicitly takes into account that oil is a nonrenewable natural resource. A blending mandate has no effect on total cumulative oil extraction. However, extraction of oil is postponed as a consequence of the renewable fuel standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are negligible, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. The standard also r...

  18. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  19. The Agricultural Ethics of Biofuels: The Food vs. Fuel Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-based transportation fuels were the focus of extended criticism in the press, especially during 2008 when a portion of the blame for a spike in global food prices was associated with growth of the United States’ corn ethanol industry. The critique is based on an unsophisticated portrayal of the ethical issues at stake in the food security implications of biofuel. Three ethical critiques can be leveled at the food vs. fuel debate. First, although market drivers of biofuels inde...

  20. The Agricultural Ethics of Biofuels: The Food vs. Fuel Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Thompson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based transportation fuels were the focus of extended criticism in the press, especially during 2008 when a portion of the blame for a spike in global food prices was associated with growth of the United States’ corn ethanol industry. The critique is based on an unsophisticated portrayal of the ethical issues at stake in the food security implications of biofuel. Three ethical critiques can be leveled at the food vs. fuel debate. First, although market drivers of biofuels indeed skew consumption of agricultural grains, this is not a problem that is unique to biofuels. Second, the critique does not reflect an adequate understanding of the way that rising food prices and changes in agricultural technology affect the food security of the poorest people. Third, although rising food prices could be beneficial to poor farm producers among the world’s poor, it is unlikely that benefits will materialize in the absence of concerted programs to deliberately select biofuel development strategies that are targeted to strengthen food security for poor and small-holding producers. An adequate agricultural ethics for biofuels will require commitment by both private and public sector biofuel developers to ensure that potentially positive attributes of biofuel development are realized.

  1. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x10(8) ha in t...

  2. Panorama 2011: Water and bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, water is seen as a major sustainability criterion for bio-energies. Although the biofuels being produced by food crops are subject to the same risks as the farming sector as far as water resources are concerned, future sectors have a significant potential to reduce these risks, and this potential needs to be better understood in order for biofuels as a resource and their related technologies to develop properly. (authors)

  3. Does a renewable fuel standard for biofuels reduce climate costs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Hoel, Michael; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Recent contributions have questioned whether biofuels policies actually lead to emissions reductions, and thus lower climate costs. In this paper we make two contributions to the literature. First, we study the market effects of a renewable fuel standard. Opposed to most previous studies we model the supply of fossil fuels taking into account that fossil fuels is a non-renewable resource. Second, we model emissions from land use change explicitly when we evaluate the climate effects of the renewable fuel standard. We find that extraction of fossil fuels most likely will decline initially as a consequence of the standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are sufficiently low, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. Furthermore, we find that the standard tends to reduce total fuel (i.e., oil plus biofuels) consumption initially. Hence, even if emissions from biofuels are substantial, climate costs may be reduced. Finally, if only a subset of countries introduce a renewable fuel standard, there will be carbon leakage to the rest of the world. However, climate costs may decline as global extraction of fossil fuels is postponed.(Author)

  4. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, s

  5. Implantable Glucose BioFuel Cells for Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Implantable BioFuel Cell (IBFC) is a device that produces power only from the chemicals that are naturally occurring inside the body. We have been working on two approaches to creating an IBFC. The first approach is to use chemicals such as glucose and oxygen to provide the fuel for an enzymatic IBFC. The second approach is to use electrolytes such as sodium to provide the fuel for a biomimetic IBFC

  6. The Agricultural Ethics of Biofuels: The Food vs. Fuel Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-based transportation fuels were the focus of extended criticism in the press, especially during 2008 when a portion of the blame for a spike in global food prices was associated with growth of the United States’ corn ethanol industry. The critique is based on an unsophisticated portrayal of the ethical issues at stake in the food security implications of biofuel. Three ethical critiques can be leveled at the food vs. fuel debate. First, although market drivers of biofuels indeed skew ...

  7. Panorama 2007: New Bio-fuel Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New pathways are emerging in the wake of the boom in the biofuels market. Their development is driven by the search for improved product quality and a broader range of natural plant feedstock. Interested in these new pathways, the oil companies are seeking to differentiate themselves on a market that promises to be very competitive in future. This is a turning point in a sector that has historically been dominated by agro-food companies. (author)

  8. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  9. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  10. Time-Frequency Dynamics of Biofuel-Fuel-Food System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Janda, K.; Krištoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2013), s. 233-241. ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : biofuels * correlations * wavelet coherence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/vacha-time-frequency dynamics of biofuels-fuels-food system.pdf

  11. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-07-05

    Algae constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity, play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing (http://jgi.doe.gov/Algae) and contributes of the algal genome projects worldwide (GOLD database, 2012). The sequenced algal genomes offer catalogs of genes, networks, and pathways. The sequenced first of its kind genomes of a haptophyte E.huxleyii, chlorarachniophyte B.natans, and cryptophyte G.theta fill the gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and carry unique genes and pathways as well as molecular fossils of secondary endosymbiosis. Natural adaptation to conditions critical for industrial production is encoded in algal genomes, for example, growth of A.anophagefferens at very high cell densities during the harmful algae blooms or a global distribution across diverse environments of E.huxleyii, able to live on sparse nutrients due to its expanded pan-genome. Communications and signaling pathways can be derived from simple symbiotic systems like lichens or complex marine algae metagenomes. Collectively these datasets derived from algal genomics contribute to building a comprehensive parts list essential for algal biofuel development.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of Oleosin Gene Family in 22 Tree Species: An Accelerator for Metabolic Engineering of BioFuel Crops and Agrigenomics Industrial Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping

    2015-09-01

    Trees contribute to enormous plant oil reserves because many trees contain 50%-80% of oil (triacylglycerols, TAGs) in the fruits and kernels. TAGs accumulate in subcellular structures called oil bodies/droplets, in which TAGs are covered by low-molecular-mass hydrophobic proteins called oleosins (OLEs). The OLEs/TAGs ratio determines the size and shape of intracellular oil bodies. There is a lack of comprehensive sequence analysis and structural information of OLEs among diverse trees. The objectives of this study were to identify OLEs from 22 tree species (e.g., tung tree, tea-oil tree, castor bean), perform genome-wide analysis of OLEs, classify OLEs, identify conserved sequence motifs and amino acid residues, and predict secondary and three-dimensional structures in tree OLEs and OLE subfamilies. Data mining identified 65 OLEs with perfect conservation of the "proline knot" motif (PX5SPX3P) from 19 trees. These OLEs contained >40% hydrophobic amino acid residues. They displayed similar properties and amino acid composition. Genome-wide phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that these proteins could be classified into five OLE subfamilies. There were distinct patterns of sequence conservation among the OLE subfamilies and within individual tree species. Computational modeling indicated that OLEs were composed of at least three α-helixes connected with short coils without any β-strand and that they exhibited distinct 3D structures and ligand binding sites. These analyses provide fundamental information in the similarity and specificity of diverse OLE isoforms within the same subfamily and among the different species, which should facilitate studying the structure-function relationship and identify critical amino acid residues in OLEs for metabolic engineering of tree TAGs. PMID:26258573

  13. Reducing Fuel Volatility - An Additional Benefit From Blending Bio-fuels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailis, R.E.; Koeb, B.S.; Sanders, M.W.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Oil price volatility harms economic growth. Diversifying into different fuel types can mitigate this effect by reducing volatility in fuel prices. Producing bio-fuels may thus have additional benefits in terms of avoided damage to macro-economic growth. In this study we investigate trends and patter

  14. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  15. Bio-fuel - millions to be invested despite great uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A directive passed by Brussels which directs Europe Union (EU) members to replace traditional fuels has created problems for many countries as they are not yet ready for bio-fuels. The directive counts with most euro-citizens no longer using pure petrol or diesel as of next year. Most refineries and petrol stations will have to sell a mixture of petrol and alcohol, or diesel and MERO. From 2007, bio-elements should comprise up to 5.75% of the energy content of diesel and petrol. The content of the bio-elements should be gradually increased to reach this figure - by the end of this year the required level will be 2%. For EU members, bio-fuels will create major problems and few advantages. Their share of car fuels will still be too low to have a major environmental effect or decrease dependency on oil imports. Reaching the prescribed percentage of bio-components in fuels will be expensive for the state. Exact figures are not yet available, but according to the National Program of Bio-Fuel Development this process will cost Slovakia over 500 mil Slovak crowns (Sk) (13.158 mil. Eur) in 2007 and by 2010 total state budget contributions will double. EC Directive 2003/30/EC creates business opportunities for certain business groups. But to benefit from this development they will have to act fast. In 2010, 29,000 ha. of maize and a greater acreage of grain will be needed for the production of the required volumes of bio-ethanol and so farmers have a chance to benefit from this situation. But farmers still do not have a clear view of what their cooperation with refineries will be like. In Slovakia, bio-alcohol will be produced from maize or grain. Its price is currently around 100 euro (4 000 Sk) per ton. To produce 1 ton of alcohol, 3 tons of grain are needed. A faster solution for Slovakia could be mixing diesel with MERO as in this area sufficient production capacity already exists, currently a part of production is exported to Germany, according to the head of Palma

  16. PetroChina Inks Bio-Fuel Deal with the State Forestry Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yunqiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ 11 January 2007, Beijing - PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina) signed a framework agreement with the State Forestry Administration (SFA) on the development of forest bio-fuel and officially kicked off the construction of the first batch of forest bio-fuel tree breeding bases in Yunnan and Sichuan, marking a substantial step forward in the cooperation of forest bio-fuel development between the two parties.

  17. Trade of Solid Biofuels, and Fuel Prices in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, biomass fuels are used in the same geographical region, in which they are produced. In more recent years, this pattern has been changed in Northern Europe by large-scale use of biomass for district heating and a vast supply of recycled wood and forest residues. The trade situation has come about as a result of means of control on waste and energy. Sea shipments allow bulk transports of biomass over long distances at low cost. In most countries, the customs statistics do not record trade in such a detail that the international trade of different biomass types could be identified. Today, solid biofuels like wood residues, pellets and wood chips are already traded in Europe and have reached a level of almost 50 PJ/a. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international biomass trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices. The largest volumes of biomass are traded from the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) to the Nordic countries (especially Sweden and Denmark, but also Finland). Some volumes are also traded from Finland to other Nordic countries, and between neighbouring countries in Central Europe, especially the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Italy. The traded biofuel is most often of refined wood fuels (pellets and briquettes) and industrial by-products (sawdust, chips), in Central Europe also wood waste

  18. National Bio-fuel Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezierski, Kelly

    2010-12-27

    The National Biofuel Energy Laboratory or NBEL was a consortia consisting of non-profits, universities, industry, and OEM’s. NextEnergy Center (NEC) in Detroit, Michigan was the prime with Wayne State University as the primary subcontractor. Other partners included: Art Van Furniture; Biodiesel Industries Inc. (BDI); Bosch; Clean Emission Fluids (CEF); Delphi; Oakland University; U.S. TARDEC (The Army); and later Cummins Bridgeway. The program was awarded to NextEnergy by U.S. DOE-NREL on July 1, 2005. The period of performance was about five (5) years, ending June 30, 2010. This program was executed in two phases: 1.Phase I focused on bench-scale R&D and performance-property-relationships. 2.Phase II expanded those efforts into further engine testing, emissions testing, and on-road fleet testing of biodiesel using additional types of feedstock (i.e., corn, and choice white grease based). NextEnergy – a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization based in Detroit was originally awarded a $1.9 million grant from the U.S. Dept. of Energy for Phase I of the NBEL program. A few years later, NextEnergy and its partners received an additional $1.9MM in DOE funding to complete Phase II. The NBEL funding was completely exhausted by the program end date of June 30, 2010 and the cost share commitment of 20% minimum has been exceeded nearly two times over. As a result of the work performed by the NBEL consortia, the following successes were realized: 1.Over one hundred publications and presentations have been delivered by the NBEL consortia, including but not limited to: R&D efforts on algae-based biodiesel, novel heterogeneous catalysis, biodiesel properties from a vast array of feedstock blends, cold flow properties, engine testing results (several Society of Automotive Engineers [SAE] papers have been published on this research), emissions testing results, and market quality survey results. 2.One new spinoff company (NextCAT) was formed by two WSU Chemical Engineering professors

  19. Bio-fuel ceased to be a hit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of automobile biofuels from corn and rape was a magnet for investors. It was just a couple of years ago that the European Union declared that it wanted to decrease dependence on imported oil and ordered refineries to mix biofuel into classic gasoline and petroleum, so that the more expensive bio-fuels wouldn't make tanking costlier. The union's member states aren't imposing consumer taxes on bio-fuels. Investment groups and strong food businesses saw a chance in the new business. Projects increased, a concern beginning whether the farmers would be able to grow enough crops for the planned factories. Today everything's different. Most projects are still on paper. And a part of the factories that were constructed are still without work. The Bratislava producer of plant oil Palma Group closed its Senkvice factory for the production of bio-oil - or differently put methyl rape oil. The investment group Slavia Capital, which controls the firm, since then has been producing the additive just in its Jihlava factory Agropodnik. Now there's a problem with MERO in Biotrend JPS, which is controlled by the Czech company Unocom. In Buzitka, not far from Lucenec, there's an unfinished factory for MERO production, unfinished because the banks stopped financing the construction. The minor co-owner of the firm, village mayor Stanislav Jacmenik, specifies that so far four million euros have been invested in it. They managed to construct the building, but for technologies it couldn't raise another ten million euros. There's also a problem in bio-fuel production abroad. In Austria's Linz, a factory partially owned by the banking group Raiffeisen, went into bankruptcy. Neither has the German Campa Biodiesel been able too keep ahold in this business. Their indebted factory in Ochsenfurt was bought by the multi-national oil group ADM. Several bioethanol factories are not doing better either, which produces from cereals and transfers into gasoline. One factory was abandoned

  20. Reducing Fuel Volatility. An Additional Benefit From Blending Bio-fuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, R. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Koebl, B.S. [Utrecht University, Science Technology and Society, Budapestlaan 6, 3584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands); Sanders, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Oil price volatility harms economic growth. Diversifying into different fuel types can mitigate this effect by reducing volatility in fuel prices. Producing bio-fuels may thus have additional benefits in terms of avoided damage to macro-economic growth. In this study we investigate trends and patterns in the determinants of a volatility gain in order to provide an estimate of the tendency and the size of the volatility gain in the future. The accumulated avoided loss from blending gasoline with 20 percent ethanol-fuel estimated for the US economy amounts to 795 bn. USD between 2010 and 2019 with growing tendency. An amount that should be considered in cost-benefit analysis of bio-fuels.

  1. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  2. Bio-fuels: results in progress, necessary adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the French Court of Auditors examines whether its assessments and recommendations published some years before about the development and use of bio-fuels in France had been taken into account. It shows that the support to bio-fuels has multiple objectives, produced some interesting results, but at high cost. Production processes are described. The authors outline that instruments had not been always coherently implemented, and that the tax system had negative effects. They notice that the objective in terms of bio-diesel share has been reached, whereas that of bio-ethanol has not. They also outline that these results have also been obtained with the help of some palliative measures, and that cost remains high for the consumer. In a second part, the report outlines that the present context calls for adaptations, notably due to its uncertainty (instability of European rules, lack of European ambition, a less promising market, a lower priority for automotive manufacturers), and proposes some perspectives and approaches of adaptation, notably to reach quantitative objectives with a greater transparency for the consumer. The report also contains answers made by the different concerned ministers

  3. The role of bio-fuels in satisfying US transportation fuel demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Berk; Fitch, Jonathan V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Kassebaum, Paul G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Thompson, Robert W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    In spite of the abundant interest in conversion of agricultural products into useful energy carriers, there have been relatively few studies assessing the magnitude of the impact these fuels can make on satisfying US energy demands. There have been fewer studies of unintended consequences stemming from these enterprises, although several research groups have begun questioning the appropriate levels of subsidies provided to individuals and companies to stimulate production of bio-fuels. In this paper, the production capacities for bio-fuels - ethanol and biodiesel - are evaluated for their potential impact on the US energy market. Several ramifications of these technologies are reviewed. This study concludes that ethanol or biodiesel production do not appear scalable to make a significant difference on the US fossil fuel demand for transportation. Aspects of this study point to systemic changes that may be required in lifestyles and attitudes toward energy consumption. Finally, comments regarding US energy policies are included to stimulate discussion. (author)

  4. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cullen, Daniel; Hibbett, David; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Kuske, Cheryl; Magnuson, Jon K.; Martin, Francis; Spatafora, Joey; Tsang, Adrian; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-04-29

    Fungi play important roles across the range of current and future biofuel production processes. From crop/feedstock health to plant biomass saccharification, enzyme production to bioprocesses for producing ethanol, higher alcohols or future hydrocarbon biofuels, fungi are involved. Research and development are underway to understand the underlying biological processes and improve them to make bioenergy production efficient on an industrial scale. Genomics is the foundation of the systems biology approach that is being used to accelerate the research and development efforts across the spectrum of topic areas that impact biofuels production. In this review, we discuss past, current and future advances made possible by genomic analyses of the fungi that impact plant/feedstock health, degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of sugars to ethanol, hydrocarbon biofuels and renewable chemicals.

  5. Biofuels in Spain: Market penetration analysis and competitiveness in the automotive fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years the European Union (E.U.) has been promoting the use of biofuels due to their potential benefits such as the reduction of dependence on foreign energy imports (the raw materials can be produced within the E.U.), the more stable fossil fuel prices (they can replace fossil fuels on the market), the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (biofuels' raw materials fix CO2 from the atmosphere) and the fact that they can represent an additional source of income for the primary sector (biofuels' raw materials are vegetables that can be grown and harvested). Despite the public aids (direct and indirect), biofuels are not competitive with fossil fuels at present, but it is possible that in the future the environment conditions change and biofuels might become competitive. It is difficult to assess whether this will happen or not, but it is possible to make an assessment of a future situation. This article presents two analyses with one objective: to determine if biofuels might become competitive in the future. The first analysis examines the dependencies of two quotations which have a strong relationship with fuels: the crude oil quotation and the CO2 bond quotation. The analysis of these relationships may help to forecast the future competitiveness of biofuels. For instance, biofuels' future competitiveness will be higher if their raw material costs are not related to crude oil quotations or if they are related in a negative way (the higher the crude oil quotations the lower the raw material biofuels' cost). The second analysis focuses on the market penetration of biofuels in the Spanish market. There are data related to biofuels monthly consumption in Spain since 2007 and it is possible to know if biofuels are gaining market quota since then. (author)

  6. Life cycle analyses applied to first generation bio-fuels consumed in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rather voluminous publication reports detailed life cycle analyses for the different present bio-fuels channels also named first-generation bio-fuels: bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, pure vegetal oils, and oil. After a recall of the general principles adopted for this life-cycle analysis, it reports the modelling of the different channels (agricultural steps, bio-fuel production steps, Ethyl tert-butyl ether or ETBE steps, vehicles, animal fats and used vegetal oils, soil assignment change). It gives synthetic descriptions of the different production ways (methyl ester from different plants, ethanol from different plants). It reports and compares the results obtained in terms of performance

  7. Recent advances on the production and utilization trends of bio-fuels: A global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits for the environment, economy and consumers in using bio-fuels. Bio-oil can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Upgrading of bio-oil to a transportation fuel is technically feasible, but needs further development. Bio-fuels are made from biomass through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction and supercritical fluid extraction or biochemical. Biochemical conversion of biomass is completed through alcoholic fermentation to produce liquid fuels and anaerobic digestion or fermentation, resulting in biogas. In wood derived pyrolysis oil, specific oxygenated compounds are present in relatively large amounts. Basically, the recovery of pure compounds from the complex bio-oil is technically feasible but probably economically unattractive because of the high costs for recovery of the chemical and its low concentration in the oil

  8. Recent advances on the production and utilization trends of bio-fuels: A global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, M.F. [P. K. 216, 61035 Trabzon (Turkey); Balat, Mustafa [Polatoglu ap Kat 6, Besikduzu, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits for the environment, economy and consumers in using bio-fuels. Bio-oil can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Upgrading of bio-oil to a transportation fuel is technically feasible, but needs further development. Bio-fuels are made from biomass through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction and supercritical fluid extraction or biochemical. Biochemical conversion of biomass is completed through alcoholic fermentation to produce liquid fuels and anaerobic digestion or fermentation, resulting in biogas. In wood derived pyrolysis oil, specific oxygenated compounds are present in relatively large amounts. Basically, the recovery of pure compounds from the complex bio-oil is technically feasible but probably economically unattractive because of the high costs for recovery of the chemical and its low concentration in the oil. (author)

  9. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. PMID:23201905

  10. Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Robert McCormack; Gillian S. Paul; Marissa Karpoff; Megan A. Toth; Alison Marklein; David Pimentel; Tim Krueger; Joanna Kyriazis

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for hum...

  11. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  12. The role of bio-fuels in satisfying US transportation fuel demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the abundant interest in conversion of agricultural products into useful energy carriers, there have been relatively few studies assessing the magnitude of the impact these fuels can make on satisfying US energy demands. There have been fewer studies of unintended consequences stemming from these enterprises, although several research groups have begun questioning the appropriate levels of subsidies provided to individuals and companies to stimulate production of bio-fuels. In this paper, the production capacities for bio-fuels-ethanol and biodiesel-are evaluated for their potential impact on the US energy market. Several ramifications of these technologies are reviewed. This study concludes that ethanol or biodiesel production do not appear scalable to make a significant difference on the US fossil fuel demand for transportation. Aspects of this study point to systemic changes that may be required in lifestyles and attitudes toward energy consumption. Finally, comments regarding US energy policies are included to stimulate discussion

  13. An economic analysis of a major bio-fuel program undertaken by OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel are creating a new demand for agricultural output and for agriculture land in Canada. However, the participation of other large countries with a large demand potential is necessary for bio-fuels to have a significant impact on the price of grains and oilseeds. This paper quantified the potential impact that a major bio-fuel program initiated by OECD countries has on grain and oilseed prices. The program was initiated for the period 1999 to 2006. There is considerable interest by Canadian producers to stimulate grain and oilseed prices by increasing demand of biofuels. This renewable energy source produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions than petroleum products. The analysis presented in this paper only considered ethanol from corn or wheat and bio-diesel from vegetable oils. It also focused only on the use of bio-fuels in the OECD transportation sector. The analysis was undertaken with AGLINK, a multi-commodity multi-country policy-specific dynamic model of the international agricultural markets built by the OECD with member countries. It was shown that the increase in world and domestic prices for grains and vegetable oils will remain strong, particularly toward 2006. It was also shown that a major bio-fuel program for all OECD countries would be beneficial to Canadian agriculture. It was concluded that ultimately, an increase in OECD bio-fuels usage has a direct impact on the demand for grains and oilseeds which are important feed-stocks in biofuel production. The analysis presumes an increase in renewable fuel use, but does not consider factors such as financial incentives and regulatory requirements that could bring about this increase. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Round table on bio-fuels; Table ronde sur les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  15. Fuel characterisation, engine performance, combustion and exhaust emissions with a new renewable Licella biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new biofuel produced by hydrothermal liquefaction is investigated. • Licella biofuel blends showed no significant changes in engine performance. • Licella blends showed higher THC and NO emissions. • PM and PN emissions were observed to be lower for all Licella blends. • Hydrothermal liquefaction Licella biofuel is suitable for use in diesel engine. - Abstract: The current study investigates the opportunity of using Licella biofuel as a partly renewable fuel provided by Licella P/L. Hereafter this fuel will be referred to as Licella biofuel. The renewable component of the Licella biofuel was made from the hydrothermal conversion of Australian pinus radiata wood flour using Licella’s proprietary Cat-HTR™ technology. The diesel-soluble component of the hydrothermal product was extracted into road diesel to give a blended fuel containing approximately 30% renewable material with the balance from diesel. This was further blended with a regular diesel fuel (designated R0) to give fuels for testing containing 5%, 10% and 20% renewable fuel (designated R5, R10 and R20). Some of the key fuel properties were measured for R30 and compared with those of regular diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted on a four-cylinder turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engine. All experiments were performed with a constant speed and five different engine loads. Exhaust emissions including particulate matter (PM) mass and numbers, nitric oxide (NO), total unburnt hydrocarbon (THC), carbon dioxide (CO2) and performance parameters including brake power (BP), indicated power (IP), brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), mechanical efficiency (ME), brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) were investigated for all four blends (R0, R5, R10 and R20). Among other engine parameters, in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR) and pressure (P) versus volume (V) diagrams

  16. Panorama 2007: Potential biomass mobilization for bio-fuel production worldwide, in Europe and in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One key factor in ensuring the success of bio-fuel technologies, which are expected to see high growth, is the availability of biomass resources. Although the targets set in Europe and France for the replacement of petroleum products in the transport sector by 2010 can be met by converting farm surpluses into biofuels, in order to proceed further, it will be necessary to mobilize a resource that is more abundant and potentially less costly: ligno-cellulosic materials, i.e. wood or straw. The future of biofuels depends on establishing the much-awaited 'second generation' bio-fuel pathways able to convert ligno-cellulosic materials to ethanol, bio-diesel and bio-kerosene. (author)

  17. Possibility to Increase Biofuels Energy Efficiency used for Compression Ignition Engines Fueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin D. Iclodean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of optimizing the use of biofuels in terms of energy efficiency in compression ignition (CI engines fueling. Based on the experimental results was determinate the law of variation of the rate of heat released by the combustion process for diesel fuel and different blends of biodiesel. Using this law, were changed parameters of the engine management system (fuel injection law and was obtain increased engine performance (in terms of energy efficiency for use of different biofuel blends.

  18. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  19. How "Green" Is Your Fuel? Creation and Comparison of Automotive Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eugene P.; Koehle, Maura A.; Moyle, Todd M.; Lambert, Patrick D.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biofuel development and use has risen significantly. This undergraduate laboratory experiment educates students on the various alternative fuels that are being developed for automotive applications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students replicate commercially available alternative fuels, E85 and biodiesel, as well…

  20. Status and outlook for biofuels, other alternative fuels and new vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O.; Aakko-Saksa, P.; Sipilae, K.

    2008-03-15

    The report presents an outlook for alternative motor fuels and new vehicles. The time period covered extends up to 2030. The International Energy Agency and the U.S. Energy Information Administration predict that the world energy demand will increase by over 50% from now to 2030, if policies remain unchanged. Most of the growth in demand for energy in general, as well as for transport fuels, will take place in non-OECD countries. Gasoline and diesel are projected to remain the dominant automotive fuels until 2030. Vehicle technology and high quality fuels will eventually solve the problem of harmful exhaust emissions. However, the problem with CO{sub 2} still remains, and much attention will be given to increase efficiency. Hybrid technology is one option to reduce fuel consumption. Diesel engines are fuel efficient, but have high emissions compared with advanced gasoline engines. New combustion systems combining the best qualities of gasoline and diesel engines promise low emissions as well as high efficiency. The scenarios for alternative fuels vary a lot. By 2030, alternative fuels could represent a 10- 30% share of transport fuels, depending on policies. Ambitious goals for biofuels in transport have been set. As advanced biofuels are still in their infancy, it seems probable that traditional biofuels will also be used in 2030. Ethanol is the fastest growing biofuel. Currently the sustainability of biofuels is discussed extensively. Synthetic fuels promise excellent end-use properties, reduced emissions, and if produced from biomass, also reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. The report presents an analysis of technology options to meet the requirements for energy security, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, reduced local emissions as well as sustainability in general in the long run. In the short term, energy savings will be the main measure for CO{sub 2} reductions in transport, fuel switches will have a secondary role. (orig.)

  1. Perceived importance of fuel characteristics and its match with consumer beliefs about biofuels in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumer consciousness concerning the environment has increased and become a major factor in purchasing behaviour. Consumer research to understand and influence the adoption of green technologies and products is therefore important. This paper investigates the beliefs of Belgian consumers concerning the use of biofuels and identifies four consumer segments based on the perceived importance of different fuel characteristics. To convince the performance-oriented consumers to use biofuels, information about these fuels has to stress their quality and performance standards. The society-oriented cluster attaches great importance to environmental friendliness, odour, production origin, the opportunity to decrease energy dependency and job creation. To persuade the environment-oriented consumers low odour, beneficial environmental influence and quality assurance of biofuels have to be emphasized. The convenience-oriented consumers will be the most difficult to persuade to use biofuels. They need to be convinced that every vehicle can drive with biofuel blends without the need for engine modifications. Concerns relating to the price and perceived low availability of biofuels at fuel stations are major obstacles for all consumers involved in this study. (author)

  2. Perceived importance of fuel characteristics and its match with consumer beliefs about biofuels in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumer consciousness concerning the environment has increased and become a major factor in purchasing behaviour. Consumer research to understand and influence the adoption of green technologies and products is therefore important. This paper investigates the beliefs of Belgian consumers concerning the use of biofuels and identifies four consumer segments based on the perceived importance of different fuel characteristics. To convince the performance-oriented consumers to use biofuels, information about these fuels has to stress their quality and performance standards. The society-oriented cluster attaches great importance to environmental friendliness, odour, production origin, the opportunity to decrease energy dependency and job creation. To persuade the environment-oriented consumers low odour, beneficial environmental influence and quality assurance of biofuels have to be emphasized. The convenience-oriented consumers will be the most difficult to persuade to use biofuels. They need to be convinced that every vehicle can drive with biofuel blends without the need for engine modifications. Concerns relating to the price and perceived low availability of biofuels at fuel stations are major obstacles for all consumers involved in this study.

  3. Screening potential social impacts of fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generic social and socioeconomic impacts of various biofuels and fossil fuels were screened by applying Social Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Data were taken from the Social Hotspots Database on all categories for all the related themes and all indicators available. To limit the amount of data, only high and very high risk indicators were considered for each combination. The risks identified per life cycle phase were listed for each fuel assessed and the results were then aggregated by counting the number of high and very high risk indicators for that fuel. All the fossil fuels and biofuels analysed were found to display high or very high risks of negative impacts. Country of origin seemed to be of greater importance for risks than fuel type, as the most risk-related and least risk-related product systems referred to the same type of fuel, fossil oil from Russia/Nigeria and fossil oil from Norway, respectively. These results suggest that in developing policy, strict procurement requirements on social performance should be set for both fossil fuel and biofuel. However, the results must be interpreted with care owing to some limitations in the assessment, such as simplifications to life cycles, method used and data collection. - Highlights: • Both fossil and biofuels displayed high or very high risks of negative social impacts. • Social procurement requirements should be applied on all vehicle fuels. • Applying social criteria only on biofuels may be unfairly benefiting fossil fuels. • Social LCA can identify severe social impacts and influence policies accordingly. • Schemes can be adapted to include relevant criteria for specific fuels and/or origins

  4. Biofuel impacts on world food supply: use of fossil fuel, land and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%. (author)

  5. Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert McCormack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%.

  6. The feasibility and implications for conventional liquid fossil fuel of the Indonesian biofuel target in 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies conventional liquid fossil fuels that can be replaced or blended with biofuel and quantifies the biofuels required to meet the Indonesian biofuel target of at least 5% of the total primary energy mix in 2025. The analysis was conducted using the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system with an energy elasticity of 1 and maximum allowable biofuel blending ratios according to the current best practices. The results show that the target could be achieved with the maximum blending alternative based on constant energy demand growth of 6%. The target requires a total contribution from biofuel of about 8–27 GL in 2025 depending on blending ratios. In energy terms, these are equivalent to 232–782 PJ or about 40–135 million barrels crude oil, which constitute roughly around 3.3–11.0% of the estimated liquid fossil fuel oil annual consumption in that year. The results imply that it may have detrimental environmental impact, as it requires 5.2 million ha of palm oil and sugar cane plantations. On the positive side, achieving the target offers potential new employment opportunities of about 3.4 million jobs, particularly in the agricultural sector relevant to liquid biofuel production. - Highlights: • Indonesian energy demand in 2025 was forecasted by using LEAP. • The biofuel target (5% of the total energy mix in 2025) requires 782 PJ of biofuel. • The target can be achieved under the scenario of maximum blending alternative. • The target requires up to 5.2 million ha of palm oil and sugar cane plantation area. • It may offer potential new employment for about 3.4 million people

  7. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  8. On the potential of third generation biofuels as a sustainable fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckermann, Wilhelm A. [Hochschule Esslingen (Germany). Faculty of Natural Sciences

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other alternative transportation fuels, such as hydrogen or electricity, biofuels have the advantage of high energy density and easy handling. This means that they can be used in a comparable way and with the same logistic systems as classic fossil fuels. Furthermore, it is expected that their utilisation will provide a positive environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, driven by environmental and energy-political ambitions, biofuels will attain increasing importance in the future. Some forecasts see a portion of up to 50% which these fuels might contribute to the global fuel demand by the middle of the century. In contrast to those of the first and second generation, third generation biofuels, which are based on specifically cultivated plants and micro-organisms, are not in competition with the provision of food and have distinctly lower requirements for agricultural land use. This contribution will outline the aspects of availability and sustainability of this kind of biogenic fuels and will analyse in particular which role third generation biofuels might play. (orig.)

  9. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  10. Mixed bio-fuel produced with use of rapeseed pomace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závada, J.; Nadkanská, H.; Šašek, Petr; Smatanová, N.; Bouchal, T.

    Volume 1, Book 4. Sofie: International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM, 2014, s. 347-352. ISBN 978-619-7105-15-5. ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference and EXPO, SGEM 2014. Albena (BG), 17.06.2014-26.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : biomass * pellets * biofuel * pomace Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling http://www.sgem.org/sgemlib/spip.php?article4664&lang=en

  11. Price transmission between biofuels, fuels and food commodities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Janda, K.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), s. 362-373. ISSN 1932-104X Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : biofuels * price transmission * non-linearity * elasticity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.214, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0433525.pdf

  12. Use of the fuel obtained from waste plastics as a mixture with diesel and biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiernicki, Z.; Zelazo, P. [Lublin Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The researches concerning the use of fuel derived from waste plastics and biodiesel have been presented in the paper. The biodiesel and the fuel obtained from waste plastics were both used as fuel components. The bio-admixture in the fuel was FAME, STING and rape oil. The catalytic cracking of polyolefin's was the source of second fuel admixture. The physical properties of analyzed components of the fuel have been presented. The operational parameters of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with tested fuel blends have been set out. The principles of fuel mixture preparation has been also described. The concept of the diesel fuel which is made from the components of opposite physical properties could have a positive practical effect and could improve the use of biofuels. (orig.)

  13. Environmental evaluation of the use of alternate (bio)fuels in the Gelderland 13 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generating companies in the Netherlands substitute part of the coal by biomass to produce electricity. The environmental (dis)advantages of four alternate biofuels (wood wastes, frying fat, fatty acids of palm oil, and tall oil (pitch)) were studied. Co-combustion of those alternate fuels in the power plant unit Gelderland 13 improves the local air quality

  14. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  15. Capacitance Sensors for Nondestructive Moisture Determination in Agricultural and Bio-fuel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content of wood chips, pellets, switch grass powders, and similar organic bio-fuel materials is an important property to be known to determine their utility and energy efficiency at various stages of their processing and storage. Several moisture measuring instruments are available in the m...

  16. ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTION OF BIO-FUEL FROM THE BYE PRODUCTS OF OIL SPILLAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, O.; Kravchuk, R.; Lutc, A.; Adeniyi, Ch.; Gladysheva, V.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical approach in identifying of ecologically effective methods for oil spills purification were investigated and new effective method of alternative biofuel production from the bye products of oil spillage were proposed.Key words: hydrocarbons, oil spills, alternative fuels, algal farming.

  17. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  18. Performance Improvement of a Portable Electric Generator Using an Optimized Bio-Fuel Ratio in a Single Cylinder Two-Stroke Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada Hiroaki; Hanamoto Tsuyoshi; Shirai Yoshihito; Nashiren Farzilah Mailah; Suhairi Rizuan; Norhisam Misron; Aravind Vaithilingam

    2011-01-01

    The performance of an electrical generator using bio-fuel and gasoline blends of different composition as fuel in a single cylinder engine is presented. The effect of an optimized blend ratio of bio-fuel with gasoline on engine performance improvement and thereby on the electrical generator output is studied. Bio-fuels such as ethanol, butanol and methanol are blended with gasoline in different proportions and evaluated for performance. The effects of different bio-fuel/gasoline blending rati...

  19. Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Kuo, Alan; Sato, Trey K.; Potts, Katlyn M.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Sun, Hui; Clum, Alicia; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Zinkel, Robert; Barry, Kerrie W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2011-02-24

    Cellulosic biomass is an abundant and underused substrate for biofuel production. The inability of many microbes to metabolize the pentose sugars abundant within hemicellulose creates specific challenges for microbial biofuel production from cellulosic material. Although engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use the pentose xylose, the fermentative capacity pales in comparison with glucose, limiting the economic feasibility of industrial fermentations. To better understand xylose utilization for subsequent microbial engineering, we sequenced the genomes of two xylose-fermenting, beetle-associated fungi, Spathaspora passalidarum and Candida tenuis. To identify genes involved in xylose metabolism, we applied a comparative genomic approach across 14 Ascomycete genomes, mapping phenotypes and genotypes onto the fungal phylogeny, and measured genomic expression across five Hemiascomycete species with different xylose-consumption phenotypes. This approach implicated many genes and processes involved in xylose assimilation. Several of these genes significantly improved xylose utilization when engineered into S. cerevisiae, demonstrating the power of comparative methods in rapidly identifying genes for biomass conversion while reflecting on fungal ecology.

  20. Panorama 2011: New bio-fuel production technologies: overview of these expanding sectors and the challenges facing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerous research programmes looking at new-generation biofuels that were initiated over the last ten years are now starting to bear fruit. Although no plants are producing and marketing biofuels yet, the large-scale, industrial feasibility of second-generation bio-fuel production at competitive cost may be demonstrated in the short-term. As far as third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass are concerned, there is a great deal of R and D interest in the sector, but the technology is still only in its infancy. (author)

  1. Study of an exhaust gas recirculation equipped micro gas turbine supplied with bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss in this paper some aspects related to the employment of liquid and gaseous bio-fuels in a micro-gas turbine. Besides the purpose of checking the effectiveness of methods for supplying the micro-turbine with fuels from renewable sources, the attention is focused on the need of controlling the pollutant emission. To this aim, several solutions are experienced and numerically tested. For the liquid fuel supply, a new shape and location of the main fuel injector is combined with a modified position of the pilot injector. In the case of the biogas fuelling, an external EGR option is considered as activated. Both methods aim at the reduction of the thermal and prompt NO formation by approaching the flameless combustion concept. -- Highlights: • External and internal EGR concepts applied to NOx control from micro gas turbines. • For gaseous fuels: internal EGR is obtained by a proper location of the pilot injector. • For liquid fuels: replacing the original radial injectors with a pressure swirl atomizer. • We apply a CFD based method, after validation with experimental data. • Blends of bio-fuels with fossil fuels promise noticeable benefits

  2. Application of FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy to Characterize Waste and Bio-Fuels for Pyrolysis and Gasification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalisz, S.; Svoboda, Karel; Robak, Z.; Baxter, D.; Andersen, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2008), s. 51-52. ISSN 1733-4381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ft-Iir spectroscopy * bio-fuels * gasification Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  3. Meeting the U.S. renewable fuel standard: a comparison of biofuel pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Y. Menetrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid development. Ethanol primarily derived from corn and biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil and agricultural grains are established sources of renewable transportation fuel. Cellulosic ethanol production is increasing substantially, but at a rate below expectations. If future renewable fuel projections are to be accomplished, additional sources will be needed. Ideally, these sources should be independent of competing feedstock use such as food grains, and require a minimal footprint. Although the uses of algae seem promising, a number of demonstrations have not been economically successful in today‟s market. This paper identifies efforts being conducted on ethanol and biodiesel production and how algae might contribute to the production of biofuel in the United States. Additionally, the feedstock and land requirements of existing biofuel pathways are compared and discussed.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL SCENARIOS FOR MANDATORY BIO-FUEL BLENDING TARGETS: AN APPLICATION OF INTUITIVE LOGICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Conejero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios depicting targets concerning mandatory bio-fuel blending are critical to the strategic planning of food and bio-energy production chains and their design is the purpose of this paper. Each scenario tells a story about how various elements might interact under given conditions. The method herein utilized is primarily based on Schoemaker´s (1995 and Schwartz´s (1991 earlier proposals. A six step framework is followed: i identify the focal issue; ii summarize current mandatory blending targets; iii identify the driving forces as of a macro-environmental analysis; iv validate driving forces with specialists; v rank such key forces by importance before uncertainties, building a correlation matrix; vi design the scenarios. Finally, three alternative scenarios, relative to the adoption on behalf of countries, by the year 2020, of mandatory bio-fuel blending targets, are proposed which might guide these countries’ decision makers when planning production systems.

  5. Implementing the Bio-fuel Plan while considering water resource protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recalls the objectives of the 'Bio-fuel Plan', and analyses firstly their implications in terms of cultivated surfaces either by using land fallows, or by substitution to other crops, or by intensification, and secondly, the consequences of these different options for water resources. The authors finally discusses the agronomic issue related to the protection of colza, the content of the environmental charter for the cultivation of winter colza, and some financial and practical conditions for the development of energetic crops

  6. The biggest bio-fuel plant in Norway - a profitable environmental investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years ago, Norske Skog Saugbrugs in Halden, Norway, invested NOK 180 mill in a new combustion plant for bio-fuel. In 2001, the plant produced 400 GWh and so replaced about 35 000 tonnes of oil. Considering the Kyoto Agreement, the profitability is even greater. The capacity of the boiler is 400 - 450 GWh, which covers more than 40 percent of the paper factory's need for thermal energy. The paper factory in Halden is one of the largest in Europe. About half of the bio-fuel derives from the factory's own production, which is an important reason why the price of bio-energy is less than the price of oil. At the same time the use of the biomass for energy production implies that bark and mud does not pile up in the factory. The remaining half of the biomass, the external half, is wood returned from building activities in the form of wood chippings, one-time pallets and similar. This also solves a social problem. The bio-fuel plant uses a fluidized bed boiler of very high efficiency. This implies very small emissions of NOx and CO. Particles are removed by means of an electro filter. The system meets the requirements made by the EU and by Norwegian pollution control authorities

  7. Fuel from Tobacco and Arundo Donax: Synthetic Crop for Direct Drop-in Biofuel Production through Re-routing the Photorespiration Intermediates and Engineering Terpenoid Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-15

    PETRO Project: Biofuels offer renewable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels that reduce net greenhouse gas emissions to nearly zero. However, traditional biofuels production is limited not only by the small amount of solar energy that plants convert through photosynthesis into biological materials, but also by inefficient processes for converting these biological materials into fuels. Farm-ready, non-food crops are needed that produce fuels or fuel-like precursors at significantly lower costs with significantly higher productivity. To make biofuels cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels, biofuels production costs must be cut in half.

  8. Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop: functional genomics for understanding metabolic pathways and genetic improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

    2013-10-01

    Jatropha curcas is currently attracting much attention as an oilseed crop for biofuel, as Jatropha can grow under climate and soil conditions that are unsuitable for food production. However, little is known about Jatropha, and there are a number of challenges to be overcome. In fact, Jatropha has not really been domesticated; most of the Jatropha accessions are toxic, which renders the seedcake unsuitable for use as animal feed. The seeds of Jatropha contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively impact the biofuel quality. Fruiting of Jatropha is fairly continuous, thus increasing costs of harvesting. Therefore, before starting any improvement program using conventional or molecular breeding techniques, understanding gene function and the genome scale of Jatropha are prerequisites. This review presents currently available and relevant information on the latest technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) to decipher important metabolic pathways within Jatropha, such as oil and toxin synthesis. Further, it discusses future directions for biotechnological approaches in Jatropha breeding and improvement. PMID:24092674

  9. FUEL ADDITIVES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN ENGINES USING BIOFUELS

    OpenAIRE

    Claydon, David

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades great strides have been taken by the European parliament, in consultation with oil companies and car manufacturers, to improve air quality within the European union. Air quality improvements have mostly been achieved by the publication of vehicle emissions directives forcing car manufacturers to design more efficient vehicle technology. These vehicles can only operate to their design specification when appropriate quality fuels are available and this has led to pub...

  10. Bifunctional Nanostructured Base Catalysts: Opportunities for BioFuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, William

    2010-12-30

    ABSTRACT This research studied and develop novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We will focus on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts formed by two techniques: from (mixed) metal-oxide bases and by nitrogen substitution for oxygen in zeolites. These catalysts will be compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, catalytic fast pyrolysis, and transesterification reactions. These reactions are important in processes that are currently being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and will be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we have studied the aldol-condensation of acetone with furfural over oxides and zeolites, the conversion of sugars by rapid pyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our previous research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen-substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  11. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    Being the two largest ethanol producers in the world, transportation fuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. affect not only their domestic markets but also the global food and biofuel economy. Hence, the complex biofuel policy climate in these countries leaves the public with unclear conclusions about the prospects for supply and trade of agricultural commodities and biofuels. In this dissertation I develop a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simulate and analyze the impacts of biofuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. on land use in these countries, agricultural commodity and transportation fuel markets, trade, and global environment. The model maximizes the social surplus represented by the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses, including selected agricultural commodity markets and fuel markets in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and the Rest-of-the-World (ROW), subject to resource limitations, material balances, technical constraints, and policy restrictions. Consumers' surplus is derived from consumption of agricultural commodities and transportation fuels by vehicles that generate vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT). While in the other regional components aggregate supply and demand functions are assumed for the commodities included in the analysis, the agricultural supply component is regionally disaggregated for Brazil and the U.S., and the transportation fuel sector is regionally disaggregated for Brazil. The U.S. agricultural supply component includes production of fourteen major food/feed crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat, and cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. The Brazil component includes eight major annual crops, including soybeans, corn, wheat, and rice, and sugarcane as the energy crop. A particular emphasis is given to the beef-cattle production in Brazil and the potential for livestock semi-intensification in Brazilian pasture grazing systems as a prospective pathway for releasing new croplands. In the fuel sector of both

  12. Comparing the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels: A case study of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel substitution for fossil fuels has been recommended in the literature and promoted in many countries; however, there are concerns about its economic viability. In this paper we focus on the cost-effectiveness of fuels, i.e., we compare the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels for a functional unit defined as 1 km of vehicle transportation. We base our empirical results on a case study in Vietnam and compare two biofuels and their alternative fossil fuels: ethanol and gasoline, and biodiesel and diesel with a focus on the blends of E5 and E10 for ethanol, and B5 and B10 for biodiesel. At the discount rate of 4%, ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 or E10 saves 33% of the social cost of gasoline if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is the same as gasoline. The ethanol substitution will be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10, in terms of L km−1, is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline by more than 1.7% and 3.5% for E5 and E10 respectively. The biodiesel substitution would be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of B5 and B10, in terms of L km−1 compared to diesel, would decrease by more than 1.4% and 2.8% for B5 and B10 respectively at the discount rate of 4%. -- Highlights: •We examine cost-effectiveness of biofuels under efficiency levels of blends. •Cassava-based ethanol used as E5 saves 33% of social cost compared to gasoline. •Ethanol is cost-effective if E5 consumption per km is less than 1.017 times gasoline consumption. •Jatropha-based biodiesel used as B5 or B10 is currently not cost-effective in comparison to diesel. •Biodiesel would be cost-effective if B5 consumption per km would be less than 0.986 times diesel consumption

  13. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Hawkes; James O' Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model

  14. EMBIO - The Danish Energy Agency's model for economic and environmental evaluation of bio-fuels. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodological concept is established for a life-cycle based model which can be used for socio- and private economic and environmental assessment of automotive bio-fuels. The calculation method must be able to calculate socio-economic, energy, environmental, and other consequences by alternative productions and uses of bio-fuels in a way that makes it possible to compare advantages and disadvantages across alternative production technologies. Furthermore it must be possible to perform private cost-benefit calculations from the model. The model must also be able to evaluate specific bio-fuel project, and therefore the method has been developed in close interaction with analyses of two bio-fuel projects. The main emphasis in the development of the model has been put on the relation between CO2 reduction and economics. One main result of the model analyses is therefore the calculated shadow price for the CO2 reduction which expresses the socio-economic costs per ton saved CO2. The socio-economic analyses of the model do not include a monetary account of other environmental impacts than the CO2 emission or other relevant consequences like impacts on employment, balance of payments etc. Thus the socio-economic analyses cannot be the only decision basis for assessing bio-fuel projects. The other environmental aspects are treated only briefly. The model may, however, very easily be extended to a more formalized account of these other aspects. The model may be used for specific experimental projects and for implementation of large full-scale projects. The model development has been limited to use of bio-fuels in the transportation sector. The model may, however, also be used for evaluating bio-fuels in general or other biomass-based energy use in other sectors. (LN) 113 refs

  15. Biofuels: which interest, which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a synthesis of several studies concerning the production and utilization of bio-fuels: energy balance and greenhouse effect of the various bio-fuel systems; economical analysis and profitability of bio-fuel production; is the valorization of bio-fuel residues and by-products in animal feeding a realistic hypothesis?; assessment of the cost for the community due to tax exemption for bio-fuels

  16. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  17. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting-Huan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310 (China); Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China); Su, Hsin-Mei [Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  18. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  19. Energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of biofuels in Spain's transport fuel. The adoption of the EU policy on biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) the fossil energy benefits and avoided global warming emissions have been evaluated for the EU Biofuels goals in Spain. The Biofuels considered are cereal ethanol, biodiesel from residual oils, and from palm, sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed vegetable oils. Our findings are that the source of the cereal and vegetable oil influences the efficacy of the Biofuels and that results greatly depend on whether or not electricity has been produced as co-product in bioethanol plants and that without CHP the energy balance of ethanol is negative with few greenhouse gas offsets.

  20. The Effect of Bio-Fuel Blends and Fuel Injection Pressure on Diesel Engine Emission for Sustainable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Muralidharan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diesel engine emits more pollutants to atmosphere causing air pollution. This necessitates the search of a renewable alternate fuel which is environment friendly. The objective of this research was to investigate the environmental aspects of pongamia bio-fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine with the influence of fuel injection pressure. Approach: Bio-fuel was prepared from non-edible Pongamia pinnata oil by transesterification and used as a fuel in C.I engine. The effect of fuel injection pressure on the engine emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pongamia pinnata methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel from 0-30% with an increment of 5% at full load. The tests were conducted at five different injection pressures (190, 200, 210, 220 and 230 KN m-2 by means of adjusting injector spring tension. Results: Compared to diesel, blend B5 exhibits lower engine emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon di oxide at full load. The High injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 shows lesser emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide while oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide are found to be slightly higher than diesel and blends at full load. Conclusion: From the test results, it was found that a high injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 causes better atomization with improved engine emission characteristics for diesel and blends at full load. Moreover blend B5 showed best results at 220 KN m-2 injection pressure.

  1. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  2. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy efficient roadmap to successfully propel the entire future transportation sector.

  3. Critical analysis on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent times, the global debate on the environment has been centered on CO2 emissions. This gas is the major cause of the ''greenhouse effect'' and people are more concerned with the idea that the emissions of this gas should be minimized. As a result of this concern, the Kyoto Protocol was enacted and subscribed to by many countries, setting the maximum gas emissions for them. Fossil fuels are a major source of CO2 emissions. For some years now The European Union has been seeking to promote some years now the use of biofuels as substitutes for diesel or petrol for transport purposes. As a result of this policy, in 2003 the European Union (EU) Directive 2003/30/EC was developed with the aim of promoting the use of biofuels as a substitute for diesel or gasoline among European Union countries as well as to contribute to fulfilling the commitments acquired on climate change, security of supply in environmentally friendly conditions and the promotion of renewable energy sources. In order to achieve these goals, the directive forces all EU members to ensure that before December 31 of 2010 at least 5.75% of all gasoline and diesel fuels sold for transport purposes are biofuels. European Union countries have social and economic characteristics unique to themselves. The energy dependence on foreign sources, the features of the agricultural sector or the degree of industrialization varies greatly from one country to another. In this context, it is questionable whether the obligation imposed by this directive is actually achieving in its application uniform and/or identical goals in each of the countries involved and whether the actions of the various governments are also aligned with these goals. All these ideas were developed in a previous report (Sobrino and Monroy (2009)). This report examines the possibility of using hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels from a technical, economic and environmental point of view in the specific case of a European

  4. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food; Coproduits des biocarburants en France: perspectives et consequences en alimentation animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  5. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, Pedro [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Newell, LeLe [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  6. Adiabatic flame temperature from biofuels and fossil fuels and derived effect on NOx emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, Rene; Bounaceur, Roda (DCPR, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, 1, rue Grandville - BP 20451 - 54001 NANCY Cedex - France); Moliere, Michel [GE Energy Product-Europe, 20 avenue de Marechal Juin, BP 379, 90007 Belfort (France)

    2010-02-15

    There is currently a sustained interest in biofuels as they represent a potential alternative to petroleum derived fuels. Biofuels are likely to help decrease greenhouse gas emissions and the dependence on oil resources. Biodiesels are Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) that are mainly derived from vegetable oils; their compositions depend on the parent vegetables: rapeseed (''RME''), soybean (''SME''), sunflower, palm etc. A fraction of biodiesel has also an animal origin (''tallow''). A key factor for the use of biofuels in gas turbines is their emission indices (NOx, CO, VOC, and PM) in comparison with those of conventional ''petroleum gasoils''. While biodiesels reduce carbon-containing pollutants, experimental data from diesel engines show a slight increase in NOx. The literature relating to gas turbines is very scarce. Two recent, independent field tests carried out in Europe (RME) and in the USA (SME) showed slightly lower NOx while a lab test on a microturbine showed the opposite effect. To clarify the NOx index of biodiesels in gas turbines, a study has been undertaken, taking gasoil and natural gas (NG) as reference fuels. In this study, a calculation of the flame temperature developed by the 3 classes of fuels has been performed and the effect of their respective compositions has been investigated. The five FAMEs studied were RME, SME and methyl esters of sunflower, palm and tallow; these are representative of most widespread vegetable and animal oil bases worldwide. The software THERGAS has been used to calculate the enthalpy and free energy properties of the fuels and GASEQ for the flame temperature (T{sub f}), acknowledging the fact that ''thermal NOx'' represents the predominant form of NOx in gas turbines. To complete the approach to structural effects, we have modeled two NG compositions (rich and weak gases) and three types of gasoil using variable

  7. The Challenge of Efficient Synthesis of Biofuels from Lignocellulose for Future Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Mäki-Arvela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration of sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF has recently been under intensive study by a multitude of research groups. On the other hand, when lignocellulosic biomass is applied as the starting material, very few studies can be found in the open literature. The direct synthesis of HMF, in line with the idea of “one-pot” synthesis strategy from lignocellulose, is demanding since the overall process should encompass dissolution, hydrolysis, and dehydration steps in a single processing unit. Ionic liquid-assisted methods to produce hydroxymethyl-furfural directly from lignocellulosic biomass are reported here together with a short overview of the most important biofuels. In reality, HMF is not suitable to be used as a single-component fuel as such, and, consequently, methods to produce HMF derivatives suitable as liquid fuels are reported.

  8. Third generation biofuels. The future of a sustainable fuel supply?; Biokraftstoffe der dritten Generation. Die Zukunft einer nachhaltigen Kraftstoffversorgung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckermann, Wilhelm-August; Kailer, Janina [Hochschule Esslingen (Germany). Fakultaet Angewandte Naturwissenschaften

    2012-02-15

    Driven by environmental and political concerns, biofuels shall attain an increasing importance in the future. Some forecasts see these fuels contributing up to 50 % of the global fuel demand by the middle of the century. The aim of this article is to discuss these scenarios regarding the aspects of sustainability and to compare the different kinds of production of biogenic fuels. In contrast to those of the first and second generation, third generation biofuels, which are based on specifically cultivated plants and micro-organisms, do not stand in competition to the production of food and have a distinctly lower requirement of agricultural land use. These fuels are supposed to present a clearly better profile of sustainability. While further research and development is required during the next years before they can contribute to the fuel supply to a bigger extent, they nevertheless have the potential to make a significant contribution to an environmentally protective and sustainable mobility in the future. (orig.)

  9. Algae as a Feedstock for Transportation Fuels. The Future of Biofuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Ralph [Sentech, Inc., Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Consulting, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Events in world energy markets over the past several years have prompted many new technical developments as well as political support for alternative transportation fuels, especially those that are renewable. We have seen dramatic rises in the demand for and production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils. The quantities of these fuels being used continue to rise dramatically, and their use is helping to create a political climate for doing even more. But, the quantities are still far too small to stem the tide of rising crude prices worldwide. In fact, the use of some traditional crops (corn, sugar, soy, etc.) in making fuels instead of food is apparently beginning to impact the cost of food worldwide. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing alternative biofuel feedstocks for use in making fuels -- feedstocks that are not used in the food industries. Of course, we know that there is a lot of work in developing cellulosic-based ethanol that would be made from woody biomass. Process development is the critical path for this option, and the breakthrough in reducing the cost of the process has been elusive thus far. Making biodiesel from vegetable oils is a well-developed and inexpensive process, but to date there have been few reasonable alternatives for making biodiesel, although advanced processes such as gasification of biomass remain an option.

  10. Biofuels of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Oxburgh, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are good biofuels and bad biofuels. The good ones offer the prospect of transport fuels that have much lower environmental impact than fossil fuels and could before long be less expensive as well. Bad or irresponsibly produced biofuels may at best bring little environmental advantage; at worst they may also cause serious environmental damage, habitat destruction and food shortages. The biofuel industry of the future will make a significant contribution to the greening of the world’s veh...

  11. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  12. The Discussion of Bio-Fuel Development%对未来生物燃料发展技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵强; 陈晓香; 魏玓巧

    2015-01-01

    分析了生物质燃料替代化石类燃料的发展背景,总结了生物质燃料的发展过程、技术原理和国内外的发展状况,提出了绿色燃料的发展远景.%The development background of bio-fuel is studied instead of fossil fuel. The development route,technological theory and current situation of bio-fuel are summaried. The bright future of bio-fuel is expected for green production.

  13. Limits to the potential of bio-fuels and bio-sequestration of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document examines bio-physical limits of bio-fuels and bio-sequestration of carbon by examining available solar radiation and observed efficiencies with which natural ecosystems and agricultural systems convert that energy to biomass. It compares these energy/carbon exchanges with national levels of energy use and carbon emissions for Australia, Brazil, China, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. Globally primary energy consumption (related carbon emissions) is currently equivalent to ∼0.06% of the incident solar energy, and 43% of the energy (carbon) captured by photosynthesis. The nations fall into three categories. Those with primary energy consumption that is: 1–10% (Japan, Korea and Singapore); ∼0.1% (China, UK and the US) and; 0.1–0.01% (Australia, Brazil, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Sweden) of incident solar radiation. The percentage of energy captured in biomass follows this pattern, but generally lower by ∼3 orders of magnitude. The energy content of traded wheat, corn and rice represents conversion efficiencies of solar radiation of 0.08–0.17% and for sugar close to 1%, ignoring energy use in production and conversion of biomass to fuels. The study implies that bio-fuels or bio-sequestration can only be a small part of an inclusive portfolio of actions towards a low carbon future and minimised net emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Global energy consumption is ∼0.06% of solar; 43% of net primary production. • 11 nations studied fall into 3 groups: consumption/solar=1–10%; ∼0.1%; 0.1–0.01%. • % of energy captured in biomass is lower by ∼3 orders of magnitude. • Crops and natural ecosystems capture 0.1–0.3% and sugar 1% of solar energy. • Significant bio-energy/carbon sequestration via biomass is unrealistic

  14. Fuel for a better climate - market and policy for biofuels; Braensle foer ett baettre klimat - marknad och politik foer biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Ericsson, Karin; Johansson, Helena; Lundmark, Robert; Olsson, Anna; Pavlovskaia, Evgenia; Wilhelmsson, Fredrik

    2010-07-15

    overall costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, if the current policy is replaced with a price tag on emissions, emissions of greenhouse gas reductions would be achieved at a significantly lower cost than with the existing policy. Since biofuel production causes emissions of greenhouse gases, both the EU and the U.S. have introduced sustainability criteria specifying how much a biofuel should reduce emissions compared to a fossil fuel in order to be eligible for support. Sustainability criteria are problematic since they only focus on biofuels. If emissions of greenhouse gases are to be reduced, it is better to focus on emissions where they occur rather than targeting final products. Otherwise, emissions could move to unregulated sectors and countries. Increased demand for crops to produce biofuels increases demand and prices for farmland. So far, the effect on land use has not been large. The effects of increased food prices could especially affect consumers in poor countries. In poor countries, the cost of crops is a large part of the food price, and food represents a large proportion of poor people's consumption. At the same time opportunities to grow crops for biofuels could increase the incomes of poor farmers in developing countries. A price on greenhouse gas emissions affects the profitability of biofuels production. The profitability of biofuels on a market not affected by existing policy instruments is largely governed by production costs of different biofuels and the price of greenhouse gas emissions. The current price of emission permits in the EU is in most cases not enough to replace fossil fuels with biofuels from sugar beets, corn or wheat. Rising emission prices mean that more types of biofuels may be profitable, but profitability will also depend on the extent to which emissions from the cultivation of biomass and production of biofuels are priced. In many countries, forests are one of the main sources of raw materials for biofuels

  15. Biofuels policy and the US market for motor fuels: Empirical analysis of ethanol splashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels-a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10% would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We incorporate the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal. The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, blend attributes, and city-terminal-specific effects that, among other things, control for differential costs of delivering ethanol from bio-refinery to wholesale rack. - Research highlights: → Low ethanol prices and tax credits have resulted in discretionary blending of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels. → This has important implications for motor fuels markets and vehicular emissions. → Our analysis incorporates the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal.

  16. ProFuelDB : an open-access database of physiological properties of biofuel-producing anaerobic prokaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, C. P.; Pereira, M. A.; Lourenço, Anália; Sousa, D.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms are attractive for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals, but information on the physiology of culturable anaerobes is dispersed in scientific literature. Herewith we present the ProFuelDB, a web-based publicly available database prototype compiling information on the physiology of anaerobic prokaryotes with relevance for biofuels production. It is foreseen that this prototype will evolve into a broader database of physiological properties of anaerobic prokaryotes w...

  17. The fuel market effects of biofuel policies and implications for regulations based on lifecycle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absence of a globally-consistent and binding commitment to reducing greenhouse emissions provides a rationale for partial policies, such as renewable energy mandates, product emission standards, etc to target lifecycle emissions of the regulated products or services. While appealing in principle, regulation of lifecycle emissions presents several practical challenges. Using biofuels as an illustrative example, we highlight some outstanding issues in the design and implementation of life cycle-based policies and discuss potential remedies. We review the literature on emissions due to price effects in fuel markets, which are akin to emissions due to indirect land use change, but are, unlike the latter, ignored under all current life cycle emissions-based regulations. We distinguish the current approaches to regulating indirect emissions into hard and soft approaches and discuss their implications. (letter)

  18. Modelling production cost scenarios for biofuels and fossil fuels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Festel, Gunter; Würmseher, Martin; Rammer, Christian; Boles, Eckhard; Bellof, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a calculation model for biofuel production costs in 2015 and 2020 based on raw material price projections and considering scale and learning effects. Distinguishing six types of biofuels, the paper finds that scale economies and learning effects are critical for 2nd generation biofuels to become competitive. In case these effects can be utilized, cost saving potentials for 2nd generation biofuels are significant.

  19. Fuel for the Future: Development of New Fuels, e.g. Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Gitte; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Hansen, Hans Ove; Nygaard, Sune D.

    Whether we like it or not, climate change is to some extent affiliated with the emission of green house gasses, and specifically CO2 emissions, which are rising due to the global increased use of fossil fuels. As a result, political enthusiasm is high when it comes to implementing new initiatives aimed at better protection of the global environment. However, environmental concerns are just one aspect of the issues associated with the use of fossil fuels, since fossil fuels are a natural reserve and, therefore, a limited resource. Prognoses vary, but within the next decades the fossil fuel reserves will be exhausted leading to reduced oil production, rising oil prices, and the risk of international bellicose conflicts caused by adverse national interests. Additionally, fossil fuel as a natural reserve is unevenly distributed, meaning that a few countries possess the main energy reserve of the entire world. The incorporation of alternatives to fossil fuel into the existing fuel infrastructure is currently under intense development in the Western world, both to cut the oil dependency and to counter the depletion of oil reserves. This political enthusiasm to decrease the use of fossil fuel is emphasised by the fact that according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) more than 80% of the global primary energy consumption in 2007 accounts from fossil fuels and half of this is oil. More than 60% of the oil is used in the transport sector.

  20. The Challenge of Liquid Transportation Fuels in Nigeria and the Emergence of the Nigerian Automotive Biofuel Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Ohimain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing the challenge of liquid transportation fuel in Nigeria, which necessitated the entrance of the country into the biofuel race. The study found that despite being an important member of the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC, Nigeria still suffers from fuel scarcities. Reasons for the short supply of refined petroleum products (particularly gasoline, diesel and aviation fuel in Nigeria include poor capacity utilization of the nation’s refineries, disruption of crude oil supply to the refineries and political instability in the Niger Delta region (Nigeria’s oil province. Nigeria now relies heavily on foreign nations for the supply of these fuels. The country spends substantial part of her foreign exchange on fuel importation. The Federal Government now wishes to reverse this trend by initiating the automotive biofuel programme. The Nigerian automotive biofuel programme involved the construction of 9 plants comprising of 4 sugarcane and 2 cassava bioethanol projects and 3 biodiesel projects. These projects would involve the investment of $1.27 billion into the Nigerian economy for the production of 445 million L of ethanol, 192 MW of green electricity and 120 million L of biodiesel annually

  1. LCA of Transportation Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Adlam, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    An increasing need to find alternatives to fossil fuels, and a growing awareness of the global warming effect has resulted in substantial research and development on biofuels. Biofuels are being considered a potential substitution of petroleum based fuels in the transport sector.With this increasing interest in biofuels comes the need to establish the environmental effect of the fuels. Results from several life cycle assessments reviewed in this report show that there are some benefits of bio...

  2. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  3. Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Jones

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by the aerosol's control is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC, produces a positive radiative forcing of about + 0.25 Wm−2 over the 20th century, compared with a little under + 2.5 Wm−2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, -0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 years of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to a number of analysis choices, and fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from the unscaled simulation. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by controlling black carbon is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC, produces a positive radiative forcing of about +0.25 Wm−2 over the 20th century, compared with +2.52 Wm−2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, −0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 yr of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to the period being examined as fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from fBC unscaled by the detection analysis. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu;

    2012-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb......) anchored onto nine chromosomes and annotated 38,801 genes. Key chromosome reshuffling events were detected through collinearity identification between foxtail millet, rice and sorghum including two reshuffling events fusing rice chromosomes 7 and 9, 3 and 10 to foxtail millet chromosomes 2 and 9......, respectively, that occurred after the divergence of foxtail millet and rice, and a single reshuffling event fusing rice chromosome 5 and 12 to foxtail millet chromosome 3 that occurred after the divergence of millet and sorghum. Rearrangements in the C(4) photosynthesis pathway were also identified....

  6. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  7. Investigation of Particle and Gaseous Emissions from Conventional and Emerging Vehicle Technologies Operating on Bio-Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Light-duty vehicles emit gaseous and particle emissions that have the ability to effect climate, human health, and air quality. Vehicle technologies are changing rapidly due to the need to increase fuel efficiency. The use of biofuels (i.e., ethanol and iso-butanol) may increase due to the desire to reduce the use of fossil fuels. The changes in fuels and vehicle technologies may change the resulting emissions and need to be assessed. For instance, the water-soluble and water-insoluble parti...

  8. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-01

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change. PMID:22924498

  9. BioBoost. Biomass based energy intermediates boosting bio-fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebel, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT)

    2013-10-01

    To increase the share of biomass for renewable energy in Europe conversion pathways which are economic, flexible in feedstock and energy efficient are needed. The BioBoost project concentrates on dry and wet residual biomass and wastes as feedstock for de-central conversion by fast pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization to the intermediate energy carriers oil, coal or slurry. Based on straw the energy density increases from 2 to 20-30 GJ/m{sup 3}, enabling central GW scale gasification plants for bio-fuel production. A logistic model for feedstock supply and connection of de-central with central conversion is set up and validated allowing the determination of costs, the number and location of de-central and central sites. Techno/economic and environmental assessment of the value chain supports the optimization of products and processes. The utilization of energy carriers is investigated in existing and coming applications of heat and power production and synthetic fuels and chemicals. (orig.)

  10. Characterization and Performance Test of Palm Oil Based Bio-Fuel Produced Via Ni/Zeolite-Catalyzed Cracking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kadarwati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking process of palm oil into bio-fuel using Ni/zeolite catalysts (2-10% wt. Ni at various reaction temperatures (400-500oC in a flow-fixed bed reactor system has been carried out. Palm oil was pre-treated to produce methyl ester of palm oil as feedstock in the catalytic cracking reactions. The Ni/zeolite catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation method using Ni(NO32.6H2O as the precursor. The products were collected and analysed using GC, GC-MS, and calorimeter. The effects of process temperatures and Ni content in Ni/zeolite have been studied. The results showed that Ni-2/zeolite could give a yield of 99.0% at 500oC but only produced gasoline fraction of 18.35%. The physical properties of bio-fuel produced in this condition in terms of density, viscosity, flash point, and specific gravity were less than but similar to commercial fuel. The results of performance test in a 4-strike engine showed that the mixture of commercial gasoline (petrol and bio-fuel with a ratio of 9:1 gave similar performance to fossil-based gasoline with much lower CO and O2 emissions and more efficient combustion

  11. The potential of using organic side-streams produced in Ghana for generation of bio-fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-fuel can be generated from organic side-streams of maize, rice, millet, sorghum and groundnut by using fast pyrolysis technology. Data on side-streams of these crops were obtained from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) in 2010 for the study. The study shows that the estimated total crop side-streams generated was 3,475,413 t of which 2,345,903.5 of bio-fuel can be produced, given a potential energy equivalent of 42,226 PJ/y. The result shows a growth rate of 12.9 per cent in energy equivalent potential for synthetic fuel production as compared to the estimated production in 2009. Northern Region had the highest energy potential of 9,676 PJ/y (22.91%) of the total energy equivalent of bio-fuel, whereas, Greater Accra Region had the lowest with 183 PJ/y (0.43%). It is recommended that the available energy potential at the three northern regions of Ghana be utilised effectively when renewable energy policy is improved for a wider applications of side-streams from crops.(au)

  12. Prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels in long-run relationships: a comparative study for the USA and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Tanja; Bentzen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case of...... biodiesel, stronger evidence of cointegration between biodiesel, diesel and soya oil for both the USA and Europe. Finally, biofuel prices do not seem to influence agricultural commodity prices or fossil fuel prices....

  13. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar–Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrera Lorenzo, Nuria; Fuente Alonso, Enrique; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Suárez Ruiz, Isabel; Ruiz Bobes, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    [EN] A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are mor...

  14. From lignin to cycloparaffins and aromatics: directional synthesis of jet and diesel fuel range biofuels using biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Peiyan; Wang, Jicong; Zhang, Yajing; Jiang, Peiwen; Wu, Xiaoping; Liu, Junxu; Xue, He; Wang, Tiejun; Li, Quanxin

    2015-05-01

    The continual growth in commercial aviation fuels and more strict environmental legislations have led to immense interest in developing green aviation fuels from biomass. This paper demonstrated a controllable transformation of lignin into jet and diesel fuel range hydrocarbons, involving directional production of C8-C15 aromatics by the catalytic depolymerization of lignin into C6-C8 low carbon aromatic monomers coupled with the alkylation of aromatics, and the directional production of C8-C15 cycloparaffins by the hydrogenation of aromatics. The key step, the production of the desired C8-C15 aromatics with the selectivity up to 94.3%, was achieved by the low temperature alkylation reactions of the lignin-derived monomers using ionic liquid. The synthetic biofuels basically met the main technical requirements of conventional jet fuels. The transformation potentially provides a useful way for the development of cycloparaffinic and aromatic components in jet fuels using renewable lignocellulose biomass. PMID:25710678

  15. Genome Sequence and Analysis of a Stress-Tolerant, Wild-Derived Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Used in Biofuels Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean J. McIlwain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequences of more than 100 strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been published. Unfortunately, most of these genome assemblies contain dozens to hundreds of gaps at repetitive sequences, including transposable elements, tRNAs, and subtelomeric regions, which is where novel genes generally reside. Relatively few strains have been chosen for genome sequencing based on their biofuel production potential, leaving an additional knowledge gap. Here, we describe the nearly complete genome sequence of GLBRCY22-3 (Y22-3, a strain of S. cerevisiae derived from the stress-tolerant wild strain NRRL YB-210 and subsequently engineered for xylose metabolism. After benchmarking several genome assembly approaches, we developed a pipeline to integrate Pacific Biosciences (PacBio and Illumina sequencing data and achieved one of the highest quality genome assemblies for any S. cerevisiae strain. Specifically, the contig N50 is 693 kbp, and the sequences of most chromosomes, the mitochondrial genome, and the 2-micron plasmid are complete. Our annotation predicts 92 genes that are not present in the reference genome of the laboratory strain S288c, over 70% of which were expressed. We predicted functions for 43 of these genes, 28 of which were previously uncharacterized and unnamed. Remarkably, many of these genes are predicted to be involved in stress tolerance and carbon metabolism and are shared with a Brazilian bioethanol production strain, even though the strains differ dramatically at most genetic loci. The Y22-3 genome sequence provides an exceptionally high-quality resource for basic and applied research in bioenergy and genetics.

  16. Genome Sequence and Analysis of a Stress-Tolerant, Wild-Derived Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Used in Biofuels Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, Sean J; Peris, David; Sardi, Maria; Moskvin, Oleg V; Zhan, Fujie; Myers, Kevin S; Riley, Nicholas M; Buzzell, Alyssa; Parreiras, Lucas S; Ong, Irene M; Landick, Robert; Coon, Joshua J; Gasch, Audrey P; Sato, Trey K; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of more than 100 strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been published. Unfortunately, most of these genome assemblies contain dozens to hundreds of gaps at repetitive sequences, including transposable elements, tRNAs, and subtelomeric regions, which is where novel genes generally reside. Relatively few strains have been chosen for genome sequencing based on their biofuel production potential, leaving an additional knowledge gap. Here, we describe the nearly complete genome sequence of GLBRCY22-3 (Y22-3), a strain of S. cerevisiae derived from the stress-tolerant wild strain NRRL YB-210 and subsequently engineered for xylose metabolism. After benchmarking several genome assembly approaches, we developed a pipeline to integrate Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) and Illumina sequencing data and achieved one of the highest quality genome assemblies for any S. cerevisiae strain. Specifically, the contig N50 is 693 kbp, and the sequences of most chromosomes, the mitochondrial genome, and the 2-micron plasmid are complete. Our annotation predicts 92 genes that are not present in the reference genome of the laboratory strain S288c, over 70% of which were expressed. We predicted functions for 43 of these genes, 28 of which were previously uncharacterized and unnamed. Remarkably, many of these genes are predicted to be involved in stress tolerance and carbon metabolism and are shared with a Brazilian bioethanol production strain, even though the strains differ dramatically at most genetic loci. The Y22-3 genome sequence provides an exceptionally high-quality resource for basic and applied research in bioenergy and genetics. PMID:27172212

  17. From Biomass to Biofuels: NREL Leads the Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-01

    This brochure covers how biofuels can help meet future needs for transportation fuels, how biofuels are produced, U.S. potential for biofuels, and NREL's approach to efficient affordable biofuels.

  18. Jatropha and Karanj bio-fuel: an alternate fuel for diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Surendra R. Kalbande; Subhash D. Vikhe

    2008-01-01

    The bio-diesel was produced from non-edible oils by using bio-diesel processor and the diesel engine performance for water lifting was tested on bio-diesel and bio-diesel blended with diesel. The newly developed bio-diesel processor was capable of preparing the oil esters sufficient in quantity for running the commonly used farm engines. The fuel properties of bio-diesel such as kinematic viscosity and specific gravity were found within limited of BIS standard. Operational efficiency of diese...

  19. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Mosier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. The relationship, in both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production and deforestation, is consistent, showing an overall conversion factor of 3–5%. This factor is covered only in part by the ~1% of "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands estimated by IPCC (2006, or the "indirect" emissions cited therein. This means that the extra N2O entering the atmosphere as a result of using N to produce crops for biofuels will also be correspondingly greater than that estimated just on the basis of IPCC (2006. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

  20. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: → A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. → Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. → In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. → In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  1. The role of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production credits in U.S. biofuels markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives on the biofuel market and mandate, in particular. The study develops a structural model of the domestic light-duty vehicle sector, as well as reduced-form versions of domestic gasoline, diesel, and biofuel markets. The results suggest that holding CAFE standards at the 2010 level could facilitate U.S. ethanol market expansion, making it easier to meet the mandate. Alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives appear to have small effects. However, there is uncertainty about the level of automaker response to those incentives, and analysis indicates the model is fairly sensitive to the assumed level of response. - Highlights: • CAFE standards are estimated to have a moderate impact on RFS compliance costs. • Flex-fuel vehicle production incentives are estimated to have much less impact. • Level of auto manufacturer response to production incentives is uncertain. • Analysis suggests results are fairly sensitive to level of manufacturer response

  2. Petroleum activity 2005 and perspectives 2006. Three documents: biofuels, diesel fuel, environment and CO2. Zoom Normandie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2005 and perspective for 2006: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. It presents then the petroleum industry actions in favor of the biofuels, the diesel fuel market evolution and the commitment of the petroleum industry on the CO2 emissions. A special part is devoted to the french region, Normandie: the petroleum industries and the corresponding the economic and environmental impact (A.L.B.)

  3. Biofuels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  4. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, P. J.; Mosier, A. R.; Smith, K. A.; Winiwarter, W.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3-5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1%) estimated by IPCC (2006), and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35-0.45%) cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize), depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate

  5. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Mosier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3–5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1% estimated by IPCC (2006, and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35–0.45% cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors

  6. Role of Escherichia coli in Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Vasigala, Veneela KR

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield. Considering the availability of vast knowledge in genomic and metabolic fronts, Escherichia coli is regarded as a primary choice for the production of biofuels. Here, we reviewed the microbial production of liquid biofuels that have the potential to be used either alone or in combination with the present-day fuels. We specifically highlighted the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches used to improve the production of biofuels from E. coli over the past few years. We also discussed the challenges that still exist for the biofuel production from E. coli and their possible solutions. PMID:27441002

  7. Role of Escherichia coli in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Vasigala, Veneela Kr

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield. Considering the availability of vast knowledge in genomic and metabolic fronts, Escherichia coli is regarded as a primary choice for the production of biofuels. Here, we reviewed the microbial production of liquid biofuels that have the potential to be used either alone or in combination with the present-day fuels. We specifically highlighted the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches used to improve the production of biofuels from E. coli over the past few years. We also discussed the challenges that still exist for the biofuel production from E. coli and their possible solutions. PMID:27441002

  8. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E.; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J.; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E.; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome ...

  9. Syntrophic co-culture of aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium for bio-fuels and bio-hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Jen; Ho, Cheng-Yu.; Chen, Wei-En; Huang, Chieh-Chen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung (China); Chou, Chia-Hung; Lay, Jiunn-Jyi [Department of Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University, Kaohsiung (China)

    2008-10-15

    By using brewery yeast waste and microflora from rice straw compost, an anaerobic semi-solid bio-hydrogen-producing system has been established. For the purpose of industrialization, the major players of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains in the system were isolated and their combination for an effective production of bio-hydrogen and other bio-fuels was examined in this study. The phylogenetic analysis found that four anaerobic isolates (Clostridium beijerinckii L9, Clostridium diolis Z2, Clostridium roseum Z5-1, and C. roseum W8) were highly related with each other and belongs to the cluster I clostridia family, the family that many of solvent-producing strains included. On the other hand, one of the aerobic isolates, the Bacillus thermoamylovorans strain I, shown multiple extracellular enzyme activities including lipase, protease, {alpha}-amylase, pectinase and cellulase, was suggested as a good partner for creating an anaerobic environment and pre-saccharification of substrate for those co-cultured solventogenic clostridial strain. Among these clostridial strains, though C. beijerinckii L9 do not show as many extracellular enzyme activities as Bacillus, but it performs the highest hydrogen-producing ability. The original microflora can be updated to a syntrophic bacterial co-culture system contended only with B. thermoamylovorans I and C. beijerinckii L9. The combination of aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium may play the key role for developing the industrialized bio-fuels and bio-hydrogen-producing system from biomass. (author)

  10. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ORGANOMETALLIC COATING APLICATED IN FUEL TANKS USING ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY IN BIOFUEL – PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Adriane Luciano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the industry has opted for more sustainable production processes, and the planet has also opted for new energy sources. From this perspective, automotive tanks with organometallic coatings as well as a partial substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels have been developed. These organometallic coated tanks have a zinc layer, deposited by a galvanizing process, formed between the steel and the organometallic coating. This work aims to characterize the organometallic coating used in metal automotive tanks and evaluate their corrosion resistance in contact with hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel (AEHC. For this purpose, the resistance of all layers formed between Zinc and EEP steel and also the tin coated steel, which has been used for over thirty years, were evaluated. The technique chosen was the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The results indicated an increase on the corrosion resistance when organometallic coatings are used in AEHC medium. In addition to that, these coatings allow an estimated 25% reduction in tanks production costs.

  11. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  12. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A P

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome structure of C. sativa surprisingly mirrors those of economically important amphidiploid Brassica crop species from lineage II as well as wheat and cotton. The three genomes of C. sativa show no evidence of fractionation bias and limited expression-level bias, both characteristics commonly associated with polyploid evolution. The highly undifferentiated polyploid genome of C. sativa presents significant consequences for breeding and genetic manipulation of this industrial oil crop. PMID:24759634

  13. Evaluation of the impacts of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on NO(x) emissions for CARB diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam; Johnson, Kent C; Okamoto, Robert A; Mitchell, Alexander; Pullman, Marcie; Durbin, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%. NO(x) emissions consistently increased with increasing biodiesel blend level, while increasing renewable diesel and GTL blends showed NO(x) emissions reductions with blend level. NO(x) increases ranged from 1.5% to 6.9% for B20, 6.4% to 18.2% for B50, and 14.1% to 47.1% for B100. The soy-biodiesel showed higher NO(x) emissions increases compared to the animal-biodiesel. NO(x) emissions neutrality with the CARB diesel was achieved by blending GTL or renewable diesel fuels with various levels of biodiesel or by using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). It appears that the impact of biodiesel on NO(x) emissions might be a more important consideration when blended with CARB diesel or similar fuels, and that some form of NO(x) mitigation might be needed for biodiesel blends with such fuels. PMID:22788711

  14. Energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of biofuels in Spain's transport fuel. The adoption of the EU policy on biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; de la Rua, C.; Caldes, N.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R. [CIEMAT, Energy Department, Energy System Analysis Unit, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) the fossil energy benefits and avoided global warming emissions have been evaluated for the EU Biofuels goals in Spain. The Biofuels considered are cereal ethanol, biodiesel from residual oils, and from palm, sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed vegetable oils. Our findings are that the source of the cereal and vegetable oil influences the efficacy of the Biofuels and that results greatly depend on whether or not electricity has been produced as co-product in bioethanol plants and that without CHP the energy balance of ethanol is negative with few greenhouse gas offsets. (author)

  15. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  16. Biofuel goes underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, Norm

    2011-09-15

    Kirkland Lake Gold, a gold producer, is switching to a blend of biofuel to power the mine's underground equipment. Kirkland Lake Gold is using a soy-based product which has several advantages: less expensive: for example, the soybean-based biofuel used by Kirkland Lake Gold is 10 cents a liter less expensive than diesel; cleaner: biofuel can reduce emissions by up to 80 per cent compared to conventional diesel; and safer: biofuel is safer than miner's diesel because it has a much higher flash point. Testing with soybean-based biofuel began in the early 90s but its price was too high at that time. The federal government's regulation of renewable fuel quotas has led to the better availability of biofuel now. The supply should be doubled to meet government quotas.

  17. Limits to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  18. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  19. Turbomachinery in Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Görling, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the production processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel production process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...

  20. White paper report from working groups attending the international conference on research and educational opportunities in bio-fuel crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, K.T. [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Dep., Southwest Florida Res. and Educ. Center, Immokalee, FL 34142 (United States); Gilbert, R.A. [University of Florida, Agronomy Dep., Everglades Res. and Educ. Center, Belle Glade, FL 33430 (United States); Helsel, Z.A. [Rutgers University, Plant Biology and Pathology Dep., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520 (United States); Buacum, L. [University of Florida, Hendry County Extension, LaBelle, FL 33935 (United States); Leon, R.; Perret, J. [EARTH University, Apto. 4442-1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A conference on current research and educational programs in production of crops for bio-fuel was sponsored and organized by the EARTH University and the University of Florida in November, 2008. The meeting addressed current research on crops for bio-fuel production with discussions of research alternatives for future crop production systems, land use issues, ethics of food vs. fuel production, and carbon sequestration in environmentally sensitive tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Americas. The need and potential for development of graduate and undergraduate curricula and inter-institutional cooperation among educational institutions in the region were also discussed. Delegations from Belize, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Panama, The Dominican Republic, and the United States including ministers of Agriculture and Energy attended this meeting. Over a two-day period, four working groups provided a framework to facilitate networking, motivate task oriented creative thinking, and maintain a timely accomplishment of assigned duties in the context of the conference themes. Participants in the conference were assigned to one of four working groups, each following given topics: Agronomy, Environment, Socio-Economics and Education/Extension. It was the consensus of representatives of industry, academic and regulatory community assembled in Costa Rica that significant research, education and socio-economic information is needed to make production of bio-fuel crops sustainable. Agronomic research should include better crop selection based on local conditions, improved production techniques, pest and disease management, and mechanical cultivation and harvesting. Another conclusion was that tailoring of production systems to local soil characteristics and use of bio-fuel by-products to improve nutrient use efficiency and reduction of environmental impact on water quantity and quality is critical to sustainability of bio-fuel crop production. (author)

  1. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV, and battery electric vehicles (BEV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year, through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  2. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  3. Market possibilities for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for biofuels in Sweden after introduction of a proposed CO2-tax on fossil fuels is forecast. The competition between biofuels, fossil fuels and electricity is described for important market segments such as: Paper industry, Sawmills, Other energy-intensive industry, Power and heat producers, small Heat producers, and for Space heating of one-family houses. A market increase of the use of biofuels is probable for the segment small (district) heating centrals, 10 TWh in the next ten year period and even more during a longer period. Other market segments will not be much affected. An increased use of biofuels in paper and pulp industry will not influence the fuel market, since the increase will happen in the industry's normal lumber purchase. (2 figs., 18 tabs.)

  4. BIOFUELS: FROM HOPES TO REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    José Osvaldo Beserra CARIOCA; Friedrich, Horst E.; Ehrenberger, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the research for biofuels processing development with the vehicle conception to focus on realistic scenarios for biofuels to attend vehicle specifications and future green mobility. Actually, these are two important segments of fuels and biofuels context which should converge to a sustainable and realistic model. Recently, due to the climate changes versus fossil fuels use, and its consequences, the United Nations System addressed to the world a report on green economy ind...

  5. Synergistic temperature and ethanol effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynamic behaviour in ethanol bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiguier, A S; Alfenore, S; Cameleyre, X; Goma, G; Uribelarrea, J L; Guillouet, S E; Molina-Jouve, C

    2004-07-01

    The impact of ethanol and temperature on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol biofuel production was studied using an isothermal fed-batch process at five different temperatures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were quantified. The best performances were found at 30 and 33 degrees C around 120 g l(-1) ethanol produced in 30 h with a slight benefit for growth at 30 degrees C and for ethanol production at 33 degrees C. Glycerol formation, enhanced with increasing temperatures, was coupled with growth for all fermentations; whereas, a decoupling phenomenon occurred at 36 and 39 degrees C pointing out a possible role of glycerol in yeast thermal protection. PMID:15098119

  6. Bio-fuel Chains – An Overview on the Structure and the Value Chain Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dautzenberg, Kirsti; Hanf, Jon Henrich

    2007-01-01

    Structural change in the agricultural sector as well as in the whole agricultural value chain is an ongoing dynamic process and creates a number of diverse phenomena. The EU Strategy for Biofuels (2006) and the Biomass action plan (2005) set a clear signal that the EU wishes to establish and to support the bio energy-industry. The perceivable aim of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) consists in reducing food production and in enlarging the non-food production. Another driver for the attrac...

  7. Lithuanian heat sector: Today based on imported fossil fuel, tomorrow - On local biofuel and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janukonis, Andrius

    2010-09-15

    District heating sector is one of the most important energy sectors in Lithuania, operation of which is closely related to other energy sectors such as electricity, natural gas, oil products, renewable energy sources. Main priorities of Lithuanian energy policy based on the experience of the neighboring countries and directives of the European Union's environmental protection, security and reliability of energy supply and availability of district heating services to all users. It is necessary to use widely the biofuel in the DHS sector for the heat production, unused amounts of which are very big.

  8. Extremophiles in biofuel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Desire; Casanueva, Ana; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The current global energy situation has demonstrated an urgent need for the development of alternative fuel sources to the continually diminishing fossil fuel reserves. Much research to address this issue focuses on the development of financially viable technologies for the production of biofuels. The current market for biofuels, defined as fuel products obtained from organic substrates, is dominated by bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol and biogas, relying on the use of substrates such as sugars, starch and oil crops, agricultural and animal wastes, and lignocellulosic biomass. This conversion from biomass to biofuel through microbial catalysis has gained much momentum as biotechnology has evolved to its current status. Extremophiles are a robust group of organisms producing stable enzymes, which are often capable of tolerating changes in environmental conditions such as pH and temperature. The potential application of such organisms and their enzymes in biotechnology is enormous, and a particular application is in biofuel production. In this review an overview of the different biofuels is given, covering those already produced commercially as well as those under development. The past and present trends in biofuel production are discussed, and future prospects for the industry are highlighted. The focus is on the current and future application of extremophilic organisms and enzymes in technologies to develop and improve the biotechnological production of biofuels. PMID:20662378

  9. Biofuels in Africa : Opportunities, Prospects, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels offer new opportunities for African countries. They can contribute to economic growth, employment, and rural incomes. They can become an important export for some countries and provide low-cost fuel for others. There is also a potentially large demand for biofuels to meet the rapidly growing need for local fuel. Abundant natural resources and low-cost labor make producing biofuel ...

  10. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O' Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including

  11. Substitution between Biofuels and Fossil Fuels: Is There a Green Paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Kompas, Tom; Long, Ngo Van

    2011-01-01

    We show that (i) subsidies for renewable energy policies with the intention of encouraging substitution away from fossil fuels may accentuate climate change damages by hastening fossil fuel extraction, and that (ii) the opposite result holds under some specified conditions. We focus on the case of subsidies for renewable resources produced under increasing marginal costs, and assume that both the renewable resources and the fossil fuels are currently in use. Such subsidies have a direct effec...

  12. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  13. Genome scale metabolic reconstruction of Chlorella variabilis for exploring its metabolic potential for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Ankita; Chaplen, Frank W R; Murthy, Ganti S

    2016-08-01

    A compartmentalized genome scale metabolic network was reconstructed for Chlorella variabilis to offer insight into various metabolic potentials from this alga. The model, iAJ526, was reconstructed with 1455 reactions, 1236 metabolites and 526 genes. 21% of the reactions were transport reactions and about 81% of the total reactions were associated with enzymes. Along with gap filling reactions, 2 major sub-pathways were added to the model, chitosan synthesis and rhamnose metabolism. The reconstructed model had reaction participation of 4.3 metabolites per reaction and average lethality fraction of 0.21. The model was effective in capturing the growth of C. variabilis under three light conditions (white, red and red+blue light) with fair agreement. This reconstructed metabolic network will serve an important role in systems biology for further exploration of metabolism for specific target metabolites and enable improved characteristics in the strain through metabolic engineering. PMID:26995318

  14. Influence of Biofuel Additions on the Ignition Delay of Single Diesel Fuel Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeika, A. K.; Golovko, V. V.; Zolotko, A. N.; Raslavičius, L.; Lubarskii, V. M.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of single drops of two- and three-component mineral diesel fuel blends with ethanol and rapeseed oil methyl ester in a heated atmosphere has been investigated. With the use of the known quasi-stationary approach, the influence of the thermal properties of fuel blend components and their composition on the ignition delay time of the drop has been investigated. It has been established that under inert heating conditions of the drop, additions of low-boiling ethanol to diesel fuel should shorten the duration of the preignition period, and additions of rapeseed oil methyl ester should, on the contrary, prolong it. Analysis of the obtained data has made it possible to determine the optimal composition of the fuel blend for the most economical operation of the diesel. The prognostic estimates made are confirmed by laboratory experiments and bench tests of fuel blends.

  15. Fuelling biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government has recently committed to legislation ensuring that all transportation fuels will be supplemented with biofuels by 2010. This article provided details of a position paper written by the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association in response to the legislation. Details of new research to optimize the future biodiesel industry were also presented. Guiding principles of the paper included the creation of open markets across provincial boundaries; the manipulation of tax structures to make products competitive in the United States; and establishing quality standards via the Canadian General Standards Board. It is expected that the principles will reassure petroleum producers and retailers, as ethanol behaves differently than gasoline in storage tanks. As ethanol is water-absorbing, retailers must flush and vacuum their tanks to remove water, then install 10 micron filters to protect fuel lines and dispenser filters from accumulated gasoline residue loosened by the ethanol. Refineries are concerned that the average content of ethanol remains consistent across the country, as refiners will be reluctant to make different blends for different provinces. Critics of biodiesel claim that it is not energy-intensive enough to meet demand, and biodiesel crops are not an efficient use of soils that could otherwise be used to grow food crops. However, researchers in Saskatchewan are committed to using a variety of methods such as reduced tillage systems to make biodiesel production more efficient. Laboratory research has resulted in improved refining processes and genetic manipulation of potential biodiesel crops. Membrane technology is now being used to select water from ethanol. A process developed by the Ottawa company Iogen Corporation uses enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the tough fibres found in corn stalks, leaves, wood and other biomass into sugars. Scientists are also continuing to improve oil content yields in canola and soybean crops. It was

  16. Comparative and functional genomics of Rhodococcus opacus PD630 for biofuels development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Holder

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Actinomycetales bacteria Rhodococcus opacus PD630 and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 bioconvert a diverse range of organic substrates through lipid biosynthesis into large quantities of energy-rich triacylglycerols (TAGs. To describe the genetic basis of the Rhodococcus oleaginous metabolism, we sequenced and performed comparative analysis of the 9.27 Mb R. opacus PD630 genome. Metabolic-reconstruction assigned 2017 enzymatic reactions to the 8632 R. opacus PD630 genes we identified. Of these, 261 genes were implicated in the R. opacus PD630 TAGs cycle by metabolic reconstruction and gene family analysis. Rhodococcus synthesizes uncommon straight-chain odd-carbon fatty acids in high abundance and stores them as TAGs. We have identified these to be pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic, and cis-heptadecenoic acids. To identify bioconversion pathways, we screened R. opacus PD630, R. jostii RHA1, Ralstonia eutropha H16, and C. glutamicum 13032 for growth on 190 compounds. The results of the catabolic screen, phylogenetic analysis of the TAGs cycle enzymes, and metabolic product characterizations were integrated into a working model of prokaryotic oleaginy.

  17. Biofuel technology handbook. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, Dominik; Janssen, Rainer

    2008-01-15

    This comprehensive handbook was created in order to promote the production and use of biofuels and to inform politicians, decision makers, biofuel traders and all other relevant stakeholders about the state-of-the-art of biofuels and relevant technologies. The large variety of feedstock types and different conversion technologies are described. Explanations about the most promising bio fuels provide a basis to discuss about the manifold issues of biofuels. The impartial information in this handbook further contributes to diminish existing barriers for the broad use of biofuels. Emphasis of this handbook is on first generation biofuels: bio ethanol, Biodiesel, pure plant oil, and bio methane. It also includes second generation biofuels such as BTL-fuels and bio ethanol from lingo-cellulose as well as bio hydrogen. The whole life cycle of bio fuels is assessed under technical, economical, ecological, and social aspect. Characteristics and applications of bio fuels for transport purposes are demonstrated and evaluated. This is completed by an assessment about the most recent studies on biofuel energy balances. This handbook describes the current discussion about green house gas (GHG) balances and sustainability aspects. GHG calculation methods are presented and potential impacts of biofuel production characterized: deforestation of rainforests and wetlands, loss of biodiversity, water pollution, human health, child labour, and labour conditions.

  18. Public acceptance of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 Euro /L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 Euro /L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels.

  19. Public acceptance of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  20. Chemistry of fossil fuels and biofuels (cambridge series in chemical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Schobert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on today's major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. The book examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures, and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. Fundamental chemical aspects such as catalysis and the behaviour of reactive intermediates are presented, and global warming and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed. The book is suitable for graduate students in energy engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  1. Meeting the U.S. renewable fuel standard: a comparison of biofuel pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Menetrez, Marc Y.

    2014-01-01

    The production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid development. Ethanol primarily derived from corn and biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil and agricultural grains are established sources of renewable transportation fuel. Cellulosic ethanol production is increasing substantially, but at a rate below expectations. If future renewable fuel projections are to be accomplished, additional sources will be needed. Ideally, these sources should be independent of competing feedstock use such ...

  2. Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at the national level is estimated using a staircase model of 450 individual farm sub-models specialising in arable cropping. The government acts as a leader, since bio-fuel chains depend on subsidies. The model provides rational responses of the industry, taking into account of the energy crops' supply, to any public policy scheme (unitary tax exemptions for bio-fuels subject to budgetary constraints) as well as the performance of each response regarding total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG), budgetary expenditure and agents' surpluses. Budgetary, environmental and social concerns will affect policy decisions, and a multi-criteria optimisation module projects the decision maker aims at the closest feasible compromise solutions. When public expenditure is the first priority, the best compromise solution corresponds to tax exemptions of about 2 FF l-1 [FF: French Franc (1Euro equivalent to 6.559FF)] for ester and 3FF l-1 for ethanol (current tax exemptions amount at 2.30FF l-1 for ester and 3.30FF l-1 for ethanol). On the other hand, a priority on the reduction of GHG emissions requires an increase of ester volume produced at the expense of ethanol production (2.30 FF l-1 for both ester and ethanol chains proposed by the model). (Author)

  3. Fuel from Wastewater - Harnessing a Potential Energy Source in Canada through the Co-location of Algae Biofuel Production to Sources of Effluent, Heat and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Roach, J. D.; Passell, H. D.; Moreland, B. D.; O'Leary, S. J.; Pienkos, P. T.; Whalen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the “production” footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada’s NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific

  4. Biofuel cells and their development

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, R.A.; Arnot, T.C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2006-01-01

    This review considers the literature published since 1994 on microbial and enzymatic biofuel cells. Types of biofuel cell are classified according to the nature of the electrode reaction and the nature of the biochemical reactions. The performance of fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications is considered. The current direction of development of biofuel cells is carefully analysed. While considerable chemical development of enzyme electrodes has occurred, relati...

  5. INVESTIGATION OF FOSSIL FUEL AND LIQUID BIOFUEL BLEND PROPERTIES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Najafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline fuel is the baseline fuel in this research, to which bioethanol, biodiesel and diesel are additives. The fuel blends were prepared based on different volumes and following which, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials test methods analysed some of the important properties of the blends, such as: density, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity and water and sediment. Experimental data were analysed by means of Matlab software. The results obtained from artificial neural network analysis of the data showed that the network with feed forward back propagation of the Levenberg-Marquardt train LM function with 10 neurons in the hidden layer was the best for predicting the parameters, including: Water and sediment (W, dynamic viscosity (DV, kinematic viscosity (KV and density (De. The experimental data had a good correlation with ANN-predicted values according to 0.96448 for regression.

  6. Bio-fuels for diesel engines: Experience in Italy and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of meeting stringent European Communities air pollution regulations, reducing the necessity of petroleum imports and creating new markets for agricultural products, Italy's Ferruzzi-Montedison Group is developing diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils. The innovative feature of these fuels, from the environmental protection stand-point, is that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain. This paper provides brief notes of the key chemical-physical properties of these diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, and assesses the relative production technologies and commercialization prospects. Reference is made to the results of recent performance tests conducted on buses and taxis

  7. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  8. Experimental investigation concerning the influence of fuel type and properties on the injection and atomization of liquid biofuels in an optical combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the scarcity of fossil fuels and the future stringent emission limits, there is an increasing interest for the use of renewable biofuels in compression ignition engines. However, these fuels have different physical, chemical and thermodynamic properties affecting atomization, spray development and combustion processes. The results reported in this paper have been obtained by experimentation with a constant volume combustion chamber. The influences of physical fuel properties on injections under non-evaporating conditions are studied, using a pump-line-nozzle system from a medium speed diesel engine with injection pressures up to 1200 bar, by changing the fuel type and temperature. Experiments were conducted for diesel, biodiesel, straight vegetable oils and animal fats. Injection pressure and needle lift measurements were analyzed. A high speed camera was used to visualize the spray, which enabled us to study the spray penetration and spray angle. Our results show that the fuel temperature is an important parameter to control because it significantly affects the fuel properties. Both the injection timing and injection duration are affected by the fuel properties. The influences of these properties on the spray development were less pronounced. At low temperatures, a strongly deteriorated atomization of oils and fats was observed. -- Highlights: • Spray measurements in an optical combustion chamber. • Influence on the injections system is compared for different bio-fuels. •Temperature effects the fuel properties, with strong influence on the injection system. • Viscosity has significant influence on atomization, especially for viscous fuels. • No difference for spray penetration and angle unlike the mass distribution

  9. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, Carol Robin [Michigan State University; Childs, Kevin L [Michigan State University

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  10. Four myths surrounding U.S. biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth of biofuels has elicited claims and predictions concerning the current and future role of these fuels in the U.S. vehicle-fuel portfolio. These assertions are at times based on a false set of assumptions concerning the biofuel's market related to the petroleum and agricultural commodities markets, and the nonmarket consequences of our automobile driving. As an aid in clarifying these market relations, the following four biofuel myths are presented: (1) biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil, (2) biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving, (3) biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue), and (4) biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel. - Highlights: → Biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil. → Biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving. → Biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue). → Biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel.

  11. What are the environmental benefits of electric vehicles? A life cycle based comparison of electric vehicles with biofuels, hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmeier, Gerfried; Canella, Lorenza; Beermann, Martin; Pucker, Johanna; Koenighofer, Kurt [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-06-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive aims reaching a share of 10% of renewable fuels in Europe in 2020. These renewable fuels are transportation biofuels, renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen. In most European countries transportation biofuels are already on the transportation fuel market in significant shares, e.g. in Austria 7% by blending bioethanol to gasoline and biodiesel to diesel. Electric vehicles can significantly contribute towards creating a sustainable, intelligent mobility and intelligent transportation systems. They can open new business opportunities for the transportation engineering sector and electricity companies. But the broad market introduction of electric vehicles is only justified due to a significant improvement of the environmental impact compared to conventional vehicles. This means that in addition to highly efficient electric vehicles and renewable electricity, the overall environmental impact in the life cycle - from building the vehicles and the battery to recycling at the end of its useful life - has to be limited to an absolute minimum. There is international consensus that the environmental effects of electric vehicles (and all other fuel options) can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life treatment of the vehicles. The LCA results for different environmental effects e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy consumption, eutrophication will be presented in comparison to other fuels e.g. transportation biofuels, gasoline, natural gas and the key factors to maximize the environmental benefits will be presented. The presented results are mainly based on a national research projects. These results are currently compared and discussed with international research activities within the International Energy Agency (lEA) in the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) in Task 19 ''Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

  12. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O' Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  13. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. PMID:25281367

  14. Biofuel Subsidies and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Bhaumik, Sumon; Wall, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores optimal biofuel subsidization in the context of a general equilibrium trade model. The focus is on biofuels such as corn-based ethanol, which diverts corn from use as food to use as an intermediate input in energy production. In the small-country case, when a Pigouvian tax on conventional fuels such as crude is in place, the optimal biofuel subsidy is zero. When the tax on crude is not available as a policy option, however, a second-best biofuel subsidy (or tax) is opti...

  15. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the twentieth century drew to a close, there was considerable support for the use of biofuels as a source of renewable energy. To many people, they offered significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, an opportunity for reduced dependency on oil for transport, and potential as a counter weight to increasing oil prices. They also promised an opportunity for rural economies to benefit from a new market for their products and a chance of narrowing the gap between rich and poor nations. Biofuel development was encouraged by government subsidies, and rapid growth occurred in many parts of the world. Forty per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is used for biofuel production, for example, as is almost a quarter of maize grown in the United States. Although only around 1 per cent of arable land is cultivated to grow feedstock for biofuels, there has been increasing concern over the way a largely unchecked market has developed, and about its social and environmental consequences. Recent research has confirmed that food prices have been driven significantly higher by competition for prime agricultural land and that savings in greenhouse gas emissions are much smaller - and in some cases entirely eliminated - when environmentally important land, such as rainforest, is destroyed to grow biofuels. As a result, many now believe that the economic benefits of biofuels have been obtained at too high a social and environmental price, and they question whether they can be a truly sustainable source of energy. The United Kingdom has always had sustainability at the heart of its biofuel policies and set up the Renewable Fuels Agency to ensure that this goal was met. The direct effects of biofuel production are already being assessed through five measures of environmental performance and two measures of social performance, as well as measures of the energy efficiency of the production processes used and of the greenhouse gas savings achieved

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae to high-quality liquid bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyrolytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor in presence of a catalyst (Na2CO3) has been studied. Thermal decomposition studies of the algae samples were performed using TGA coupled with MS. Liquid oil samples were collected from pyrolysis experiments in a fixed-bed reactor and characterized for water content and heating value. The oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Pretreatment of chlorella with Na2CO3 influences the primary conversion of chlorella by shifting the decomposition temperature to a lower value. In the presence of Na2CO3, gas yield increased and liquid yield decreased when compared with non-catalytic pyrolysis at the same temperatures. However, pyrolysis oil from catalytic runs carries higher heating value and lower acidity. Lower content of acids in the bio-oil, higher aromatics, combined with higher heating value show promise for production of high-quality bio-oil from algae via catalytic pyrolysis, resulting in energy recovery in bio-oil of 40%. -- Highlights: → The pyrolytic catalytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor. → Na2CO3 as a catalyst for the primary conversion of chlorella. → Pyrolysis oil from catalytic runs carries higher heating value and lower acidity. → High-quality bio-oil from algae via catalytic pyrolysis with energy recovery in bio-oil of 40%.

  17. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system

  18. Microalgae biofuel potentials (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Naseri, A T; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Mobasher, M A; Dabbagh, F

    2012-01-01

    With the decrease of fossil based fuels and the environmental impact of them over the planet, it seems necessary to seek the sustainable sources of clean energy. Biofuels, is becoming a worldwide leader in the development of renewable energy resources. It is worthwhile to say that algal biofuel production is thought to help stabilize the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decrease global warming impacts. Also, among algal fuels' attractive characteristics, algal biodiesel is non toxic, with no sulfur, highly biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae are capable of producing in excess of 30 times more oil per acre than corn and soybean crops. Currently, algal biofuel production has not been commercialized due to high costs associated with production, harvesting and oil extraction but the technology is progressing. Extensive research was conducted to determine the utilization of microalgae as an energy source and make algae oil production commercially viable. PMID:22586908

  19. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  20. Is it economically feasible for farmers to grow their own fuel? A study of Camelina sativa produced in the western United States as an on-farm biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the economic feasibility of growing the oilseed crop Camelina sativa (“camelina”) in the western United States to produce value-added protein feed supplement and an SVO-based biofuel. Modeled in eastern Colorado, this study demonstrates that camelina can be grown profitably both as a commodity and as an energy biofuel. These findings, along with the stochastic crop rotation budget and profitability sensitivity analysis, reflect unique contributions to the literature. The study's stochastic break-even analysis demonstrates a 0.51 probability of growing camelina profitably when diesel prices reach 1.15 $ L−1. Results also show that the sale of camelina meal has the greatest impact on profitability. Yet once the price of diesel fuel exceeds 0.90 $ L−1, the farmer generates more revenue from the ability to offset diesel fuel purchases than the revenues generated from the sale of camelina meal. A risk analysis using second degree stochastic dominance demonstrates that a risk-averse farmer would choose to grow camelina if the price of diesel equals or exceeds 1.31 $ L−1. The article concludes that camelina can offset on-farm diesel use, making it economically feasible for farmers to grow their own fuel. As a result, camelina production may increase farm income, diversify rural economic development, and contribute to the attainment of energy policy goals. -- Highlights: •This is a stochastic budget analysis of growing camelina as SVO-based biofuel. •Results demonstrate economic feasibility for producers to grow their own fuel. •Camelina production can diversify regional and national energy portfolios. •Camelina production can contribute to on-farm energy independence

  1. Pyrolytic conversion of lipid feeds for bio-chemical and bio-fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, K.D.; Kirkwood, K.M.; Bressler, D.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals through pyrolysis of lipid feedstock was investigated with particular focus on the effect of unsaturation on thermal cracking behaviour and product distribution. The feasibility of producing deoxygenated liquid hydrocarbons for renewable fuel and chemical applications was studied using oleic acid and linoleic acid as unsaturated model free fatty acids. These were pyrolyzed in 15 mL batch micro-reactors under a nitrogen atmosphere. The analyzed products were compared to previous work investigating pyrolysis of a fully saturated free fatty acid, stearic acids, as well as fatty acids hydrolyzed from animal fats and vegetable oils. The primary reaction in oleic acid pyrolysis was decarboxylation to heptadecene and carbon dioxide, which is consistent with stearic acid pyrolysis. Some hydrogen addition was indicated by the presence of n-heptacecane. Cracking at the double bond was found to be a dominant reaction because only the C9 and lower alkane/alkenes were present in notable concentrations. In addition, the C10-C20 alkanes/alkenes were not easily distinguishable from other compounds that were found to be alkane isomers. The product mixture was highly influenced by reaction temperatures (350-500 degrees C) and time (0.5-8 hours). Lower temperatures and shorter reaction times resulted in low acid conversion. Although higher temperatures and longer reaction times increased conversion, they eventually caused degeneration into aromatic compounds. Pyrolysis of fatty acids from hydrolyzed beef tallow, poultry tallow and canola oil yielded a similar series of alkanes and alkenes where the product distribution was consistent with an additive effect of the constituent saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  3. Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Rodney

    2007-08-08

    The objective of this project was to define the scope and cost of a technology research and development program that will demonstrate the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf, unmodified, large bore diesel powered generator in a grid-connected application, utilizing various blends of BioDiesel as fuel. Furthermore, the objective of project was to develop an emissions control device that uses a catalytic process and BioDiesel (without the presence of Ammonia or Urea)to reduce NOx and other pollutants present in a reciprocating engine exhaust stream with the goal of redefining the highest emission reduction efficiencies possible for a diesel reciprocating generator. Process: Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

  4. Improvement of lipid content in green algae for subsequent use in bio-fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Heterotrophic cultivation technique of microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, in shake flask under different medium composition and culture conditions were developed aimed at improvement of the cell composition and biomass production for subsequent used in bio diesel synthesis. Heterotrophic microalgae cell was developed from the adaptation of the photo trophic cell by photo periodic, manipulation of medium and culture conditions. The performance of heterotrophic cultivation of T. suecica was substantially improved in term of growth rate, final cell concentration, specific growth rate and productivity as well as cell composition especially totals lipid concentration. The cultivation time to reach maximum cell concentration was decreased from 408 hr in photoautotrophic to 142 hr in heterotrophic cultivation. The final cell concentration (24.3 g/L) was increased more than three times in heterotrophic cultivation as compared to that obtained in photoautotrophic cultivation (8.4 g/L). In addition, the maximum productivity (0.17 g/L.h-1) for heterotrophic cultivation was nine times higher than photoautotrophic cultivation (0.02 g/L.h-1). Moreover the among of protein decreased from 47.7 percentage of dry cell weight in photoautotrophic to 10.5 percent in heterotrophic cells. On the other side the total lipid (53.8) and carbohydrate (14.8) percentage of dry cell weight in heterotrophic cells increased more than two times compare with photoautotrophic cells (24.5 and 7.4 respectively) that is very important from bio fuel production viewpoint. (author)

  5. Perspective of harnessing energy from landfill leachate via microbial fuel cells: novel biofuels and electrogenic physiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Wang, Ting; Huang, Xinghua; Dolfing, Jan; Xie, Bing

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur are highly concentrated in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate, which usually frustrates conventional leachate treatment technologies from the perspective of energy costs. Therefore, the possibility of converting leachate to a new energy source via microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has been examined recently. This paper summarizes the power output and energy recovery efficiency of the leachate-fed MFCs according to different feeding patterns, cell structures, and loading rates. Also, we assess potential energy-generating chemicals in leachate like nitrogen and sulfur compounds and propose alternative pathways, which may lift strict ratios between organic carbon and nitrogen content in conventional denitrification of leachate and are expected to achieve a higher voltage than traditional organic-oxygen based cells. Although currently power output of leachate-fed MFCs is limited, it seems well possible that dynamic characteristics of MSW leachates and microbial physiologies underlying some bio-electrochemically efficient activities (e.g., direct interspecies electron transfer) could be stimulated in MFC systems to improve the present status. PMID:26239072

  6. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  7. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A., E-mail: jmathews@luiss.it [Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Tan Hao, E-mail: H.Tan@uws.edu.au [School of Management and CInIS Research Group, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta, Sydney, NSW 2150 (Australia); Moore, Michael J.B., E-mail: MichaelMoore@ShelstonIP.com [Level 21, 60 Margaret Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia); Bell, Geoff, E-mail: Geoff.Bell@microbiogen.com [Microbiogen Pty Ltd. Unit E2, Lane Cove Business Park, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: > A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. > Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. > In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. > In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  8. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  9. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from ''seed to wheel'', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its ''Plan Climat'' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (author)

  10. Palm oil based biofuel using blended crude palm oil/medium fuel oil: physical and thermal properties studies. Paper no. IGEC-1-015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is renewable bio-based resource. It is an attractive alternative fuel which provides the potential to reduce emission problems. CPO is an example of biofuels that can be blended with petroleum distillates as a fuel in mobile engines and industrial processes to help offset the increasing energy demand. This paper highlights the results of blended Crude Palm Oil (CPO)/Medium Fuel Oil (MFO) as an alternative environmentally friendly boiler's fuel. Heating values of the blend fuels have been measured using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. Combustion performance of a blend containing 50% CPO in MFO fuel was examined using a commercial boiler. The blend burned satisfactorily without major modification to the appliance and fuel delivery system. SO2 emissions were 51.67% lower than MFO, H2S decreased about 55.61% while NOx were 18.67% reduced. Results indicate potential reductions of SO2, H2S and NOx, and greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum distillates can be replaced with this blend. (author)

  11. CONNECTICUT BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGY PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTONE, ERIK

    2010-09-28

    DBS Energy Inc. (“DBS”) intends on using the Connecticut Biofuels Technology Project for the purpose of developing a small-scale electric generating systems that are located on a distributed basis and utilize biodiesel as its principle fuel source. This project will include research and analysis on the quality and applied use of biodiesel for use in electricity production, 2) develop dispatch center for testing and analysis of the reliability of dispatching remote generators operating on a blend of biodiesel and traditional fossil fuels, and 3) analysis and engineering research on fuel storage options for biodiesel of fuels for electric generation.

  12. Land use changes, greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel substitution of biofuels compared to bioelectricity production for electric cars in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is one way of achieving the indicative target of 10% renewable energy in the transportation sector outlined in the EU Directive 2009/28/EC. This article assesses the consequences of increasing the use of bioenergy for road transportation on land use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and fossil fuel substitution. Different technologies, including first and second generation fuels and electric cars fuelled by bioelectricity are assessed in relation to existing bioenergy uses for heat and power production. The article applies a spatially explicit energy system model that is coupled with a land use optimization model to allow assessing impacts of increased biomass utilization for energy production on land use in agriculture and forest wood harvests. Uncertainty is explicitly assessed with Monte-Carlo simulations of model parameters. Results indicate that electric mobility could save GHG emissions without causing a significant increase in domestic land use for energy crop production. Costs of electric cars are still prohibitive. Second generation biofuels are more effective in producing fuels than first generation ethanol. However, competition with power and heat production from ligno-cellulosic feedstock causes an increase in GHG emissions when introducing second generation fuels in comparison to a baseline scenario. -- Highlights: → Assessment of land use and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) of renewable transportation options. → Optimization model compares 1st and 2nd generation biofuels and bioelectricity for electric cars. → Use of agricultural land for 1st generation ethanol production is highest among options. → 2nd generation fuel production deviates resources from efficient heat and power production. → Electric cars use less land and save more GHG emissions than other options but costs are prohibitive.

  13. Method for estimations of the local forest bio-fuel resource; Metodik foer skattning av lokala skogsbraensleresurser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baaaath, Haerje; Gaellerspaang, Andreas; Hallsby, Goeran; Lundstroem, Anders; Loefgren, Per; Nilsson, Mats; Staahl, Goeran [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics

    2000-05-01

    A new method for detailed estimation of local above-ground woody biomass is presented. The procedure has been developed with the aim to support large and small scale strategic planning, from various aspects of bio energy utilisation in Sweden. Important features of the method are options to deal with areas defined by the user, and to include local harvest restrictions. A planning tool suitable for local forest owners, municipalities, and bio energy enterprises has previously not been available since costume-made local estimates of woody biomass have lacked sufficient precision or been considered to costly. In the suggested method satellite image data and a sample of field plots from the Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI) are combined using the 'k Nearest Neighbour' method (kNN). The results are transferred to the forestry planning system Hugin which provides estimates of the present and future potentials of forest bio-fuels. In the Hugin system there are great possibilities to take into account various local interests and restrictions that influence the potential of woody biomass utilisation. As an example, the priority and the intensity of forestry treatments such as establishment of new stands, pre-commercial thinning, thinning, and final cut can be considered. Other factors that can be incorporated are harvest restrictions for specific areas like nature preservation areas or riparian zones. In addition minimum requirements for harvest amounts per hectare can be set as general restrictions. In the initial steps geographical objects like roads, railroads, or forests at a specified distance from roads can be excluded from further calculations. As a demonstration example the above-ground woody biomass was calculated for the municipality AeIvsbyn in northern Sweden. The estimates were based on traditionally performed cutting operations and results can be presented separately for different species by tree fractions (bark, needles, branches and tops

  14. Biofuels and biodiversity: principles for creating better policies for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Martha J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Townsend, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    Biofuels are a new priority in efforts to reduce dependence on fossil fuels; nevertheless, the rapid increase in production of biofuel feedstock may threaten biodiversity. There are general principles that should be used in developing guidelines for certifying biodiversity-friendly biofuels. First, biofuel feedstocks should be grown with environmentally safe and biodiversity-friendly agricultural practices. The sustainability of any biofuel feedstock depends on good growing practices and sound environmental practices throughout the fuel-production life cycle. Second, the ecological footprint of a biofuel, in terms of the land area needed to grow sufficient quantities of the feedstock, should be minimized. The best alternatives appear to be fuels of the future, especially fuels derived from microalgae. Third, biofuels that can sequester carbon or that have a negative or zero carbon balance when viewed over the entire production life cycle should be given high priority. Corn-based ethanol is the worst among the alternatives that are available at present, although this is the biofuel that is most advanced for commercial production in the United States. We urge aggressive pursuit of alternatives to corn as a biofuel feedstock. Conservation biologists can significantly broaden and deepen efforts to develop sustainable fuels by playing active roles in pursuing research on biodiversity-friendly biofuel production practices and by helping define biodiversity-friendly biofuel certification standards. PMID:18261147

  15. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... new policy options to promote the environmental sustainability of biofuels feedstock production... American biofuels and reducing our dependence on fossil fuels by providing, within 30 days, under the... biorefineries to replace the use of fossil fuels in plant operations by installing new biomass energy systems...

  16. Information report presented in application of the article 146 of the rules by the Finance, the General Economy and the plan commission, on the bio-fuels; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 146 du reglement par la commission des finances, de l'economie generale et du plan sur les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-05-01

    This information report deals with the advantages of the bio-fuels as a renewable energy source: the incentive legislation and the implementation in Europe, some encouraging results and the measures offered for a more voluntarist action in favor of the bio-fuels development. (A.L.B.)

  17. Biogas and biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European union countries are becoming more and more interested by the characteristics of biogas in terms of environment and energy production and are developing their proper channels of valorization according to their potential. In this way, biogas production reached nearly 5,3 million tons oil equivalent in 2006, representing a 13,6% increase with respect to 2005. Statistical data are provided on the primary energy production of biogas, the electricity production from biogas, gross heat production from biogas, and the representative firms of the biogas sector. In a second part the biofuels barometer is presented. The agricultural environment and landscape of the European Union countries is redefined a little more each year by energy crops for biofuel production. According to the first estimates for 2006, biofuel consumption reached 5,38 Mtoe last year in the EU, corresponding to a 1,8% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport. (A.L.B.)

  18. Biofuels made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been said and written in Australia since the Federal Government introduced its Clean Fuels Policy in September 2001. Various biofuel projects are now being considered in different states of Australia for the manufacture of bioethanol and biodiesel from renewable resources. However, the economic viability required to establish an Australian liquid biofuels industry is predicated on supportive government legislation and an encouraging fuel excise regime. On the other hand, the benefits of such an industry are also in debate. In an attempt to clarify some of the concerns being raised, this paper endeavours to provide an overview of the current use of bioethanol and biodiesel around the world, to summarise the process technologies involved, to review the benefits and non-benefits of renewable fuels to the transport industry and to address the issues for such an industry here in Australia

  19. Food Aid and Biofuels: The Effects of Biofuel Policies on Procurement and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, Ryan T.; Kerr, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The food-aid community almost unanimously condemns policies that encourage crop production for fuel. Both food-aid donors and recipients are concerned that biofuels will increase foodgrain prices and leave donors unable to meet commitments. The effects of biofuel-induced higher cereal prices on food-aid recipients are complicated functions of several factors, each of which must be considered in an analysis of the effects of biofuel policies. These factors include the level of biofuel-induced ...

  20. Harnessing indigenous plant seed oil for the production of bio-fuel by an oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, isolated from tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrutha, S K; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2014-01-01

    Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) producing tropical fungal isolate, was utilized as a tool to evaluate the influence of various plant seed oils on biomass, oleagenicity and bio-fuel production. The fungus accumulated 26 % total lipid of their dry biomass (2 g/l) and 13 % of GLA in its total fatty acid. Among the various plant seed oils tested as carbon sources for biotransformation studies, watermelon oil had an effect on biomass and total lipid increasing up to 9.24 g/l and 34 % respectively. Sunflower, pumpkin, and onion oil increased GLA content between 15-18 %. Interestingly, an indigenous biodiesel commodity, Pongamia pinnata oil showed tremendous effect on fatty acid profile in C. blakesleeana- JSK2, when used as a sole source of carbon. There was complete inhibition of GLA from 13 to 0 % and increase in oleic acid content, one of the key components of biodiesel to 70 % (from 20 % in control). Our results suggest the potential application of indigenous plant seed oils, particularly P. pinnata oil, for the production of economically valuable bio-fuel in oleaginous fungi in general, and C. blakesleeana- JSK2, in particular. PMID:24142351

  1. Rapid Prototyping of NASA's Solar and Meteorological Data For Regional Level Modeling of Agricultural and Bio-fuel Crop Phenology and Yield Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    Global demand for food, feedstock and bio-fuel crops is expanding rapidly due to population growth, increasing consumption of these products (especially in developing countries), and more recently skyrocketing use of these crops to produce ethanol as a bio-fuel. As a result, there are growing concerns, both in the US and world wide, about the ability to meet the projected demand for agricultural/bio-fuel crops without expanding production areas into environmentally sensitive regions. Concurrently, there are increasing concerns over the negative impact of global warming on crop yields. Accurate ecophysiological crop models have been developed for many of the food and bio-fuel crops and serve as the back-bone in sophisticated Decision Support Systems (DSS). These DSS's are increasingly being used to address the balance between the need to increase production/efficiency and environmental concerns, as well as the impact of global warming on crop production. Realistic application of these agricultural DSS's requires accurate environmental data on time scales ranging from hours to decades. To date only sparse surface measurements are used that typically do not measure solar irradiance. NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project, which has as one of its objectives the development of data products for agricultural applications, currently provides a climatological data base of meteorological parameters and surface solar energy fluxes on a global 1-degree latitude by 1- degree longitude grid. NASA is also developing capabilities to produce near-real time data sets specifically designed for application by agricultural DSS's. In this presentation, we discuss the development of 1-degree global data products which combine the climatological data in the POWER project archive (http://earth-www.larc.nasa.gov/power), near real time (2 to 3 day lag) meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) quick-look products, and global solar energy

  2. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  3. The ideal biofuel. Fuel options; Auf der Suche nach ''gruenem'' Benzin. Biokraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Neil

    2012-03-15

    Future biofuels have to consist the comparison with fossil gasoline derived from petroleum. Due to a lack of energy density ethanol and other alcohols cannot be compared with gasoline. Therefore, researchers are trying to synthesize hydrocarbons which are typical of gasoline from biomass by using chemical and industrial processes.

  4. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  5. The price for biofuels sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, low-carbon energy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introduced sustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were then confronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were that sustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review of recent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whether sustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market for sustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differently between 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence between biofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certification in the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in terms of finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements. - Highlights: • EU biofuel sustainability rules were once thought to reward compliant producers with price-premiums. • Premiums for certified biofuels, however, have been small for biodiesel and almost non-existent for ethanol. • As sustainable biofuels became the new norm, premiums disappeared almost completely in 2012. • Early stages of supply chains concentrate the highest compliance costs, affecting specially developing country producers. • Producers are now in a market where sustainable biofuels have become the new norm

  6. Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article contains a short overview of biomass consumption in Eu countries. The market share of biomass comparing with the other renewable energy sources, analysis, figures of development options and potential barriers are presented. Some special paragraphs were devoted to liquid biofuels like ethanol, methanol and bio-diesel oils. Lacking of the distribution system of liquid biofuels is one of the barriers in implementation. The granulated wood pellets is going to be one of the most widespread bio fuel for households in Austria and Southern Germany and for small scale district heating in Denmark and Sweden. From the analyse follows, that in countries with the state support and subsidies, the biomass consumption is much more developed and is competing with the fossil fuels in heat and power market. But in countries without this support the share of biofuels is decreasing. The last paragraph is describing the situation of biomass consumption in Estonia. Up to now here are positive as well as negative examples of biomass boilers implementation. Comparison of the heat prices in Estonia and in E U countries is presented in Fig. 2. Considering that our heat prices are about 2 times less than the E U average, implementation of the quite expensive western burning technology in Estonia would be more complicated than in E U countries. This points out even bigger necessity of the state support or subsidizing in Estonia. But there is another, economically more feasible way for subsidizing - to start the production of the small bio-fuelled boilers and the fuel handling technology in Estonia. This should reduce the total investment cost of the bio-fuelled heating systems. (author)

  7. Bio fuel production through optimization of nutrient supplies in forestry; Biobraensleproduktion genom naeringsoptimerat skogsbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, M.; Sallnaes, O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre; Bergh, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Production Ecology; Boerjesson, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology and Society; Dahlin, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    2001-03-01

    The demand of biofuel is likely to increase rapidly in the near future, since both nuclear power and fossil fuel must partly be replaced by other energy sources, at the same time as the environmental pressure on forest land is increasing. Therefore new and more intensified systems must be introduced in Sweden with a differentiation of the land use, where some areas are allowed to concentrate on production (plantations) and others with a more extensive treatment (recreation, biodiversity, nature reserve). A very effective way to increase the production of biofuel on forest land is to fertilise Norway spruce stands, according to the principles of nutrient optimisation. Estimations of the production potential of Norway spruce shows a great production gain in stem volume production over a rotation period, if you supply the stands with macro- and micro-nutrients. In general would the average stem volume production increase by 75% in southern and 200% in northern Sweden. Also the rotation period will shorten substantially by 20-30 years in southern and 40-60 years in northern Sweden. A comparison between the cost and gain of energy and carbon dioxide shows that the gain is much larger than the cost in intensified systems with nutrient optimisation. The cost of energy and carbon dioxide is only 2-4% of the gain if you use the production of stemwood as biofuel. Nutrient optimisation appear to be economically sound in present value calculations, where costs and incomes are discounted to a certain year. The economical gain is not large over a rotation period , but the whole concept is effective in terms of energy, environment and costs. A spatial analysis envisage that the demand and supply of biofuel is not perfectly matched geographically in Sweden. The largest needs are from the metropolitan regions (Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmoe), while Dalarna and northern Sweden has the greatest potential for biofuel production.

  8. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improve...

  9. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  10. Third generation biofuels from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Giuliano; Fernandes, Bruno Daniel; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Biofuel production from renewable sources is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels and a viable means for environmental and economic sustainability. Microalgae are currently being promoted as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate, CO2 fixation ability and high production capacity of lipids; they also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Microalg...

  11. Fermentative biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

  12. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  13. Biofuels - the UFIP position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 a directive promote the biofuels use. The industry is then using them in ETBE (Ethyl Tertio Butyl Ether) fuels and in diesel oil of vegetal oils esters EMHV. Meanwhile some of them present technical difficulties and must free themselves from fiscal incentives which make them competitive. For these reasons, the UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) do not agree their obligatory incorporation. (A.L.B.)

  14. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  15. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  16. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  17. Analysis of the potential production and the development of bioenergy in the province of Mendoza - Bio-fuels and biomass - Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the partial results of the potential production of energy, starting from the biomass and the development of the crops, directed to the production of bio-fuels (Colza and Topinamur) in the North irrigation oasis of Mendoza, Argentina within the National Program of Bio-energy developed by INTA is presented. For the evaluation of the bio-energetic potential, derived from the biomass, the WISDOM methodology developed by FAO and implemented by INTA in Argentina was applied with the collaboration of national and provincial governmental entities that contribute local information The study of the potential production and the development of the bio-energetic crops have been carried out with the advising and participation of the experts of INTA of the studied crops. The province of Mendoza has semi-deserted agro-climatic characteristics. The type of soil and type of weather allows the production of great quality fruits and vegetables in the irrigated areas. The four great currents of water conform three oasis; Northeast, Center and South, which occupy the 3.67% of the surface of Mendoza. Today, Mendoza has 267,889 irrigated hectares, but the surface that was farmed by irrigation was near to the 400,000 ha. The climate contingencies, froze and hailstorm precipitations, plus the price instability cause great losses in the productive sector, taking it to the forlornness of the exploitations. The crop setting of these forlornness lands with crops directed to the production of bio-fuels and the utilization of the biomass coming from the agriculture activities and the agro industry (pruning of fruit trees, refuses of olive and vine, remnants of the peach industry, etc.) could assist the access to the energy in the rural areas, stimulating the economical improvement and the development in these communities. (author)

  18. Analysis of the potential production and the development of bioenergy in the province of Mendoza - Bio-fuels and biomass - Using geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Marco, Noelia; Hilbert, Jorge Antonio [Instituto de Ingenieria Rural, INTA Las Cabanas y Los Reseros s/n, CP: 1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Silva Colomer, Jorge [INTA EEA Junin Mendoza, Carril Isidoro Busquets s/n CP: 5572 (Argentina); Anschau, Renee Alicia; Carballo, Stella [Instituto de Clima y Agua, INTA. Las Cabanas y Los Reseros s/n, CP:1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    In this work, the partial results of the potential production of energy, starting from the biomass and the development of the crops, directed to the production of bio-fuels (Colza and Topinamur) in the North irrigation oasis of Mendoza, Argentina within the National Program of Bio-energy developed by INTA is presented. For the evaluation of the bio-energetic potential, derived from the biomass, the WISDOM methodology developed by FAO and implemented by INTA in Argentina was applied with the collaboration of national and provincial governmental entities that contribute local information The study of the potential production and the development of the bio-energetic crops have been carried out with the advising and participation of the experts of INTA of the studied crops. The province of Mendoza has semi-deserted agro-climatic characteristics. The type of soil and type of weather allows the production of great quality fruits and vegetables in the irrigated areas. The four great currents of water conform three oasis; Northeast, Center and South, which occupy the 3.67% of the surface of Mendoza. Today, Mendoza has 267,889 irrigated hectares, but the surface that was farmed by irrigation was near to the 400,000 ha. The climate contingencies, froze and hailstorm precipitations, plus the price instability cause great losses in the productive sector, taking it to the forlornness of the exploitations. The crop setting of these forlornness lands with crops directed to the production of bio-fuels and the utilization of the biomass coming from the agriculture activities and the agro industry (pruning of fruit trees, refuses of olive and vine, remnants of the peach industry, etc.) could assist the access to the energy in the rural areas, stimulating the economical improvement and the development in these communities. (author)

  19. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NOx, smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  20. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  1. Synthetic Feedback Loop Model for Increasing Microbial Biofuel Production Using a Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mary E.; Dunlop, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Current biofuel production methods use engineered bacteria to break down cellulose and convert it to biofuel. A major challenge in microbial fuel production is that increasing biofuel yields can be limited by the toxicity of the biofuel to the organism that is producing it. Previous research has demonstrated that efflux pumps are effective at increasing tolerance to various biofuels. However, when overexpressed, efflux pumps burden cells, which hinders growth and slows biofuel production. The...

  2. Synthetic feedback loop model for increasing microbial biofuel production using a biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    MaryDunlop

    2012-01-01

    Current biofuel production methods use engineered bacteria to break down cellulose and convert it to biofuel. A major challenge in microbial fuel production is that increasing biofuel yields can be limited by the toxicity of the biofuel to the organism that is producing it. Previous research has demonstrated that efflux pumps are effective at increasing tolerance to various biofuels. However, when overexpressed, efflux pumps burden cells, which hinders growth and slows biofuel production. ...

  3. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  4. Panorama 2007: Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current leader on the world bio-diesel market, Europe is, after the United States and Brazil, one of the regions driving the production and utilization of biofuels. Its ambitious bio-fuel content targets for motor fuels (5.75% by 2010 and 8% by 2015) encourage Member States to significantly develop those pathways. This raises certain questions, especially about available biomass resources. It is likely that, beyond 2010, technologies other than those in existence today, using ligno-cellulosic biomass, will have to be implemented. (author)

  5. Next generation of liquid biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2012-01-01

    More than 99% of all currently produced biofuels are classified as “first generation” (i.e. fuels produced primarily from cereals, grains, sugar crops and oil seeds) (IEA, 2008b). “Second generation” or “next generation” biofuels, on the other hand, are produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks such

  6. BIOFUEL: Robbing Peter to Pay Paul?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the worsening global climate has worried people around the world,there is a rush to find answers.Many countries begin to substitute the greenhouse gas-emitting fossil fuels with biofuel,a kind of new energy processed from plants.There are two kinds of biofuel:ethanol,processed from sugarcane or corn,and biodiesel,made from biomass.

  7. Fibre optic grating sensors for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, M.; Fabris, J. L.; Kalinowski, H. J.

    2010-09-01

    Biofuels will have more intense impact on the energetic grid of the planet, because known fossil fuels reserves are being exhausted. The biofuel production relies on the transformation process of some organic material in the desired hydrocarbon product. Because of the natural characteristics of the related processes, fibre optic sensors appear to be adequate candidates to be used.

  8. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  9. Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation in India: Implications for Food Security and Rural Livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Kavi Kumar; R.S. Soundar Rajan; R. Manivasagan

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are acquiring importance due to their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The two most important biofuels – viz., bioethanol and bio-diesel, are largely considered supplementary to the transport fuels. India has extensive programs and aims to blend 20 percent of transport fuels with biofuels by 2017. This paper focuses on three aspects in the context of biofuel production and policy in India. First, the paper looks at feasibility of meeting the biofuel blending targets en...

  10. Microalgae: biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.

  11. Carbon-negative biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem, in ways that are already technically feasible and practicable. The key to carbon negativity is to see it not as technically determined but as an issue of strategic choice, whereby farmers and fuel producers can decide how much carbon to return to the soil. Biochar amendment to the soil not only sequesters carbon but also enhances the fertility and vitality of the soil. The time is approaching when biofuels will be carbon negative by definition, and, as such, they will sweep away existing debates over their contribution to the solution of global warming. (author)

  12. Glucose oxidase as a biocatalytic enzyme-based bio-fuel cell using Nafion membrane limiting crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S.; Naidoo, Q.; Blottnitz, H.; Vaivars, G.

    2013-12-01

    A novel combination for an Enzyme-based Biofuel cell included a Nafion membrane as an ion transporter that maintained a working cell charge and inhibited membrane degradation. The prototype cell chamber used oxygen (O2) in the cathode cell and glucose in the anode. The Nafion membrane stability studied here was evidently in the region of 0% loss of conductivity as the charge was constant and increased after the addition of glucose. The prototype cell chamber used NaCl in the cathode cell and glucose oxidase (GOx) in the anodic chamber was successfully studied for membrane stability showed in this study no evidence of poisoning from membrane leakage in a controlled pH environment. There was no crossover at the anaerobic operating ambient temperatures and under physiological pH 5 - 7 conditions. In this research we have successfully used a Nafion membrane together with GOx and under controlled conditions produced respectable power densities.

  13. Glucose oxidase as a biocatalytic enzyme-based bio-fuel cell using Nafion membrane limiting crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel combination for an Enzyme-based Biofuel cell included a Nafion membrane as an ion transporter that maintained a working cell charge and inhibited membrane degradation. The prototype cell chamber used oxygen (O2) in the cathode cell and glucose in the anode. The Nafion membrane stability studied here was evidently in the region of 0% loss of conductivity as the charge was constant and increased after the addition of glucose. The prototype cell chamber used NaCl in the cathode cell and glucose oxidase (GOx) in the anodic chamber was successfully studied for membrane stability showed in this study no evidence of poisoning from membrane leakage in a controlled pH environment. There was no crossover at the anaerobic operating ambient temperatures and under physiological pH 5 – 7 conditions. In this research we have successfully used a Nafion membrane together with GOx and under controlled conditions produced respectable power densities

  14. Computational Approaches for Microalgal Biofuel Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Koussa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand and consumption of fossil fuels have raised interest in finding renewable energy sources throughout the globe. Much focus has been placed on optimizing microorganisms and primarily microalgae, to efficiently produce compounds that can substitute for fossil fuels. However, the path to achieving economic feasibility is likely to require strain optimization through using available tools and technologies in the fields of systems and synthetic biology. Such approaches invoke a deep understanding of the metabolic networks of the organisms and their genomic and proteomic profiles. The advent of next generation sequencing and other high throughput methods has led to a major increase in availability of biological data. Integration of such disparate data can help define the emergent metabolic system properties, which is of crucial importance in addressing biofuel production optimization. Herein, we review major computational tools and approaches developed and used in order to potentially identify target genes, pathways, and reactions of particular interest to biofuel production in algae. As the use of these tools and approaches has not been fully implemented in algal biofuel research, the aim of this review is to highlight the potential utility of these resources toward their future implementation in algal research.

  15. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally; Fatimah Md. Yusoff; Sanjoy Banerjee; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technical...

  16. Sustainability Opportunities and Challenges of the Biofuels Industry

    OpenAIRE

    França, Cesar L.; Maddigan, Kate; White, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Liquid biofuels are being produced to displace fossil fuels for transportation, with bioethanol and biodiesel being the primary biofuels produced for this purpose in the world today. While there is consensus on the need for a sustainable biofuels industry, there is little consensus on how to proceed to avoid environmental and social degradation with global biofuel production. A literature review of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) data, and the generic Strategic Life-Cycle Management (SLCM) and Temp...

  17. An overview of biofuel technologies, markets and policies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For fuels produced from biomass, various conversion routes are available that follow from the different types of biomass that can serve as a feedstock. These conversion technologies are discussed in both technological and economic terms. For each route, the fuel characteristics of the biofuel are described and compared to those of the fossil fuel it can replace, either petrol or diesel. Currently, the European biofuel market only consists of biodiesel (e.g. Rapeseed Methyl Ester, RME) and ethanol (and its derivative ETBE). The production and application of these biofuels is discussed for the most important biofuel countries in the European Union and the countries in which the use of biofuels is less developed. The report also describes national and European policies aimed at stimulating the production and application of biofuels. There is a special focus on two European Directive proposals on the promotion of the use of biofuels in transport and the process towards adoption of these Directives

  18. Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria's economy is largely dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel supply shortages. In response to the transportation fuel supply difficulties in Nigeria, the country released the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives in 2007 to create favorable investment climate for the entrance of Nigeria into the biofuel sector. The paper assessed the progress made thus far by Nigeria, 4 years after the Nigerian biofuel was released in an attempt to answer the question whether the policy is adequate to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy. The study found that little progress has been made, which includes commencement of the construction of 20 bioethanol factories, installation of biofuel handling facilities at two depots (Mosimi and Atlas Cove), and selection of retail outlets for biofuel/conventional fuel mix. The site construction of the announced biofuel projects is now slow and other progress is marginal. We therefore conclude that the Nigerian biofuel policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy unless the Government revert and refocus on biofuel and include additional financial incentives such as grants and subsidy to complement the tax waivers (income, import duty, VAT), loans, and insurance cover contained in the policy. - Highlights: ► Nigeria's economy is dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel shortages. ► The Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives was released in 2007. ► Little progress has been made since the policy was released 4 years ago. ► Hence, the policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy

  19. Mitigating Land Use Changes From Biofuel Expansion: An Assessment of Biofuel Feedstock Yield Potential in APEC Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Elobeid, Amani E.; Tokgoz, Simla; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    The emerging biofuel sector has drawn great interest as an alternative source of fuel for transportation. The expansion of biofuels greatly impacts world agricultural markets, since currently, the primary feedstocks for ethanol and biodiesel production are field crops and their derived products. There is great interest in the potential of countries to expand their biofuel sectors through increased production of feedstocks. The long-term potential for developing first-generation biofuels in ma...

  20. Breeding maize for silage and biofuel production, an illustration of a step forward with the genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrière, Yves; Courtial, Audrey; Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Denoue, Dominique; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the gene families mostly impacting cell wall digestibility variations would significantly increase the efficiency of marker-assisted selection when breeding maize and grass varieties with improved silage feeding value and/or with better straw fermentability into alcohol or methane. The maize genome sequence of the B73 inbred line was released at the end of 2009, opening up new avenues to identify the genetic determinants of quantitative traits. Colocalizations between a large set of candidate genes putatively involved in secondary cell wall assembly and QTLs for cell wall digestibility (IVNDFD) were then investigated, considering physical positions of both genes and QTLs. Based on available data from six RIL progenies, 59 QTLs corresponding to 38 non-overlapping positions were matched up with a list of 442 genes distributed all over the genome. Altogether, 176 genes colocalized with IVNDFD QTLs and most often, several candidate genes colocalized at each QTL position. Frequent QTL colocalizations were found firstly with genes encoding ZmMYB and ZmNAC transcription factors, and secondly with genes encoding zinc finger, bHLH, and xylogen regulation factors. In contrast, close colocalizations were less frequent with genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and found only with the C4H2, CCoAOMT5, and CCR1 genes. Close colocalizations were also infrequent with genes involved in cell wall feruloylation and cross-linkages. Altogether, investigated colocalizations between candidate genes and cell wall digestibility QTLs suggested a prevalent role of regulation factors over constitutive cell wall genes on digestibility variations. PMID:26566848

  1. A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Ridjan, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Identifying renewable energy alternatives in transport is particularly complicated, since the end-user can vary from a single-person car to a cargo ship. The aim of this paper is to aid this process by comparing 7 different methods for producing transport fuels in terms of the resources required...... form of energy dense fuel is also necessary. The results in this paper suggest that this fuel will be produced by hydrogenating either biomass or carbon dioxide, depending on the residual biomass available. Biomass gasification, steam electrolysis, and carbon capture are key technologies in the future...

  2. NO{sub x}-abatement in bio-fuelled combustion units through catalytic reburning; Minskning av NO{sub x}-emissioner fraan biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar genom katalytisk reburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, F.A. [Katator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    A study concerning the possibility of using catalytic reburning in the abatement of nitrogen oxides from bio-fuelled combustion units has been accomplished. In catalytic reburning, the fuel is combusted at a low excess-air-ratio to minimize the necessary amount of reburning gas added downstream the combustion chamber. The reburning fuel (a reducing agent, e.g. natural gas or LPG) will react catalytically with oxygen and nitrogen oxides in the reburning catalyst to produce carbon oxides, water and nitrogen. Secondary air is injected downstream the reburning catalyst to facilitate an effective combustion of remaining CO and hydrocarbons in the oxidation catalyst, usually in a tail-end position. Experiments were carried out in a small-scale combustion unit (10-20 kW{sub fuel} for pellets of bio-fuel). The results indicate possible conversion degrees of 90% with respect to nitrogen oxides, without increased emissions of CO and hydrocarbons. The economic evaluation indicates a great sensitivity to the price of the reburning fuel. Problems with uneven flow conditions and concentration gradients are expected to reduce the performance of catalytic reburning. Damages caused by corrosion at low oxygen concentrations are likely to occur in positions with high metal temperatures, e.g. in the super-heater-portion of the flue-gas-channel. Hydrocarbon-SCR is an alternative method to obtain a reasonable reduction of the emissions of nitrogen oxides. Small amounts of certain hydrocarbons (e.g. LPG) are added to the flue-gas-stream at a normal excess-air-ratio to obtain a conversion degree of 50 - 70% over a transition-metal-exchanged zeolite catalyst. Continued experiments should focus on installations in large bio-fuelled appliances, where a detailed technical and economical evaluation is possible. Especially catalyst deactivation needs to be evaluated further.

  3. Implications of biofuel support policies in Europe - a quantitative analysis in an open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Fonseca, Maria; Shrestha, Shailesh; Adenäuer, Marcel; Becker, A

    2012-01-01

    EU biofuels support Biofuels modelling with CAPRI Scenario setting Main results Concluding remarks Biofuels production and use will remain mainly driven by public support Strong links of biofuels to agricultural markets Development of second generation technologies would ease food-fuel links

  4. Advancing Biofuels: Balancing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with most technologies, use of biofuels has both benefits and risks, which vary by feedstock. Expected benefits include increased energy independence, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, reduced emission of greenhouse gases and invigorated rural economies. Anticipated risks include potential com...

  5. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  6. The Effect of Bio-Fuel Blends and Engine Load on Diesel Engine Smoke Density for Sustainable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R. K. Mandloi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is a major contributor to air pollution especially within cities and along urban traffic routes. Therefore it has become very essential to develop the technology of IC engines, which will reduce the consumption of petroleum fuels and exhaust gas emissions. In fact, agricultural and transport sectors are almost diesel dependent. The various alternative fuel options researched for diesel are mainly biogas, producer gas, ethanol, methanol and vegetable oils. Out of all these, vegetable oils offer an advantage because of its comparable fuel properties with diesel and can be substituted between 20%-100%depending upon its processing. But as India stillimports huge quantity of edible oils, therefore, the use of non-edible oils of minor oilseeds like Karanji oil has been tested as a diesel fuel extender. The problems have been mitigated by developing vegetable oil derivatives that approximate the properties and performance and make them compatible with the hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels through the pyrolysis, micro emulsification, dilution and transesterification. The various fuel blends of karanji oil were tested on different engine loads to evaluate it smoke density.

  7. The interface between the agriculture sector and the petroleum sector: some questions about bio-fuels; L'interface entre secteur agricole et secteur petrolier: quelques questions au sujet des biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, A.

    1998-06-01

    In countries with large farm and forest resources, resorting to renewable energy sources, and more particularly to biofuels, has often been contemplated in periods of tensions on oil markets but also as a means of making up for the inadequacy of outlets for farm produce. The problem of the profitability of these energy alternatives has emerged more or less intensely, depending on the respective evolution of the prices of oil and biomass fuels (oil seeds, grains, sugar cane, sugar beet etc..). (author)

  8. Panorama 2007: Biofuels and their Environmental Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the development of bio-fuel pathways is closely associated with targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transport sector. Well-to-wheel assessments indicate that the use of these automotive fuels of vegetable origin yield definite benefits in terms of GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption compared to petroleum-based automotive fuels. (author)

  9. Agrigenomics for microalgal biofuel production: an overview of various bioinformatics resources and recent studies to link OMICS to bioenergy and bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Microalgal biofuels offer great promise in contributing to the growing global demand for alternative sources of renewable energy. However, to make algae-based fuels cost competitive with petroleum, lipid production capabilities of microalgae need to improve substantially. Recent progress in algal genomics, in conjunction with other "omic" approaches, has accelerated the ability to identify metabolic pathways and genes that are potential targets in the development of genetically engineered microalgal strains with optimum lipid content. In this review, we summarize the current bioeconomic status of global biofuel feedstocks with particular reference to the role of "omics" in optimizing sustainable biofuel production. We also provide an overview of the various databases and bioinformatics resources available to gain a more complete understanding of lipid metabolism across algal species, along with the recent contributions of "omic" approaches in the metabolic pathway studies for microalgal biofuel production. PMID:24044362

  10. Biofuels: Project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  11. Genome and Transcriptome of Clostridium phytofermentans, Catalyst for the Direct Conversion of Plant Feedstocks to Fuels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Petit

    Full Text Available Clostridium phytofermentans was isolated from forest soil and is distinguished by its capacity to directly ferment plant cell wall polysaccharides into ethanol as the primary product, suggesting that it possesses unusual catabolic pathways. The objective of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of biomass conversion to ethanol in a single organism, Clostridium phytofermentans, by analyzing its complete genome and transcriptome during growth on plant carbohydrates. The saccharolytic versatility of C. phytofermentans is reflected in a diversity of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sugar transporters and glycoside hydrolases, many of which may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. These genes are frequently organized as operons that may be controlled individually by the many transcriptional regulators identified in the genome. Preferential ethanol production may be due to high levels of expression of multiple ethanol dehydrogenases and additional pathways maximizing ethanol yield. The genome also encodes three different proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments with the capacity to compartmentalize pathways that divert fermentation intermediates to various products. These characteristics make C. phytofermentans an attractive resource for improving the efficiency and speed of biomass conversion to biofuels.

  12. Genome and Transcriptome of Clostridium phytofermentans, Catalyst for the Direct Conversion of Plant Feedstocks to Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Elsa; Coppi, Maddalena V.; Hayes, James C.; Tolonen, Andrew C.; Warnick, Thomas; Latouf, William G.; Amisano, Danielle; Biddle, Amy; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Lykidis, Athanassios; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos; Henrissat, Bernard; Lau, Joanne; Schnell, Danny J.; Church, George M.; Leschine, Susan B.; Blanchard, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium phytofermentans was isolated from forest soil and is distinguished by its capacity to directly ferment plant cell wall polysaccharides into ethanol as the primary product, suggesting that it possesses unusual catabolic pathways. The objective of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of biomass conversion to ethanol in a single organism, Clostridium phytofermentans, by analyzing its complete genome and transcriptome during growth on plant carbohydrates. The saccharolytic versatility of C. phytofermentans is reflected in a diversity of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sugar transporters and glycoside hydrolases, many of which may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. These genes are frequently organized as operons that may be controlled individually by the many transcriptional regulators identified in the genome. Preferential ethanol production may be due to high levels of expression of multiple ethanol dehydrogenases and additional pathways maximizing ethanol yield. The genome also encodes three different proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments with the capacity to compartmentalize pathways that divert fermentation intermediates to various products. These characteristics make C. phytofermentans an attractive resource for improving the efficiency and speed of biomass conversion to biofuels. PMID:26035711

  13. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  14. Biofuels securing the planet's future energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels include bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils, biomethanol, pyrolysis oils, biogas, and biohydrogen. There are two global biomass based liquid transportation fuels that might replace gasoline and diesel fuel. These are bioethanol and biodiesel. World production of biofuel was about 68 billion L in 2007. The primary feedstocks of bioethanol are sugarcane and corn. Bioethanol is a gasoline additive/substitute. Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. About 60% of global bioethanol production comes from sugarcane and 40% from other crops. Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent mono alkyl ester based oxygenated fuel. Biodiesel production using inedible vegetable oil, waste oil and grease has become more attractive recently. The economic performance of a biodiesel plant can be determined once certain factors are identified, such as plant capacity, process technology, raw material cost and chemical costs. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment.

  15. Optimal Localization of Biofuel Production on a European Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Wetterlund, E.

    2010-01-01

    Second generation biofuels use non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, for example waste or forest residues, and have in general lower environmental impact than first generation biofuels. In order to reach the 2020 target of 10% renewable energy in transport it will likely be necessary to have a share of at least 3% second generation fuels in the EU fuel mix. However, second generation biofuel production plants will typically need to be very large which puts significant demand on the supply chain...

  16. The economic and environmental sustainability of biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Annalisa Zezza

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses some of the determinants of biofuel economy in terms of relations with the fossil fuels markets and the agricultural markets. In particular, on the basis of the scientific literature the impact of fossil fuel prices on the agricultural markets is analyzed together with substitutability between food/fodder and biofuel production. The study then goes on to attempt evaluation of the environmental sustainability of biofuels on the basis of the energy balance, greenhouse gas re...

  17. Development status and analysis of microalgal bio-fuel patents in China%中国微藻生物质能源专利技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 李爱芬; 万凌琳; 张成武

    2012-01-01

    大力发展微藻生物质能源是解决能源危机和环境问题的有效途径.文章从微藻资源、微藻培养系统、培养物采收技术、微藻生物柴油炼制、含油微藻综合利用等方面出发,综述了中国微藻生物质能源专利的发展现状,旨在使科研工作者更加全面地了解这一领域发展趋势,并且促进科研工作者对自主知识产权的保护意识.%Developing microalgal bio-energy was considered vigorously to be one of the most effective approach to solve the problem of energy crisis and environment pollution. The development status of microalgal bio-fuel patents in China was reviewed from the following aspsects: oleaginous microalgae strains, microalgal culture system, harvesting technique, microalgae biodiesel refining、 oilness microalgae, comprehensive utilization of microalgal biomass. The researchers was enabled to gain a unique insight into the trend of chinese microalgal bio-energy development and the awareness of intellectual property protection.

  18. Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsheng Wen; H.Jiang; Kai Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly produced from biomass for transport sector applications.As biofuels are renewable,sustainable,carbon neutral and environmentally benign,they have been proposed as promising alternative fuels for gasoline and diesel engines.This paper reviews state-of-the-art application of the supercritical fluid(SCF)technique in biofuels production that includes biodiesel from vegetable oils via the transesterification process,bio-hydrogen from the gasification and bio-oil from the lique-faction of biomass,with biodiesel production as the main focus. The global biofuel situation and biofuel economics are also reviewed.The SCF has been shown to be a promising technique for future large-scale biofuel production,especially for biodiesel production from waster oil and fat.Compared with conventional biofuel production methods,the SCF technology possesses a number of advantages that includes fast inetics,high fuel production rate,ease of continuous operation and elimination of the necessity of catalysts.The harsh operation environment,i.e. the high temperature and high pressure,and its request on the materials and associated cost are the main concerns for its wide application.

  19. Burning water: the water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims to replace 10 percent of total transport fuels by biofuels by 2020. This study calculates the water footprint (WF) of different transport modes using bio-ethanol, biodiesel or bio-electr

  20. Chemical interactions in complex matrices: Determination of polar impurities in biofuels and fuel contaminants in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglayeva, Ganna

    The solutions to several real-life analytical and physical chemistry problems, which involve chemical interactions in complex matrices are presented. The possible interferences due to the analyte-analyte and analyte-matrix chemical interactions were minimized on each step of the performed chemical analysis. Concrete and wood, as major construction materials, typically become contaminated with fuel oil hydrocarbons during their spillage. In the catastrophic scenarios (e.g., during floods), fuel oil mixes with water and then becomes entrained within the porous structure of wood or concrete. A strategy was proposed for the efficient extraction of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete to enable their monitoring. The impacts of sample aging and inundation with water on the extraction efficiency were investigated to elucidate the nature of analytematrix interactions. Two extraction methods, 4-days cold solvent extraction with shaking and 24-hours Soxhlet extraction with ethylacetate, methanol or acetonitrile yielded 95-100 % recovery of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete. A method of concrete remediation after contamination with fuel oil hydrocarbons using activated carbon as an adsorbent was developed. The 14 days remediation was able to achieve ca. 90 % of the contaminant removal even from aged water-submerged concrete samples. The degree of contamination can be qualitatively assessed using transport rates of the contaminants. Two models were developed, Fickian and empirical, to predict long-term transport behavior of fuel oil hydrocarbons under flood representative scenarios into wood. Various sorption parameters, including sorption rate, penetration degree and diffusion coefficients were obtained. The explanations to the observed three sorption phases are provided in terms of analyte-matrix interactions. The detailed simultaneous analysis of intermediate products of the cracking of triacylglycerol oils, namely monocarboxylic acids, triacyl-, diacyl- and

  1. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Souza; M.-A. Van-Sluys; Vincentz, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Menossi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regul...

  2. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-06-17

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis, photosynthesis, and eukaryotic evolution, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To date JGI has sequenced, assembled, annotated, and released to the public the genomes of 18 species and strains of algae, sampling almost all of the major clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. With more algal genomes currently undergoing analysis, JGI continues its commitment to driving forward basic and applied algal science. Among these ongoing projects are the pan-genome of the dominant coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the interrelationships between the 4 genomes in the nucleomorph-containing Bigelowiella natans and Guillardia theta, and the search for symbiosis genes of lichens.

  3. The use of biofuel on the railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin MOGILA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biofuel application on rail transport for reducing the dependence on using the non-renewable diesel fuel and improving the environmental characteristics of the locomotive have been considered. The technique of comparative research concerning fuels on the rheostat and through operational tests has been offered. The methods of measuring harmful emissions with exhaust gases and the use of existing methods of controlling the fuel consumption have been developed. The conclusion about the prospects of using on diesel locomotives first the additives to the diesel fuel the biofuels of the first generation (biodiesel, and in future, the fuel of the second generation (synthetic biofuels has been made.

  4. Analysis of advanced biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, John E.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Welz, Oliver; Yang, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. Rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols efficiently. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially replace ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. The elementary autoignition reactions of isopentanol is investigated by analyzing product formation from laser-photolytic Cl-initiated isopentanol oxidation. Carbon-carbon bond-scission reactions in the low-temperature oxidation chemistry may provide an explanation for the intermediate-temperature heat release observed in the engine experiments. Overall, the results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

  5. Potential for biofuel use in Lithuania. Possibilities for the procurement of wood fuel in seven forest enterprise areas in north eastern Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrusaitis, A. [Kaunas Univ. of Technology (Lithuania); Andersson, Lars [County Board of Forestry, Vaermland-Oerebro (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    The report is the report of the First Phase of a Joint Swedish-Lithuanian Biofuel Development Project. The aim of this project is to contribute and to lay the basis for a sustainable development project going on in Lithuania with financing from the Baltic Billion Fund under the assignment to STEM directed towards conversion of oil coal fired boilers in the district heating system to the use of biofuel. The direction of the first phase of the project was to carry out a feasibility study to identify the present conditions for the utilisation of wood fuel and to define a demonstration area in the eastern part of Lithuania, where the largest forest resources are located. The Swedish National Energy Administration has commissioned the Swedish National Board of Forestry through the County Board of Forestry in Vaermland-Oerebro to carry out this project which is made in co-operation between the Department of Forest and Protected Areas under the Ministry of Environment in Lithuania. The Energy Department and the Energy Agency under the Lithuanian Ministry of Economy and other relevant energy, forestry and environment institutions in Lithuania also participate in the project. In general the following main methodical approaches have been applied: Definition of present forestry and economic aspects of round wood supply demand situation in the area of interest, in general, and wood fuel, in particular: Calculation of future scenarios of wood fuel potential in the years 2011-2020, 2021-2030. Creation of a method for disclosing territories with the best options for establishment of demonstration area, on basis of collected versatile information. Evaluation and comparison of options for the establishment of a demonstration area, carried out based on characteristics of forest sector and industry infrastructure within seven state forest enterprises. Figures on the potential wood fuel resources in the whole country differ according to different sources. Potential mentioned in the

  6. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript on lifecycle analysis (LCA) of biofuels for transportation has three major parts: * I. An analysis of greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuels, estimated using the Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM). * II. A review of recent LCAs of biofuels. * III. A comprehensive conceptual framework for doing LCAs of biofuels.

  7. Liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a brief conference paper on the use of biofuels in vehicles, especially in Sweden. Vegetable oils replace only diesel. In Sweden, the vegetable oil most often used is rape-seed oil. These oils are not very efficient in ''raw'' form and are used as basis in esters, such as rape-seed methyl ester (RME). Although RME is renewable, biobased and reduces the atmospheric CO2 emission, it increases the emission of nitrogen oxides, it may cause startup problems in cold weather and is not stable when stored for long. Most RME available in Sweden is imported and the potential for increased Swedish production is very limited. By using methanol and ethanol both petrol and diesel can be replaced. While mixtures of petrol and alcohols are being used increasingly, mixtures of diesel and alcohols are unstable and their use requires technological development

  8. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. - Research highlights: → The likelihood of a significant cellulosic ethanol industry in the US looks dim. → Drop-in biofuels made from cellulosic feedstocks have a more promising future. → The spatial dimension of markets for cellulosic feedstocks will be limited. → Corn ethanol will be a tough competitor for cellulosic ethanol.

  9. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  10. REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, M.; Deurwarder, E.; Lensink, S. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits, outlines the technological, legislative and other developments that should take place, and evaluate different policy strategies for realisation. Some preliminary conclusions of the project are discussed here. There is a significant domestic land potential for energy crops in the EU, which could supply between one quarter and one third of gasoline and diesel demand by 2030 if converted into advanced biofuels. A biomass supply of 8 to 10 EJ of primary energy could be available at costs around or below 3 EURO/GJ. However, the introduction of advanced biofuel options may meet a considerable introductory cost barrier, which will not be overcome when EU policy is oriented to the introduction of biofuels at least cost. Therefore, conventional biodiesel and ethanol may dominate the market for decades to come, unless biofuels incentives are differentiated, e.g. on the basis of the differences in greenhouse gas performance among biofuels.The introduction of advanced biofuels may also be enhanced by creating stepping stones or searching introduction synergies. A stepping stone can be the short-term development of lignocellulosic biomass supply chains for power generation by co-firing; synergies can be found between advanced FT-diesel production and hydrogen production for the fuel cell. (au)

  11. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  12. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  13. Biofuels of tomorrow. Concepts and their assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Langer, Franziska [DBFZ - Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Hamburg Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Environmental and Technology and Energy Economics (IUE)

    2013-06-01

    Globally, due to rising mobility in the future the fuel demand will continue to increase significantly. In addition to other options, like efficiency increase, traffic reduction and relocation of transportation tasks as well as electro mobility, biofuels are strongly required to compensate at least a part of the prospected additional consumption in the years to come. But the respective options are controversially discussed. Against this background an instrument for the technical, economic and environmental analysis and evaluation of future biofuel concepts has been developed. This instrument will be applied here for selected biofuel options based on lignocellulosic biomass (i.e. bioethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, Bio-SNG). For each of these investigated biofuel options reference concepts have been generated relevant for the short-, medium- and long-term taking into account technical development prospects along the overall fuel supply chain. They are analysed and evaluated according to technical, economic and environmental parameters. From a technical view point certain criteria like conversion and overall concept efficiency are taken into consideration. Regarding competitiveness of biofuels, economic aspects (e.g. cost structures, investments for biofuel plants, biofuel production costs, potentials for cost reductions) and environmental criteria (esp. GHG emissions) have been considered. Finally an overall assessment is done for all concepts. (orig.)

  14. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing. PMID:26479184

  15. Biofuel Policies and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify whether or not the green paradox is withheld when renewable fuel standards and blending mandate policies implemented by the U.S. and EU, respectively, are employed to promote the use of biofuels in the transport sector. The problem is addressed using a simplified model of the global transport market for energy, provided solely by fossil-based fuels made from oil and biofuels. A climate change model translates emissions from the use of the fossil-based fuels to ...

  16. Continuous Conversion of Rapeseed Oil to Bio-Fuels on 10VNi-10Ce /gamma- Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deoxygenation of rapeseed oil over V and Ni supported on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ promoted by Ce was investigated. The supported catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The obtained catalyst was characterized using techniques of XRD, BET, NH/sub 3/ -TPD, H/sub 2/-TPD and TPR analysis. The results revealed that the catalyst had good thermal stability and three kinds of acidities sites. Compared with sintering, the catalyst deactivation was due to coke deposition. The results of FT-IR, SF-3, GC and GC-MS indicated that reaction temperature is the key factor and that oil velocity is very important factor and that reaction pressure is a less important one in producing bio-fuels. The condition was optimized under such circumstances -- reaction temperature at 450 degree C, reaction pressure at 3.0MPa, oil velocity at 0.1mL/min and the gas velocity at 30mL/min, respectively. The alkanes content and alkenes content of liquid products are 60.03% and 29.44%, respectively, under the optimized condition. The main products are the hydrocarbon compounds under C/sub 18/. The results of GC and SF-3 showed that the reaction of decarboxylation and decarbonylation occurred at the same time, and that the oxygen in the oil is mainly removed by the forms of CO and CO/sub 2/, and that small part is removed by the form of H/sub 2/O. From the results of FT-IR?SF-3 and GC-MS, the generating mechanism of Non- ester renewable diesel was deduced. (author)

  17. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts. PMID:25707745

  18. Next generation of liquid biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Batidzirai, B.

    2012-01-01

    More than 99% of all currently produced biofuels are classified as “first generation” (i.e. fuels produced primarily from cereals, grains, sugar crops and oil seeds) (IEA, 2008b). “Second generation” or “next generation” biofuels, on the other hand, are produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forest residues, as well as purpose-grown energy crops such as vegetative grasses and short rotation forests (SRF). These feedstocks largely consist of cellulose, hemicellulose ...

  19. Sustainable biofuels: keys of the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongly discussed, the development of the biofuels raises many fears at the environmental and social levels. They played a real part in the increase of the raw materials cost as the profit in terms of greenhouse gases emission facing the fossil fuels are not always realized, especially for the imported biofuels. It seems necessary to define and guarantee sustainability criteria. All these parameters are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Biofuel bonanza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The native Australian legume ''Pongamia pinnata'' could be the basis for a new industry in Queensland's north, replacing fossil fuels and breaking the poverty cycle in indigenous communities.

  1. Toward nitrogen neutral biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Wernick, David G; Liao, James C

    2012-06-01

    Environmental concerns and an increasing global energy demand have spurred scientific research and political action to deliver large-scale production of liquid biofuels. Current biofuel processes and developing approaches have focused on closing the carbon cycle by biological fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and conversion of biomass to fuels. To date, these processes have relied on fertilizer produced by the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, and have not addressed the global nitrogen cycle and its environmental implications. Recent developments to convert protein to fuel and ammonia may begin to address these problems. In this scheme, recycling ammonia to either plant or algal feedstocks reduces the demand for synthetic fertilizer supplementation. Further development of this technology will realize its advantages of high carbon fixation rates, inexpensive and simple feedstock processing, in addition to reduced fertilizer requirements. PMID:22054644

  2. From first generation biofuels to advanced solar biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Roadmaps towards sustainable bioeconomy, including the production of biofuels, in many EU countries mostly rely on biomass use. However, although biomass is renewable, the efficiency of biomass production is too low to be able to fully replace the fossil fuels. The use of land for fuel production also introduces ethical problems in increasing the food price. Harvesting solar energy by the photosynthetic machinery of plants and autotrophic microorganisms is the basis for all biomass production. This paper describes current challenges and possibilities to sustainably increase the biomass production and highlights future technologies to further enhance biofuel production directly from sunlight. The biggest scientific breakthroughs are expected to rely on a new technology called "synthetic biology", which makes engineering of biological systems possible. It will enable direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel from inexhaustible raw materials: sun light, water and CO2. In the future, such solar biofuels are expected to be produced in engineered photosynthetic microorganisms or in completely synthetic living factories. PMID:26667057

  3. MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF SOLID BIOFUELS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRDİL, Gürkan A.K; Malaťák, Jan; Vaculík, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Solid biofuels are preferred as alternative source of energy in recent years. Although it’s not yet popular in Turkey but, there’s a big potential concerning agricultural residues. With the depletion of fossil fuels world wide researches for alternative energy sources, especially efforts for obtaining the energy from agricultural non-food products became important. Generally, two methods are used in mechanical processing of biofules obtained from plants and agricultural residues. These are pe...

  4. Liquid biofuels - can they meet our expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Liquid biofuels are one of the options for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and the dependence on fossil fuels. This is reflected in the DIRECTIVE 2003/30/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport. The promotion of E10, an automotive fuel containing 10 percent bioethanol, is based on this directive. At present almost all bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as maize, corn or sugar beet and sugar cane in suitable climates. In view of shortages and rising prices of food, in particular in developing countries, the use of food and feed crops for biofuel production is increasingly criticized. Alternative sources of biomass are perennial grasses and wood, whose cellulose fraction can be converted to alcohol by the so called "second generation" processes, which seem to be close to commercial deployment. The use of the total plant biomass increases the biofuel yield per hectare as compared to conventional crops. Of special interest for biofuel production is woody biomass from forests as this avoids competition with food production on arable land. Historically woody biomass was for millennia the predominant source of thermal energy. Before fossil fuels came into use, up to 80 percent of a forest was used for fuel wood, charcoal and raw materials such as potash for trade and industry. Now forests are managed to yield up to 80 percent of high grade timber for the wood industry. Replacing sophisticatedly managed forests by fast growing biofuel plantations could make economic sense for land owners when a protected market is guaranteed by politics, because biofuel plantations would be highly mechanized and cheap to operate, even if costs for certified planting material and fertilizer are added. For forest owners the decision to clear existing long rotation forests for biofuel plantations would still be weighty because of the extended time of decades required to rebuild a

  5. Fostering citizen deliberations on the social acceptability of renewable fuels policy: The case of advanced lignocellulosic biofuels in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognized that a lack of social acceptance is likely to hinder the ability of governments to achieve policy targets concerning renewable energies. In this paper, we discuss the results of a pre- and post-test online survey that was conducted as part of the 2012 “Advanced Biofuels” deliberative democracy public engagement event in Montréal, Québec. The event sough to foster public learning and discussion in order to produce socially acceptable policy input for one type of renewable energy: advanced lignocellulosic biofuels. Survey results show that the majority of participants were strongly supportive of advanced lignocellulosic biofuel development in Canada after the deliberative event. By the end of the event, support also grew for current Canadian biofuel policies and many agreed that increasing biofuel production should be widely supported by the Canadian public. However, despite this support, about two thirds of participants revealed that they did not feel included in government decisions about biofuels. The gap between support after inclusive deliberation and expressed exclusion from Canadian government decisions points to the importance of fostering future citizen engagements in this area of renewable energy policy. - Highlights: • We analyze outputs from the 2012 “Advanced Biofuels” deliberative democracy event. • We focus on social acceptance levels of advanced lignocellulosic biofuels in Canada. • Participants became less supportive of using food crops after the deliberation. • The majority were also supportive of current federal policy after the event. • However, most did not feel included in government decisions about biofuels

  6. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microalgae offer solution of wastewater treatment, CO2 sequestration, and energy crises. • Microalgal biofuel is renewable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly option. • Integration of wastewater treatment with biofuels production has made them more cost effective. • This article details out the potential production process and benefits of microalgal biofuels. - Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with

  7. Petroleum activity 2005 and perspectives 2006. Three documents: biofuels, diesel fuel, environment and CO{sub 2}. Zoom Normandie; Actualite petroliere 2005 et perspectives 2006. Trois dossiers: biocarburants, gazole, environnement et CO{sub 2}. Zoom Normandie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2005 and perspective for 2006: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. It presents then the petroleum industry actions in favor of the biofuels, the diesel fuel market evolution and the commitment of the petroleum industry on the CO{sub 2} emissions. A special part is devoted to the french region, Normandie: the petroleum industries and the corresponding the economic and environmental impact (A.L.B.)

  8. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  9. Advice on the accelerated market implementation of advanced biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Platform for Sustainable Mobility aims to promote the accelerated market introduction of more sustainable motor fuels and vehicle technology. The Platform distinguishes four transition paths: hybridization of the fleet of cars; implementation of biofuels; hydrogen-fuelled driving (driving on natural gas and biogas); intelligent transport systems (ITS). This advice involves part of the transition path for the implementation of biofuels, i.e. accelerated market introduction of advances biofuels. [mk

  10. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. PMID:25043346

  11. Burning water: the water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims to replace 10 percent of total transport fuels by biofuels by 2020. This study calculates the water footprint (WF) of different transport modes using bio-ethanol, biodiesel or bio-electricity and of European transport if 10 percent of transport fuels is replaced by bio-ethanol. We compare results for Europe with similar goals for other regions (Africa, Asia, Latin America, the for...

  12. Use of algae as biofuel sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the algae production technologies such as open, closed and hybrid systems, production costs, and algal energy conversions. Liquid biofuels are alternative fuels promoted with potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuel imports. Biofuels production costs can vary widely by feedstock, conversion process, scale of production and region. Algae will become the most important biofuel source in the near future. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to bio-oil, bioethanol, bio-hydrogen and bimethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Microalgae are theoretically very promising source of biodiesel.

  13. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.

  14. Chromatin landscaping in algae reveals novel regulation pathway for biofuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngan, Chew Yee; Wong, Chee-Hong; Choi, Cindy; Pratap, Abhishek; Han, James; Wei, Chia-Lin

    2013-02-19

    The diminishing reserve of fossil fuels calls for the development of biofuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable resources, including photosynthetic organisms, generating clean energy. Microalgae is one of the potential feedstock for biofuels production. It grows easily even in waste water, and poses no competition to agricultural crops for arable land. However, little is known about the algae lipid biosynthetic regulatory mechanisms. Most studies relied on the homology to other plant model organisms, in particular Arabidopsis or through low coverage expression analysis to identify key enzymes. This limits the discovery of new components in the biosynthetic pathways, particularly the genetic regulators and effort to maximize the production efficiency of algal biofuels. Here we report an unprecedented and de novo approach to dissect the algal lipid pathways through disclosing the temporal regulations of chromatin states during lipid biosynthesis. We have generated genome wide chromatin maps in chlamydomonas genome using ChIP-seq targeting 7 histone modifications and RNA polymerase II in a time-series manner throughout conditions activating lipid biosynthesis. To our surprise, the combinatory profiles of histone codes uncovered new regulatory mechanism in gene expression in algae. Coupled with matched RNA-seq data, chromatin changes revealed potential novel regulators and candidate genes involved in the activation of lipid accumulations. Genetic perturbation on these candidate regulators further demonstrated the potential to manipulate the regulatory cascade for lipid synthesis efficiency. Exploring epigenetic landscape in microalgae shown here provides powerful tools needed in improving biofuel production and new technology platform for renewable energy generation, global carbon management, and environmental survey.

  15. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  16. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  17. Biofuel production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, le L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel production has continued to develop and is driven by government support around the world. A comprehensive analysis of biofuel production and the policy implementation is crucial for the biofuel sustainability development. The objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG em

  18. Environmental and energy aspects of liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When spending public money to reduce CO2 emissions, it is necessary to establish which alternative energy source results in the largest reduction of CO2 emission per unit cost. Comparison of different biofuels with other energy resources is therefore important. Bioethanol is compared with leadfree gasoline, and rapeseed oil methylester (RME) is compared with diesel. Subsequently, biofuel production as a method to reduce CO2 emission will be compared with other sustainable energy resources. This comparison is based on the energy balance in chapter two and the final costs of biofuels in chapter six. The comparison of biofuels and current fossil fuels is based on emissions to the atmosphere of greenhouse gases and acidifying pollutants in chapter three. Pollution to soil and water by arable cropping is a specific characteristic of biofuel production and is difficult to compare with fossil fuels. On this subject biofuels are compared with other land uses in chapter four. This also applies to other adverse environmental aspects of agricultural production such as competition for land use with natural areas and recreation purposes. To explore future technological developments, a comparison is made in energy balances with estimated results after the year 2000. The overall conclusion is that there are far better options to achieve CO2 reduction. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 14 appendices, 28 refs

  19. Converting Sugars to Biofuels: Ethanol and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, the most significant sources of biofuels are starch- or sugarcane-based ethanol, which have been industrially produced in large quantities in the USA and Brazil, respectively. However, the ultimate goal of biofuel production is to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars with optimal fuel properties and compatibility with the existing fuel distribution infrastructure. To achieve this goal, metabolic pathways have been constructed to produce various fuel molecules that are categorized into fermentative alcohols (butanol and isobutanol, non-fermentative alcohols from 2-keto acid pathways, fatty acids-derived fuels and isoprenoid-derived fuels. This review will focus on current metabolic engineering efforts to improve the productivity and the yield of several key biofuel molecules. Strategies used in these metabolic engineering efforts can be summarized as follows: (1 identification of better enzymes; (2 flux control of intermediates and precursors; (3 elimination of competing pathways; (4 redox balance and cofactor regeneration; and (5 bypassing regulatory mechanisms. In addition to metabolic engineering approaches, host strains are optimized by improving sugar uptake and utilization, and increasing tolerance to toxic hydrolysates, metabolic intermediates and/or biofuel products.

  20. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  1. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor and...

  2. Optimized raw material usage and utilization degree in a polygeneration plant for heat, electricity, biofuel and market fuel; Optimal raavaruinsats och utnyttjandegrad i energikombinat foer vaerme, el, biodrivmedel och avsalubraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennie Rodin; Olle Wennberg; Mikael Berntsson; Rolf Njurell; Ola Thorson

    2012-01-15

    Energy and economic efficiency for six different types of energy combines which include heat, electricity, pellets and fuel production have been studied. The basic case is a conventional power plant, which subsequently is expanded with various additional facilities (dryer, pellets and/or fuel). Maximum exploitation of the product against inserted biofuel was obtained in case 6, pulp mills that use waste heat for district heating supply and drying of bark. Case 6 had also the lowest payoff period; two years. Of the CHP [combined heat and power] based energy combines 'the big combine' with four different products generally showed best marginal efficiency and economy. The results indicate that drying may be an economical way to extend the operating season and increase the production of electricity in a CHP based energy combine.

  3. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    Agro‐biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel‐derived CO2...

  5. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  6. The Biofuel Debate – Status Quo and Research Needs to Meet Multiple Goals of Food, Fuel and Ecosystem Services in the Tropics and Subtropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The current biofuel debate is characterized by concerns about the environmental effects of large-scale biofuel plantations, controversies about GMO-based feedstocks and the recent global food crisis. Predictions for the development of the biofuel sector are either departing from the supply-side or the demand-side, but are mostly based on modelling efforts with an unclear experimental basis and only broadly defined economic settings. Results vary widely and tend to undervalue technical progress in processing efficiency or management-related increases in biomass yields. Moreover, calculations often neglect the impact of climate change, the need for irrigation and processing water, for soil fertility maintenance and the importance of socio-economic issues. Against these shortcomings and in view of several decades to centuries of Ecosystem Carbon Payback Times of most biofuel plantations, their future as a large-scale replacement for hydrocarbons will strongly depend on improved matter conversion efficiencies and successful prevention mechanisms for conflicts over land use.

  7. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  8. Biofuels system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels, or fuels produced from biomass resources, represent an environmentally responsible source of liquid fuels. The combustion of petroleum and coal releases large volumes of carbon dioxide which have been stored millions of years ago that contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Biomass resources sequester carbon during their growing period, and when processed, this recently stored carbon is released as carbon dioxide. If biomass is replanted after harvesting, the carbon is again sequestered, resulting in a short cycle carbon loop. Another growing problem is waste disposal. Biomass wastes such as wood residues and municipal solid waste (MSW) often are landfilled and produce methane, another greenhouse gas. Diverting these wastes to a processing facility can eliminate methane production from landfilling. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is developing technology to convert biomass resources to fuels, chemicals, and solid residue that can be used for power generation. There is an estimated 1,118 to 2,945 million tons of biomass resources available annually that can be converted to renewable fuels using newly developed conversion processes. Economic evaluation of these processes have shown promise. This paper compares the economics of six biomass conversion systems. Prices and costs vary for site-specific areas, and the cost numbers used in the TVA comparison represent general systems. The rate of return on investments vary from 15.5% to 19.8% depending on the feedstock, process, and products. TVA is continuing research and development activities to improve economics of biomass systems and make them more attractive to commercial users. These technologies are environmentally friendly and can help to reduce the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane accumulation

  9. USING GIS TO DETERMINE PLANTABLE AREA FOR PRAIRIE SWITCHGRASS BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN KENTUCKY RIGHTS-OF-WAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    (1) The United States’ dependence on foreign fuel and other non-renewable resources has implications across disciplines including international relationships, the environment, and economics. Biofuels have been proposed as an alternative; however, land for biofuel product...

  10. Transcriptome sequencing and annotation of the microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta: Pathway description and gene discovery for production of next-generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibby Kyle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biodiesel or ethanol derived from lipids or starch produced by microalgae may overcome many of the sustainability challenges previously ascribed to petroleum-based fuels and first generation plant-based biofuels. The paucity of microalgae genome sequences, however, limits gene-based biofuel feedstock optimization studies. Here we describe the sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for the non-model microalgae species, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and identify pathways and genes of importance related to biofuel production. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to D. tertiolecta transcripts produced 1,363,336 high quality reads with an average length of 400 bases. Following quality and size trimming, ~ 45% of the high quality reads were assembled into 33,307 isotigs with a 31-fold coverage and 376,482 singletons. Assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG orthology (KO identifiers. These analyses identified the majority of lipid and starch biosynthesis and catabolism pathways in D. tertiolecta. Conclusions The construction of metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of fatty acids, triacylglycrols, and starch in D. tertiolecta as well as the assembled transcriptome provide a foundation for the molecular genetics and functional genomics required to direct metabolic engineering efforts that seek to enhance the quantity and character of microalgae-based biofuel feedstock.

  11. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  12. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, João C; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology () project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way. PMID:25346727

  13. Genetic Resources for Advanced Biofuel Production Described with the Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy eTorto-Alalibo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO: http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat, can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.

  14. Transitioning to Biofuels: A System-of-Systems Perspective; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    Using the existing fuel supply chain infrastructure as a framework, this paper discusses a vision for transitioning to a larger biofuels industry and the challenges associated with a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  15. Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-06-01

    Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels. PMID:23628723

  16. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  17. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  18. On the future prospects and limits of biofuels in Brazil, the US and EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Market prospects of biofuels are investigated up to 2030 for Brazil, the US and EU. • 1st generation biofuels are cost-effective under current tax policies. • Their potentials are restricted especially due to limited crops areas. • R and D especially for second generation biofuels has to be intensified. - Abstract: In the early 2000s high expectations existed regarding the potential contribution of biofuels to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and substitution of fossil fuels in transport. In recent years sobering judgments prevailed. The major barriers for a further expansion of biofuels are their high costs (compared to fossil fuels), moderate ecological performances, limited feedstocks for biofuel production and their competition with food production. The objective of this paper is to investigate the market prospects of biofuels up to the year 2030. It focuses on the three currently most important regions for biofuels production and use: the US, EU and Brazil which in 2010 accounted together for almost three-quarters of global biofuel supply. Our method of approach is based on a dynamic economic framework considering the major cost components of biofuels and corresponding technological learning with respect to capital costs. Moreover, for the analysis of the competitiveness of biofuels with fossil fuels also taxes are considered. The most important result is that under existing tax policies biofuels are cost-effective today and also for the next decades in the regions investigated. However, their potentials are restricted especially due to limited crops areas, and their environmental performance is currently rather modest. The major final conclusions are: (i) To reveal the real future market value of biofuels, a CO2 based tax system should be implemented for all types of fuels providing a neutral environmental incentive for competition between all types of fossil and renewable fuels; (ii) Moreover, the research and development for

  19. Sustainable Biofuel Contributions to Carbon Mitigation and Energy Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Steele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in US biofuels has been motivated by two primary national policy goals, (1 to reduce carbon emissions and (2 to achieve energy independence. However, the current low cost of fossil fuels is a key barrier to investments in woody biofuel production capacity. The effectiveness of wood derived biofuels must consider not only the feedstock competition with low cost fossil fuels but also the wide range of wood products uses that displace different fossil intensive products. Alternative uses of wood result in substantially different unit processes and carbon impacts over product life cycles. We developed life cycle data for new bioprocessing and feedstock collection models in order to make life cycle comparisons of effectiveness when biofuels displace gasoline and wood products displace fossil intensive building materials. Wood products and biofuels can be joint products from the same forestland. Substantial differences in effectiveness measures are revealed as well as difficulties in valuing tradeoffs between carbon mitigation and energy independence.

  20. 生物质制取氢气和生物油液体燃料%Hydrogen and liquid bio-fuel generated from biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽霞; 王兆祥; 董婷; 阚涛; 朱锡锋; 李全新

    2008-01-01

    The C12A7-O-/15%Mg catalyst shows higher activity for hydrogen generation from the catalytic steam reforming of bio-oil(generated from fast pyrolysis of biomass), giving the highest yield of hydrogen among our tested catalysts. The yield of hydrogen of 70% was obtained under the optimum steam reforming conditions (T=750 ℃, S/C= 6.0, GHSV= 26 000 h-1). The maximum carbon conversion is about 93%. It was also found that both the hydrogen yield and the carbon conversion over the C12A7-O-/15%Mg catalyst were selective to the temperature ahd the S/C (the molar ratio of steam to carbon fed) ratio. The results show that FTS (Fischer- Tropsch synthesis) using the bio-oil-syngas, produced by the steam reforming of bio-oil, would be a promising option to directly synthesize clean liquid bio-fuels. The characteristics of FTS performance using the bio-oil-syngas were studied. Total carbon (CO+CO2) conversion of about 36% and C5+ selectivity of about 44% were obtained at a typical reaction conditions: T=300℃, P=1.5 MPa, W/F=12.5 gcat·h/mol.%催化水蒸气重整由生物质快速裂解得到的生物油制取氢气,催化剂C12A7-O-/15%Mg显示了很高的活性,并在我们所研究的几种催化剂中具有最高的氢产率.在最佳重整条件(T=750℃,S/C=6.0,GHSV=26 000 h-1)下,得到70%的氢产率和约93%的最大碳转化率.结果显示,氢产率和碳转化率对温度和S/C(水蒸气和碳的摩尔比)具有选择性.目前结果表明,由水蒸气重整生物油制取的生物油合成气,用费托合成法直接合成洁净液体生物油燃料将是一个很有前景的选择.研究了由生物油合成气制备的费托合成液体燃料的特征,在典型的反应条件(T=300℃,P=1.5 MPa,W/F=12.5 gcat·h/mol)下,总碳转化率(包括CO和CO2)约36%,C5+的选择性约44%.

  1. Study of the role of engine control in the value chain for biofuels in modern "ultra clean" engines

    OpenAIRE

    Bjugstad, Line

    2014-01-01

    The climate changes caused by the combustion of fossil fuels in the transportation sector have, along with a decrease in fossil fuel reserves, resulted in an increased interest in developing alternative fuels. Biofuels are one of the most prominent options and with an expansion in the use of these fuels, it is important to understand all aspects of the environmental effect they impose.First generation biofuels are the commercial available biofuels today. Since their feedstock origins from foo...

  2. IMPROVING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RAPE BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kiernicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The researches on the use of biodiesel and fuel derived from waste plastics are presented in the paper. Biodiesel and fuel obtained from waste plastics were both used as fuel components. FAME is a bio-admixture in the fuel. The catalytic cracking of polyolefin was the source of second fuel admixture. The physical properties of the analyzed components of fuel have been presented. The operational parameters of direct injection in diesel engines fuelled by tested fuel blends was set out. The preparation of the fuel mixture was also described. The concept of the diesel fuel which is made from the components of opposite physical properties could have a positive practical effect and could improve the use of biofuels.

  3. Biomass, biogas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the different ways to produce biofuels. It appears that there are 3 generations of biofuels. The first generation was based on the use of the energetic reserves of the plants for instance sugar from beetroot or starch from cereals or oil from oleaginous plants. The second generation is based on a more complete use of the plant, the main constituents of the plant: cellulose and lignin are turned into energy. The third generation of biofuels relies on the use of energy plants and algae. The second generation of biofuels reduces drastically the competition between an alimentary use and a non-alimentary use of plants. In 2008 the production of biofuels reached 43 Mtep which represents only 2% of all the energy used in the transport sector. The international agency for energy expects that the production of biofuels would be multiplied by a factor 6 (even 10 if inciting measures are taken) by 2030. (A.C.)

  4. Biofuels and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  5. Forecast for biofuel trade in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One principal general conclusion is that the European biofuel market for the period up to the year 2000 will be competitive, dynamic and affected by technical development and innovations. That leads to the conclusion that prices will go down, which will increase the ability of biofuels to compete in the market. Still, biofuels will generally not be able to compete at the price level of fossil fuels in the world market, but will need support or protection to reach a competitive position. There are several reasons for support, e.g. offsetting the green-house effect and acid rain, conservation of the limited fossil fuel deposits, utilisation of local and domestic energy resources, etc. As energy crops in Europe are at an introductory stage, no large international trade can be expected within the next ten years. In this study it is assumed that some limited protective measures are imposed, which is a possible result of the energy and environmental policy currently discussed for the European Community, EC. The study implies that in the year 2000 it is possible to transport large quantities of biofuels to large energy consumers if taxes and other incentives now under discussion in the EC and national governments are introduced. The study also implies that in the year 2000 it is possible to utilise biofuels primarily in local and national markets. In the latter case, international trade will be reduced to minor spot quantities

  6. Stakeholder perceptions of biofuels from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we focus on stakeholder views around the development of advanced biofuels from microalgae. Research for the development of microalgal-derived biofuels was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) more than 30 years ago. However, interest in this eco-innovation has been growing significantly over the last five years in various countries. The high productivity of algae indicates that algal biofuels could contribute to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels while avoiding the undesired impacts of first generation biofuels. There are still numerous challenges that need nevertheless to be addressed. The aim of this paper is to explore stakeholder perceptions of the current barriers and opportunities associated with this promising emergent technology. - Research highlights: → There are still many questions about how microalgae biofuels will reduce our demand of fossil fuels. → Many of the obstacles discussed by participants are related to the technological and economic barriers. → There are still competing visions on the aspects of the technology where efforts have to be applied. → Years of intensive, continuous and large-scale research and a favorable environment are needed. → The careful protection of the innovation may avoid failure experiences.

  7. A resilience perspective on biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas P; Rao, P Suresh C; Park, Jeryang; Zhao, Fu

    2011-07-01

    The recent investment boom and collapse of the corn ethanol industry calls into question the long-term sustainability of traditional approaches to biofuel technologies. Compared with petroleum-based transportation fuels, biofuel production systems are more closely connected to complex and variable natural systems. Especially as biofeedstock production itself becomes more independent of fossil fuel-based supports, stochasticity will become an increasingly important, inherent feature of biofuel feedstock production systems. Accordingly, a fundamental change in design philosophy is necessary to ensure the long-term viability of the biofuels industry. To respond effectively to unexpected disruptions, the new approach will require systems to be designed for resilience (indicated by diversity, efficiency, cohesion, and adaptability) rather than more narrowly defined measures of efficiency. This paper addresses important concepts in the design of coupled engineering-ecological systems (resistance, resilience, adaptability, and transformability) and examines biofuel conversion technologies from a resilience perspective. Conversion technologies that can accommodate multiple feedstocks and final products are suggested to enhance the diversity and flexibility of the entire industry. PMID:21309075

  8. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  9. Climate changes, biofuels and the sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is one of the most dangerous problems of the contemporary world. We can either adapt to the corresponding changes or try to reduce their impact by significantly reducing fossil fuel burning. A hydrogen-based economy using energy from biomass, solar, wind and other renewable sources and/or nuclear energy seems to be a viable alternative. Here we analyse the possibilities of the biofuels to replace fossil fuels and their potential to contribute to hydrogen economy. (author)

  10. Climate changes, biofuels and the sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidansek, Aleksander; Blinc, Robert [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeglic, Anton [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik [Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (RS); Slaus, Ivo [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-08-15

    Climate change is one of the most dangerous problems of the contemporary world. We can either adapt to the corresponding changes or try to reduce their impact by significantly reducing fossil fuel burning. A hydrogen-based economy using energy from biomass, solar, wind and other renewable sources and/or nuclear energy seems to be a viable alternative. Here we analyse the possibilities of the biofuels to replace fossil fuels and their potential to contribute to hydrogen economy. (author)

  11. Socio-economic aspects of different biofuel development pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.

  12. Gas Emissions in Combustion of Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitázek Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biomass or more precisely biofuel is more and more being exploited as a substitute for fossil fuels for heating as well as for example for heating a drying environment. This contribution focuses on assessing a heat source by combusting various types of solid biofuels. It is a boiler VIGAS 25 with AK 2000 regulation for heating a family house. Gaseous emissions were measured using a device TESTO 330-2LL. Firewood, peat briquettes, bark briquettes and hardwood briquettes were burnt. Results of experimental measurements concerning the production of gaseous emissions are processed in tables and graphs depending on boiler performance and combustion time.

  13. Allies in Biofuels. Opportunities in the Dutch - Argentinean biofuels trade relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    focuses on first generation biofuels and has only little experience with rapeseed, and second generation fuels. It is in both these areas that Dutch and European experience can play a role to develop Argentina's biofuels sector. Argentina, on the other hand can produce the amounts of biofuels that Europe and the Netherlands are demanding for in the short run. The outcome of research shows several recommendations to change biofuels policies for both countries. Furthermore, areas for cooperation were defined. In short: Dutch biofuels policy regarding international research and cooperation projects is too narrow. Argentina is an excellent partner but until now completely unnoticed. Teaming up with Brazil and making use of the same financial structures would be a possibility for the incorporation of Argentina in Dutch foreign biofuels activities; The Dutch initiative on criteria for sustainable production of biofuels appears overachieving, and hardly workable for producing countries. The dialogue with those countries - such as Argentina - should be intensified, in order to develop at least voluntary agreements, and to guarantee that both producer and consumer country are on the same team. The process is a two-way street; Argentina needs to stabilize policy development in order to bring stability to the biofuels sector and promote investments. Also, Argentina needs to develop a long-term strategy on biofuels and more actively pursue its national interests in the international arena specifically in terms of trade issues (WTO, normalization); Argentina's policy needs diversification. Brainstorming with experienced Dutch and European counterparts can distill instruments that are suitable for Argentina. Combined projects between Dutch and Argentinean institutes (SenterNovem, ECN, WUR, INTA) would be profitable in this area, as well as on more practical research regarding crop's life cycles, energy balances, technologies, etc. Modifications to policy and cooperation as described

  14. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  16. Energy Policy and Environmental Possibilities: Biofuels and Key Protagonists of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    While a growing body of research indicates the severe ecological and social costs of biofuel production worldwide, the U.S. government continues to promote the expansion of this fuel sector. Recent congressional testimony regarding the promotion of biofuels via the renewable fuel standard (RFS) offers a strategic research site for sociological…

  17. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  18. Peroxidase Biocathodes for a Biofuel Cell Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Celso; Shipovskov, Stepan; Ferapontova, Elena

    energy sources in the world energy consumption within the period from 2006 to 2030, with a biomass conversion mentioned only briefly. Along with this, the expedient development of new bioenergy technologies may change the future role of biological sources. One example is production of bioethanol as...... alternative fuel5,6; another example is a steadily expanding field of biofuel cells development7-10, with a number of scientific publications and patent applications increased more than 40 times during the last decade11. In terms of sustainable energy production, enzymatic biofuel cells are attractive for a......Among such efficient sustainable energy sources, as wind and solar power, photovoltaics, geothermal and water power and other1-3, biofuels are ranked as less efficient. The latest 2009 report of the International Energy Agency4 plans approximately 100% increase of the contribution of the renewable...

  19. Mitochondrial bioelectrocatalysis for biofuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arechederra, Robert L.; Boehm, Kevin [Saint Louis University, Department of Chemistry, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States); Minteer, Shelley D., E-mail: minteers@slu.ed [Saint Louis University, Department of Chemistry, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondria modified electrodes have been developed and characterized that utilize whole mitochondria isolated from tubers and immobilized within a quaternary ammonium modified Nafion membrane on a carbon electrode that can oxidize pyruvate and fatty acids. Detailed characterization of the performance of these mitochondria modified electrodes has been accomplished by coupling the mitochondria-based bioanode with a commercial air breathing cathode in a complete pyruvate/air biofuel cell. The studies included the effect of fuel (pyruvate) concentration, mitochondria lysing, temperature and pH on the performance of the mitochondria catalyzed, pyruvate/air biofuel cell. Effect of oxygen and cytochrome c oxidase inhibitors on biofuel cell performance has allowed us to further understand the mechanism of electron transfer with the carbon electrode.

  20. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  1. Competitivity of biofuels in heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitivity of indigenous fuels in heating of residential houses in comparison with imported fuels, and both electricity and district heating, has been studied in this research, ordered by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. Heating plants of residential house scale (20-1000 kW) have been investigated in the research. Only the new heating plants are included in the investigation. The heat generation calculations concerning the residential heating plants have been made for following indigenous fuels: sod peat, fuel-chips, peat and wood pellets, firewood and straw. In addition to these, the calculations have been made for light fuel-oil, electric heating, district heating and natural gas. The local energy tariffs have to be taken into account in electric heating, district heating and natural gas heating. A calculation model, based on flowsheet calculation, forms the main result of the project. By using the model it is possible to update the competitivity data rapidly. Of all the indigenous fuels, sod peat and fuel-chips appeared to be competitive with electric and district heating costs in nearly all scales investigated. The construction of the heat generation costs of solid indigenous fuels differs remarkably from those of electric and district heating. The main part of the heating costs of wood chips and sod peat is formed of fixed costs; i.e. of investment costs and of the costs of heating and control work. The energy costs are the highest costs items in electric an district heating, as well as in the oil heating. It is possible to improve the competitivity of biofuels by developing cheaper boilers and fuel processing and storage devices

  2. The impacts of biofuels on food security and supply in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yuanchun; Li Shizhong; Zhang Hanxing

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are the current promising alternative to fossil fuels. However, the fluctuating food prices caused by oil price led to critics to biofuels. The paper surveyed biofuels production and grain production and consumption de-mand, and come to the conclusion that there was a little impact of corn ethanol on international food price, and there was no impact on China's food prices. China has launched non-food biofuels development strategy to use marginal lands for growing hard crops, such as sweet sorghum, tuber crops, and switchgrass etc. to produce biofuels without any im-pact on food security in the future.

  3. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    12.1 Mtoe of biofuels consumed in the transport sector in the EU in 2009. European Union biofuel use for transport reached the 12 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009, heralding a further drop in the pace of the sector's growth, which rose by only 18.7% between 2008 and 2009 - just 1.9 mtoe of consumption over the previous year. The biofuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the EU is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009, which is a very long way short of the 5.75% goal for 2010 set in the 2003 European biofuel directive, which would require around 18 mtoe of biofuel use

  4. Biofuels, times are changing. Notification effect or real progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This well-documented book analyses the implications relative to the recent decisions taken for the development of biofuels. The history of alcohol-based biofuels, in France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, shows why the present day 'opportunity window' makes these fuels more 'sustainable' today than in the past: the common agricultural policy, the oil crisis, the global warming and its expected impacts have led governments to develop biofuels. The authors stress on the fragile equilibrium between agriculture and energy markets and on the fact that the viability/sustainability of biofuels-related decisions will depend on the economic scales (from micro- to macro-economy) and on the agronomic environmental scales (from the rural area to the global environment). Many researches remain to be carried out on biofuels, in particular with respect to their potential toxicity and to their conformability with recent regulations. (J.S.)

  5. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  6. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology research programs are to develop and provide the technology base for the utilization of biomass (biologically produced sources) and municipal solid waste (MSW) as energy resources in those technical areas where the risks of technology development are too great for industry to assume. DOE research is providing for the development of advanced innovative biofuels technologies are applying biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques to improve the growth, productivity, and energy characteristics of woody, herbaceous, and aquatic biofuel feedstocks. Advances in thermochemical and biochemical conversion technologies are also being pursued for economical and environmentally sound production of steam, electricity, and liquid and gaseous fuels. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biofuels energy consumption in the United States for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. The report is based on existing data collection surveys and is not based on any assumptions provided by the requester

  7. A Collection of Algal Genomes from the JGI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Algae, defined as photosynthetic eukaryotes other than plants, constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity. Acquisition of the ability to conduct oxygenic photosynthesis through endosymbiotic events has been a principal driver of eukaryotic evolution, and today algae continue to underpin aquatic food chains as primary producers. Algae play profound roles in the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE?s Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A collection of algal projects ongoing at JGI contributes to each of these areas and illustrates analyses employed in their genome exploration.

  8. A Brief Literature Overview of Various Routes to Biorenewable Fuels from Lipids for the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-products (NAABB) Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.

    2011-03-29

    Renewable methods of producing transportation fuels are currently the focus of numerous large research efforts across the globe. Renewable fuel produced from algal lipids is one aspect of this research that could have profound implications on future transportation fuel requirements. However, technical challenges remain in several areas of algal-lipid-based fuels. These challenges include the identification and development of robust and productive algal species as well as extraction methods to recover the produced lipids. Not the least of these technical challenges is the conversion of the algae lipids to fungible fuels. This brief literature review focuses primarily on state-of-the-art “downstream” applications of producing fuel from fats and lipids, which can be applied to ongoing research with algae-derived lipids.

  9. The biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO2 accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  10. DMF - A New Biofuel Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guohong; Daniel, Ritchie; Xu, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts...

  11. Genomic analysis of the hydrocarbon-producing, cellulolytic, endophytic fungus Ascocoryne sarcoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A Gianoulis

    Full Text Available The microbial conversion of solid cellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels may provide a renewable energy source for transportation fuels. Endophytes represent a promising group of organisms, as they are a mostly untapped reservoir of metabolic diversity. They are often able to degrade cellulose, and they can produce an extraordinary diversity of metabolites. The filamentous fungal endophyte Ascocoryne sarcoides was shown to produce potential-biofuel metabolites when grown on a cellulose-based medium; however, the genetic pathways needed for this production are unknown and the lack of genetic tools makes traditional reverse genetics difficult. We present the genomic characterization of A. sarcoides and use transcriptomic and metabolomic data to describe the genes involved in cellulose degradation and to provide hypotheses for the biofuel production pathways. In total, almost 80 biosynthetic clusters were identified, including several previously found only in plants. Additionally, many transcriptionally active regions outside of genes showed condition-specific expression, offering more evidence for the role of long non-coding RNA in gene regulation. This is one of the highest quality fungal genomes and, to our knowledge, the only thoroughly annotated and transcriptionally profiled fungal endophyte genome currently available. The analyses and datasets contribute to the study of cellulose degradation and biofuel production and provide the genomic foundation for the study of a model endophyte system.

  12. Energy crops for biofuel feedstocks: facts and recent patents on genetic manipulation to improve biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Burning fossil-fuels to meet the global energy requirements by human being has intensified the concerns of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Therefore, serious efforts are required to develop nonfossil-based renewable energy sources. Plants are more efficient in utilizing solar energy to convert it into biomass which can be used as feedstocks for biofuel production. Hence with the increasing demands of energy and the needs of cost-effective, sustainable production of fuels, it has become necessary to switch over to plant biomass as a renewable source of energy. Biofuels derived from more sustainable biological materials such as lignocellulosic plant residues, considered as second generation biofuels, are more dependable. However, there are technical challenges such as pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to convert it into fermentable sugars. Plant genetic engineering has already proven its potential in modifying cell wall composition of plants for enhancing the efficiency of biofuel production. Interest and potential in the area are very much evident from the growing number of patents in the recent years on the subject. In this review, recent trends in genetic engineering of energy crops for biofuel production have been introduced, and strategies for the future developments have been discussed. PMID:24456235

  13. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  14. Public policy and biofuels: The way forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biofuels has been given much attention by governments around the world, especially in increasingly energy-hungry OECD nations. Proponents have argued that they offer various advantages over hydrocarbon-based fuels, especially with respect to reducing dependence on OPEC-controlled oil, minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensuring financial and lifestyle continuity to farmers and agriculturally dependent communities. This paper adds to the continuing technical debate by addressing the issue from a holistic public policy perspective. In particular, it looks at the proposed benefits of biofuels, yet also addresses the implications of increased demand on the global and regional environment, in addition to the economic welfare of developing nations. Furthermore, it posits that short-term reliance on biofuels vis-a-vis other alternative energy sources may potentially inhibit the development and maturation of longer-term technologies that have greater potential to correct the harmful effects of fossil-fuel dependence. In light of this, the manifold policy instruments currently employed or proposed by governments in developed nations to promote biofuels emerge as questionable

  15. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  16. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  17. Time for commercializing non-food biofuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booming automobile in China has added additional pressure on the country that needs to import almost 50% of its oil. Non-food-based biofuel is a viable fuel alternative for cars. China already has the required-foundation to commercialize non-food-based biofuel. Chinese crop straw and stock, energy crop, and woody biomass that could potentially be converted into energy are projected to be 700 million toe (ton of oil equivalent) in the near future. Meanwhile, Chinese food-based ethanol fuel industry ranks as the world's third after United States and Brazil. Several non-food-based ethanol plants are constructed or under constructed, one of which has been licensed. However, more efforts should be directed to commercializing non-food-based biofuel, including industrialized feedstock, strengthening key technology research, supporting private enterprise, and E10 upgrading to E20. The enormous increase in private ownership of car must compel China to commercialize biofuel. (author)

  18. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael; Wu, Weihua; Taatjes, Craig A.; Scheer, Adam Michael; Turner, Kevin M.; Yu, Eizadora T.; O' Bryan, Greg; Powell, Amy Jo; Gao, Connie W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  19. Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, Poonam Singh [Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Singh, Anoop [Biofuels Research Group, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    This article is an up-to-date review of the literature available on the subject of liquid biofuels. In search of a suitable fuel alternative to fast depleting fossil fuel and oil reserves and in serious consideration of the environmental issues associated with the extensive use of fuels based on petrochemicals, research work is in progress worldwide. Researchers have been re-directing their interests in biomass based fuels, which currently seem to be the only logical alternative for sustainable development in the context of economical and environmental considerations. Renewable bioresources are available globally in the form of residual agricultural biomass and wastes, which can be transformed into liquid biofuels. However, the process of conversion, or chemical transformation, could be very expensive and not worth-while to use for an economical large-scale commercial supply of biofuels. Hence, there is still need for much research to be done for an effective, economical and efficient conversion process. Therefore, this article is written as a broad overview of the subject, and includes information based on the research conducted globally by scientists according to their local socio-cultural and economic situations. (author)

  20. Learning of the root factors of incidents potentially impacting the biofuel supply chains from some 100 significant cases

    OpenAIRE

    Riviere, Carine; Marlair, Guy; Vignes, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    A biofuel is most often defined as a liquid or gaseous fuel used for transport purposes that can be produced from biomass substrates or bioresources. There are numerous potential supply chains for the production of biofuels, depending on feedstock, conventional or advanced processes, and final end use. AH stakeholders involved in the promotion of more sustainable biofuels highly welcomed the area of industrialization of so called 2nd génération type of biofuels. However existing facilities pr...

  1. Thermodynamic evaluation of biomass-to-biofuels production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers. However, the usage of biomass is accompanied by possible drawbacks, mainly due to limitation of land and water, and competition with food production. In this paper, the analysis concerns so-called second generation biofuels, like Fischer–Tropsch fuels or Substitute Natural Gas which are produced either from wood or from waste biomass. For these biofuels the most promising conversion case is the one which involves production of syngas from biomass gasification, followed by synthesis of biofuels. The thermodynamic efficiency of biofuels production is analyzed and compared using both the direct exergy analysis and the thermo-ecological cost. This analysis leads to the detection of exergy losses in various elements which forms the starting point to the improvement of conversion efficiency. The efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels is also evaluated for the whole production chain, including biomass cultivation, transportation and conversion. The global effects of natural resources management are investigated using the thermo-ecological cost. The energy carriers' utilities such as electricity and heat are externally generated either from fossil fuels or from renewable biomass. In the former case the production of biofuels not always can be considered as a renewable energy source whereas in the latter case the production of biofuels leads always to the reduction of depletion of non-renewable resources

  2. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  3. Clean vehicles with biofuel. A state of the art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maansson, Tommy

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overall analysis and assessment of the use of biofuel in the Swedish transport sector. The report is based on the information and experiences that have been accumulated within the KFB biofuel programme. The results of the various activities in the programme suggest that the technology required for the use of ethanol and biogas as fuels, functions satisfactorily and that biofuels possess considerable potential as a means of improving health and environment Refs, 57 figs, 20 tabs

  4. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies rely upon attributional lifecycle analysis (LCA) approaches to estimate water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/evapotranspiration water consumed for biofuel production. Such approaches can be misleading. From a policy perspective, a better approach is to compare differential water impacts among scenarios on a landscape scale. We address the shortcomings of existing studies by using consequential LCA, and incorporate direct and indirect land use (changes) of biofuel scenarios, marginal vs. average biofuel water use estimates, future climate, and geographic heterogeneity. We use the outputs of a partial equilibrium economic model, climate and soil data, and a process-based crop-soil-climate-water model to estimate differences in green water (GW - directly from precipitation to soil) and blue water (BW - supplied by irrigation) use among three scenarios: (1) business-as-usual (BAU), (2) Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. We use spatial statistical methods to interpolate key climatic variables using daily climate observations for the contiguous USA. Finally, we use FAO's crop model AquaCrop to estimate the domestic GW and BW impacts of biofuel policies from 2007-2035. We assess the differences among scenarios along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion at the county level, including prime and marginal lands, (2) crop-specific and overall annual/seasonal water balances including (a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (d) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm 3 /acre over the relevant time period. The functional unit of analysis is the BW and GW requirements of biofuels (mm3 per Btu biofuel) at the county level. Differential water use impacts among scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes

  5. Development of a membraneless ethanol/oxygen biofuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel cells are similar to traditional fuel cells, except the metallic electrocatalyst is replaced with a biological electrocatalyst. This paper details the development of an enzymatic biofuel cell, which employs alcohol dehydrogenase to oxidize ethanol at the anode and bilirubin oxidase to reduce oxygen at the cathode. This ethanol/oxygen biofuel cell has an active lifetime of about 30 days and shows power densities of up to 0.46 mW/cm2. The biocathode described in this paper is unique in that bilirubin oxidase is immobilized within a modified Nafion polymer that acts both to entrap and stabilize the enzyme, while also containing the redox mediator in concentrations large enough for self-exchange based conduction of electrons between the enzyme and the electrode. This biocathode is fuel tolerant, which leads to a unique fuel cell that employs both renewable catalysts and fuel, but does not require a separator membrane to separate anolyte from catholyte

  6. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  7. The biofuels, situation, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic change with the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, sees the development of ''clean'' energy sources. Meanwhile the biofuels remain penalized by their high production cost, the interest is increasing. Facing their development ecologists highlight the environmental and social negative impacts of the development of the biofuels. The author aims to take stock on the techniques and the utilizations. (A.L.B.)

  8. Microalgae: biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Babita Kumari; Vinay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels....

  9. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the transportation sector and can address many of the problems associated with mineral oil. Many biofuels are conceivable. Biodiesel (from oil crops) and ethanol from sugar beets or grains are already used in pr...

  10. Biofuel economics in a setting of multiple objectives & unintended consequences

    OpenAIRE

    William K. Jaeger; Egelkraut, Thorsten M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines biofuels from an economic perspective and evaluates the merits of promoting biofuel production in the context of the policies’ multiple objectives, life-cycle implications, pecuniary externalities, and other unintended consequences. The policy goals most often cited are to reduce fossil fuel use and to lower greenhouse gas emissions. But the presence of multiple objectives and various indirect effects complicates normative evaluation. To address some of these complicating ...

  11. The Production of Biofuels: Welfare and Environmental Consequences for Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Clement A. Tisdell

    2009-01-01

    The production of biofuels has been supported by many conservationists and environmentalists on the grounds that it reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is a renewable energy substitute for non-renewable fossil fuels, mainly oil. More recently the domestic production of biofuels (and the domestic supply of other forms of alternative energy) have been welcomed by several nations as ways to reduce their oil imports and increase their energy self-sufficiency, as for example, has happened in the ...

  12. Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Mossberg, Johanna; Torén, Johan; Hoffstedt, Christian; von Schenck, Anna; Berglin, Niklas; Lundmark, Robert; Lundgren, Joakim; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg

    2013-01-01

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with la...

  13. The minimum biofuel requirement and the oil monopolist

    OpenAIRE

    Sillasto, Eero

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to describe how the minimum biofuel requirement affects the monopolistic oil markets. This is an increasingly important questions, because the governments are smoothing the biofuel’s way into the fuel markets for both the economical and environmental reasons. The focus in this thesis is mainly on the minimum biofuel requirement, but at times that policy is compared also to a subsidizing policy. To answer the research question of how the oil markets are affected...

  14. Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kai; Lafleur, Todd; Wu, Xu; Chai, Jiajue; Wu, Guosheng; Xie, Xianmei

    2015-04-25

    Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone (GVL), produced from renewable cellulosic biomass, with selective conversion to biofuels pentyl valerate (PV) and pentane in one pot using a bifunctional Pd/HY catalyst is described. Excellent catalytic performance (over 99% conversion of GVL, 60.6% yield of PV and 22.9% yield of pentane) was achieved in one step. These biofuels can be targeted for gasoline and jet fuel applications. PMID:25797827

  15. Heats of combustion of biofuels obtained by pyrolysis and by transesterification and of biofuel/diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, Edimar; Quirino, Rafael L.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z.; Prado, Alexandre G.S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, Caixa Postal 4478, 70904-970 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The obtained heats of combustion were 46.65+/-0.20; 38.09+/-0.31; 39.67+/-0.22; 41.88+/-0.31; 37.86+/-0.46; 39.89+/-0.09; 41.28+/-0.31MJ/kg for diesel, transesterified soybean oil, pyrolysed soybean oil and crude soybean oil, transesterified palm tree oil (Elaeis sp.), pyrolysed palm tree oil, crude palm tree oil, respectively. The results show the heats of combustion of biofuels are approximately 17% smaller than traditional diesel. The data also show the heats of combustion depend on the methodology used for the biofuel production. Addition of biofuels to traditional diesel fuel results in a linear decrease of the heat of combustion with the amount of the alternative fuel added to the diesel. However, for blends with 5% biofuels, which is the limit demanded by Brazilian legislation, no significant decrease of the heat of combustion of the commercial diesel was observed. (author)

  16. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  17. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics(Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel supply chains in the United States are expected to expand considerably, in part due to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. This law mandates through the EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard an expansion to 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels per year by 2...

  18. FUNGIBLE AND COMPATIBLE BIOFUELS: LITERATURE SEARCH, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report is to summarize the various barriers to more widespread distribution of bio-fuels through our common carrier fuel distribution system, which includes pipelines, barges and rail, fuel tankage, and distribution terminals. Addressing these barriers is necessary to allow the more widespread utilization and distribution of bio-fuels, in support of a renewable fuels standard and possible future low-carbon fuel standards. These barriers can be classified into several categories, including operating practice, regulatory, technical, and acceptability barriers. Possible solutions to these issues are discussed; including compatibility evaluation, changes to bio-fuels, regulatory changes, and changes in the distribution system or distribution practices. No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but results are used to develop recommendations for future research and additional study as appropriate. This project addresses recognized barriers to the wider use of bio-fuels in the areas of development of codes and standards, industrial and consumer awareness, and materials compatibility issues.

  19. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam;

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used...... adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ≥40°C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol...

  20. Import of biofuels and peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas neighbouring Sweden, i.e., foremost the Baltic States, it is probable that a large part of the available amounts will be consumed on the domestic market. Studies of the possible use of wood fuel in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are being made by the World Bank. Considerable investments will probably be made in the near future to replace existing coal- and oil-fired boiler plants with plants burning wood fuel. Consequently, the opportunities for exports of wood fuel will probably be small. In a global perspective, peat is used only to a limited extent as fuel. In the former Soviet Union alone it is estimated that the amount of peat that is economically feasible to extract is about 166x109 tonnes at a moisture content of 40%. Among the most interesting bio products that can be used in energy production from different food processing industries are nut-shells and fruit stones. Some stones, such as those in olives, plums and peaches, are excellent as fuels. The advantage with olive stones, in comparison with chips is that the bulk weight is high and the moisture content is low. Olive stones are thus similar to processed biofuels such as pellets. Due to their high energy content the olive stones can replace coal, which cannot be done by unprocessed fuels without expensive investments in materials handling equipment. Our survey shows that processed forest fuels and crushed olive stones are the products of greatest interest for the Swedish market. It also shows that both chips and peat-based products from the Baltic States are competitive

  1. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation's fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US martket, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  2. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: the global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Lienden, van, K.P.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; A. Y. Hoekstra; Meer, van der, J.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims In the last two centuries, fossil fuels have been our major source of energy. However, issues concerning energy security and the quality of the environment have given an impulse to the development of alternative, renewable fuels. Particularly the transport sector is expected to steadily switch from fossil fuels to a larger fraction of biofuels - liquid transport fuels derived from...

  3. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-02-15

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised industrial agricultural systems. The legitimacy problems of biofuels cannot be addressed by sustainability indicators or new technologies alone since they arise from the spatial ordering of biofuel production. In the 1970-80s, promoters of bioenergy anticipated current concerns about food security implications but envisioned bioenergy production to be territorially embedded at national or local scales where these issues would be managed. Where the territorial and scalar vision was breached, it was to imagine poorer countries exporting higher-value biofuel to the North rather than the raw material as in the controversial global biomass commodity chains of today. However, controversy now extends to the global impacts of national biofuel systems on food security and greenhouse gas emissions, and to their local impacts becoming more widely known. South/South and North/North trade conflicts are also emerging as are questions over biodegradable wastes and agricultural residues as global commodities. As assumptions of a food-versus-fuel conflict have come to be challenged, legitimacy questions over global agri-business and trade are spotlighted even further. In this context, visions of biofuel development that address these broader issues might be promising. These include large-scale biomass-for-fuel models in Europe that would transform global trade rules to allow small farmers in the global South to compete, and small-scale biofuel systems developed to address local energy needs in the

  4. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  5. New Insights in Polymer-Biofuels Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richaud Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polymer-fuel interaction focusing on specific effects of biofuels on polyethylene (PE in automotive applications. The practical objective is to develop a predictable approach for durability of polyethylene tanks in contact of ethanol based or biofuel based fuels. In the case of ethanol, the main consequence on PE durability is a reduction of the rate of stabilizer extraction; this latter phenomenon can be modeled by first order kinetics with a rate constant that obeys the Arrhenius equation. Concerning biodiesels, the study was focused on soy and rapeseed methyl ester which were compared to methyl oleate and methyl linoleate used as model compounds. Here, PE-fuel interactions can be described as well as physical interaction, linked to the oil penetration into the polymer, as chemical interaction linked to an eventual co-oxidation of PE and oil. Both aspects were investigated. Concerning biofuel transport in PE, it appeared that the oil diffusivity depends only of temperature and oil molar mass. Some aspects of the temperature dependence of the oil solubility in PE are discussed. About chemical interaction between oil and PE, it was put in evidence that unsaturated fatty esters promote and accelerate PE oxidation. A co-oxidation kinetic model was proposed to describe this process.

  6. Biomass and bio-fuel based poly-generation for off-grid and grid-connected operation. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of this project was to design and build a combined heat and power plant based on an updraft gasifier and a 35 kW electrical output Stirling engine and further to test the flexibility of the plant with regards to fuel and application. In the project a containerized combined heat and power plant including a 200 kW updraft gasifier and a 35 kW electrical output Stirling engine was designed, the specified components were procured, the plant was installed in the three containers and the plant was erected at Amagerforbraendingen ready for the COP15 in November 2009. The potential of operating the Stirling engine in island-mode (without grid connection) was investigated by mathematical modelling. Using an absorption cooling plant connected to the Stirling CHP plant was also investigated. A technical feasibility study was undertaken and it was concluded that from the two available technologies (water/LiBr and Ammonia/water) the appropriate choice is depending on the required cooling temperature. Test runs focussed on investigating the fuel flexibility of two different configurations of Stirling engine CHP plants were carried out - respectively the updraft gasifier plant (the containerized plant and the DTU plant) and the pyrolysis plant (the plant situated at Barritskov). In order to perform these test runs a stable operation is required. On both the containerized plant and the pyrolysis plant this proved to be more challenging than expected and therefore the number of fuels tested was limited to willow chips at the containerized plant and dry wood residues, wood pellets and straw pellets on the pyrolysis plant. For all tested fuels it was possible to operate the plants, however different issues mainly related to the quality of the fuels were encountered. And so it can be concluded that the quality of the fuel is critical for the operation of both the updraft gasifier plant and the pyrolysis plant. A comprehensive desktop evaluation of the feasibility

  7. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and increase crop

  8. Role of biofuels in a sustainable environment - a technical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.L.N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai (India); Saravanan, Subramani [Automobile Engineering Department, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai (India)

    2008-11-15

    Creating a clean and safe environment has always been a challenge for researchers throughout the world. The use of fossil fuel has been a deterrent in attaining this objective. Therefore, attention has been focused on biofuels to suit this objective. In recent years, efforts have been directed towards environmentally friendly sources of alternate fuels for diesel engines. This paper compares the performance and emission characteristics of biofuels with mineral no. 2 diesel oil. A direct injection diesel engine coupled with an eddy current dynamometer is used for this investigation. Rice bran oil and neem oil are considered as biofuels for this work since they are renewable in nature. Rice bran oil is extracted from rice bran, which is a by-product of the rice milling process. Neem oil is derived from neem seed, which are abundantly available in India. In addition to these oils, their blends with diesel are also used to test their ability for reducing emissions. This study indicated that, among the two biofuels, the rice bran oil and its blend shows better results with respect to emissions than the neem oil and its blend. The results for the rice bran oil and its blend are slightly better than those of diesel and superior to pure neem oil and its blend. The unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions of biofuels and their blends are lower when compared with diesel. Biofuels show lower nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions when compared with diesel and biofuel blends. It was observed that the smoke intensities of all the fuels tested are similar up to 50% loads. At higher loads, biofuels and their blends showed slightly higher smoke intensities than diesel. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Biofuel and food security: insights from a system dynamics model. The case of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ansah, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Empirical evidence from research points to biofuel as a possible substitute to conventional fossil fuel-gasoline and diesel. Some countries USA and many in Europe are working towards mandates and legislations that impose on the market a share of biofuel in the national energy mix in the medium to long term. In response to policy preferences and attractive incentives, global biofuel production tripled between year 2000 and 2007 and again was projected to double by 2011 (Molony & ...

  10. Future Oppourtunities and Challenges of the Sustainability of Biofuels in Sweden and in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Shair

    2012-01-01

    Liquid Biofuels mainly Bioethanol and biodiesel are the main replacement for fossil fuels in the current world. But there are questions and concerns about the present biofuels production, mainly when it comes to matter of sustainability. In this thesis paper,Strategic Life Cycle Management data along with Life Cycle Analysis data has been used to analyze the sustainable biofuels condition in Sweden and the Netherlands. Data also has been collected through the interview from different stakehol...

  11. Will Indian Farmers Respond to the Call for Increased Biofuel Production-Evidence from Northeastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Kishor Goswami

    2014-01-01

    In India, biofuel has gained in popularity in recent years because of its potential as a clean energy source and a means to stimulate rural development. Yet, growth in Jatropha, a key bio-fuel crop, is not increasing as expected. In order to better understand whether biofuel can be an alternate energy source, a SANDEE study assessed the factors that influence the adoption and continued production of Jatropha plantations in North East India.

  12. The Future Role of Biofuels in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, William T.; Armbruster, Walter J.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest in agriculture as a source of bio-fuels to replace petroleum-based transportation fuels. Ethanol production has more than doubled from 2000 to 2005 but still accounts for less than two percent of the world's transportation petrol supply. The future role of bio-fuels will be determined by continuation of high oil prices, availability of low cost feed stocks and favorable government policy. Possible government strategies include a strong policy commitment to reduce inv...

  13. Genomics of Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Andrew H.

    2008-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a subject of plant genomics research based on its importance as one of the world's leading cereal crops, a biofuels crop of high and growing importance, a progenitor of one of the world's most noxious weeds, and a botanical model for many tropical grasses with complex genomes. A rich history of genome analysis, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the genome of a leading inbred, provides a foundation for invigorating progress toward relatin...

  14. The Colombian biofuel supply chains: The assessment of current and promising scenarios based on environmental goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colombian biofuels are used in the transportation sector at low-percentage blends of biofuel–fossil fuel (until 8:92, volume basis). Since energy policies encourage the increment of Bioenergy percentage in energy matrix, the biofuels production and use should be increased during the next years. In this work, the environmental assessment of several scenarios involving current and promising biofuel supply chains was made. The aim of this paper was the assessment of several possible alternatives to increase the biofuels production from current agricultural supply chains. Sugarcane, cassava, oil-palm and jatropha were considered as feedstocks for the analysis. The environmental assessment included calculations of the greenhouse gas emissions and the potential environmental impacts, using the life cycle assessment approach. The results indicated that the current biofuels production mitigates environmental impacts in comparison to fossil fuels production and use. Additionally, biofuels production using promising feedstocks could be environmentally competitive if the production processes are improved. - Highlights: • The environmental assessment of current and promising Colombian biofuels was made. • Current Colombian biofuel supply chains show 5–8% of GHG emissions savings. • Jatropha and cassava are potential feedstocks for Colombian biofuels production. • Suitable biofuels in Colombia can be achieved by feedstock integration

  15. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, J.L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-08-19

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has generated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel market, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  16. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, J. L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has gener-ated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel mar-ket, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  17. Assessment of biofuels supporting policies using the BioTrans model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of advanced, 2nd generation biofuels is a difficult to forecast process. Policies may impact the timing of their introduction and the future biofuels mix. The least-cost optimization model BioTrans supports policy analyses on these issues. It includes costs for all parts of the supply chain, and endogenous learning for all biofuels technologies, including cost reductions through scale. BioTrans shows that there are significant lock-in effects favouring traditional biofuels, and that the optimal biofuels mix by 2030 is path dependent. The model captures important barriers for the introduction of emerging technologies, thereby providing valuable quantitative information that can be used in analyses of biofuels supporting policies. It is shown that biodiesel from oil crops will remain a cost effective way of producing biofuels in the medium term at moderate target levels. Aiming solely at least-cost biofuel production is in conflict with a longer term portfolio approach on biofuels, and the desire to come to biofuels with the lowest greenhouse gas emissions. Lowering the targets because of environmental constraints delays the development of 2nd generation biofuels, unless additional policy measures (such as specific sub targets for these fuels) are implemented.

  18. Assessment of biofuels supporting policies using the BioTrans model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of advanced, 2nd generation biofuels is a difficult process to forecast. Policies may impact the timing of their introduction and the future biofuels mix. The least-cost optimization model BioTrans supports policy analyses on these issues. It includes costs for all parts of the supply chain, and endogenous learning for all biofuels technologies, including cost reductions through scale. BioTrans shows that there are significant lock-in effects favouring traditional biofuels, and that the optimal biofuels mix by 2030 is path dependent. The model captures important barriers for the introduction of emerging technologies, thereby providing valuable quantitative information that can be used in analyses of biofuels supporting policies. It is shown that biodiesel from oil crops will remain a cost effective way of producing biofuels in the medium term at moderate target levels. Aiming solely at least-cost biofuel production is in conflict with a longer term portfolio approach on biofuels, and the desire to come to biofuels with the lowest greenhouse gas emissions. Lowering the targets because of environmental constraints delays the development of 2nd generation biofuels, unless additional policy measures (such as specific sub-targets for these fuels) are implemented.

  19. Coproduction of bioethanol with other biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    pilot-scale biorefineries for multiple fuel production and also discuss perspectives for further enhancement of biofuel yields from biomass. The major fuels produced in this refinery are ethanol, hydrogen, and methane. We also discuss the applicability of our biorefinery concept as a bolt-on plant on......Large scale transformation of biomass to more versatile energy carriers has most commonly been focused on one product such as ethanol or methane. Due to the nature of the biomass and thermodynamic and biological constraints, this approach is not optimal if the energy content of the biomass is...

  20. The legitimacy of biofuel certification

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The biofuel boom is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with the most crucial consequences in the agri-food sector. The biofuel industry is responding by initiating private governance and certification. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Cramer Commission, among others, have formulated criteria on ?sustainable? biofuel production and processing. This article explores the legitimacy of private governance and certification by the biofuel...

  1. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  2. The Danish Biofuel Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    from the molecular level and envisions positive synergies in the use of biomass. The other is a holistic bioscarcity perspective originating in life-cycle analysis and ecology. This perspective works downwards from global resource scope conditions, and envisions negative consequences from an increased...... of biofuels enrol scientific authority to support their positions? The sociological theory of functional differentiation combined with the concept of advocacy coalition can help in exploring this relationship between scientific claims-making and the policy stance of different actors in public debates...... about biofuels. In Denmark two distinct scientific perspectives about biofuels map onto the policy debates through articulation by two competing advocacy coalitions. One is a reductionist biorefinery perspective originating in biochemistry and neighbouring disciplines. This perspective works upwards...

  3. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Irving Olsen, S.

    2011-05-15

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal wastewater. Algae capture CO{sub 2} from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating environmental benefits and impacts can be a tool for policy decisions and for technology development. (Author)

  4. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  5. The use of biofuel on the railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin MOGILA; Igor VASYLIEV; Elena NOZHENKO

    2012-01-01

    The potential of biofuel application on rail transport for reducing the dependence on using the non-renewable diesel fuel and improving the environmental characteristics of the locomotive have been considered. The technique of comparative research concerning fuels on the rheostat and through operational tests has been offered. The methods of measuring harmful emissions with exhaust gases and the use of existing methods of controlling the fuel consumption have been developed. The conclusion ab...

  6. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  7. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  8. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: The global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Lienden, van A.R.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Meer, van der T.H.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over energy security and climate change stimulate developments towards renewable energy. Transport is expected to switch from fossil fuel use to the use of fuel mixtures with a larger fraction of biofuels, e.g. bio-ethanol and biodiesel. Growing biomass for biofuels requires water, a scarce

  9. Biofuels. Handle with care. An analysis of EU biofuel policy with recommendations for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    For many policymakers biofuels must have seemed like a dream-come-true. The arguments put forward by supporters were plentiful and powerful. Carbon Dioxide emissions (CO2) could be cut because the biofuel crops absorb CO2 while they grow and energy security could be guaranteed because biofuels can be grown at home or imported from stable regions rather than oil states. The car industry also liked them because they took political focus away from vehicle fuel efficiency as a route to cutting CO2 emissions. Cars require only minor modifications to become green-looking 'flexfuel' models. Farmers liked them because it created another market for their products and even oil companies came to like them, because it enabled them to look more 'green'. The EU and other regions hurried to put in place volume targets and financial incentives to force the market to adopt biofuels. However, in the rush, the full impacts of their production were not well understood. And, by focusing on a single nascent technology, rather than on the goal - carbon emissions reductions - the dream soon turned to a nightmare. It has now become clear that there is no simple answer to the question of whether biofuels are truly a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. The evidence, much of it published in the last three years, suggests that in the vast majority of existing cases, they are not. A change to current policy is needed. This report follows the adoption, at the end of 2008, of the European Union's mandatory 10% renewable energy target for transport, to be reached by 2020. It attempts to assess the environmental implications of that policy. Its key findings are that if the target is, as is widely accepted, almost completely to be met through the use of biofuels, it is highly unlikely to be met sustainably. In short, there is a very substantial risk that current policy will cause more harm than good. One of the most important reasons for this is the failure to account

  10. Panorama 2014 - Overview of biofuel sectors throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is all of the organic matter derived from the animal and plant organisms that make up our environment. Nowadays, it is possible to efficiently convert biomass into energy - biofuels in particular, which can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels - thanks to the increased use of new technologies. After a number of years of extremely high growth until 2008, world production of biofuels has continued to increase, but at a slower rate. Investment in them is starting to fall, mainly as a result of a more constrained global economy and the volatility of regulations governing how they can be used. The outlook does, however, look good for biofuels: a number of new promising technologies, still in the R and D stage, are starting to emerge. To a very great extent, their viability will be determined by the development of various state policies on biofuels. (authors)

  11. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  12. Genome resequencing in Populus: Revealing large-scale genome variation and implications on specialized-trait genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To date, Populus ranks among a few plant species with a complete genome sequence and other highly developed genomic resources. With the first genome sequence among all tree species, Populus has been adopted as a suitable model organism for genomic studies in trees. However, far from being just a model species, Populus is a key renewable economic resource that plays a significant role in providing raw materials for the biofuel and pulp and paper industries. Therefore, aside from leading frontiers of basic tree molecular biology and ecological research, Populus leads frontiers in addressing global economic challenges related to fuel and fiber production. The latter fact suggests that research aimed at improving quality and quantity of Populus as a raw material will likely drive the pursuit of more targeted and deeper research in order to unlock the economic potential tied in molecular biology processes that drive this tree species. Advances in genome sequence-driven technologies, such as resequencing individual genotypes, which in turn facilitates large scale SNP discovery and identification of large scale polymorphisms are key determinants of future success in these initiatives. In this treatise we discuss implications of genome sequence-enable technologies on Populus genomic and genetic studies of complex and specialized-traits.

  13. Biofuels: What Are They and How Can They Improve Practical Work and Discussions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the potential of bioenergy as a replacement for fossil fuels, the cutting-edge research being undertaken by scientists, and classroom resources available for teaching this topic. There is currently a large programme of scientific research aiming to develop advanced biofuels (replenishable liquid biofuels from non-food plants,…

  14. Have Biofuel, Will Travel: A Colorful Experiment and a Different Approach to Teach the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Seoud, Omar A.; Loffredo, Carina; Galgano, Paula D.; Sato, Bruno M.; Reichardt, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The substitution of petroleum-based fuels with those from renewable sources has gained momentum worldwide. A UV-vis experiment for the quantitative analysis of biofuels (bioethanol or biodiesel) in (petroleum-based) diesel oil has been developed. Before the experiment, students were given a quiz on biofuels, and then they were asked to suggest a…

  15. Biofuels in the U.S. Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekman, S. Kent [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Biofuels are of rapidly growing interest for reasons of energy security, diversity, and sustainability - as well as for greenhouse gas mitigation. In recent years, the U.S. has enacted regulations - and adopted aggressive goals - to encourage increased usage of biofuels. Individual States (especially California) have taken even stronger positions with respect to biofuels. Initial efforts have focused mainly on ethanol, produced via fermentation of sugars from grains (especially corn). Today's R and D focus is on '2nd Generation Biofuels' that are produced from a variety of biomass feedstocks utilizing a wide range of conversion technologies. This paper summarizes policy and regulatory drivers for biofuels in the U.S., describes usage trends and projections, and highlights major R and D efforts to promote development and commercialization of 2nd Generation Biofuels. R and D is being conducted in many areas, including biomass resource assessment, development of new biomass feedstocks, improved conversion technologies, and integration of systems. Other important considerations include fuel quality and specifications, as well as requirements for blending, distribution, and storage. Considerable R and D, policy, and regulatory efforts are also focused on the energy and environmental consequences of biofuels. This includes not only direct emissions associated with vehicular uses, but also the fuels' life-cycle impacts with respect to total energy usage, greenhouse gas emissions, and multi-media effects. Due to the wide diversity of biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies, and systems integration approaches, the life-cycle impacts of biofuels can vary widely. (author)

  16. Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituyi, E. [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry; Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biochemistry Dept., Mainz (Germany); Marufu, L.; Huber, B.; Andreae, M.O.; Helas, G. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry Dept., Mainz (Germany); Wandiga, SO.; Jumba, I.O. [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in rural and urban Kenya to establish biofuel consumption rates and patterns. The survey targeted households, commercial catering enterprises and public institutions such as schools and colleges. Firewood was the main biofuel used, mostly by rural households, who consumed the commodity at average consumption rates in the range 0.8-2.7 kg cap{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Charcoal was mostly consumed by the urban households at weighted average rates in the range 0.18-0.69 kg cap{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The consumption rates and patterns for these fuels by restaurants and academic institutions, and those for crop residues are also reported. The rates largely depended on the fuel availability but differed significantly among the three consumer groups and between rural and urban households. Other factors which may have influenced consumption rates are discussed. Although good fuelwood sufficiency was reported in the country in 1997, there were increasing difficulties in accessing these resources by most households, a situation having both short- and long-term implications for biofuel consumption rates and patterns. (Author)

  17. Cost outlook for the production of biofuels. A cost comparison assessment of the future production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragettli, M.

    2007-02-15

    In this diploma thesis by Martin Ragettli a cost comparison assessment of the future production of biofuels is presented. The author states that biofuels can make a contribution to the reduction of the effects of fossil fuel depletion and regional and global environmental problems, as well as providing security of supply. The status of biofuels in the context of sustainability efforts and the use of renewable forms of energy are discussed as are the potential and costs of biomass-based energy supply. Various types of biomass for the production of biofuels are reviewed, as are production technologies. The global potential of biomass supplies is examined. The methodology applied and the system components examined are discussed and a regional approach is reviewed. Recommendations for further research are made.

  18. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension....

  19. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the tran

  20. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  1. The rationality of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an editorial of a recent issue of a known academic journal, Prof. Hartmut Michel affirmed that “…the production of biofuels constitutes an extremely inefficient land use… We should not grow plants for biofuel production.”, after comparing the area occupied with plants for bioenergy production with the one required for photovoltaic cells to supply the same amount of energy for transportation. This assertion is not correct for all situations and this comparison deserves a more careful analysis, evaluating the actual and prospective technological scenarios and other relevant aspects, such as capacity requirements, energy consumed during the life cycle of energy systems and the associated impacts. In this communication this comparison is revaluated, presenting a different perspective, more favorable for the bioenergy routes. - Highlights: • Energy systems and life cycle impacts are compared under equal conditions. • The comparison is done between biofuels and photovoltaic/battery in mobility uses. • Biofuels are a valuable option when produced sustainably by efficient routes

  2. Biofuel seeks endorsement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, C.; Rentmeester, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane and cellulose ‘waste’ are theoretically sustainable, as their combustion releases no more CO2 than is absorbed during production. Even so, they are also controversial, because they are believed to be grown at the expense of food crops, or because areas of rai

  3. Biofuels from urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass from urban landscapes is an untapped resource. Lawn thatch and clippings, fallen leaves and tree limbs are all potential sources of biofuels. Most cities already collect and transport these materials to disposal sites; but, alternatively could collect and transport these materials to a loc...

  4. Coproduction of bioethanol with other biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Large scale transformation of biomass to more versatile energy carriers has most commonly been focused on one product such as ethanol or methane. Due to the nature of the biomass and thermodynamic and biological constraints, this approach is not optimal if the energy content of the biomass is...... pilot-scale biorefineries for multiple fuel production and also discuss perspectives for further enhancement of biofuel yields from biomass. The major fuels produced in this refinery are ethanol, hydrogen, and methane. We also discuss the applicability of our biorefinery concept as a bolt-on plant on...... conventional corn- or grain-based bioethanol plants, and suggest that petroleum-base refineries and biorefineries appropriately can be coupled during the transition period from a fossil fuel to a renewable fuel economy....

  5. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  6. Biofuel on contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  7. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  8. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscrip reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level, and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  9. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  10. Growing duckweed for biofuel production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Cheng, J J

    2015-01-01

    Duckweed can be utilised to produce ethanol, butanol and biogas, which are promising alternative energy sources to minimise dependence on limited crude oil and natural gas. The advantages of this aquatic plant include high rate of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake, high biomass yield and great potential as an alternative feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol, butanol and biogas. The objective of this article is to review the published research on growing duckweed for the production of the biofuels, especially starch enrichment in duckweed plants. There are mainly two processes affecting the accumulation of starch in duckweed biomass: photosynthesis for starch generation and metabolism-related starch consumption. The cost of stimulating photosynthesis is relatively high based on current technologies. Considerable research efforts have been made to inhibit starch degradation. Future research need in this area includes duckweed selection, optimisation of duckweed biomass production, enhancement of starch accumulation in duckweeds and use of duckweeds for production of various biofuels. PMID:24985498

  11. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

  12. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply

  13. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  14. Sustainable transportation with Biofueled Public Transport : Stockholm example and Application of Biofuels in a French Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Solutions to the current calamity of fossil fuels are becoming more urgent with each moments passing. It is not news for those in technical professions as well as many others, that reserves of oil are diminishing and prices for petroleum based products are increasing. A most transparent option exists today, and is becoming exploited by many countries worldwide. This solution answers to the title of biofuels, consisting of gases, liquids and even biomass for various energy requirements. Two bi...

  15. Biofuels and the biorefinery concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid fuels can be made by refining a range of biomass materials, including oil-rich and sugar-rich crops such as oil-seed rape and sugar beet, biomass that consists mainly of plant cell walls (second generation lignocellulosics), macro- and micro-alga, or material that would now be discarded as waste. This can include animal bi-products as well as waste wood and other resources. In the medium-term, plant cell (lignocellulosic) material is likely to be favoured as the feedstock for biorefineries because of its availability. The UK may make use of a number of these options because of its complex agricultural landscape. There are now a range of targets for biofuel use in the UK, although their environmental effects are disputed. The technology of refining these materials is well known. Possible outputs include biodiesel and bioethanol, both of which can be used as transport fuel. Other potential products include hydrogen, polymers and a wide range of value-added chemicals, making this technology important in a post-petrochemical world. Biorefineries could use cogeneration to produce electricity. The paper identifies a range of research and development priorities which must be met if this opportunity is to be exploited fully. (author)

  16. High-power biofuel cell textiles from woven biscrolled carbon nanotube yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Sung-Ho; Choi, Young-Bong; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kim, Hyug-Han; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Lima, Márcio D.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2014-06-01

    Biofuel cells that generate electricity from glucose in blood are promising for powering implantable biomedical devices. Immobilizing interconnected enzyme and redox mediator in a highly conducting, porous electrode maximizes their interaction with the electrolyte and minimizes diffusion distances for fuel and oxidant, thereby enhancing power density. Here we report that our separator-free carbon nanotube yarn biofuel cells provide an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, and a maximum areal power density of 2.18 mW cm-2 that is three times higher than for previous carbon nanotube yarn biofuel cells. Biofuel cell operation in human serum provides high areal power output, as well as markedly increased lifetime (83% remained after 24 h), compared with previous unprotected biofuel cells. Our biscrolled yarn biofuel cells are woven into textiles having the mechanical robustness needed for implantation for glucose energy harvesting.

  17. Historical perspectives on biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes the history through about the 1940’s of biomass-derived fuels, particularly ethanol as replacement for gasoline and vegetable oil-derived diesel fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement for petroleum-derived diesel fuels....

  18. Trust and perception related to information about biofuels in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Wim; Popp, Michael; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2011-09-01

    Public knowledge regarding green energy is limited and there is a perceived lack of information, particularly in the case of biofuels. This study investigates the information seeking behaviour of fuel consumers with regard to biofuels, their preferences for particular elements and channels of information and their trust in information sources. The majority of respondents were interested in many elements of information, and particularly in the tax (dis)advantages associated with biofuels. They prefer to obtain information via newspapers and brochures. Scientists, environmental and consumer organizations and the government are perceived as the most trustworthy sources of information whilst word of mouth sources, journalists and the fuel sector are less well trusted. Four consumer clusters could be distinguished, on the basis of the perceived relative trustworthiness of information sources, and these clusters have significantly different socio-demographic characteristics and preferences for elements and channels of information. PMID:22164702

  19. Biofuel supply chain considering depreciation cost of installed plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Masoud; Ramezankhani, Farshad; Giahi, Ramin; Farshbaf-Geranmayeh, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Due to the depletion of the fossil fuels and major concerns about the security of energy in the future to produce fuels, the importance of utilizing the renewable energies is distinguished. Nowadays there has been a growing interest for biofuels. Thus, this paper reveals a general optimization model which enables the selection of preprocessing centers for the biomass, biofuel plants, and warehouses to store the biofuels. The objective of this model is to maximize the total benefits. Costs of the model consist of setup cost of preprocessing centers, plants and warehouses, transportation costs, production costs, emission cost and the depreciation cost. At first, the deprecation cost of the centers is calculated by means of three methods. The model chooses the best depreciation method in each period by switching between them. A numerical example is presented and solved by CPLEX solver in GAMS software and finally, sensitivity analyses are accomplished.

  20. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well. PMID:26256682

  1. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Mary; Keasling, Jay; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-07-14

    Cells use feedback to implement a diverse range of regulatory functions. Building synthetic feedback control systems may yield insight into the roles that feedback can play in regulation since it can be introduced independently of native regulation, and alternative control architectures can be compared. We propose a model for microbial biofuel production where a synthetic control system is used to increase cell viability and biofuel yields. Although microbes can be engineered to produce biofuels, the fuels are often toxic to cell growth, creating a negative feedback loop that limits biofuel production. These toxic effects may be mitigated by expressing efflux pumps that export biofuel from the cell. We developed a model for cell growth and biofuel production and used it to compare several genetic control strategies for their ability to improve biofuel yields. We show that controlling efflux pump expression directly with a biofuel-responsive promoter is a straight forward way of improving biofuel production. In addition, a feed forward loop controller is shown to be versatile at dealing with uncertainty in biofuel production rates.

  2. The seesaw of Germany's biofuel policy – Tracing the evolvement to its current state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, biofuels represent one of the most common options for larger scale substitution of conventional fuels. Due to the trans-sectoral nature of biofuels, a multitude of factors and actors determine the according policies of governments and the beliefs of societies. Especially since some impacts of biomass cultivation for bioenergy production are not yet fully understood. This article aims at showing the drivers that led to an introduction of biofuel policies in Germany and explains Germany's pioneering role in the promotion of bioenergy. Thereby the focus lies on the role of the main actors and their composition of so called discourse coalitions. The analysis indicates that the origin of the biofuel industry was a result of national and supranational market interventions, as well as it was intermittently an instrument of supporting renewable energies. Along the seesaw of Germany's biofuel policies seven discourse coalitions were identified who compete for discursive hegemony in order to gain political influence. -- Highlights: •Germany had a pioneering role when the political promotion of bioenergy and biofuels started at the end of the 1990s. •Both national and European constellations lay the ground for German biofuel sector. •Public perception of biofuels and discourse dynamics changed over time. •Seven discourse coalitions have been identified within the German biofuel sector. Four are rather proponents of biofuels and three opponents

  3. The Impact of Feedstock Supply and Petroleum Price Variability on Domestic Biofuel and Feedstock Markets – The Case of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Yuki; Blandford, David; Surry, Yves R.

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of biofuel use in preference to traditional petroleum-based transportation fuel has linked agricultural commodity markets and energy markets more closely together. Biofuel policies can involve multiple policy instruments, but studies examining their effects on biofuel feedstock and energy markets are scarce. In addition, the impact of alternative policy approaches in the context of variability in petroleum prices and the supply of biofuel feedstock has received limited attention...

  4. Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of biomass/biofuel burning, plastic burning, and fossil fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of PM10 samples, collected at Chennai in tropical India, was studied using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twelve organic compound classes were detected in the aerosols, including aliphatic lipids, sugar compounds, lignin products, terpenoid biomarkers, sterols, aromatic acids, phthalates, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. At daytime, phthalates was found to be the most abundant compound class; while at nighttime, fatty acids was the dominant one. Concentrations of total quantified organics were higher in summer (611–3268 ng m−3, average 1586 ng m−3 than in winter (362–2381 ng m−3, 1136 ng m−3, accounting for 11.5±1.93% and 9.35±1.77% of organic carbon mass in summer and winter, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, C16 fatty acid, and levoglucosan were identified as the most abundant single compounds. The nighttime maxima of most organics in the aerosols indicate a land/sea breeze effect in tropical India, although some other factors such as local emissions and long-range transport may also influence the composition of organic aerosols. The abundances of anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, lignin and resin products, hopanes and PAHs in the Chennai aerosols suggest that biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are significant sources of organic aerosols in tropical India. Interestingly, terephthalic acid was maximized at nighttime, which is different from those of phthalic and isophthalic acids. A positive correlation was found between the concentration of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (a tracer for plastic burning and terephthalic acid, suggesting that field burning of municipal solid wastes including plastics is a significant source of terephthalic acid. This study demonstrates that, in addition to biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, the open-burning of plastics also contributes to the organic

  5. Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of biomass/biofuel burning, plastic burning, and fossil fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Pavuluri, C. M.; Swaminathan, T.

    2009-10-01

    Organic molecular composition of PM10 samples, collected at Chennai in tropical India, was studied using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twelve organic compound classes were detected in the aerosols, including aliphatic lipids, sugar compounds, lignin products, terpenoid biomarkers, sterols, aromatic acids, phthalates, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). At daytime, phthalates was found to be the most abundant compound class; while at nighttime, fatty acids was the dominant one. Concentrations of total quantified organics were higher in summer (611-3268 ng m-3, average 1586 ng m-3) than in winter (362-2381 ng m-3, 1136 ng m-3), accounting for 11.5±1.93% and 9.35±1.77% of organic carbon mass in summer and winter, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, C16 fatty acid, and levoglucosan were identified as the most abundant single compounds. The nighttime maxima of most organics in the aerosols indicate a land/sea breeze effect in tropical India, although some other factors such as local emissions and long-range transport may also influence the composition of organic aerosols. The abundances of anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan), lignin and resin products, hopanes and PAHs in the Chennai aerosols suggest that biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are significant sources of organic aerosols in tropical India. Interestingly, terephthalic acid was maximized at nighttime, which is different from those of phthalic and isophthalic acids. A positive correlation was found between the concentration of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (a tracer for plastic burning) and terephthalic acid, suggesting that field burning of municipal solid wastes including plastics is a significant source of terephthalic acid. This study demonstrates that, in addition to biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, the open-burning of plastics also contributes to the organic aerosols in South Asia.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    atmosphere. However, cultivation of the soil results in emission of other greenhouse gasses, especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Agricultural activity is the dominant source of N2O, which is produced by microbes in the soil when the nitrogen availability is high, for instance following fertilization or......Agro-biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel-derived CO2 into the...... production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not include farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. Thus, the actual net greenhouse gas reduction...

  7. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  8. Final report on the potential of local biofuels development to the Environmental and Renewable Industries Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is significant interest in renewable and sustainable energy technologies, particularly biofuels, because of the growing crisis in the agricultural and forestry sectors, rising fuel prices, dwindling energy supply and growing awareness of the impact of traditional energy resources on the environment. Biofuels represent a possible opportunity to move towards a sustainable bio-economy in which agricultural and forestry products, co-products, and waste materials are utilized to produce energy. This report discussed the policy context for biofuels. The key local drivers for biofuel development in Prince Edward Island (PEI) were presented. These include rising energy prices; dependence on fossil fuels; climate change; and agricultural industry challenges. Biofuel policies and initiatives in a federal context, in central and western Canada, in New England, and in Atlantic Canada were also addressed. Prince Edward Island feedstocks such as forestry, agriculture, marine-based, and waste resources were examined. The report also identified the biofuel potential in PEI with reference to biocombustibles; pure plant oils; biodiesel; ethanol; and biogas. Last, the report outlined several biofuel projects, proposal, and initiatives and presented conclusions and recommendations. Several appendices were also included on resource materials; federal funding programs; Canadian renewable fuel standards and tax incentives; and the PEI biofuels evaluation framework. It was concluded that biomass feedstocks such as wood, cereals, straw, grasses, and crop residues offer significant potential for space and water heating applications and electricity generation. refs., tabs

  9. Biofuels and Food Security: Implications of an Accelerated Biofuels Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  10. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  11. Challenge of biofuel: filling the tank without emptying the stomach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels have become a leading alternative to fossil fuel because they can be produced domestically by many countries, require only minimal changes to retail distribution and end-use technologies, are a partial response to global climate change, and because they have the potential to spur rural development. Production of biofuel has increased most rapidly for corn ethanol, in part because of government subsidies; yet, corn ethanol offers at most a modest contribution to society's climate change goals and only a marginally positive net energy balance. Current biofuels pose long-run consequences for the provision of food and environmental amenities. In the short run, however, when gasoline supply and demand are inelastic, they serve as a buffer supply of energy, helping to reduce prices. Employing a conceptual model and with back-of-the-envelope estimates of wealth transfers resulting from biofuel production, we find that ethanol subsidies pay for themselves. Adoption of second-generation technologies may make biofuels more beneficial to society. The large-scale production of new types of crops dedicated to energy is likely to induce structural change in agriculture and change the sources, levels, and variability of farm incomes. The socio-economic impact of biofuel production will largely depend on how well the process of technology adoption by farmers and processors is understood and managed. The confluence of agricultural policy with environmental and energy policies is expected

  12. The scientometric evaluation of the research on the biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konur, Ozcan [Sirnak University Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey)], email: okonur@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the first ever study of the literature on biofuels from the last three decades done by scientometric analysis. The traditional method of scientometric analysis was applied. Research was done using the SCIE and SSCI (Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index). Search terms were biofuels or bio-fuels. 3,269 references were found. Analysis shows the distribution of the references by the type of document, the most published authors, the countries that published most, the institutions that published most, the language of communication, the distribution of the papers by publication year, the journals that published most, the subject areas most frequently published, a citation analysis and an analysis of the citing papers. This study reveals that the literature on biofuels has grown exponentially during the period and indicates that biofuels are becoming more and more a social policy issue as well as a technological one. It shows the great potential of scientometric analysis to provide insight into biofuel research.

  13. Life cycle assessment of biofuels: energy and greenhouse gas balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Villegas, J; Panichelli, L

    2009-11-01

    The promotion of biofuels as energy for transportation in the industrialized countries is mainly driven by the perspective of oil depletion, the concerns about energy security and global warming. However due to sustainability constraints, biofuels will replace only 10 to 15% of fossil liquid fuels in the transport sector. Several governments have defined a minimum target of GHG emissions reduction for those biofuels that will be eligible to public incentives, for example a 35% emissions reduction in case of biofuels in Members States of the European Union. This article points out the significant biases in estimating GHG balances of biofuels stemming from modelling choices about system definition and boundaries, functional unit, reference systems and allocation methods. The extent to which these choices influence the results is investigated. After performing a comparison and constructive criticism of various modelling choices, the LCA of wheat-to-bioethanol is used as an illustrative case where bioethanol is blended with gasoline at various percentages (E5, E10 and E85). The performance of these substitution options is evaluated as well. The results show a large difference in the reduction of the GHG emissions with a high sensitivity to the following factors: the method used to allocate the impacts between the co-products, the type of reference systems, the choice of the functional unit and the type of blend. The authors come out with some recommendations for basing the estimation of energy and GHG balances of biofuels on principles such as transparency, consistency and accuracy. PMID:19553106

  14. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  15. Land Use Change Impacts of Biofuels: Near-VAR Evidence from the US

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Piroli; Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs

    2011-01-01

    The present paper studies the land use change impacts of fuels and biofuels. We test the theoretical hypothesis, which says that changes in fuel prices cause changes in land use both directly and indirectly and, because of price inter-dependencies, biofuels reinforce the land use change impacts. Our data consists of yearly observations extending from 1950 to 2007 for the US, to which we apply time-series analytical mechanisms of five major traded agricultural commodities, the area of cultivat...

  16. Algogroup : towards a shared vision of the possible deployment of algae to biofuels.

    OpenAIRE

    Montagne Xavier; Porot Pierre; Aymard Caroline; Querleu Cécile; Bouter Anne; Lorne Daphné; Cadoret Jean-Paul; Lombaert-Valot Isabelle; Petillon Odile

    2013-01-01

    A strong interest has been focused from several years on the algae pathway for energy production, especially for transportation fuels called third generation biofuel or G3 biofuel, and mainly from microalgae route, considering it could be a high potential alternative strategy for renewable energy and fuel production. Algae, and especially microalgae, present significant advantages compared with land resources, such as much higher productivity and lack of competition with food application...

  17. Estimating Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of biofuels: Concepts and methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gnansounou, E.; Dauriat, A.; Panichelli, L.; Villegas, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in developing biofuels has rapidly increased during the last decades followed by a strong controversy about their sustainability. Diverting a large amount of land from agriculture to fuels, impacting forests and grasslands, loss of biodiversity due to large monocropped fields are some threats that inhibit the momentum towards a significant substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels. From a methodological point of view, several estimations of the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) em...

  18. Environmental, economical and social impacts and benefits of biofuels: a global view

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Mota; Mércia Melo de Almeida; Vladimir Costa de Alencar; Wilson Fadlo Curi

    2009-01-01

    The substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels is being stimulated by governments because of the perspective of exhaustion of world oil reserves, in consequence of constant price rising and also because of environmental impacts. It is based on this perspective that this research work was realized, aiming to develop a search of information related to it, mainly exposing environmental, economical and social impacts of fossil fuels and biofuels that naturally are the substitutes of these. Through ...

  19. Biofuels barometer: Crops pending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actors and production capacities have changed only little in the biofuel sector from year to another. Nevertheless, it is interesting to take stock of the development of this sector at the end of 2002, so as to update the more complete barometer published in issue 144 of Systemes Solaires. Indeed, European ethanol production grew by 13% and that of bio-diesel by more than 20% in 2001. (authors)

  20. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    The incitement for decreasing the modern society's dependency on fossil based fuel and energy is both environmentally and politically driven. Development of biofuels could be part of the future solution. The combination of ash pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of the produced bio-oil has been identied as a prospective route to bio-fuels. The upgrading is most favorably done by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), producing bio-fuels at a quality equivalent to conventional fossil fuels. The topic of this...

  1. Plants producing biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    Biofuels are currently produced primarily from five plants, namely corn, canola, sugar cane, palm oil, jatropha. However, research and development efforts are underway around the world produce biofuels from other sources, particularly from algae. This paper described the characteristics of the top 5 plants and their role in the production of biofuels. Countries where these plants are cultivated were also summarized. The article indicated that producing ethanol from corn, is not very efficient since growing corn requires more fertilizer and pesticides than most other crops, plus the corn kernels have to undergo energy-intensive distillation and chemical extraction processes. China is the world's largest producer of rapeseed oil, with an annual production of 12 million tons. The countries of the European Union collectively produce another 16 million tons, of which nearly 4 million tons were used in 2006 to produce biodiesel. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, and accounts for about 45 per cent of global ethanol production. Malaysia and Indonesia are the key players in the palm oil market, accounting for 85 per cent of global production. India has identified more than 11 million hectares that would be suitable for growing jatropha, whose seeds contain up to 40 per cent oil that can be burned in a conventional diesel engine after extraction. 1 tab.

  2. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  3. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  4. Recent developments on biofuels production from microalgae and macroalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Ghosh, Supratim; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2016-01-01

    energetically and commercially viable. Macroalgae are low in lipid content. Therefore, the use of macroalgae is restricted for gaseous fuels or fermentative methods of liquid biofuels production. Anaerobic digestion of algal biomass is easy and seems promising as the process is simple in terms of engineering...

  5. Present and potential future oilseed production systems for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. agriculture is now depended on to produce renewable energy in addition to food, feed, and fuel, which if not properly managed could threaten long-term sustainability of our agricultural lands. Biofuels produced from oilseed crops, primarily biodiesel, will be an important addition to the renewa...

  6. Inhibitors of biofilm formation by biofuel fermentation contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel fermentation contaminants such as Lactobacillus sp. may persist in production facilities by forming recalcitrant biofilms. In this study, biofilm-forming strains of Lactobacillus brevis, L. fermentum, and L. plantarum were isolated and characterized from a dry-grind fuel ethanol plant. A var...

  7. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar;

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  8. Catalyst technology for biofuel production: Conversion of renewable lipids into biojet and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharff Yves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable lipids based biofuels are an important tool to address issues raised by policies put in place in order to reduce the dependence of transportation sector on fossil fuels and to promote the development of non-food based, sustainable and eco-friendly fuels. This paper presents the main features of the heterogeneous catalysis technologies Axens has developed for the production of biofuels from renewable lipids: the first by transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl esters or biodiesel and the second by hydrotreating to produce isoparaffinic hydroprocessed ester and fatty acids, high blending rate drop-in diesel and jet biofuels.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Johansen, Anders; Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01

    Agro-biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel-derived CO2 into the atmosphere. However, cultivation of the soil results in emission of other greenhouse gasses, especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Agricultural activity is the dominant source of N2O, which is produced b...

  10. [Tobacco--a source of biofuels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzianowska, Anna; Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2012-01-01

    One of the concepts of global protection of environment is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere by replacing fossil fuels by the so-called biofuels, which can be obtained from cultivated plants or any plant waste biomass. Currently applied industrial technologies allow the production of biofuels to receive ethanol, mostly from the reserve carbohydrates of sugar cane and corn as well as biodiesel from oil, mainly from rapeseed or oil palm. Tobacco, which provides a high biomass, can be used to produce biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel. The latter derived from oil from seeds and leaves of tobacco has proved useful for driving cars. Modest oil content in tobacco leaves can be increased by the expression of foreign genes encoding its biosynthesis. Promising future source of biofuels is a waste plant biomass consisting mainly of cell walls, which can be subjected to the degradation to produce sugars suitable for fermentation and the production of bioethanol. A number of enzymes needed for efficient degradation of plant cell walls can be produced using recombinant DNA technology in a variety of plants, particularly in chloroplasts of tobacco. PMID:23421113

  11. Road-map for 2. generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents road-map issues concerning the requirements for biofuels of second generation, and defines the priorities addressed by a demonstrator program. It recalls the context created by the challenges of climate change and the excessive dependence on fossil fuels, and the objectives defined by the European Union in terms of biofuel share in the global consumption. Then, it describes the candidate technologies for the production of this second generation of biofuels, those based on thermo-chemical processes (mainly the pyrolysis-gasification of biomass), and those based on biochemical processes (enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of biomass). It highlights the technological challenges for these processes, and describes the various objectives of research projects supported by a 'demonstrator fund'. It discusses the necessity to develop demonstrators, and mentions some current projects of private companies, competitiveness clusters, and public research institutions. An agenda is defined from 2009 to 2020 which encompasses the research, demonstration and operation phases. An appendix provides brief presentations of thermo-chemical or biological demonstrators currently under operation or under construction in foreign countries (Germany, Finland, United States of America, Sweden, Spain, Canada, Japan, and Denmark)

  12. Optimal process design for thermochemical biofuel production plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, Martin; Maréchal, François; Favrat, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Transport applications are a major global source of greenhouse gas emissions and the production of fuels that are renewable and neutral in CO2 is an important issue in chemical process research and development. Contrary to the biological routes that produce bioethanol and -diesel on industrial scale through fermentation or esterification, 2nd generation biofuels obtained through thermochemical processing of lignocellulosic and waste biomass by means of gasification and fuel reforming are expe...

  13. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    OpenAIRE

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has gener-ated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ide...

  14. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon fr...

  15. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Wolfe, Alexis [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); English, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ruddick, Colleen [BCS, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States); Lambert, Devinn [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, is committed to advancing the vision of a viable, sustainable domestic biomass industry that produces renewable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower; enhances U.S. energy security; reduces our dependence on fossil fuels; provides environmental benefits; and creates economic opportunities across the nation. BETO’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws, including the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). To accomplish its goals, BETO has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, in partnership with national laboratories, academia, and industry.

  16. Production of biofuels obtained from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carlos Fernández-Linares; Jorge Montiel Montoya; Aarón Millán Oropeza; Jesús Agustín Badillo Corona

    2012-01-01

    A review of the situation of bio-fuels in the world, mainly of biodiesel is made. A comparison among the different raw materials for the synthesis of biodiesel is done and it is emphasized in the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The different fresh and salt water micro-algae in its lipid content and productivity are compared. A review of the process of biosynthesis of lipids in microalgae and how to improve the production of lipids in microalgae is shown. It is discussed the importanc...

  17. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Biofuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Subram Maniam

    Bioalcohols, such as bioethanol and biobutanol, are suitable replacements for gasoline, while biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This study's contribution is experimentally validated chemical kinetic combustion mechanisms for biobutanol and biodiesel. Fundamental combustion data and chemical kinetic mechanisms are presented and discussed to improve our understanding of biofuel combustion. The net environmental impact of biobutanol (i.e., n-butanol) has not been studied extensively, so this study first assesses the sustainability of n-butanol derived from corn. The results indicate that technical advances in fuel production are required before commercializing biobutanol. The primary contribution of this research is new experimental data and a novel chemical kinetic mechanism for n-butanol combustion. The results indicate that under the given experimental conditions, n-butanol is consumed primarily via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radical molecules, which subsequently decompose to smaller hydrocarbon and oxygenated species. The hydroxyl moiety in n-butanol results in the direct production of the oxygenated species such as butanal, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. The formation of these compounds sequesters carbon from forming soot precursors, but they may introduce other adverse environmental and health effects. Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents high quality experimental data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and models its combustion using an improved skeletal mechanism. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which ultimately lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular

  18. Cyanobacteria as a platform for biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Nozzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have great potential as a platform for biofuel production because of their fast growth, ability to fix carbon dioxide gas, and their genetic tractability. Furthermore they do not require fermentable sugars or arable land for growth and so competition with cropland would be greatly reduced. In this perspective we discuss the challenges and areas for improvement most pertinent for advancing cyanobacterial fuel production, including: improving genetic parts, carbon fixation, metabolic flux, nutrient requirements on a large scale, and photosynthetic efficiency using natural light.

  19. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  20. Biofuels and the Lessons of Easter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Chaves

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The return to land-based biofuels ignores the lessons of the past that led to the collapse of civilizations such as that of Easter Island. Even the more efficient ethanol feedstocks such as sugar cane and switchgrass can greatly worsen the environmental damage associated with agriculture because they would require enormous amounts of land to meet US demand for transportation fuel. Too often, style wins over substance because most citizens do not know the basics of well-to-wheel analysis. Therefore, the incorporation of energy literacy into the high school curricula should play a significant role in any comprehensive plan for addressing the energy crisis.