WorldWideScience

Sample records for biofuel sustainability standards

  1. The Global Network of Biofuel Sustainability Standards-setters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke

    2015-01-01

    The role of network structure in shaping the regulatory scope and content of sustainability standards for biofuels is examined. A critical review of the literature on hybrid governance networks suggests the need to bring in network theory. Through a specific network analysis of the standards...

  2. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Previous land use is also recorded. The indirect effects of biofuel production - such as land displacement - have recently been examined by a review commissioned by the U.K. Government and carried out by the Renewable Fuels Agency. It confirmed the concerns, and work is now under way to measure the indirect effects and incorporate them in reporting and analysis. It concluded that we need to be more cautious and discriminating in our use of biofuels and called for a slowing of targets until, in particular, the indirect efforts could be monitored and evaluated properly. But it also saw a way forward for a sustainable biofuels industry. If this is to happen, biofuels should use the right feedstocks, be grown on the right land and use the least energy intensive production processes. Thus, ethanol derived from sugar cane, grown on land not needed for food production, farmed with an efficient use of fertilisers and produced using bagasse (sugar cane waste) as a source of energy, would be a sustainable biofuel. However, ethanol derived from maize using highly intensive farming processes, grown on land needed for food, and using energy from coal-fired power stations, would be an unsustainable one. The Review recommended that biofuel production should be concentrated on idle agricultural land - areas that have been previously farmed but which would remain uncultivated if not used in this way - and on marginal areas which are unproductive when used for food crops or livestock. It also recommended increasing the use of wastes and residues for feedstocks and creating incentives for second generation biofuels using new technologies, such as cellulosic ethanol from woody plants or biodiesel from algae. The Review also concluded that, left to itself, the market was unlikely to develop in a sustainable way, and so recommended more research into both indirect and direct effects and introducing internationally agreed mandatory sustainability standards. These should be accompanied by full

  3. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  4. The price for biofuels sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, low-carbon energy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introduced sustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were then confronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were that sustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review of recent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whether sustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market for sustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differently between 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence between biofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certification in the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in terms of finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements. - Highlights: • EU biofuel sustainability rules were once thought to reward compliant producers with price-premiums. • Premiums for certified biofuels, however, have been small for biodiesel and almost non-existent for ethanol. • As sustainable biofuels became the new norm, premiums disappeared almost completely in 2012. • Early stages of supply chains concentrate the highest compliance costs, affecting specially developing country producers. • Producers are now in a market where sustainable biofuels have become the new norm

  5. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  6. Biofuel sustainability standards and public policy: A case study of Swedish ethanol imports from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    Sustainable Ethanol Initiative (VSEI), a private initiative of the Swedish fuel-ethanol supplier, SEKAB. VSEI went into operation in August 2008 to verify that the ethanol it was importing from Brazil met its own minimum standards for ―field-to-wheel‖ (life-cycle) greenhouse-gas emission standards and a...

  7. Biofuels and Sustainable Transport: A Conceptual Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey Gilpin; Erling Holden

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for sustainably using biofuels must be thoroughly assessed at several levels. First, the use of biofuels must comply with sustainable development’s main dimensions. Second, the use of biofuels must comply with sustainable transport’s main dimensions. Third, gains from using biofuels strategies must compare favorably to gains from other sustainable transport strategies, such as altering transport patterns and reducing transport volume. Fourth, the gains must compare favorably to...

  8. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  9. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. PMID:25281367

  10. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  11. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luís A. B Cortez; Francisco E. B. Nigro; Nogueira, Luiz A. H.; André M. Nassar; Heitor Cantarella; Márcia A. F. D. Moraes; Leal, Rodrigo L. V.; Franco, Telma T.; Schuchardt, Ulf F.; Ricardo Baldassin Junior

    2015-01-01

    The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is i...

  12. Sustainable biofuels: keys of the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongly discussed, the development of the biofuels raises many fears at the environmental and social levels. They played a real part in the increase of the raw materials cost as the profit in terms of greenhouse gases emission facing the fossil fuels are not always realized, especially for the imported biofuels. It seems necessary to define and guarantee sustainability criteria. All these parameters are presented. (A.L.B.)

  13. Advancing Biofuels: Balancing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with most technologies, use of biofuels has both benefits and risks, which vary by feedstock. Expected benefits include increased energy independence, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, reduced emission of greenhouse gases and invigorated rural economies. Anticipated risks include potential com...

  14. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  15. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  16. Standards, Certification, and Indicators for Biofuel Sustainability: A review of the CSBP, BMAS and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable biomass feedstock supplies are needed globally for emerging bioenergy and bio-product development, but how can society know these materials are being produced, harvested, and transported in a sustainable manner? This presentation examines three different programs in the U.S. focused on p...

  17. Renewable energy progress and biofuels sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; De Lovinfosse, I.; Koper, M.; Beestermoeller, C.; Nabe, C.; Kimmel, M.; Van den Bos, A.; Yildiz, I.; Harteveld, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nysten, J.; Fouquet, D. [Becker Buettner Held BBH, Munich (Germany); Resch, G.; Liebmann, L.; Ortner, A.; Panzer, C. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Walden, D.; Diaz Chavez, R.; Byers, B.; Petrova, S.; Kunen, E. [Winrock International, Brussels (Belgium); Fischer, G.

    2013-03-15

    On 27 March 2013, the European Commission published its first Renewable Energy Progress Report under the framework of the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. Since the adoption of this directive and the introduction of legally binding renewable energy targets, most Member States experienced significant growth in renewable energy consumption. 2010 figures indicate that the EU as a whole is on its trajectory towards the 2020 targets with a renewable energy share of 12.7%. Moreover, in 2010 the majority of Member States already reached their 2011/2012 interim targets set in the Directive. However, as the trajectory grows steeper towards the end, more efforts will still be needed from the Member States in order to reach the 2020 targets. With regard to the EU biofuels and bioliquids sustainability criteria, Member States' implementation of the biofuels scheme is considered too slow. In accordance with the reporting requirements set out in the 2009 Directive on Renewable Energy, every two years the European Commission publishes a Renewable Energy Progress Report. The report assesses Member States' progress in the promotion and use of renewable energy along the trajectory towards the 2020 renewable energy targets. The report also describes the overall renewable energy policy developments in each Member State and their compliance with the measures outlined in the Directive and the National Renewable Energy Action Plans. Moreover, in accordance with the Directive, it reports on the sustainability of biofuels and bioliquids consumed in the EU and the impacts of this consumption. A consortium led by Ecofys was contracted by the European Commission to perform support activities concerning the assessment of progress in renewable energy and sustainability of biofuels.

  18. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally; Fatimah Md. Yusoff; Sanjoy Banerjee; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technical...

  19. Sustainability Opportunities and Challenges of the Biofuels Industry

    OpenAIRE

    França, Cesar L.; Maddigan, Kate; White, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Liquid biofuels are being produced to displace fossil fuels for transportation, with bioethanol and biodiesel being the primary biofuels produced for this purpose in the world today. While there is consensus on the need for a sustainable biofuels industry, there is little consensus on how to proceed to avoid environmental and social degradation with global biofuel production. A literature review of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) data, and the generic Strategic Life-Cycle Management (SLCM) and Temp...

  20. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised indus...

  1. A model for sustainable land use in biofuel production: An application to the state of Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Fuel Standard aims to increase the production of biofuels to improve energy efficiency and decrease carbon dioxide emissions in the US. The effectiveness of this regulation is being debated by the scientific community regarding carbon emissions from direct and indirect land-use change. A valid alternative may be to design policies that stimulate sustainable land use in biofuel production. This article develops a model that simulates a voluntary program to increase the land use efficiency in production of biofuels. This stochastic dynamic model optimizes the sustainability of biofuels producible by including climate information and participatory decisions on land use. The model is parameterized using the Maximum Entropy econometric technique to present a simulation of the program in the State of Alabama. The results of this simulation show that participatory decisions on land-use may increase the net energy value of produced biofuel up to 215.68% and reduce the carbon emissions by 19.67% towards the state energy goals. - Highlights: ► We develop a dynamic model that optimizes the land-use efficiency of biofuels. ► This model simulates the impact of a voluntary program on sustainability of biofuels. ► Entropy econometrics are used to calibrate the model for the state of Alabama. ► Participatory decisions on land-use may increase producible bioenergy in the state. ► A sustainability program may reduce carbon emissions in biofuel production

  2. Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: The emergence of second generation (2G) biofuels is widely seen as a sustainable response to the increasing controversy surrounding the first generation (1G). Yet, sustainability credentials of 2G biofuels are also being questioned. Drawing on work in Science and Technology Studies, we argue that controversies help focus attention on key, often value-related questions that need to be posed to address broader societal concerns. This paper examines lessons drawn from the 1G controversy to assess implications for the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels. Scope: We present an overview of key 1G sustainability challenges, assess their relevance for 2G, and highlight the challenges for policy in managing the transition. We address limitations of existing sustainability assessments by exploring where challenges might emerge across the whole system of bioenergy and the wider context of the social system in which bioenergy research and policy are done. Conclusions: Key lessons arising from 1G are potentially relevant to the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels depending on the particular circumstances or conditions under which 2G is introduced. We conclude that sustainability challenges commonly categorised as either economic, environmental or social are, in reality, more complexly interconnected (so that an artificial separation of these categories is problematic). - Highlights: • Controversy surrounding 1G biofuels is relevant to sustainability appraisal of 2G. • Challenges for policy in managing the transition to 2G biofuels are highlighted. • A key lesson is that sustainability challenges are complexly interconnected

  3. The economic and environmental sustainability of biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Annalisa Zezza

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses some of the determinants of biofuel economy in terms of relations with the fossil fuels markets and the agricultural markets. In particular, on the basis of the scientific literature the impact of fossil fuel prices on the agricultural markets is analyzed together with substitutability between food/fodder and biofuel production. The study then goes on to attempt evaluation of the environmental sustainability of biofuels on the basis of the energy balance, greenhouse gas re...

  4. Biofuel Sustainability and the Formation of Transnational Hybrid Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We examine the transnational governance of biofuel sustainability and its coexistence with the WTO trade regime. The way in which the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) is shaping transnational biofuel governance shows deep and mutual dependence between public and private. The EU relies on a pri...

  5. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Niemisto; Paula Saavalainen; Eva Pongracz; Riitta L. Keiski

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is perform...

  6. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  7. Corn-based feedstock for biofuels: Implications for agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Crop residue as a source of feedstock for biofuels production must retain ecosystem services and be sustainable. The challenge is to develop cropping system management strategies that balance the demand for increasing biofuel needs with ecosystem sustainability. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of changes in land use and management caused by corn-based biofuel production (grain, cob, stover) on soil fertility and ecosystem sustainability. Our specific goal was to investigate how the levels of corn residue removal influence current soil carbon and nutrient budgets and how these budgets are maintained under proposed production scenarios. Soil organic carbon (SOC), an important carbon component in the life cycle of biofuel production, is a sensitive indicator of cropping system sustainability. We used a soil carbon and nutrient balance approach developed from published field observations and a validated mechanistic model to analyze historical corn grain yields and fertilizer usage associated with various management practices at the county scale across the United States. Our analyses show that ecosystem carbon flux demonstrates significant spatial variability, relying heavily on the total biomass production level and residue harvest intensity; SOC budgets depend mainly on the proportion of residue removal, tillage type, and previous SOC stock level. Our results also indicate that corn cob removal for biofuel has little effect on soil carbon and nutrient balances under conventional management practices, while necessary irrigation can contribute greatly to corn-based biofuel production and ecosystem sustainability in the western side of the Great Plains and the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

  8. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels Development for Transport: Frequently Asked Questions and Review of Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gnansounou, E.; Panichelli, L.; Villegas, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Increased worldwide concern about the sustainability of large-scale production of liquid biofuels for transport has led certain governments and institutions to start developing sustainability standards in order to assess the environmental and social performances of this production. Several initiatives are being developed worldwide and some controversial issues and questions arise when trying to tackle sustainability assessment in this context. This document comes to enrich a sometimes harsh d...

  9. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-02-15

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised industrial agricultural systems. The legitimacy problems of biofuels cannot be addressed by sustainability indicators or new technologies alone since they arise from the spatial ordering of biofuel production. In the 1970-80s, promoters of bioenergy anticipated current concerns about food security implications but envisioned bioenergy production to be territorially embedded at national or local scales where these issues would be managed. Where the territorial and scalar vision was breached, it was to imagine poorer countries exporting higher-value biofuel to the North rather than the raw material as in the controversial global biomass commodity chains of today. However, controversy now extends to the global impacts of national biofuel systems on food security and greenhouse gas emissions, and to their local impacts becoming more widely known. South/South and North/North trade conflicts are also emerging as are questions over biodegradable wastes and agricultural residues as global commodities. As assumptions of a food-versus-fuel conflict have come to be challenged, legitimacy questions over global agri-business and trade are spotlighted even further. In this context, visions of biofuel development that address these broader issues might be promising. These include large-scale biomass-for-fuel models in Europe that would transform global trade rules to allow small farmers in the global South to compete, and small-scale biofuel systems developed to address local energy needs in the

  10. Current and future sustainable biofuels; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the government study of Fossil-Free Vehicle traffic (FFF investigation). The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on the production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international outlooks. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, GHG performance and production costs are based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain up to produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and production chains and is based primarily on standardized LCA and for some systems also on industrial systems analysis.

  11. Does a Renewable Fuel Standard for Biofuels Reduce Climate Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Mads Greaker; Michael Hoel; Knut Einar Rosendahl

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature on biofuels has questioned whether biofuels policies are likely to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Our analysis explicitly takes into account that oil is a nonrenewable natural resource. A blending mandate has no effect on total cumulative oil extraction. However, extraction of oil is postponed as a consequence of the renewable fuel standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are negligible, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. The standard also r...

  12. The role of sustainability and life cycle thinking in U.S. biofuels policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of the U.S. federal biofuel-related policies, from 1955 to 2012, was conducted to examine the progression of life cycle thinking within the policies. Over 1300 past and present federal and state biofuel laws and incentives were analyzed to identify the establishment of Life-cycle thinking (LCT) in the biofuel policies. The policies were searched for search terms representing the three themes: life cycle assessment, environmental impact and sustainability. LCT in policies was first seen in the Renewable Fuel Standard under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, where life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions reduction of biofuels was required. Existing U.S. biofuel policies were also characterized to define types of policy as tax incentive, grants, mandate, etc. The results suggested that climate change or energy incentives, air quality or emissions, etc. should be more emphasized in fuel legislation for a continuous improvement of biofuels industry. Only 13% of both the federal and state policies reviewed in this study employed some aspect of LCT. Policies that incorporate LCT often only focused on greenhouse gas emissions; policies should include other environmental impacts to avoid any environmental tradeoffs and unintended consequences from biofuel production. - Highlights: • Identified the establishment of sustainability and life-cycle thinking in biofuel policy. • Presented the spatial distribution of state U.S. biofuels policies and production via GIS. • Analyzed past and present federal and state environmental policies progression toward biofuels. • Life-cycle thinking was only present in 13% of federal and state policies current as of 2013

  13. Boundless Biofuels? Between Environmental Sustainability and Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels currently appear to be one of the major controversies in the agriculture/environment nexus, not unlike genetically modified organisms. While some countries (such as Brazil) have for quite some time supported successful large-scale programmes to improve the production and consumption of biof

  14. Climate changes, biofuels and the sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is one of the most dangerous problems of the contemporary world. We can either adapt to the corresponding changes or try to reduce their impact by significantly reducing fossil fuel burning. A hydrogen-based economy using energy from biomass, solar, wind and other renewable sources and/or nuclear energy seems to be a viable alternative. Here we analyse the possibilities of the biofuels to replace fossil fuels and their potential to contribute to hydrogen economy. (author)

  15. Climate changes, biofuels and the sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidansek, Aleksander; Blinc, Robert [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeglic, Anton [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik [Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (RS); Slaus, Ivo [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-08-15

    Climate change is one of the most dangerous problems of the contemporary world. We can either adapt to the corresponding changes or try to reduce their impact by significantly reducing fossil fuel burning. A hydrogen-based economy using energy from biomass, solar, wind and other renewable sources and/or nuclear energy seems to be a viable alternative. Here we analyse the possibilities of the biofuels to replace fossil fuels and their potential to contribute to hydrogen economy. (author)

  16. Bioeconomic Sustainability of Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ponti, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The use of marginal land (ML) for lignocellulosic biofuel production is examined for system stability, resilience, and eco-social sustainability. A North American prairie grass system and its industrialization for maximum biomass production using biotechnology and agro-technical inputs is the focus of the analysis. Demographic models of ML biomass…

  17. Environmental indicators of biofuel sustainability: What about context?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Bielicki, Jeffrey M [ORNL; Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Shaw, Denice [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2013-01-01

    Indicators of the environmental sustainability of biofuel production, distribution, and use should be selected, measured, and interpreted with respect to the context in which they are used. These indicators include measures of soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse-gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and vegetation productivity. Contextual considerations include the purpose for the sustainability analysis, the particular biofuel production and distribution system (including supply chain, management aspects, and system viability), policy conditions, stakeholder values, location, temporal influences, spatial scale, baselines, and reference scenarios. Recommendations presented in this paper include formulating the problem for particular analyses, selecting appropriate context-specific indicators of environmental sustainability, and developing indicators that can reflect multiple environmental properties at low cost within a defined context. In addition, contextual considerations such as technical objectives, varying values and perspectives of stakeholder groups, and availability and reliability of data need to be understood and considered. Sustainability indicators for biofuels are most useful if adequate historical data are available, information can be collected at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, organizations are committed to use indicator information in the decision-making process, and indicators can effectively guide behavior toward more sustainable practices.

  18. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well. PMID:26256682

  19. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

  20. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  1. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO2, CO, H2, and CH4.The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume, respectively

  2. Current and future sustainable biofuels; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Tekniska Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Ingrid [Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, Goeteborg (Sweden); CIT Industriell Energi., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the state investigation 'Fossil Free Vehicle Traffic'. The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development, and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, greenhouse gas performance and production costs is based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain to the produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and commercial development of the respective chains. They are based primarily from standardized life cycle analysis and, in some production systems, also on industrial systems analysis. These two approaches have some differences in methodology, which are highlighted in the report. In the overview values and results have been compiled to make it possible to compare the results.

  3. SUSTAINABLE BIOFUEL SYSTEMS FOR UNDEVELOPED REGIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated our findings based on the level of integration of sustainable methods, feasibility of implementation within the target community, and the quantity of energy produced in relation to community needs. Particular emphasis was placed on development of a production meth...

  4. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics(Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel supply chains in the United States are expected to expand considerably, in part due to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. This law mandates through the EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard an expansion to 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels per year by 2...

  5. Stabilizing the agricultural frontier: Leveraging REDD with biofuels for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the potential of a proposed policy model that would explicitly link the cultivation of biofuels with forest conservation (Biofuel + FC) as part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The model postulates that a ratio of 4:1 forest conservation to biofuel cultivation be linked to proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD + Biofuel), while a ratio of 9:1 biofuel cultivation to reforestation on degraded landscape (RDL + Biofuel) be linked to the afforestation/reforestation component of the Clean Development Mechanism. Both biofuel production options would be limited to the cultivation of woody perennial biofuel species on low biomass landscapes in order to maximize the carbon benefits of the proposed policy model. The potential to conserve forest, avoid GHG emissions, improve carbon sequestration, and produce renewable energy are evaluated by an illustrative model for five case studies (Pará – Brazil, East Kalimantan – Indonesia, Madagascar, Colombia and Liberia). The Biofuel + FC policy model is then compared with three counterfactual scenarios: REDD Alone with no biofuel cultivation; Biofuel Alone with expanded biofuel cultivation in the absence of REDD and a Most Likely scenario where REDD and biofuel cultivation are implemented without explicit regulatory linkages. The proposed policy model would leverage forest carbon with biofuel markets, which would reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserve biodiversity, as well as improve human welfare in developing countries, a win–win–win strategy for sustainable development. -- Highlights: ► We propose to link biofuel cultivation with forest conservation (REDD + Biofuels). ► A similar proposal to support reforestation on degraded landscapes (RDL + Biofuels). ► Woody perennial biofuel species on low biomass landscapes maximize carbon benefits. ► REDD+ revenues can subsidize and foster sustainable biofuels. ► Production of

  6. A review of social sustainability considerations among EU-approved voluntary schemes for biofuels, with implications for rural livelihoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of biofuel production and consumption has raised concerns over the social and environmental sustainability of biofuel feedstock production, processing and trade. The European Union (EU) has thus balanced its commitment to biofuels as one option for meeting its renewable energy targets with sustainability criteria for economic operators supplying biofuels to member states. Seven voluntary “EU sustainability schemes” were approved in July, 2011 as a means to verify compliance. While mandated sustainability criteria have a strong environmental focus, a number of these voluntary schemes have social sustainability as a significant component of the requirements put forward for achieving certification. As several of these voluntary schemes are incipient, thereby limiting evidence on their effectiveness in practice, this analysis is based on a comparative analysis of the substantive content or ‘scope’ of these schemes and the likely procedural effectiveness of the same. Findings show that while some schemes have considerable coverage of social sustainability concerns, poor coverage of some critical issues, the presence of schemes lacking any social sustainability requirements, and gaps in procedural rules are likely to undermine the likelihood that social sustainability is achieved through these schemes or the EU sustainability policies lending credibility to them. - Highlights: ► Among 7 voluntary schemes approved by EC-RED for biofuel, social sustainability is sorely lacking. ► 2 Schemes lacking any social sustainability criteria collectively cover all feedstock/regions. ► The strong climate metric effectively sidelines development aspirations of southern producers. ► Only one of 7 standards will leverage the industry's potential as a stimulus to rural development. ► Policies in consumer markets are critical to give teeth to industry-led sustainability schemes.

  7. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  8. Does a renewable fuel standard for biofuels reduce climate costs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Hoel, Michael; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Recent contributions have questioned whether biofuels policies actually lead to emissions reductions, and thus lower climate costs. In this paper we make two contributions to the literature. First, we study the market effects of a renewable fuel standard. Opposed to most previous studies we model the supply of fossil fuels taking into account that fossil fuels is a non-renewable resource. Second, we model emissions from land use change explicitly when we evaluate the climate effects of the renewable fuel standard. We find that extraction of fossil fuels most likely will decline initially as a consequence of the standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are sufficiently low, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. Furthermore, we find that the standard tends to reduce total fuel (i.e., oil plus biofuels) consumption initially. Hence, even if emissions from biofuels are substantial, climate costs may be reduced. Finally, if only a subset of countries introduce a renewable fuel standard, there will be carbon leakage to the rest of the world. However, climate costs may decline as global extraction of fossil fuels is postponed.(Author)

  9. Future Oppourtunities and Challenges of the Sustainability of Biofuels in Sweden and in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Shair

    2012-01-01

    Liquid Biofuels mainly Bioethanol and biodiesel are the main replacement for fossil fuels in the current world. But there are questions and concerns about the present biofuels production, mainly when it comes to matter of sustainability. In this thesis paper,Strategic Life Cycle Management data along with Life Cycle Analysis data has been used to analyze the sustainable biofuels condition in Sweden and the Netherlands. Data also has been collected through the interview from different stakehol...

  10. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Niemisto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is performed. The benefits and potential of using lignocellulosic and waste materials as feedstocks in the biobutanol production process are also discussed. Sustainability assessment in this paper includes cultivation, harvest/collection and upstream processing (pretreatment of feedstocks, comparing four main biomass sources: food crops, non-food crops, food industry by-product and wood-based biomass. It can be concluded that the highest sustainable potential in Finland is when biobutanol production is integrated into pulp & paper mills.

  11. Multi-actor governance of sustainable biofuels in developing countries: The case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and analyses the multi-actor governance process that made Mozambique the first African nation-state to develop a national policy framework for sustainable biofuels. The paper draws on findings from action research conducted in Mozambique between December 2008 and July 2012. We analyse interactions between the changing governance context, the course of the multi-actor governance process, and the choices in relation to governance framework characteristics and content for four successive stages of governance framework development. This provides the basis for reflection on the competences required for effective multi-actor sustainability governance, and a discussion about the role of the nation-state in sustainability governance of global economies such as biofuels. The governance framework for sustainable biofuels has contributed to a more transparent and secure investment climate for biofuels in Mozambique. Key factors for success were (1) the presence of different types of competences during the various stages of the governance framework development, (2) closing the gap between ‘licences to sell’ and ‘licences to produce’ across different governance levels, and (3) balancing between the short- and long-term objectives for biofuel production in Mozambique and requirements of global biofuel markets. Developing-country nation-states can provide an essential contribution to these success-factors for global governance of sustainable biofuels. - Highlights: • Mozambique is the first African country that developed a national governance framework for sustainable biofuels. • Independence, representation, expertise and operational capacity are essential competences in multi-actor sustainability governance. • Developing country's nation-states play an essential role in harmonizing short- and long-term objectives across different governance levels. • Synergies between licences to sell and licences to produce biofuels sustainably should

  12. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  13. Meeting the global demand for biofuels in 2021 through sustainable land use change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2013 renewable energy policy mandates adopted in twenty-seven countries will increase the need for liquid biofuels. To achieve this, ethanol produced from corn and sugarcane will need to increase from 80 to approximately 200 billion l in 2021. This could be achieved by increasing the productivity of raw material per hectare, expansion of land into dedicated biofuels, or a combination of both. We show here that appropriate land expansion policies focused on conservationist programs and a scientific basis, are important for sustainable biofuel expansion whilst meeting the increasing demand for food and fiber. The Brazilian approach to biofuel and food security could be followed by other nations to provide a sustainable pathway to renewable energy and food production globally. One sentence summary: Conservationist policy programs with scientific basis are key to drive the expansion of biofuel production and use towards sustainability

  14. Recommendations for a sustainable development of biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels are presented as a solution to the greenhouse gases and the petroleum consumption decrease. The development of the biofuels needs an active research of the production, transformation and use costs improvement. It will be necessary to prepare the market of the biofuels to the globalization. Some recommendations are also provided in the domains of the vegetal oil ester, the ethanol for the diesel and for the development of simulation tools to evaluate the costs. (A.L.B.)

  15. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels, particularly, on air quality and human health. Sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here a systematic framework, including emission modeling, air quality simulation, and health impact assessment was developed to quanti...

  16. Assessing the Economic, Environmental and Social Sustainability of Biofuel Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mela, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels started to raise interest almost 40 years ago, when the Arab oil embargo pushed oil prices up and therefore spurred the research towards new forms of energy. Nevertheless, biofuel production has not really taken off until recently, when the combination of high oil prices, concern about greenhouse gas emissions, and the progressive reduction of oil reserves induced many countries across the world to implement policies encouraging biofuels production. At the beginning of the 2000s, ...

  17. CERTIFICATION ON SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BIOFUEL SECTOR: a case study on Brazilian ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Zezza, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper tries to identify under which conditions voluntary certification could be an answer to the governance of sustainability at global level. The study addresses the case of biofuel sustainability certification in Brazil and the role of the EU Directive on biofuels. The case study has permitted to identify and analyze some of these factors as the degree of dependence from foreign market, the policy environment, the structure of the supply chain, the benefits and costs associated to cert...

  18. Sustainable Biofuels A Transitions Approach to Understanding the Global Expansion of Ethanol and Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottes, Jeffrey Jacob

    Between 1998 and 2008, the promise of biofuels to increase rural development, enhance energy security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions stimulated their diffusion across international markets. This rapid expansion of ethanol and biodiesel encouraged many jurisdictions to implement biofuels expansion policies and programs. Global biofuels, characterised by mass production and international trade of ethanol and biodiesel, occurred despite their long history as marginal technologies on the fringe of the petroleum-based transportation energy regime. The first purpose of this dissertation is to examine the global expansion of ethanol and biodiesel to understand how these recurrent socio-technological failures co-evolved with petroleum transportation fuels. Drawing from the field of socio-technical transitions, this dissertation also assesses the global expansion of ethanol and biodiesel to determine whether or not these first generation biofuels are sustainable. Numerous studies have assessed the technical effects of ethanol and biodiesel, but effects-based technical assessments of transport biofuels are unable to explain the interaction of wider system elements. The configuration of multi-level factors (i.e., niche development, the technological regime, and the socio-technical landscape) informs the present and emerging social functions of biofuels, which become relevant when determining how biofuels might become a sustainable energy option. The biofuels regimes that evolved in Brazil, the United States, and the European Union provide case studies show how ethanol and biodiesel expanded from fringe fuels to global commodities. The production infrastructures within these dominant biofuels regimes contribute to a persistence of unsustainable first generation biofuels that can inhibit the technical development and sustainability of biofuels. However, new and emerging ethanol and biodiesel markets are relatively small in comparison to the dominant regimes, and can

  19. Microalgae: An alternative as sustainable source of biofuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    production of biofuels via synthesis of liquid endocellular metabolites (i.e. triglycerides) and gaseous extracellular ones (i.e. molecular hydrogen), and addresses technical and economic shortcomings and opportunities along the whole processing chain, at both microorganism and reactor levels. -- Highlights: ► Microalgal oil productivities are much higher than terrestrial plants. ► Metabolic engineering of microalgae permits sustained release of H2. ► Photosynthetic nature makes microalgae very economical alternative sources of biofuels. ► Technological bottlenecks on biocatalyst and bioreactor are reviewed.

  20. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and increase crop

  1. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  2. Sustainable Biofuel Contributions to Carbon Mitigation and Energy Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Steele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in US biofuels has been motivated by two primary national policy goals, (1 to reduce carbon emissions and (2 to achieve energy independence. However, the current low cost of fossil fuels is a key barrier to investments in woody biofuel production capacity. The effectiveness of wood derived biofuels must consider not only the feedstock competition with low cost fossil fuels but also the wide range of wood products uses that displace different fossil intensive products. Alternative uses of wood result in substantially different unit processes and carbon impacts over product life cycles. We developed life cycle data for new bioprocessing and feedstock collection models in order to make life cycle comparisons of effectiveness when biofuels displace gasoline and wood products displace fossil intensive building materials. Wood products and biofuels can be joint products from the same forestland. Substantial differences in effectiveness measures are revealed as well as difficulties in valuing tradeoffs between carbon mitigation and energy independence.

  3. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating...... wastewater. Algae capture CO2 from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides...... dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher...

  4. Does the biofuel industry, with the aid of certification programs, contribute to sustainable development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulff, James Michael

    Despite being a source of alternative energy and an avenue for broad economic development, a number of biofuel producers have demonstrated that the biofuel industry has significant potential for unleashing social, environmental and economic harm. To largely avoid such perils, the industry must demonstrate that it is operating in a sustainable manner, contributing to the sustainable development of all stakeholders who rely upon the industry's responsible operation. Recently minted, internationally developed certification programs have been developed to move the industry into sustainable compliance and to offer a means by which stakeholders can incentivize the industry toward greater levels of sustainability practice. Using OLS regression analysis, this dissertation estimates that the industry is currently operating within the bounds of sustainable development as measured through the World Bank's sustainability model. This conclusion, however, is made with some caution. Many biofuel industry certification programs, despite covering a number of sustainable issues, have created loopholes within their criteria that must be resolved to avert greater long term damage to sustainable development. This work will conclude with methods and additional criteria that can be used to help move the biofuel industry toward more stable and sustainable development activity.

  5. Role of biofuels in a sustainable environment - a technical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.L.N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai (India); Saravanan, Subramani [Automobile Engineering Department, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai (India)

    2008-11-15

    Creating a clean and safe environment has always been a challenge for researchers throughout the world. The use of fossil fuel has been a deterrent in attaining this objective. Therefore, attention has been focused on biofuels to suit this objective. In recent years, efforts have been directed towards environmentally friendly sources of alternate fuels for diesel engines. This paper compares the performance and emission characteristics of biofuels with mineral no. 2 diesel oil. A direct injection diesel engine coupled with an eddy current dynamometer is used for this investigation. Rice bran oil and neem oil are considered as biofuels for this work since they are renewable in nature. Rice bran oil is extracted from rice bran, which is a by-product of the rice milling process. Neem oil is derived from neem seed, which are abundantly available in India. In addition to these oils, their blends with diesel are also used to test their ability for reducing emissions. This study indicated that, among the two biofuels, the rice bran oil and its blend shows better results with respect to emissions than the neem oil and its blend. The results for the rice bran oil and its blend are slightly better than those of diesel and superior to pure neem oil and its blend. The unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions of biofuels and their blends are lower when compared with diesel. Biofuels show lower nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions when compared with diesel and biofuel blends. It was observed that the smoke intensities of all the fuels tested are similar up to 50% loads. At higher loads, biofuels and their blends showed slightly higher smoke intensities than diesel. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. The divergent transitions towards sustainable biofuel networks/chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Karamichas, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this exploratory paper we investigate how Capabilities, Transaction Costs and Vertical Scope co-evolve, by testing the Jacobides & Winter (2005) model on the Biofuels Industry in the area of the EU. The theoretical framework is based on the Industrial Architecture theory but also on Transaction Costs Economics, Resource Based View and on the concept of the Dynamic Capabilities. Qualitative data on the institutional environment of the Biofuels Industry in the EU-15 was collected. Via in...

  7. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Irving Olsen, S.

    2011-05-15

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal wastewater. Algae capture CO{sub 2} from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating environmental benefits and impacts can be a tool for policy decisions and for technology development. (Author)

  8. The Renewable Energy Directive: biofuels, biomass and sustainable development criteria. How to check in France the compliance of marketed biofuels with sustainability criteria defined by the Directive on renewable energies? (Phase 1: biofuels and bio-liquids)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled and commented the main principles of the European directive which sets objectives in terms of renewable energy promotion and consumption, this report analyses the quantitative and qualitative sustainability criteria which must be applied particularly to biofuels and bio-liquids produced from agricultural activities, and their application perspectives. It gives recommendations to assess these criteria. It also comments the modalities used to control the compliance of biofuels with these criteria

  9. Integrating social and value dimensions into sustainability assessment of lignocellulosic biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison; Helliwell, Richard; Ribeiro, Barbara; Shortall, Orla; Smith, Robert David Jonathan; Millar, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The paper clarifies the social and value dimensions for integrated sustainability assessments of lignocellulosic biofuels. We develop a responsible innovation approach, looking at technology impacts and implementation challenges, assumptions and value conflicts influencing how impacts are identified and assessed, and different visions for future development. We identify three distinct value-based visions. From a techno-economic perspective, lignocellulosic biofuels can contribute to energy se...

  10. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Kara Cafferty; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Johnson; Zhichao Wang; Michael Wang; Mary Biddy; Abhijit Dutta; Daniel Inman; Eric Tan; Sue Jones; Lesley Snowden-Swan

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels as part state of technology (SOT) analyses. An SOT assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available. Overall assessments of biofuel pathways begin with feedstock production and the logistics of transporting the feedstock from the farm or plantation to the conversion facility or biorefinery. The conversion process itself is modeled in detail as part of the SOT analysis. The teams then develop an estimate of the biofuel minimum selling price (MSP) and assess the cost competitiveness of the biofuel with conventional fuels such as gasoline.

  11. Sustainability of algal biofuel production using integrated renewable energy park (IREP) and algal biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal biomass can provide viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel. However, for a mature commercial industry to develop, sustainability as well as technological and economic issues pertinent to algal biofuel sector must be addressed first. This viewpoint focuses on three integrated approaches laid out to meet these challenges. Firstly, an integrated algal biorefinery for sequential biomass processing for multiple high-value products is delineated to bring in the financial sustainability to the algal biofuel production units. Secondly, an integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for amalgamating various renewable energy industries established in different locations. This would aid in synergistic and efficient electricity and liquid biofuel production with zero net carbon emissions while obviating numerous sustainability issues such as productive usage of agricultural land, water, and fossil fuel usage. A 'renewable energy corridor' rich in multiple energy sources needed for algal biofuel production for deploying IREPs in the United States is also illustrated. Finally, the integration of various industries with algal biofuel sector can bring a multitude of sustainable deliverables to society, such as renewable supply of cheap protein supplements, health products and aquafeed ingredients. The benefits, challenges, and policy needs of the IREP approach are also discussed.

  12. Future Testing Opportunities to Ensure Sustainability of the Biofuels Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 increased the intensity of biofuel research and development throughout the U.S. For the Soil and Plant Analysis Community, this will undoubtedly create new opportunities to provide analytical services that will help ensure mandates such as the ...

  13. The divergent transitions towards sustainable biofuel networks/chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Karamichas, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this exploratory paper we investigate how Capabilities, Transaction Costs and Vertical Scope co-evolve, by testing the Jacobides & Winter (2005) model on the Biofuels Industry in the area of the EU. The theoretical framework is based on the Industrial Architecture theory but also on Transacti

  14. Report about the optimization of the biofuel industry sustaining system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2004, the French government has fixed up the ambitious goal of developing biofuels conformably with the objectives of the 2003/30/CE European directive: the level of blending gasoline and diesel fuels with biofuels should reach 5.75% of the energetic value by 2010. In 2004 this level was only 0.8%, i.e. 7 times less. In order to reach such a goal, the government has implemented two tools: a classical tax exemption tool, already used by other European partners, and a new tool created by the 2005 finances law: the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP). This report presents the main characteristics of biofuel industries and the policies implemented in favor of biofuels. It analyzes the new system and its implementation (tax exemption and TGAP) and proposes new markets for the French agriculture. It recommends to take into considerations the constraints and needs of the fuels market, that the government establishes a new regulation for this market, reforms the existing fiscal system and takes complementary dispositions (intervention at the European Communities level, development of research..). Several appendixes illustrate this report. (J.S.)

  15. Innovation subject to sustainability : the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Pacini; Alexandre Betinardi Strapasson

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biof...

  16. Sustainable transportation with Biofueled Public Transport : Stockholm example and Application of Biofuels in a French Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Solutions to the current calamity of fossil fuels are becoming more urgent with each moments passing. It is not news for those in technical professions as well as many others, that reserves of oil are diminishing and prices for petroleum based products are increasing. A most transparent option exists today, and is becoming exploited by many countries worldwide. This solution answers to the title of biofuels, consisting of gases, liquids and even biomass for various energy requirements. Two bi...

  17. Governance and legitimacy aspects of the UK biofuel carbon and sustainability reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel policy has become highly contentious in Europe. In this paper we discuss the governance and legitimacy aspects of the carbon and sustainability system of the UK Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), both before and after implementation of the Renewable Energy Directive. RTFO certification is of a meta-type, being built upon existing certification and labelling schemes, each of which are more or less contested by NGOs. Despite the RTFO being based on these non-state initiatives, so far the concerns of environment and development NGOs and others have not been given serious expression in regulatory terms. Indeed, biofuel policy development in the UK has arguably been unduly non-responsive to critical opinion, given the limited scientific base on biofuel impacts and the reliance of RTFO sustainability certification on non-state actors and schemes. Drawing on documentary evidence, interviews and three sets of literatures - co-production of regulation; post-normal science; and legitimacy of non-state certification and labelling processes - we suggest that until concerned voices are given a stronger expression in UK and EC biofuel policy development, the policy cannot yet be said to have achieved a wide social mandate. - Research highlights: → Interviews with largely non-commercial actors show a high level of concern about EC/UK biofuel policy. → The scientific uncertainties and complexity of biofuels justify inclusive policy development. → Statutory UK and EC biofuel certification will rely heavily on non-state actors and processes.→ EC/UK biofuel certification can learn from legitimisation processes more usually relevant to non-state initiatives.

  18. Catalytic oxidation of biorefinery lignin to value-added chemicals to support sustainable biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Transforming plant biomass to biofuel is one of the few solutions that can truly sustain mankind's long-term needs for liquid transportation fuel with minimized environmental impact. However, despite decades of effort, commercial development of biomass-to-biofuel conversion processes is still not an economically viable proposition. Identifying value-added co-products along with the production of biofuel provides a key solution to overcoming this economic barrier. Lignin is the second most abundant component next to cellulose in almost all plant biomass; the emerging biomass refinery industry will inevitably generate an enormous amount of lignin. Development of selective biorefinery lignin-to-bioproducts conversion processes will play a pivotal role in significantly improving the economic feasibility and sustainability of biofuel production from renewable biomass. The urgency and importance of this endeavor has been increasingly recognized in the last few years. This paper reviews state-of-the-art oxidative lignin depolymerization chemistries employed in the papermaking process and oxidative catalysts that can be applied to biorefinery lignin to produce platform chemicals including phenolic compounds, dicarboxylic acids, and quinones in high selectivity and yield. The potential synergies of integrating new catalysts with commercial delignification chemistries are discussed. We hope the information will build on the existing body of knowledge to provide new insights towards developing practical and commercially viable lignin conversion technologies, enabling sustainable biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass to be competitive with fossil fuel. PMID:25272962

  19. External governance and the EU policy for sustainable biofuels, the case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing demand for transport biofuels in the EU is driving an expansion of the industry in developing countries. Large-scale production of energy crops for biofuel, if mismanaged, could cause detrimental environmental and social impacts. The aim of this study is to examine whether the newly adopted EU Directive 2009/28/EC and its sustainability certification system can effectively ensure sustainable production of biofuels outside the EU. Mozambique, a least developed country with biofuels ambitions, is selected as empirical case. The effectiveness of the EU policy in analysed employing ideal models of external governance (hierarchical, market and network governance) as analytical framework. The findings show that the EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results. Stronger emphasis on a network oriented approach based on substantial involvement of foreign actors, and on international policy legitimacy is suggested as a way forward. (author)

  20. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon fr...

  1. Biofuel greenhouse gas calculations under the European Renewable Energy Directive – A comparison of the BioGrace tool vs. the tool of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We compare tools for biofuel CO2 calculations under the Renewable Energy Directive. ► Results for the same biofuel differ up to 21% between tools. ► Hence a producer can enhance the CO2 performance by 21% by using a different tool. ► Reasons: differences in background data and calculation of fertiliser N2O-emissions. ► Shows a regulatory gap: need for specification of method in current legislation. -- Abstract: The European Renewable Energy Directive (EU RED) requires biofuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 35% compared to fossil fuels in order to count towards mandatory biofuel quota or to be eligible for financial support schemes. This reduction target will rise to 50% in 2017. For biofuel producers this implies that they want or need to calculate their emissions. The purpose of this paper is to compare two calculation tools for economic operators that are on their way to the market: the “BioGrace tool” and the ”Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) GHG tool” for GHG calculations under the Renewable Energy Directive (both of which are freely available). Greenhouse gas emissions from four production pathways were calculated: ethanol from wheat, ethanol from sugarcane, biodiesel from rapeseed and biodiesel from palm oil. In addition, three land use change (LUC) scenarios were calculated: for expansion of the biofuel cultivation area to grassland and to forest (10–30% canopy cover) and for improvement of agricultural practices. Both tools follow the methodology of the European Renewable Energy Directive and exactly the same input data along the production chain was used. Despite this, the results were significantly different. GHG emissions of the pathway ethanol from wheat were 21% lower when calculated with the BioGrace tool than with the RSB GHG tool. Differences were most pronounced in the cultivation phase with 20% deviation between the tools for biodiesel from palm oil and 35% deviation for ethanol from wheat

  2. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  3. External governance and the EU policy for sustainable biofuels, the case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing demand for transport biofuels in the EU is driving an expansion of the industry in developing countries. Large-scale production of energy crops for biofuel, if mismanaged, could cause detrimental environmental and social impacts. The aim of this study is to examine whether the newly adopted EU Directive 2009/28/EC and its sustainability certification system can effectively ensure sustainable production of biofuels outside the EU. Mozambique, a least developed country with biofuels ambitions, is selected as empirical case. The effectiveness of the EU policy in analysed employing ideal models of external governance (hierarchical, market and network governance) as analytical framework. The findings show that the EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results. Stronger emphasis on a network oriented approach based on substantial involvement of foreign actors, and on international policy legitimacy is suggested as a way forward. - Research highlights: →The EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. →The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results.→In order to promote simultaneously stable and substantial impacts, the EU governance approach based on market access should be integrated with a network mode of governance based on policy legitimacy.

  4. Analysis of the evolution of sustainable development in biofuels industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Loayza Rollano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of sustainable development in the biofuel production sector. The Energy Indicators Tool for Sustainable Development (EISD and the Sustainability Indicators Tool Global Association for Bioenergy (GBEP were applied. Performing a comparison of indicators in each performance (economic, social and environmental, it was found that the production of biofuels in Brazil is positive in most of them. Biofuels showed a favorable trend in economic indicators, not only in terms of cost, but also through the use of energy available to the consumer market. Environmental indicators showed an improvement in the efficient use of land, water and energy resources, while pesticide applications are relatively low in relation to the limits. In addition, it appears that the biofuels industries have contributed positively to rural economies, since the social indicators showed a relatively significant and positive increase in labor supply and salary level of the labor market in this sector. Also appears that existing tools are complementary and the results provide a basis for future discussions and the development of sustainability assessments in systems and bioenergy-related projects.

  5. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  6. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  7. Climate, Biofuels and Water: Projections and Sustainability Implications for the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, D.; Tuppad, P.; Daggupati, P.; Srinivasan, R.; Varma, D.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of climate change on the water resources of the United States exposes the vulnerability of feedstock-specific mandated fuel targets to extreme weather conditions that could become more frequent and intensify in the future. Consequently, a sustainable biofuel policy should consider a) how climate change would alter both water supply and demand and, b) in turn, how related changes in water availability will impact the production of biofuel crops and c) the environmental implications of large scale biofuel productions. Since, understanding the role of biofuels in the water cycle is key to understanding many of the environmental impacts of biofuels, the focus of this study is on modeling the rarely explored interactions between land use, climate change, water resources and the environment in future biofuel production systems to explore the impacts of the US biofuel policy and climate change on water and agricultural resources. More specifically, this research will address changes in the water demand and availability, soil erosion and water quality driven by both climate change and biomass feedstock production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. We used the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic model to analyze the water quantity and quality consequences of land use and land management related changes in cropping conditions (e.g. more use of marginal lands, greater residue harvest, increased yields), plus management practices due to biofuel crops to meet the RFS target on water quality and quantity. Results show that even if the Upper Mississippi River Basin is a region of low water stress, it contributes to high nutrient load in Gulf of Mexico through seasonal shifts in streamflow, changes in extreme high and low flow events, changes in loadings and transport of sediments and nutrients due to changes in precipitation patterns and intensity, changes in frequency of occurrence of floods and drought, early melting of snow and ice, increasing

  8. Strategic environmental assessment for sustainable expansion of palm oil biofuels in Brazilian north region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Carolina

    2010-09-15

    Biofuels development in Brazil is a key factor for the environment and sustainable development of the country. Brazil has great potential of available areas and has favourable climate and geography for biofuel production, such as palm oil, soy, sugar cane, etc. This research aims to evaluate palm oil production and expansion in Para state, in the north of Brazil and also Amazonian territory. Degraded land will be evaluated through remote sensing, because palm oil crops should be placed in these lands, and secondly, expansion scenarios would be created. This PhD research will be a decision support tool for public policies.

  9. Development of a sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels: A UK case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the UK launched the first regulatory sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels. The development of the scheme, managed by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership for the Department for Transport, involved extensive stakeholder engagement. The scheme has significantly increased understanding by policy-makers, the biofuels industry and its supply chains on how to monitor and manage the sustainability risks of biofuels and increase their greenhouse-gas benefits. It is providing a practical model for similar developments globally. To receive certificates in order to meet volume obligations under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), suppliers must provide a monthly carbon and sustainability report on individual batches of renewable fuels they supply into the UK. The Renewable Fuels Agency produces aggregate monthly reports of overall performance and quarterly updates of individual supplier performance. This scheme is an important first step to assist the biofuels industry to demonstrate its environmental credentials and justify the subsidies received. The paper provides a case study of the development of the scheme, its initial outcomes and outstanding challenges.

  10. Application of US and EU Sustainability Criteria to Analysis of Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krissana Treesilvattanakul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research asks and answers a question that had been avoided by all the previous research on biofuels impacts. That is, to what extent are the US and EU biofuels sustainability criteria binding in the sense that if applied, sufficient land would be available to implement the programs? In answering the question, we simulate the global land by agro-ecological zone that would be needed to supply feedstocks for the US and EU biofuel programs using an advanced version of the GTAP-BIO model. Then we estimate the global area of land that would not be available due to sustainability criteria restrictions, again by agro-ecological zone. Finally, we determine the extent to which the US and EU sustainability criteria are binding and find that they are not binding at the biofuel levels currently targeted by the US and EU. In addition, we evaluate the same question, but this time freezing global food consumption, and get the same answer—plenty of land is available to meet the targets and supply food demands.

  11. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process...

  12. Assessing the sustainability of liquid biofuels from evolving technologies. A Finnish approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Antikainen, R. (Finnish Environment Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Thun, R. (MTT, Jokioinen (Finland)) (eds.)

    2009-05-15

    The use of biofuels in transportation is increasing and promoted in many areas with the aims of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector, securing the energy supply, and improving the self-sufficiency and employment. However, a number of recent studies have concluded that large-scale production of biofuels may cause significant environmental and social problems. Firstly, greenhouse benefits from substituting fossil fuels with biofuels may be questionable due to auxiliary material and energy inputs required, direct land-use impacts and, in particular, due to indirect system impacts e.g. land-use changes leading to deforestation. Secondly, other environmental impacts, such as nutrient losses, toxic emissions, and biodiversity losses, may also be significant and are not well known, in particular those related to technologies still under development. Thirdly, production of biofuels from raw materials that also are, suitable for food production, have been found to increase food prices, thus causing social problems. Consequently, research on and development of biofuels is more and more focusing on raw materials not directly competing with food production. In addition, a number of initiatives on sustainability criteria for biofuels have been announced by various institutions, with the aim of ensuring that the production of biofuels does not cause serious harm to the environment and society. A sustainability assessment is an extremely complicated and challenging task due to the lack of a unique, objective, and commonly agreed methodology, even though life cycle assessment (LCA) provides a generally accepted methodological background. The definitions of system boundary and reference scenario and other assumptions will have a significant impact on the results. In addition, the sustainability criteria included in different approaches and studies vary, which makes the comparison of the results difficult. This report presents perspectives on varying challenges

  13. Fuelling the future: microbial engineering for the production of sustainable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C; Mi, Luo; Pontrelli, Sammy; Luo, Shanshan

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change linked to the accumulation of greenhouse gases has caused concerns regarding the use of fossil fuels as the major energy source. To mitigate climate change while keeping energy supply sustainable, one solution is to rely on the ability of microorganisms to use renewable resources for biofuel synthesis. In this Review, we discuss how microorganisms can be explored for the production of next-generation biofuels, based on the ability of bacteria and fungi to use lignocellulose; through direct CO2 conversion by microalgae; using lithoautotrophs driven by solar electricity; or through the capacity of microorganisms to use methane generated from landfill. Furthermore, we discuss how to direct these substrates to the biosynthetic pathways of various fuel compounds and how to optimize biofuel production by engineering fuel pathways and central metabolism. PMID:27026253

  14. Trends and sustainability criteria of the production and use of liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impacts associated with the use of fossil fuels, rising prices, potential limitations in supply and concerns about regional and national security are driving the development and use of biomass for bioenergy, biofuels and bioproducts. However, the use of biomass does not automatically imply that its production, conversion and use are sustainable. Conflicts between various ecosystem services (economic production of food, fodder and fuels, biodiversity, social and cultural values, etc.) that are provided by fertile land are increasing as well. Hence, a developed thinking on how to balance between these services is desirable. There is a significant amount of information available on biofuels and their sustainability. In this paper, different initiatives and sustainability criteria for biofuels are presented and assessed. 35 criteria were found in emerging sustainability assessment frameworks. The majority of 12 criteria were focused on environmental issues, 4 were social and only 1 was economic. Energy balance and greenhouse gas balance were perceived as especially critical, social criteria ranked generally low. Although being perceived as important, food security ranked very low. (author)

  15. Current and future sustainable biofuels - Summary; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel - Sammanfattning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Tekniska Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Ingrid [Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, Goeteborg (Sweden); CIT Industriell Energi., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the state investigation 'Fossil Free Vehicle Traffic'. The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development, and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, greenhouse gas performance and production costs is based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain to the produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and commercial development of the respective chains. They are based primarily from standardized life cycle analysis and, in some production systems, also on industrial systems analysis. These two approaches have some differences in methodology, which are highlighted in the report. In the overview values and results have been compiled to make it possible to compare the results.

  16. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  17. Plurality or convergence in sustainability reporting standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Albu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years an increasing number of companies issued Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR or Sustainability Reports to complement their traditional financial reporting. Companies use various sustainability reporting standards or develop their own reporting frameworks starting from the existing ones. This variation of practices pointed out by empirical research raises questions about the quality and comparability of sustainability reporting, its role in the sustainable development, and also about the suitability of accepting the plurality of reporting frameworks or the need for convergence. This study aims to investigate the issues of plurality and convergence in sustainability reporting standards, by mobilizing the discourses on regulation and the case of a group of companies in the IT industry in order to shed some light on the current challenges in this area. We frame a discussion on the opportunities and pitfalls of convergence in sustainability reporting regulations and contribute to a better understanding of this issue by academics, preparers, users and standard setters

  18. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-01

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. First generation biofuels -- which are mainly produced from food crops such as grains, sugarcane and vegetable oils -- have triggered one of the most highly contentious debates on the current international sustainability agenda, given their links to energy security, transport, trade, food security, land-use impacts and climate change concerns. Developing second generation biofuels has emerged as a more attractive option, as these are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  19. GHG emission performance of various liquid transportation biofuels in Finland in accordance with the EU sustainability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► GHG impacts of biofuels were studied according to the EU sustainability criteria. ► Uncertainty of the GHG assessment results is important but ignored by the criteria. ► The criteria might fail to promote the most climate-friendly biofuels. ► Propositions are made to make the EU sustainability criteria more accurate. -- Abstract: The European Union (EU) has set a binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target for transportation biofuels and other bioliquids. In this study, the GHG emissions of various biofuel chains considered as relevant in large-scale production in Finland were calculated in accordance with the EU sustainability criteria. Special attention was paid to uncertainties and the sensitivities of certain parameters. According to the results, it is impossible in many cases to unambiguously conclude whether or not a biofuel chain passes the emission-saving limit provided by the EU. This may reduce the willingness to invest in biofuel production. Major sources of uncertainties and sensitivities are nitrous oxide emissions from soil and nitrogen fertilisation, emissions of process heat production and soil carbon stock changes in biomass production. Several propositions are made in order to reduce the uncertainty of the results and to make the EU sustainability criteria for biofuels more harmonised and accurate.

  20. Assessing biofuels: Aiming for sustainable development or complying with the market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing interest in biofuels has led to increasing concern about their wider implications, particularly if grown for transport use in large scale. Such concerns include environmental, social and economic issues. To counterbalance the possible negative effects, a series of measures are being put in place to help their sustainability. Nevertheless, considering the different meanings of sustainability in different parts of the world and the need to expand productive rural activities, the differences between trying to assure a commodity and the benefits or impacts at local level raise the questions between the aims of sustainability and the need to comply with a market. The ideal situation would be to reconcile both aspects, which in practise represent a major challenge for governments and industry. This paper provides an overview on the sustainability assessment of biofuels to consider a possible way forward. - Highlights: → Multi-interactions in biomass production for bioenergy are a new paradigm to develop policies. → Certification and verification schemes are limited to assess broader sustainability issues. → Improved agricultural and forestry systems for biomass use will boost policies and investment.

  1. Efficient Eucalypt Cell Wall Deconstruction and Conversion for Sustainable Lignocellulosic Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam L; Lee, David J; Furtado, Agnelo; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the world's growing energy demand and reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion, renewable plant-based feedstocks for biofuel production must be considered. The first-generation biofuels, derived from starches of edible feedstocks, such as corn, create competition between food and fuel resources, both for the crop itself and the land on which it is grown. As such, biofuel synthesized from non-edible plant biomass (lignocellulose) generated on marginal agricultural land will help to alleviate this competition. Eucalypts, the broadly defined taxa encompassing over 900 species of Eucalyptus, Corymbia, and Angophora are the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, harvested mainly for timber, pulp and paper, and biomaterial products. More recently, due to their exceptional growth rate and amenability to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, eucalypts are a leading option for the development of a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels. However, efficient conversion of woody biomass into fermentable monomeric sugars is largely dependent on pretreatment of the cell wall, whose formation and complexity lend itself toward natural recalcitrance against its efficient deconstruction. A greater understanding of this complexity within the context of various pretreatments will allow the design of new and effective deconstruction processes for bioenergy production. In this review, we present the various pretreatment options for eucalypts, including research into understanding structure and formation of the eucalypt cell wall. PMID:26636077

  2. On the potential of third generation biofuels as a sustainable fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckermann, Wilhelm A. [Hochschule Esslingen (Germany). Faculty of Natural Sciences

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other alternative transportation fuels, such as hydrogen or electricity, biofuels have the advantage of high energy density and easy handling. This means that they can be used in a comparable way and with the same logistic systems as classic fossil fuels. Furthermore, it is expected that their utilisation will provide a positive environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, driven by environmental and energy-political ambitions, biofuels will attain increasing importance in the future. Some forecasts see a portion of up to 50% which these fuels might contribute to the global fuel demand by the middle of the century. In contrast to those of the first and second generation, third generation biofuels, which are based on specifically cultivated plants and micro-organisms, are not in competition with the provision of food and have distinctly lower requirements for agricultural land use. This contribution will outline the aspects of availability and sustainability of this kind of biogenic fuels and will analyse in particular which role third generation biofuels might play. (orig.)

  3. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. This is the second in a series of policy briefs providing an update on the project. The first brief was issued in March 2012. The project focus is on looking at developing second generation biofuels that hope to improve on issues seen with the first generation options. Second generation biofuels are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  4. Sustainable Production of Algal Biomass and Biofuels Using Swine Wastewater in North Carolina, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae were recently considered as a promising third-generation biofuel feedstock due to their superior productivity, high oil content, and environmentally friendly nature. However, the sustainable production became the major constraint facing commercial development of algal biofuels. For this study, firstly, a factorial experimental design was used to analyze the effects of the process parameters including temperatures of 8–25 °C, light intensity of 150–900 μmol·m−2s−1, and light duration of 6–24 h on the biomass yields of local alga Chlamydomonas debaryana in swine wastewater. The results were fitted with a quadratic equation (R2 = 0.9706. The factors of temperature, light duration, the interaction of light intensity-light duration, and the quadratic effect of temperature were statistically significant. When evaluating different scenarios for the sustainable production of algal biomass and biofuels in North Carolina, US, it showed that: (a Growing C. debaryana in a 10-acre pond on swine wastewater under local weather conditions would yield algal biomass of 113 tonnes/year; (b If all swine wastewater generated in North Carolina was treated with algae, it will require 137–485 acres of ponds, yielding biomass of 5048–10,468 tonnes/year and algal oil of 1010–2094 tonnes/year. Annually, hundreds of tonnes of nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from swine wastewater. The required area is mainly dependent on the growth rate of algal species.

  5. From riches to rags: Biofuels, media discourses, and resistance to sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to open the black box of resistance to sustainable energy technologies by analyzing (shifts in) media discourse. To this end, media coverage on biofuels in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008 is analyzed by means of combining novel quantitative approaches with practitioner interviews. The quantitative analyses reveal the dynamics in the content of media discourse, but also its underlying structure in the form of two axes, each representing opposite socio-cognitive frames: 'techno-economic vs. social-ecological' and 'regional vs. global'. In-depth interviews with key practitioners in the Dutch biofuels field support these finding and provide additional insights with regard to (a) perceived shifts in media coverage; (b) cognitive pluralism; (c) the politics involved; and (d) resistance in practice.

  6. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: → This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. → Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. → Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. → (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. → Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  7. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  8. PHYCOREMEDIATION AND THE POTENTIAL OF SUSTAINABLE ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION USING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Fathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater remediation by microalgae is an eco-friendly process with no secondary pollution as long as the biomass produced is reused and allows efficient nutrient recycling. This study was undertaken to evaluate the remediation of wastewater by the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and the potential of these alga (biomass to produce sustainable biofuel. The results shows that the cultivation of green alga Chlorella vulgaris on wastewater has a positive effect on removal the major inorganic elements form the wastewater. Biodiesel can be produced from Chlorella vulgaris. The Chlorella vulgaris can be used for remediation of wastewater and the producing biomass can be used as source of renewable energy.

  9. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

    2008-07-01

    Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

  10. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  11. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M.; Lin, Yolanda; Bierwagen, Britta G.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Morefield, Philip E.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian W.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  12. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  13. Biofuels as a sustainable energy source: an update of the applications of proteomics in bioenergy crops and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Johnson, T Sudhakar; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Baba, Masato; Sirisattha, Sophon; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-11-20

    Sustainable energy is the need of the 21st century, not because of the numerous environmental and political reasons but because it is necessary to human civilization's energy future. Sustainable energy is loosely grouped into renewable energy, energy conservation, and sustainable transport disciplines. In this review, we deal with the renewable energy aspect focusing on the biomass from bioenergy crops to microalgae to produce biofuels to the utilization of high-throughput omics technologies, in particular proteomics in advancing our understanding and increasing biofuel production. We look at biofuel production by plant- and algal-based sources, and the role proteomics has played therein. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. PMID:23792822

  14. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end temper

  15. Biofuels and Sustainable Development: An Executive Session on the Grand Challenges of the Sustainability Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Henry [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Clark, William C. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Devereaux, Charan [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-05-20

    This report is the result of the second in a series of intense workshops and study sessions on Grand Challenges of the Sustainability Transition, organized by the Sustainability Science Program at Harvard University, hosted by Venice International University, and supported by the Italian Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea.

  16. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  17. Biogeochemical Research Priorities for Sustainable Biofuel and Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollany, Hero T.; Titus, Brian D.; Scott, D. Andrew; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Resh, Sigrid C.; Chimner, Rodney A.; Kaczmarek, Donald J.; Leite, Luiz F. C.; Ferreira, Ana C. C.; Rod, Kenton A.; Hilbert, Jorge; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Cisz, Michelle E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid expansion in biomass production for biofuels and bioenergy in the Americas is increasing demand on the ecosystem resources required to sustain soil and site productivity. We review the current state of knowledge and highlight gaps in research on biogeochemical processes and ecosystem sustainability related to biomass production. Biomass production systems incrementally remove greater quantities of organic matter, which in turn affects soil organic matter and associated carbon and nutrient storage (and hence long-term soil productivity) and off-site impacts. While these consequences have been extensively studied for some crops and sites, the ongoing and impending impacts of biomass removal require management strategies for ensuring that soil properties and functions are sustained for all combinations of crops, soils, sites, climates, and management systems, and that impacts of biomass management (including off-site impacts) are environmentally acceptable. In a changing global environment, knowledge of cumulative impacts will also become increasingly important. Long-term experiments are essential for key crops, soils, and management systems because short-term results do not necessarily reflect long-term impacts, although improved modeling capability may help to predict these impacts. Identification and validation of soil sustainability indicators for both site prescriptions and spatial applications would better inform commercial and policy decisions. In an increasingly inter-related but constrained global context, researchers should engage across inter-disciplinary, inter-agency, and international lines to better ensure the long-term soil productivity across a range of scales, from site to landscape.

  18. Biogeochemical Research Priorities for Sustainable Biofuel and Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollany, Hero T; Titus, Brian D; Scott, D Andrew; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Resh, Sigrid C; Chimner, Rodney A; Kaczmarek, Donald J; Leite, Luiz F C; Ferreira, Ana C C; Rod, Kenton A; Hilbert, Jorge; Galdos, Marcelo V; Cisz, Michelle E

    2015-12-01

    Rapid expansion in biomass production for biofuels and bioenergy in the Americas is increasing demand on the ecosystem resources required to sustain soil and site productivity. We review the current state of knowledge and highlight gaps in research on biogeochemical processes and ecosystem sustainability related to biomass production. Biomass production systems incrementally remove greater quantities of organic matter, which in turn affects soil organic matter and associated carbon and nutrient storage (and hence long-term soil productivity) and off-site impacts. While these consequences have been extensively studied for some crops and sites, the ongoing and impending impacts of biomass removal require management strategies for ensuring that soil properties and functions are sustained for all combinations of crops, soils, sites, climates, and management systems, and that impacts of biomass management (including off-site impacts) are environmentally acceptable. In a changing global environment, knowledge of cumulative impacts will also become increasingly important. Long-term experiments are essential for key crops, soils, and management systems because short-term results do not necessarily reflect long-term impacts, although improved modeling capability may help to predict these impacts. Identification and validation of soil sustainability indicators for both site prescriptions and spatial applications would better inform commercial and policy decisions. In an increasingly inter-related but constrained global context, researchers should engage across inter-disciplinary, inter-agency, and international lines to better ensure the long-term soil productivity across a range of scales, from site to landscape. PMID:26006220

  19. Addressing the challenges for sustainable production of algal biofuels: I. Algal strains and nutrient supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae hold promise for the production of sustainable replacement of fossil fuels due to their high growth rates, ability to grow on non-arable land and their high content, under the proper conditions, of high energy compounds that can be relatively easily chemically converted to fuels using existing technology. However, projected large-scale algal production raises a number of sustainability concerns concerning land use, net energy return, water use and nutrient supply. The state-of-the-art of algal production of biofuels is presented with emphasis on some possible avenues to provide answers to the sustainability questions that have been raised. Here, issues concerning algal strains and supply of nutrients for large-scale production are discussed. Since sustainability concerns necessitate the use of wastewaters for supply of bulk nutrients, emphasis is placed on the composition and suitability of different wastewater streams. At the same time, algal cultivation has proven useful in waste treatment processes, and thus this aspect is also treated in some detail. PMID:24350435

  20. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  1. Sustainable bio kerosene: Process routes and industrial demonstration activities in aviation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Routes to aviation biofuels are examined, focusing on drop-in biofuels, capable of high blend levels with fossil kerosene. • Industrial demonstration activities are reported. • Used cooking oil is considered as alternative sustainable biomass feedstock for paraffinic fuel production. - Abstract: Alternative fuels are expected to play a major role in EU in the coming years due European Directives on the promotion of renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in transports. However, while in road transports a variety of possible renewable fuels (mainly biofuels, but also electricity) can be considered, in aviation only high quality paraffinic biofuels can be adopted. This means that biomass must be converted through advanced processes into pure hydrocarbon fuels, fully compatible with the existing systems. The aviation sector is responsible for the 2% of the world anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the 10% of the fuel consumption: airlines’ costs for fuel reach 30% of operating costs. In addition, the aviation traffic is expected to double within 15 years from 2012, while fuel consumption and CO2 emissions should double in 25 years. Thus, more than 2 billion people and 40 Mt of good/cargo will have to be moved every year. In this context, the EU Flightpath set a target of 2 Mt per year for aviation alternative fuel by 2020 (i.e. 4% of annual fuel consumption). New processes towards bio-hydrocarbons are being developed, demonstrated and soon industrialized. The present work explores the possible routes from biomass feedstock to sustainable paraffinic fuels, either through bio or thermo-chemical processes, as well as discusses those more mature, focusing on industrial demonstration initiatives. In fact, while the number of possible options towards paraffinic biofuel production is very large, and covers both thermochemical and biochemical routes, as well as hybrid one, only two pathways are today ready for testing a significant large

  2. Global assessment of research and development for algae biofuel production and its potential role for sustainable development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of economically deriving fuel from cultivating algae biomass is an attractive addition to the range of measures to relieve the current reliance on fossil fuels. Algae biofuels avoid some of the previous drawbacks associated with crop-based biofuels as the algae do not compete with food crops. The favourable growing conditions found in many developing countries has led to a great deal of speculation about their potentials for reducing oil imports, stimulating rural economies, and even tackling hunger and poverty. By reviewing the status of this technology we suggest that the large uncertainties make it currently unsuitable as a priority for many developing countries. Using bibliometric and patent data analysis, we indicate that many developing countries lack the human capital to develop their own algae industry or adequately prepare policies to support imported technology. Also, we discuss the potential of modern biotechnology, especially genetic modification (GM) to produce new algal strains that are easier to harvest and yield more oil. Controversy surrounding the use of GM and weak biosafety regulatory system represents a significant challenge to adoption of GM technology in developing countries. A range of policy measures are also suggested to ensure that future progress in algae biofuels can contribute to sustainable development. - Highlights: • Algae biofuels can make positive contribution to sustainable development in developing countries. • Bibliometric and patent data indicate that many lack the human capital to develop their own algae industry. • Large uncertainties make algae biofuels currently unsuitable as a priority for many developing countries

  3. Modelling Global Land Use and Social Implications in the Sustainability Assessment of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Cross-fertilising environmental, economic and geographical modelling to improve the environmental assessment of biofuel......Cross-fertilising environmental, economic and geographical modelling to improve the environmental assessment of biofuel...

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal wastewater cultivated algae: Increasing overall sustainability and value streams of algal biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Griffin William

    The forefront of the 21st century presents ongoing challenges in economics, energy, and environmental remediation, directly correlating with priorities for U.S. national security. Displacing petroleum-derived fuels with clean, affordable renewable fuels represents a solution to increase energy independence while stimulating economic growth and reducing carbon-based emissions. The U.S. government embodied this goal by passing the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in 2007, mandating 36 billion gallons of annual biofuel production by 2022. Algae possess potential to support EISA goals and have been studied for the past 30-50 years as an energy source due to its fast growth rates, noncompetitive nature to food markets, and ability to grow using nutrient waste streams. Algae biofuels have been identified by the National Research Council to have significant sustainability concerns involving water, nutrient, and land use. Utilizing municipal wastewater to cultivate algae provides both water and nutrients needed for growth, partially alleviating these concerns. This dissertation demonstrates a pathway for algae biofuels which increases both sustainability and production of high-value products. Algae are cultivated in pilot-scale open ponds located at the Lawrence Wastewater Treatment Plant (Lawrence, KS) using solely effluent from the secondary clarifier, prior to disinfection and discharge, as both water and nutrient sources. Open ponds were self-inoculated by wastewater effluent and produced a mixed-species culture of various microalgae and macroalgae. Algae cultivation provided further wastewater treatment, removing both nitrogen and phosphorus, which have devastating pollution effects when discharged to natural watersheds, especially in large draining watersheds like the Gulf Coast. Algae demonstrated significant removal of other trace metals such as iron, manganese, barium, aluminum, and zinc. Calcium did not achieve high removal rate but did present a

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    Agro‐biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel‐derived CO2...

  6. Third generation biofuels. The future of a sustainable fuel supply?; Biokraftstoffe der dritten Generation. Die Zukunft einer nachhaltigen Kraftstoffversorgung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckermann, Wilhelm-August; Kailer, Janina [Hochschule Esslingen (Germany). Fakultaet Angewandte Naturwissenschaften

    2012-02-15

    Driven by environmental and political concerns, biofuels shall attain an increasing importance in the future. Some forecasts see these fuels contributing up to 50 % of the global fuel demand by the middle of the century. The aim of this article is to discuss these scenarios regarding the aspects of sustainability and to compare the different kinds of production of biogenic fuels. In contrast to those of the first and second generation, third generation biofuels, which are based on specifically cultivated plants and micro-organisms, do not stand in competition to the production of food and have a distinctly lower requirement of agricultural land use. These fuels are supposed to present a clearly better profile of sustainability. While further research and development is required during the next years before they can contribute to the fuel supply to a bigger extent, they nevertheless have the potential to make a significant contribution to an environmentally protective and sustainable mobility in the future. (orig.)

  7. GHG sustainability compliance of rapeseed-based biofuels produced in a Danish multi-output biorefinery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are likely to play an increasingly important role in the transportation sector in the coming decades. To ensure the sustainability of the biofuel chain, regulatory criteria and reduction targets for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have been defined in different legislative frameworks (e.......g. the European Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The provided calculation methods, however, leave room for interpretation regarding methodological choices, which could significantly affect the resulting emission factors. In this study, GHG reduction factors for a range of biofuels produced in a Danish...... biorefinery system were determined using five different emission allocation principles. The results show that emission savings ranged from -34 % to 71 %, indicating the need for a better definition of regulatory calculation principles. The calculated emission factors differed significantly from default values...

  8. How to ensure greenhouse gas emission reductions by increasing the use of biofuels? - Suitability of the European Union sustainability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are promoted in many parts of the world. However, concern of environmental and social problems have grown due to increased production of biofuels. Therefore, many initiatives for sustainability criteria have been announced. As a part of the European Union (EU) renewable energy promotion directive (RED), the EU has introduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission-saving requirements for biofuels along with the first-ever mandate methodology to calculate the GHG emission reduction. As explored in this paper, the RED methodology, based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach, excludes many critical issues. These include indirect impacts due to competition for land, biomass and other auxiliary inputs. Also, timing issues, allocation problems, and uncertainty of individual parameters are not yet considered adequately. Moreover, the default values provided in the RED for the GHG balances of biofuels may significantly underestimate their actual impacts. We conclude that the RED methodology cannot ensure the intended GHG emission reductions of biofuels. Instead, a more comprehensive approach is required along with additional data and indicators. Even if it may be very difficult to verify the GHG emission reductions of biofuels in practice, it is necessary to consider the uncertainties more closely, in order to mitigate climate change effectively. -- Highlights: → The EU introduced mandatory criteria for greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. → The aim of the criteria is to ensure reduction in GHG emissions. → We analysed and discussed the suitability of the criteria. → The criteria may significantly underestimate the actual GHG emissions. → A more comprehensive approach is required along with additional data and indicators.

  9. GHG sustainability compliance of rapeseed-based biofuels produced in a Danish multi-output biorefinery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are likely to play an increasingly important role in the transportation sector in the coming decades. To ensure the sustainability of the biofuel chain, regulatory criteria and reduction targets for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have been defined in different legislative frameworks (e.g. the European Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The provided calculation methods, however, leave room for interpretation regarding methodological choices, which could significantly affect the resulting emission factors. In this study, GHG reduction factors for a range of biofuels produced in a Danish biorefinery system were determined using five different emission allocation principles. The results show that emission savings ranged from −34 % to 71 %, indicating the need for a better definition of regulatory calculation principles. The calculated emission factors differed significantly from default values provided in the literature, suggesting that case-specific local conditions should be taken into consideration. A more holistic LCA-based approach proved useful in overcoming some of the issues inherent in the regulatory allocation principles. On this basis, indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions were shown to have the same magnitude as the direct emissions, thus indicating that the overall system should be included when assessing biofuel sustainability criteria. - Highlights: • Fulfillment of the GHG compliance criteria may depend on the calculation criteria. • Default factors may not be representative of local conditions. • Zero burden approach should be excluded. • ILUC should not be neglected

  10. Biofuels and biodiversity: principles for creating better policies for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Martha J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Townsend, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    Biofuels are a new priority in efforts to reduce dependence on fossil fuels; nevertheless, the rapid increase in production of biofuel feedstock may threaten biodiversity. There are general principles that should be used in developing guidelines for certifying biodiversity-friendly biofuels. First, biofuel feedstocks should be grown with environmentally safe and biodiversity-friendly agricultural practices. The sustainability of any biofuel feedstock depends on good growing practices and sound environmental practices throughout the fuel-production life cycle. Second, the ecological footprint of a biofuel, in terms of the land area needed to grow sufficient quantities of the feedstock, should be minimized. The best alternatives appear to be fuels of the future, especially fuels derived from microalgae. Third, biofuels that can sequester carbon or that have a negative or zero carbon balance when viewed over the entire production life cycle should be given high priority. Corn-based ethanol is the worst among the alternatives that are available at present, although this is the biofuel that is most advanced for commercial production in the United States. We urge aggressive pursuit of alternatives to corn as a biofuel feedstock. Conservation biologists can significantly broaden and deepen efforts to develop sustainable fuels by playing active roles in pursuing research on biodiversity-friendly biofuel production practices and by helping define biodiversity-friendly biofuel certification standards. PMID:18261147

  11. Sustainability issues in the road map for Finnish companies to the Indian algal biofuel market

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusikunnas, Sari

    2014-01-01

    Deplating oil reservoirs along with escalating energy prices have sparked interest in renewable energy sources globally. Especially countries that are dependent on imported oil are investing in indigenous biofuels. India has a huge market for biofuels, but the industry is still in infancy. The government of India sees biofuels as a potential solution for the increasing energy demand of the country and due to that India promotes the research and development of future biodfuels. Microalgae have...

  12. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Cassandra Breil; Alice Meullemiestre; Maryline Vian; Farid Chemat

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyze...

  13. Can sunflower provide biofuel for inland demand? An integrated assessment of sustainability at regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels could reduce reliance on fossil oil, while helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promoting rural development. This study assessed the viability of using local biodiesel production from sunflower in Tuscany (Italy) to meet inland demand for diesel fuel in compliance with the European Directives. A crop growth model, GIS and geostatistics were used to identify suitable areas for biodiesel production, considering potential sunflower yields alongside essential sustainability criteria: energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings throughout the supply chain. Simulation results indicate that biodiesel potential, estimated at 95,000 t/year, corresponds to 104,400 tCO2 eq/year of GHG saved and to 26,500 TOE/year of fossil energy saved. Two scenarios of biodiesel requirement, derived from EU targets, were evaluated. The results of the evaluation indicated that the 2010 target of replacing 5.75% of transportation diesel fuel can be met, while the 2020 target (reaching a 10% of replacement) cannot be met, since local biodiesel production could replace only 4.78% of diesel fuel requirement. A third scenario considered replacing diesel fuel currently used in the agricultural sector. Results showed that the fuel requirement of this sector cannot be fulfilled since biodiesel could cover only approximately 36% of the expected demand.

  14. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Joelyn Sarrah. Kozar; Michael Rawson. Clark

    2011-01-01

    To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified ...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Johansen, Anders; Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01

    Agro-biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel-derived CO2 into the atmosphere. However, cultivation of the soil results in emission of other greenhouse gasses, especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Agricultural activity is the dominant source of N2O, which is produced b...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    atmosphere. However, cultivation of the soil results in emission of other greenhouse gasses, especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Agricultural activity is the dominant source of N2O, which is produced by microbes in the soil when the nitrogen availability is high, for instance following fertilization or......Agro-biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel-derived CO2 into the...... production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not include farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. Thus, the actual net greenhouse gas reduction...

  17. Energy system evaluation of thermo-chemical biofuel production : Process development by integration of power cycles and sustainable electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Bojler Görling, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuels dominate the world energy supply today and the transport sector is no exception. Renewable alternatives must therefore be introduced to replace fossil fuels and their emissions, without sacrificing our standard of living. There is a good potential for biofuels but process improvements are essential, to ensure efficient use of a limited amount of biomass and better compete with fossil alternatives. The general aim of this research is therefore to investigate how to improve efficie...

  18. NATIONAL SUSTAINABLE HABITAT STANDARDS FRAMEWORK FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Azeem Unnisa

    2014-01-01

    The present paper highlight about the National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) 2010 which is categorized into eight missions and one of the eight missions is the National Mission for Sustainable Habitat (NMSH) to address solid waste management issue to make it sustainable and give legal recognition to the informal sector on the other hand one of the deliverables of the Mission is the formulation of National Sustainable Habitat Standards. These standards would subsequent...

  19. Biofuel production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, le L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel production has continued to develop and is driven by government support around the world. A comprehensive analysis of biofuel production and the policy implementation is crucial for the biofuel sustainability development. The objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG em

  20. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  1. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelyn Sarrah. Kozar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified products to meet their own sustainability goals, they must have an understanding of the effectiveness of different certification systems. To understand the relative performance of three systems, we determined: (1 the criteria used to compare the Forest Stewardship Council, Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management, and Sustainable Forestry Initiative, (2 if consensus exists regarding their ability to achieve sustainability goals, and (3 what research gaps must be filled to improve our understanding of how forest certification systems affect sustainable forest management. We conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of 26 grey literature references (books, industry and nongovernmental organization publications and 9 primary literature references (articles in peer-reviewed academic journals that compared at least two of the aforementioned certification systems. The Forest Stewardship Council was the highest performer for ecological health and social sustainable forest management criteria. The Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management and Sustainable Forestry Initiative performed best under sustainable forest management criteria of forest productivity and economic longevity of a firm. Sixty-two percent of analyses were comparisons of the wording of certification system principles or criteria; 34% were surveys of foresters or consumers. An important caveat to these results is that only one comparison was based on

  2. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  3. A critical review of biochemical conversion, sustainability and life cycle assessment of algal biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    gases and is also very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from industrial effluents and municipal wastewater. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provide dual benefit, it provides biomass for the production of biofuels and also save our environment from air and water pollution. The life cycle...

  4. The National Biofuels Strategy - Importance of sustainable feedstock production systems in regional-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region-based production systems are needed to produce the feedstocks that will be turned into the biofuels required to meet Federal mandated targets. Executive and Legislative actions have put into motion significant government responses designed to advance the development and production of domestic...

  5. Evaluation of carbon fluxes and trends (2000-2008) in the Greater Platte River Basin: a sustainability study on the potential biofuel feedstock development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Zhang, Li; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the carbon fluxes and trends and examines the environmental sustainability (e.g., carbon budget, source or sink) of the potential biofuel feedstock sites identified in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB). A 9-year (2000–2008) time series of net ecosystem production (NEP), a measure of net carbon absorption or emission by ecosystems, was used to assess the historical trends and budgets of carbon flux for grasslands in the GPRB. The spatially averaged annual NEP (ANEP) for grassland areas that are possibly suitable for biofuel expansion (productive grasslands) was 71–169 g C m−2 year−1 during 2000–2008, indicating a carbon sink (more carbon is absorbed than released) in these areas. The spatially averaged ANEP for areas not suitable for biofuel feedstock development (less productive or degraded grasslands) was −47 to 69 g C m−2 year−1 during 2000–2008, showing a weak carbon source or a weak carbon sink (carbon emitted is nearly equal to carbon absorbed). The 9-year pre-harvest cumulative ANEP was 1166 g C m−2 for the suitable areas (a strong carbon sink) and 200 g C m−2 for the non-suitable areas (a weak carbon sink). Results demonstrate and confirm that our method of dynamic modeling of ecosystem performance can successfully identify areas desirable and sustainable for future biofuel feedstock development. This study provides useful information for land managers and decision makers to make optimal land use decisions regarding biofuel feedstock development and sustainability.

  6. Toward Nitrogen-Neutral and Contamination-Resistant Biofuels and Chemicals for a Sustainable Future

    OpenAIRE

    Wernick, David Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Biofuel and chemical production through microbial catalysts has been heralded as a route for a renewable future; however, several issues must be resolved before microbes become the workhorse of our energy and chemical industries. Chief amongst these problems is the non-renewable use of reduced nitrogen fertilizers and susceptibility to contamination during fermentation. Previously, the use of engineered Escherichia coli has been demonstrated as a means to recycle reduced nitrogen from protein...

  7. Physicochemical and thermal characterization of nonedible oilseed residual waste as sustainable solid biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Pooja; Srivastava, Gopal; Pathak, Gauri; Dikshit, Madhurima

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of nonedible oilseed Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) defatted residual biomasses (whole seed, kernel, and hull), as solid biofuel. These biomasses showed good carbon contents (39.8-44.5%), whereas, fewer amounts were observed for sulfur (0.15-0.90%), chlorine (0.64-1.76%), nitrogen (0.9-7.2%) and ash contents (4.0-8.7%). Their volatile matter (60.23-81.6%) and calorific values (17.68-19.98 MJ/kg) were found to be comparable to coal. FT-IR and chemical analyses supported the presence of good amount of cellulose, hemicellulose and lower lignin. The pellets prepared without any additional binder, showed better compaction ratio, bulk density and compressive strength. XRF analysis carried out for determination of slagging-fouling indices, suggested their ash deposition tendencies in boilers, which can be overcome significantly with the optimization of the blower operations and control of ash depositions. Thus, overall various chemical, physical properties, thermal decomposition, surface morphological studies and their high biofuel reactivity indicated that residual biomasses of Jatropha and Karanja seeds have high potential to be utilized as a solid biofuel. PMID:24462338

  8. Bioprospecting for hyper-lipid producing microalgal strains for sustainable biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanda, T; Ramesh, D; Karthikeyan, S; Kumari, S; Anandraj, A; Bux, F

    2011-01-01

    Global petroleum reserves are shrinking at a fast pace, increasing the demand for alternate fuels. Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, and synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of neutral lipid stored in cytosolic lipid bodies. A successful and economically viable algae based biofuel industry mainly depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. The main focus of bioprospecting for microalgae is to identify unique high lipid producing microalgae from different habitats. Indigenous species of microalgae with high lipid yields are especially valuable in the biofuel industry. Isolation, purification and identification of natural microalgal assemblages using conventional techniques is generally time consuming. However, the recent use of micromanipulation as a rapid isolating tool allows for a higher screening throughput. The appropriate media and growth conditions are also important for successful microalgal proliferation. Environmental parameters recorded at the sampling site are necessary to optimize in vitro growth. Identification of species generally requires a combination of morphological and genetic characterization. The selected microalgal strains are grown in upscale systems such as raceway ponds or photobireactors for biomass and lipid production. This paper reviews the recent methodologies adopted for site selection, sampling, strain selection and identification, optimization of cultural conditions for superior lipid yield for biofuel production. Energy generation routes of microalgal lipids and biomass are discussed in detail. PMID:20624676

  9. NATIONAL SUSTAINABLE HABITAT STANDARDS FRAMEWORK FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Azeem Unnisa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper highlight about the National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC 2010 which is categorized into eight missions and one of the eight missions is the National Mission for Sustainable Habitat (NMSH to address solid waste management issue to make it sustainable and give legal recognition to the informal sector on the other hand one of the deliverables of the Mission is the formulation of National Sustainable Habitat Standards. These standards would subsequently get integrated with relevant regulations to ensure that future developments are aligned in accordance with concerns related to climate change.

  10. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  11. Energy, society and environment: considerations about the contribution of biofuels to sustainable development; Energia, sociedade e meio ambiente: consideracoes acerca da contribuicao dos biocombustiveis para o desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Bruna de Barros [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2010-07-01

    The concept of development on the contemporary scene is limited to ideas of economic growth and consumption. In this context, arises the need for a new form of development, witch can be represented by the concept of sustainable development. The sustainability at the energy sector has a key role on mitigating environmental and social problems, and also contributes to security on energy supply. Therefore, the main purpose of the present paper is to understand the need for sustainable development at the contemporary scene and relate it to the energy context. To, then, analyze the prospect of biofuels on the three spheres of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. (author)

  12. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  13. The legitimacy of biofuel certification

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The biofuel boom is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with the most crucial consequences in the agri-food sector. The biofuel industry is responding by initiating private governance and certification. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Cramer Commission, among others, have formulated criteria on ?sustainable? biofuel production and processing. This article explores the legitimacy of private governance and certification by the biofuel...

  14. Model based approach to Study the Impact of Biofuels on the Sustainability of an Ecological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between various components of the ecosystem could be nonlinear, intertwined and non intuitive...

  15. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  16. The Role of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Sustainable Production of Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Biswas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing population of the world (expected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050, and altered life style, comes an increased demand for food, fuel and fiber. However, scarcity of land, water and energy accompanied by climate change means that to produce enough to meet the demands is getting increasingly challenging. Today we must use every avenue from science and technology available to address these challenges. The natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, whereby plants such as legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen gas to ammonia, usable by plants can have a substantial impact as it is found in nature, has low environmental and economic costs and is broadly established. Here we look at the importance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the production of biofuel feedstocks; how this process can address major challenges, how improving nitrogen fixation is essential, and what we can do about it.

  17. Biofuels Sustainability Criteria. Relevant issues to the proposed Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. (COM(2008) 30 final). Consolidated study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Francis X.; Roman, Mikael (Stockholm Environment Institute, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)) (and others)

    2008-06-15

    The role envisioned for liquid biofuels for transport has come under increased scrutiny in the past year or two, due to the potential social and environmental impacts associated with scaling up biofuels production and use from its low level - currently representing about 1% of transport fuels globally. The proposed EU Directive setting a target of 10% biofuels in transport sector by 2020 has therefore raised a number of concerns. The concerns about sustainability are addressed within the proposed Directive through criteria related mainly to GHG emissions, but also to biodiversity and other environmental impacts. The use of first generation biofuels in temperate climates is land-intensive and inefficient in technical terms, whereas first generation biofuels in tropical climates and second generation biofuels in general - offer a much more effective use of land resources. The use of GHG reduction criteria can provide incentives for producers to rely on the most productive feedstocks when sourcing biofuels for the EU market, which will often mean import of biofuels. A threshold of 50% or more would tend to eliminate many of the first generation biofuels produced in temperate climates. Member States should be encouraged to link financial incentives to the GHG reduction capabilities. Moreover, such incentives could be better linked to development cooperation in the case of imports, so as to insure that Least Developed Countries (i.e. in Africa) can gain access to larger markets rather than only the major producers such as Brazil. The calculation of GHG emissions associated with biofuels is complicated by the addition of factors associated with land use change, since the GHG impacts of land use change are beset by uncertainty both in physical terms as well as in the attribution of particular changes to production of particular biofuels. A further complication is introduced when indirect land use changes are incorporated, since these occur through combinations of market

  18. Biofuels and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  19. Analyzing Sustainability Themes in State Science Standards: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah K.; Jones, Linda Cronin

    2014-01-01

    Due to the interdisciplinary nature of environmental education, addressing the range of socioscientific issues included under the umbrella of sustainability can be challenging for educators working within the context of mandated state subject area standards. Two states (Washington and Vermont) have been recognized as leaders in incorporating…

  20. International Perspectives and Implementation of Sustainability Criteria in the Development of Biofuels for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    to supply long-haul heavy trucks and aviation modes that require energy intensive liquid fuels (IEA, 2009). Sustainability criteria can help create a clear framework to producers/business/ investors necessary to help minimize threads and to maximize opportunities for market development...

  1. Recommendations for a sustainable development of biofuels in France; Recommandations pour un developpement durable des biocarburants en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douaud, A.; Gruson, J.F

    2006-01-15

    The biofuels are presented as a solution to the greenhouse gases and the petroleum consumption decrease. The development of the biofuels needs an active research of the production, transformation and use costs improvement. It will be necessary to prepare the market of the biofuels to the globalization. Some recommendations are also provided in the domains of the vegetal oil ester, the ethanol for the diesel and for the development of simulation tools to evaluate the costs. (A.L.B.)

  2. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breil, Cassandra; Meullemiestre, Alice; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to obtain the distribution of lipids classes and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) to obtain fatty acid profiles. Our aim was to correlate simulation with experimentation for extraction and solvation of lipids with bio-based solvents in order to make a preliminary evaluation for the replacement of hexane to extract lipids from microorganisms. Differences between theory and practice were noted for several solvents, such as CPME, MeTHF and ethyl acetate, which appeared to be good candidates to replace hexane. PMID:26861274

  3. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Breil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC to obtain the distribution of lipids classes and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID to obtain fatty acid profiles. Our aim was to correlate simulation with experimentation for extraction and solvation of lipids with bio-based solvents in order to make a preliminary evaluation for the replacement of hexane to extract lipids from microorganisms. Differences between theory and practice were noted for several solvents, such as CPME, MeTHF and ethyl acetate, which appeared to be good candidates to replace hexane.

  4. The role of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production credits in U.S. biofuels markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives on the biofuel market and mandate, in particular. The study develops a structural model of the domestic light-duty vehicle sector, as well as reduced-form versions of domestic gasoline, diesel, and biofuel markets. The results suggest that holding CAFE standards at the 2010 level could facilitate U.S. ethanol market expansion, making it easier to meet the mandate. Alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives appear to have small effects. However, there is uncertainty about the level of automaker response to those incentives, and analysis indicates the model is fairly sensitive to the assumed level of response. - Highlights: • CAFE standards are estimated to have a moderate impact on RFS compliance costs. • Flex-fuel vehicle production incentives are estimated to have much less impact. • Level of auto manufacturer response to production incentives is uncertain. • Analysis suggests results are fairly sensitive to level of manufacturer response

  5. Setting the stage for biofuels:Policy texts, community of practice, and institutional ambiguity at the Fourth World Conservation Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclin Edward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the discussion on biofuels within the fourth World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. The focus on energy and biofuels at the WCC was a change from previous Congresses, highlighting a new negotiation of conservation and development trade-offs within the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. Resolutions and IUCN programmes from the 2000 WCC onwards built on one another to reframe energy policy in terms of sustainable use, clean energy technologies, and energy access. With this structure in place, an informal group of key actors at the 2008 WCC were able to dominate the biofuels discourse to advance international sustainability standards for biofuels production. Procedural ambiguities in the resolution contact group made this community of practice, largely formed around the Roundtable for Sustainable Biofuels, especially important. The negotiation of biofuels policies, and energy policy in general, serves as an example of a large-scale trade-off that will directly affect local conservation practice.

  6. Meeting the U.S. renewable fuel standard: a comparison of biofuel pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Y. Menetrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid development. Ethanol primarily derived from corn and biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil and agricultural grains are established sources of renewable transportation fuel. Cellulosic ethanol production is increasing substantially, but at a rate below expectations. If future renewable fuel projections are to be accomplished, additional sources will be needed. Ideally, these sources should be independent of competing feedstock use such as food grains, and require a minimal footprint. Although the uses of algae seem promising, a number of demonstrations have not been economically successful in today‟s market. This paper identifies efforts being conducted on ethanol and biodiesel production and how algae might contribute to the production of biofuel in the United States. Additionally, the feedstock and land requirements of existing biofuel pathways are compared and discussed.

  7. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the transportation sector and can address many of the problems associated with mineral oil. Many biofuels are conceivable. Biodiesel (from oil crops) and ethanol from sugar beets or grains are already used in pr...

  8. Voluntary Standards, Expert Knowledge and the Governance of Sustainability Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Cheyns, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    role of expert knowledge and process management in governing two multi-stakeholder initiatives (the Marine Stewardship Council and the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil) and in shaping their distributional effects. We find that the ability of developing countries, especially small-scale actors within......-stakeholder initiatives that establish and manage base codes, standards, certifications and labels. As sustainability moves into the mainstream, understanding the governance of these networks is essential because they partly reshape the structure and characteristics of commodity flows. In this article, we examine the...... them, to shape standard setting and management to their advantage depends not only on overcoming important structural differences in endowments and access to resources, but also on more subtle games. These include promoting the enrolment of one expert group or kind of expert knowledge over another...

  9. An investigation into standards in sustainable design and manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, AVC; Harrison, DJ; Griffiths, BJ; Lam, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports upon the application of standards to reduce the negative environmental impacts of manufacturing through product lifecycle planning and closed loop production. By eliminating waste and retaining the energy embodied within materials and components, manufacturing can become more sustainable from both ecological and financial perspectives. Energy consumption and the associated carbon pollution can thus be minimised. Environmental Management System implementation is also cons...

  10. Limits to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  11. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  12. The technology of waste, biofuels and global warming in viable closed loop, sustainable operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research set out to explore and develop a route relating the recycling of urban and industrial wastes to land to produce agricultural crops with energy crops in the rotation, using the green leaf to 'harvest' sunlight and to examine the sequestration of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen in a sustainable closed loop. Further, to establish if the pollution, particularly of nitrogen and phosphates (often associated with cultivations and use of mineral fertilisers) could be reduced or eliminated, so as to be able to develop systems which could contribute to the reversal of global warming. Finally, to probe whether practical operators on the ground could understand the technology, use it, and express what they were doing in a way acceptable to a wider society. (author)

  13. Sustainable energy equals freedoms and choice: bioenergy and biofuels als energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejigu, M. [Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES)]|[Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS)

    2006-07-01

    We are gathered here to explore the potential of modern bioenergy and discuss ways and means of promoting its wider production and investment. Our primary goal is the attainment of human development - development that is sustainable and balances economic growth, social equity and environmental protection. Well, Amartya Sen, the Nobel Laureate in Economics, defines development as ''the process of expanding real freedoms people can enjoy.'' Where development has taken place, people have more freedoms. People living in well developed countries enjoy freedoms at the individual and community levels. They can move from place to place, own property, receive education and health services, work at night if they choose to, etc. without any fear or threat. Energy is critical to the survival of human society. It is a means to achieve development, hence freedoms. Higher level of electrification, for example, has always been a vital indicator of industrial development. (orig.)

  14. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  15. How Do Firms Comply with International Sustainability Standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneau, Laurence; Humphreys, Michael; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    the processes and consequences of the translation of the GRI within the organization. We show that substantive standard adoption can lead to unintended consequences on CSR management practices; specifically it can influence the management structure and CSR committee function; the choice of CSR activities......This paper addresses the issue of the influence of global governance institutions, particularly international sustainability standards, on a firm’s intra-organizational practices. More precisely, we provide an exploratory empirical view of the impact of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI......) on a multinational corporation’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) management practices. We investigate standard compliance by comparing the stated intention of the use of the GRI with its actual use and the consequent effects within the firm. Based on an in-depth case study, our findings illustrate...

  16. Lignocellulosic residues for production of electricity, biogas or second generation biofuel: A case study of technical and sustainable potential of rice straw in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dembelé, Filifing; Daou, Ibrahima;

    2016-01-01

    in an irrigated rice-growing area, Office du Niger, in Mali, this article builds scenarios for the sustainable potential of rice straw. The paper concludes that there is great uncertainty regarding the size of the sustainable resources of rice straw available for energy, but that the most likely......Biomass from agricultural residues, especially lignocellulosic biomass, is not only seen as a sustainable biomass source for the production of electricity, but increasingly as a resource for the production of biogas and second generation biofuel in developing countries. Based on empirical research...... first to underestimate the uncertainty of resource assessments, and secondly to overestimate the resources available for energy production, mainly due to optimistic residue-to-product ratios and availability factors.© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the tran

  18. Sustainable alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union. Assessment of options and development of a policy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H.

    2012-12-15

    It is feasible for EU member states to meet their commitments regarding transport fuels under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) without resorting to biofuels from food crops. The RED target (10% renewable transport energy in 2020) can be met by a mix of measures aimed at improving energy efficiency, combined with a strong focus on growth of renewable electricity use and biofuels and biomethane from waste and residues. These measures also contribute to the FQD target (6% reduction in carbon intensity of fuels by 2020), but will need to be complemented by other measures such as reduced flaring and venting during oil production. The report shows how EU transport energy policy could reduce its reliance on biofuels from food crops that are likely to cause land use change. This alternative vision for the transport sector in 2020 would cut CO2 emissions by 205 million tonnes.

  19. Field emissions of N2O during biomass production may affect the sustainability of agro-biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan;

    One way of reducing the emissions of fossil fuel‐derived CO2 is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels produced from agricultural biomasses or residuals. However, cultivation of soils results in emission of other greenhouse gasses, especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Previous studies have shown that...... field emissions of N2O contribute significantly to total greenhouse gas emissions during biofuel production, and in terms of global warming N2O emissions may counterbalance a considerable part of the avoided fossil CO2 emissions that are achieved by fossil fuel displacement. In the present study, we...... of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol, 2) biogas and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas. In scenarios 3, the biomass is first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residue from this process is utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas...

  20. Trendy solutions: Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 (United States)], E-mail: jess.chandler@gatech.edu

    2009-08-15

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions-even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters.

  1. Trendy solutions. Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions - even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters. (author)

  2. Trendy solutions: Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions-even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters.

  3. Biofuels and Food Security: Implications of an Accelerated Biofuels Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  4. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  5. Biofuel production potentials in Europe: Sustainable use of cultivated land and pastures. Part I: Land productivity potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Guenther; Prieler, Sylvia; van Velthuizen, Harrij [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) (Austria); Lensink, Sander M.; Londo, Marc [Energy Research Institute of the Netherlands (ECN), Unit Policy Studies, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten P.O. Box 1 (Netherlands); de Wit, Marc [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    IIASA's agro-ecological zones modelling framework has been extended for biofuel productivity assessments distinguishing five main groups of feedstocks covering a wide range of agronomic conditions and energy production pathways, namely: woody lignocellulosic plants, herbaceous lignocellulosic plants, oil crops, starch crops and sugar crops. A uniform Pan-European land resources database was compiled at the spatial resolution of 1 km{sup 2}. Suitability and productivity assessments were carried out by matching climate characteristics with plant requirements, calculating annual biomass increments or yields including consideration of soil and terrain characteristics of each grid-cell. Potential biomass productivity and associated energy yields were calculated for each grid-cell. Spatial distributions of suitabilities of biofuel feedstocks in Europe were generated for each individual feedstock as well as for the five biofuel feedstock groups. Estimated agronomical attainable yields, both in terms of biomass (kg ha{sup -1}) as well as biofuel energy equivalent (GJ ha{sup -1}), were mapped and tabulated by agriculture and pasture land cover classes as derived from the CORINE land cover database. Results have been further aggregated by administrative units at NUTS 2 level. (author)

  6. Biofuel production potentials in Europe. Sustainable use of cultivated land and pastures. Part 1. Land productivity potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G; Prieler, S.; Van Velthuizen, H. [IIASA International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Lensink, S.M.; Londo, H.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); De Wit, M. [Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    IIASA's agro-ecological zones modelling framework has been extended for biofuel productivity assessments distinguishing five main groups of feedstocks covering a wide range of agronomic conditions and energy production pathways, namely: woody lignocellulosic plants, herbaceous lignocellulosic plants, oil crops, starch crops and sugar crops. A uniform Pan-European land resources database was compiled at the spatial resolution of 1 km{sup 2}. Suitability and productivity assessments were carried out by matching climate characteristics with plant requirements, calculating annual biomass increments or yields including consideration of soil and terrain characteristics of each grid-cell. Potential biomass productivity and associated energy yields were calculated for each gridcell. Spatial distributions of suitabilities of biofuel feedstocks in Europe were generated for each individual feedstock as well as for the five biofuel feedstock groups. Estimated agronomical attainable yields, both in terms of biomass (kg ha{sup -1}) as well as biofuel energy equivalent (GJ ha{sup -1}), were mapped and tabulated by agriculture and pasture land cover classes as derived from the CORINE land cover database. Results have been further aggregated by administrative units at NUTS 2 level.

  7. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  8. BIOFUELS: FROM HOPES TO REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    José Osvaldo Beserra CARIOCA; Friedrich, Horst E.; Ehrenberger, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the research for biofuels processing development with the vehicle conception to focus on realistic scenarios for biofuels to attend vehicle specifications and future green mobility. Actually, these are two important segments of fuels and biofuels context which should converge to a sustainable and realistic model. Recently, due to the climate changes versus fossil fuels use, and its consequences, the United Nations System addressed to the world a report on green economy ind...

  9. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  10. Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing regulatory aspects and sustainability standards of textiles and the clothing supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.

  11. Final report on the potential of local biofuels development to the Environmental and Renewable Industries Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is significant interest in renewable and sustainable energy technologies, particularly biofuels, because of the growing crisis in the agricultural and forestry sectors, rising fuel prices, dwindling energy supply and growing awareness of the impact of traditional energy resources on the environment. Biofuels represent a possible opportunity to move towards a sustainable bio-economy in which agricultural and forestry products, co-products, and waste materials are utilized to produce energy. This report discussed the policy context for biofuels. The key local drivers for biofuel development in Prince Edward Island (PEI) were presented. These include rising energy prices; dependence on fossil fuels; climate change; and agricultural industry challenges. Biofuel policies and initiatives in a federal context, in central and western Canada, in New England, and in Atlantic Canada were also addressed. Prince Edward Island feedstocks such as forestry, agriculture, marine-based, and waste resources were examined. The report also identified the biofuel potential in PEI with reference to biocombustibles; pure plant oils; biodiesel; ethanol; and biogas. Last, the report outlined several biofuel projects, proposal, and initiatives and presented conclusions and recommendations. Several appendices were also included on resource materials; federal funding programs; Canadian renewable fuel standards and tax incentives; and the PEI biofuels evaluation framework. It was concluded that biomass feedstocks such as wood, cereals, straw, grasses, and crop residues offer significant potential for space and water heating applications and electricity generation. refs., tabs

  12. Third generation biofuels from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Giuliano; Fernandes, Bruno Daniel; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Biofuel production from renewable sources is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels and a viable means for environmental and economic sustainability. Microalgae are currently being promoted as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate, CO2 fixation ability and high production capacity of lipids; they also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Microalg...

  13. Biofuel seeks endorsement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, C.; Rentmeester, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane and cellulose ‘waste’ are theoretically sustainable, as their combustion releases no more CO2 than is absorbed during production. Even so, they are also controversial, because they are believed to be grown at the expense of food crops, or because areas of rai

  14. Fuelling biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government has recently committed to legislation ensuring that all transportation fuels will be supplemented with biofuels by 2010. This article provided details of a position paper written by the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association in response to the legislation. Details of new research to optimize the future biodiesel industry were also presented. Guiding principles of the paper included the creation of open markets across provincial boundaries; the manipulation of tax structures to make products competitive in the United States; and establishing quality standards via the Canadian General Standards Board. It is expected that the principles will reassure petroleum producers and retailers, as ethanol behaves differently than gasoline in storage tanks. As ethanol is water-absorbing, retailers must flush and vacuum their tanks to remove water, then install 10 micron filters to protect fuel lines and dispenser filters from accumulated gasoline residue loosened by the ethanol. Refineries are concerned that the average content of ethanol remains consistent across the country, as refiners will be reluctant to make different blends for different provinces. Critics of biodiesel claim that it is not energy-intensive enough to meet demand, and biodiesel crops are not an efficient use of soils that could otherwise be used to grow food crops. However, researchers in Saskatchewan are committed to using a variety of methods such as reduced tillage systems to make biodiesel production more efficient. Laboratory research has resulted in improved refining processes and genetic manipulation of potential biodiesel crops. Membrane technology is now being used to select water from ethanol. A process developed by the Ottawa company Iogen Corporation uses enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the tough fibres found in corn stalks, leaves, wood and other biomass into sugars. Scientists are also continuing to improve oil content yields in canola and soybean crops. It was

  15. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  16. The Effect of Bio-Fuel Blends and Fuel Injection Pressure on Diesel Engine Emission for Sustainable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Muralidharan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diesel engine emits more pollutants to atmosphere causing air pollution. This necessitates the search of a renewable alternate fuel which is environment friendly. The objective of this research was to investigate the environmental aspects of pongamia bio-fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine with the influence of fuel injection pressure. Approach: Bio-fuel was prepared from non-edible Pongamia pinnata oil by transesterification and used as a fuel in C.I engine. The effect of fuel injection pressure on the engine emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pongamia pinnata methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel from 0-30% with an increment of 5% at full load. The tests were conducted at five different injection pressures (190, 200, 210, 220 and 230 KN m-2 by means of adjusting injector spring tension. Results: Compared to diesel, blend B5 exhibits lower engine emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon di oxide at full load. The High injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 shows lesser emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide while oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide are found to be slightly higher than diesel and blends at full load. Conclusion: From the test results, it was found that a high injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 causes better atomization with improved engine emission characteristics for diesel and blends at full load. Moreover blend B5 showed best results at 220 KN m-2 injection pressure.

  17. Objectifying sustainable city development through the application of standards and indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Christine Bjåen

    2014-01-01

    The initial assumption was that there exist connections between the development of standards and indicators that enables the assessment of abstract concepts and systems that is enabled by an objectification process. Systems thinking can be seen as a process of objectification, those who make, apply the standards, as well as the standards themselves, can be viewed as objectification. The issues of sustainability and solving them for the attempt to make sustainable transitions in current and fu...

  18. Biofuel technology handbook. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, Dominik; Janssen, Rainer

    2008-01-15

    This comprehensive handbook was created in order to promote the production and use of biofuels and to inform politicians, decision makers, biofuel traders and all other relevant stakeholders about the state-of-the-art of biofuels and relevant technologies. The large variety of feedstock types and different conversion technologies are described. Explanations about the most promising bio fuels provide a basis to discuss about the manifold issues of biofuels. The impartial information in this handbook further contributes to diminish existing barriers for the broad use of biofuels. Emphasis of this handbook is on first generation biofuels: bio ethanol, Biodiesel, pure plant oil, and bio methane. It also includes second generation biofuels such as BTL-fuels and bio ethanol from lingo-cellulose as well as bio hydrogen. The whole life cycle of bio fuels is assessed under technical, economical, ecological, and social aspect. Characteristics and applications of bio fuels for transport purposes are demonstrated and evaluated. This is completed by an assessment about the most recent studies on biofuel energy balances. This handbook describes the current discussion about green house gas (GHG) balances and sustainability aspects. GHG calculation methods are presented and potential impacts of biofuel production characterized: deforestation of rainforests and wetlands, loss of biodiversity, water pollution, human health, child labour, and labour conditions.

  19. The biofuels excellence network; Rede de excelencia em biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo de Tarso; Nascimento Filho, Lenart Palmeira do; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network, inside PROMINP - the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas, has the objective of improving the actions of technical innovation and management in the chain of Oil, Gas Natural and Biofuels, through the optimized use of physical, financial, technological resources, of information and staff, with maximum qualification in areas of the human knowledge, whose purpose is to make decisions on specific problems of improvement of processes and/or products, besides promoting actions for the development and reinforcement of the markets of ethanol and biodiesel. The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network became necessary, in order to enable Brazil to reach vanguard standards in biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) in a sustainable, competitive and environmentally responsible way. Among the main reasons for the creation of the Biofuels Excellence Network are: to speed up the acquisition of knowledge and innovation, through partnerships with academical, technological, and government institutions; to contribute with PETROBRAS Strategical Planning planned goals; to capture synergies through the accomplishment of Projects of the Strategical Partners interest; to create sustainable economic value as a result of the Network Projects; to foster specialized professional qualification for the alcohol industry. (author)

  20. Microalgae biofuel potentials (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Naseri, A T; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Mobasher, M A; Dabbagh, F

    2012-01-01

    With the decrease of fossil based fuels and the environmental impact of them over the planet, it seems necessary to seek the sustainable sources of clean energy. Biofuels, is becoming a worldwide leader in the development of renewable energy resources. It is worthwhile to say that algal biofuel production is thought to help stabilize the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decrease global warming impacts. Also, among algal fuels' attractive characteristics, algal biodiesel is non toxic, with no sulfur, highly biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae are capable of producing in excess of 30 times more oil per acre than corn and soybean crops. Currently, algal biofuel production has not been commercialized due to high costs associated with production, harvesting and oil extraction but the technology is progressing. Extensive research was conducted to determine the utilization of microalgae as an energy source and make algae oil production commercially viable. PMID:22586908

  1. Biofuels and certification. A workshop at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereaux, Charan; Lee, Henry

    2009-06-01

    Liquid biofuels can provide a substitute for fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Many countries have mandated the use of biofuels, by creating targets for their use. If not implemented with care, however, actions that increase biofuel production can put upward pressure on food prices, increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and exacerbate degradation of land, forest, and water sources. A strong global biofuels industry will not emerge unless these environmental and social concerns are addressed. Interested parties around the world are actively debating the design and implementation of policies to meet the biofuel goals, particularly those established in the United States and Europe. In general, policy options for managing the potential risks and benefits of biofuel development should specify not only clear standards governing biofuel content and production processes, but also certification processes for verifying whether particular biofuels meet those standards, and specific metrics or indicators on which to base the certification. Historically, many standards in the energy and environment fields have ultimately been set or supported by governments. Many of the certification processes have been voluntary, carried out by independent third parties. The biofuels case is a young one, however, with questions of goals, standards, certification, and metrics still in interdependent flux. The workshop focused its discussions on certification issues, but found the discussions naturally reaching into ongoing debates regarding possible goals, standards, and metrics. Many countries are proposing that for a biofuel to qualify as contributing to government-mandated targets or goals, it must be certified to meet certain standards. These standards could be limited to the amount of GHG emitted in the production process or could include a number of other environmental sustainability concerns ranging from deforestation and biodiversity to water resources. While the threat to

  2. Is the Green Key standard the golden key for sustainability measurement in the hospitality sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Rietbergen, M.G.; van Rheede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if specific sustainable practices or environmental measures have been implemented, but does however not assess the actual environmental performance of hospitality firms. Therefore, the interesting question...

  3. Practical implementation of liquid biofuels: The transferability of the Brazilian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic analysis of the particularities and trends pertaining to the development of biofuels in Brazil—a country which has demonstrated its leadership in this field during the last 40 years. The Brazilian experiences with biofuels are often used as references for decision making by other developed and developing countries. The transferability of Brazil's biofuels practices would be appreciated by many researchers and energy policy markers across the world. This work uses an adapted 5W2H (what, when, where, why, who, how, and how much) analysis technique to answer a variety of questions about the subject. The data, facts, and figures herein are offered as resources for other researchers and policy makers seeking benchmarking. Also, this work discusses the main certainties and uncertainties of the sugarcane agro-industry, and also goes into detail about the ethanol supply chain structure, its management, and particularities. Finally, this research analyzes the central aspects of biofuels implementation in Brazil, lists the most important aspects to consider during a selection of possible standard biofuels, and presents the main aspects of the National Program of Biodiesel Production and its sustainability. - Highlights: • A systemic cause–effect analysis was carried out on biofuel program success. • Main questions concerning implementation of liquid biofuels in Brazil were studied. • Main weakness aspects of biofuel logistic were treated. • During selection of benchmarking strategy. What needs to take into account?

  4. AccountAbility 1000: a new social standard for building sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckett, R.; Jonker, J.

    2002-01-01

    The pressing need to build common frameworks to redefine the performance and sustainability of organisations, has led to the development of a new standard, AccountAbility 1000 (AA1000). AA1000 is a quality framework that aims to make clear how principles of accountability and sustainability are rela

  5. Impacts of biofuel-based land-use change on water quality and sustainability in a Kansas watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth in ethanol production in the United States has sparked interest in potential land-use change and the associated environmental impacts that may occur in order to accommodate the increasing demand for grain feedstocks. In this study water quality and sustainability indicators are used to ev...

  6. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  7. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability. PMID:22816524

  8. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  9. Environmental standards and labor productivity: Understanding the mechanisms that sustain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Delmas, MA; Pekovic, S

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, a rising number of firms have adopted voluntary international environmental management and product standards, such as the international ISO 14001 management standard or organic certification. Although emerging research analyzes the impact of these standards on environmental and financial performance, there is to our knowledge no empirical research on how they affect the productivity of employees. In this paper, we investigate the direct relationship between environmental s...

  10. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  11. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  12. STANDARD OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE: SUSTAINABLE RENEWAL OF OWN SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Mernik, Natalija

    2011-01-01

    The following undergraduate dissertation shows an example of a sustainable renovation of a domestic family house in terms of integral improvement of the building both from the urbanistic-architectural-design point of view as well as from the environmental, social and economic one. The principle of the renovation is based mainly on the general Slovenian issue of expanding built-up areas towards unsustainable development. Thus the main focus of the architectural design is directed towards a bet...

  13. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  14. The rationality of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an editorial of a recent issue of a known academic journal, Prof. Hartmut Michel affirmed that “…the production of biofuels constitutes an extremely inefficient land use… We should not grow plants for biofuel production.”, after comparing the area occupied with plants for bioenergy production with the one required for photovoltaic cells to supply the same amount of energy for transportation. This assertion is not correct for all situations and this comparison deserves a more careful analysis, evaluating the actual and prospective technological scenarios and other relevant aspects, such as capacity requirements, energy consumed during the life cycle of energy systems and the associated impacts. In this communication this comparison is revaluated, presenting a different perspective, more favorable for the bioenergy routes. - Highlights: • Energy systems and life cycle impacts are compared under equal conditions. • The comparison is done between biofuels and photovoltaic/battery in mobility uses. • Biofuels are a valuable option when produced sustainably by efficient routes

  15. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... new policy options to promote the environmental sustainability of biofuels feedstock production... American biofuels and reducing our dependence on fossil fuels by providing, within 30 days, under the... biorefineries to replace the use of fossil fuels in plant operations by installing new biomass energy systems...

  16. Spatio-Temporal Impacts of Biofuel Production and Climate Variability on Water Quantity and Quality in Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Deb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of climate change on the water resources of the United States exposes the vulnerability of feedstock-specific mandated fuel targets to extreme weather conditions that could become more frequent and intensify in the future. Consequently, a sustainable biofuel policy should consider: (a how climate change would alter both water supply and demand; and (b in turn, how related changes in water availability will impact the production of biofuel crops; and (c the environmental implications of large scale biofuel productions. Understanding the role of biofuels in the water cycle is the key to understanding many of the environmental impacts of biofuels. Therefore, the focus of this study is to model the rarely explored interactions between land use, climate change, water resources and the environment in future biofuel production systems. Results from this study will help explore the impacts of the US biofuel policy and climate change on water and agricultural resources. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to analyze the water quantity and quality consequences of land use and land management related changes in cropping conditions (e.g., more use of marginal lands, greater residue harvest, increased yields, plus management practices due to biofuel crops to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard target on water quality and quantity.

  17. Liquid biofuels emergence, development and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Domingos Padula, Antonio; Benedetti Santos, Omar Inácio; Borenstein, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Discusses the debate on the emergence and diffusion of liquid biofuels as an energy source Presents the different elements that compose the debate on public policy, industry organization, competitiveness and sustainability of different systems for the production of liquid biofuels Covers the Brazilian experience of producing Ethanol and Biodiesel, as well as the experiences of other leading countries in the production of biofuels Bioenergy is coming to be seen as a priority on the international agenda, with the use of liquid biofuels a key strategy in the attempt to meet both the

  18. 75 FR 42745 - Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of Program Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ..., ``Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels; Reverse Auction Procedures and Standards,'' (74 FR 52867... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of..., biofuels producers and other interested parties are invited to submit pre-auction eligibility...

  19. Consequences of field N2O emissions for the environmental sustainability of plant-based biofuels produced within an organic farming system

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Mette S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan; Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune T.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Johansen, Anders; Ambus, Per

    2012-01-01

    One way of reducing the emissions of fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels produced from agricultural biomasses or residuals. However, cultivation of soils results in emission of other greenhouse gasses (GHGs), especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Previous studies showed that field emissions of N2O may contribute significantly to total GHG emissions during biofuel production. Furthermore, N2O may counterbalance a considerable part of the global warming r...

  20. Sustainable development induction in organizations: a convergence analysis of ISO standards management tools' parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Fabrício Kurman; Pereira, Vera Lúciaduarte do Valle; Pacheco, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are part of an environment in which they are pressured to meet society's demands and acting in a sustainable way. In an attempt to meet such demands, organizations make use of various management tools, among which, ISO standards are used. Although there are evidences of contributions provided by these standards, it is questionable whether its parameters converge for a possible induction for sustainable development in organizations. This work presents a theoretical study, designed on structuralism world view, descriptive and deductive method, which aims to analyze the convergence of management tools' parameters in ISO standards. In order to support the analysis, a generic framework for possible convergence was developed, based on systems approach, linking five ISO standards (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, ISO 31000 and ISO 26000) with sustainable development and positioning them according to organization levels (strategic, tactical and operational). The structure was designed based on Brundtland report concept. The analysis was performed exploring the generic framework for possible convergence based on Nadler and Tushman model. The results found the standards can contribute to a possible sustainable development induction in organizations, as long as they meet certain minimum conditions related to its strategic alignment. PMID:22317134

  1. Reduced Emissions and Lower Costs: Combining Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency into a Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn A [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-along energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets.

  2. Sustainability standards for bioenergy-A means to reduce climate change risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the importance of standards for sustainable bioenergy production. Sustainability of bioenergy production is crucial if bioenergy is supposed to contribute effectively to climate change mitigation. First, a brief overview of current bioenergy policies and of initiatives and legislation for bioenergy sustainability are given. Then, the authors show that under free market conditions undersupply of sustainable bioenergy will prevail. Two types of market failures are identified: information asymmetry and externalities in bioenergy production. Due to these market failures bioenergy is less sustainable than it could be. It is shown that mandatory certification and subsequent labeling can help to overcome the information asymmetry and lead to a more efficient market outcome since consumers can choose products according to their preferences. The authors conclude, however, that the existence of production externalities asks for stronger market intervention, for example in the form of binding minimum standards or taxes. The paper discusses the efficiency and feasibility of such policy measures and shows that mandatory certification combined with binding minimum standards can be an adequate policy choice to regulate the bioenergy market.

  3. Sustainability standards for bioenergy. A means to reduce climate change risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the importance of standards for sustainable bioenergy production. Sustainability of bioenergy production is crucial if bioenergy is supposed to contribute effectively to climate change mitigation. First, a brief overview of current bioenergy policies and of initiatives and legislation for bioenergy sustainability are given. Then, the authors show that under free market conditions undersupply of sustainable bioenergy will prevail. Two types of market failures are identified: information asymmetry and externalities in bioenergy production. Due to these market failures bioenergy is less sustainable than it could be. It is shown that mandatory certification and subsequent labeling can help to overcome the information asymmetry and lead to a more efficient market outcome since consumers can choose products according to their preferences. The authors conclude, however, that the existence of production externalities asks for stronger market intervention, for example in the form of binding minimum standards or taxes. The paper discusses the efficiency and feasibility of such policy measures and shows that mandatory certification combined with binding minimum standards can be an adequate policy choice to regulate the bioenergy market. (author)

  4. How Standards Enable the Creation of Sustainable Construction as a New Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía;

    This paper examines the role of standards in creating new categories. More specifically, we analyzed the formation of sustainable construction as a new category of organizational activity. Data were derived from four qualitative studies on mandatory regulation and voluntary guidelines pertaining...... or characteristics of associated technologies and practices based on the development of calculative devices and material exemplars, and 3) generate boundaries around a distinct group of organizations that becomes associated with the emergent category. As more organizations adopt the standardized technologies...

  5. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AC13 Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed... INFORMATION CONTACT: Cyrus Nasseri, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  6. Sustainable Development Commission response to the review of Food Standard Agency’s advice on fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2009-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Commission's response to the Food Standards Agency's review of its advice on fish consumption uses sustainable development as a lens through which to examine how the Agency can align its advice on fish consumption for health with evidence on sustainable sourcing.

  7. Synopsis: Who benefits from the rapidly increasing voluntary sustainability standards? Evidence from fairtrade and organic certified coffee in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Minten, Bart; Dereje, Mekdim; Engeda, Ermias; Tamru, Seneshaw

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) are rapidly increasing in global value chains. While consumers, mostly in developed countries, are willing to pay significant premiums for such standards, it is not well understood how effectively these incentives are transmitted to producing countries.

  8. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  9. Advice on the accelerated market implementation of advanced biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Platform for Sustainable Mobility aims to promote the accelerated market introduction of more sustainable motor fuels and vehicle technology. The Platform distinguishes four transition paths: hybridization of the fleet of cars; implementation of biofuels; hydrogen-fuelled driving (driving on natural gas and biogas); intelligent transport systems (ITS). This advice involves part of the transition path for the implementation of biofuels, i.e. accelerated market introduction of advances biofuels. [mk

  10. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  11. ILUC mitigation case studies Tanzania. Applying the Low Indirect Impact Biofuel (LIIB) Methodology to Tanzanian projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Spoettle, M.; Weddige, U.; Toop, G. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    NL Agency is supporting WWF and the Secretariat of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) with the development of a certification module for biofuels with a low risk of indirect land use change (ILUC), the Low Indirect Impact Biofuel (LIIB) methodology (www.LIIBmethodology.org). The LIIB methodology was developed to certify that biomass feedstock for biofuels has been produced with a low risk of indirect impacts. It is designed as an independent module that can be added to biofuel policies and existing certification systems for sustainable biofuel and/or feedstock production, such as the RSB Standard, RSPO or NTA8080. It presents detailed ILUC mitigation approaches for four different solution types field-tested and audited in international pilots. Within the Global Sustainable Biomass programme and the Sustainable Biomass Import programme, coordinated by NL Agency, three projects are working on sustainable jatropha in Tanzania. Ecofys has been commissioned by NL Agency to contribute to the further development of the LIIB methodology by applying it to these three jatropha projects in Tanzania. All three projects located in the North of Tanzania, address sustainability in one way or another, but focus on the direct effects of jatropha cultivation and use. Interestingly, they nevertheless seem to apply different methods that could also minimise negative indirect impacts, including ILUC. Bioenergy feedstock production can have unintended consequences well outside the boundary of production operations. These are indirect impacts, which cannot be directly attributed to a particular operation. The most cited indirect impacts are ILUC and food/feed commodity price increases (an indirect impact on food security). ILUC can occur when existing cropland is used to cover the feedstock demand of additional biofuel production. When this displaces the previous use of the land (e.g. food production) this can lead to expansion of land use to new areas (e.g. deforestation) when

  12. Consequences of field N2O emissions for the environmental sustainability of plant-based biofuels produced within an organic farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    One way of reducing the emissions of fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels produced from agricultural biomasses or residuals. However, cultivation of soils results in emission of other greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Previous...

  13. Report about the optimization of the biofuel industry sustaining system; Rapport sur l'optimisation du dispositif de soutien a la filiere biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H.; Hespel, V.; Dupre, J.Y.; Baratin, F.; Gagey, D

    2005-07-01

    At the end of 2004, the French government has fixed up the ambitious goal of developing biofuels conformably with the objectives of the 2003/30/CE European directive: the level of blending gasoline and diesel fuels with biofuels should reach 5.75% of the energetic value by 2010. In 2004 this level was only 0.8%, i.e. 7 times less. In order to reach such a goal, the government has implemented two tools: a classical tax exemption tool, already used by other European partners, and a new tool created by the 2005 finances law: the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP). This report presents the main characteristics of biofuel industries and the policies implemented in favor of biofuels. It analyzes the new system and its implementation (tax exemption and TGAP) and proposes new markets for the French agriculture. It recommends to take into considerations the constraints and needs of the fuels market, that the government establishes a new regulation for this market, reforms the existing fiscal system and takes complementary dispositions (intervention at the European Communities level, development of research..). Several appendixes illustrate this report. (J.S.)

  14. Does Compliance to Patient Safety Tasks Improve and Sustain when Radiotherapy Treatment Processes are Standardized?

    OpenAIRE

    SIMONS, Pascale; Houben, Ruud; Benders, Jos; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Vandijck, Dominique; Marneffe, Wim; BACKES, Huub; GROOTHUIS, Siebren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To realize safe radiotherapy treatment, processes must be stabilized. Standard operating procedures (SOP’s) were expected to stabilize the treatment process and perceived task importance would increase sustainability in compliance. This paper presents the effects on compliance to safety related tasks of a process redesign based on lean principles. Method Compliance to patient safety tasks was measured by video recording of actual radiation treatment, before (T0), directly af...

  15. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. PMID:26874262

  16. Reduced emissions and lower costs: combining renewable energy and energy efficiency into a sustainable energy portfolio standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; York, Dan; Kushler, Martin

    2007-05-15

    Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard (SEPS) has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-alone energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets. (author)

  17. Potential contributions of biofuels to sustainable mobility at the example of Germany; Moegliche Beitraege von Biokraftstoffen zur nachhaltigen Mobilitaet - dargestellt am Beispiel Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany); Krahl, J. [FH Coburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable raw materials can be used to substitute fossil energy carriers to a certain amount and they can reduce a country's dependence on imported energy. Moreover, they offer the advantages of neutrality with respect to CO2 formation, protection or generation of employment also in rural areas, and maintenance of cultivated landscape. The European Union has formulated the goal to reach a market share for alternative fuels of approximately 23 % until the year 2020. However, with 10 % share, the non-regenerative natural gas has gained the dominating part within these alternatives. The part of biofuels is assigned to 8 % [European Union, 2001]. An indicative goal (that means: no obligation) for the year 2010 lies at 5.75 % share for bio-fuels [European Union, 2003]. This can be reached through application of neat fuels like biodiesel; just like that, blending of biogenic fuels to fossil ones is possible. (orig.)

  18. "Supply Push" or "Demand Pull?": Strategic Recommendations for the Responsible Development of Biofuel in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu;

    2015-01-01

    impeding the growth of the biofuel industry of China. The study concludes by proposing strategic recommendations for how the industry can be made both leaner, more efficient and effective, and greener, more socially and environmentally sustainable. Some of these options focuses on improving technical......This study investigates China's biofuel industry—the third largest in the world—by combining a strength, weakness, opportunity and threats (SWOT) analysis with a method known as fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP). More specifically, the study employs SWOT analysis to identify the influential...... factors affecting the development of the biofuel industry in China. It then prioritizes their importance using the FAHP method. The study finds that high production costs, competition with other renewable energy resources, inconsistent policy and legislation support, and poor technical standards are...

  19. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript on lifecycle analysis (LCA) of biofuels for transportation has three major parts: * I. An analysis of greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuels, estimated using the Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM). * II. A review of recent LCAs of biofuels. * III. A comprehensive conceptual framework for doing LCAs of biofuels.

  20. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  1. Panorama 2011: Water and bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, water is seen as a major sustainability criterion for bio-energies. Although the biofuels being produced by food crops are subject to the same risks as the farming sector as far as water resources are concerned, future sectors have a significant potential to reduce these risks, and this potential needs to be better understood in order for biofuels as a resource and their related technologies to develop properly. (authors)

  2. Global Evaluation of Biofuel Potential from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional terrestrial crops are currently being utilized as a feedstock for biofuels but resource requirements and low yields limit the sustainability and scalability. Comparatively, next generation feedstocks, such as microalgae, have inherent advantages such as higher solar energy efficiencies, larger lipid fractions, utilization of waste carbon dioxide, and cultivation on poor quality land. The assessment of microalgae-based biofuel production systems through lifecycle, technoeconomic, a...

  3. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  4. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, Carol Robin [Michigan State University; Childs, Kevin L [Michigan State University

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  5. Liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a brief conference paper on the use of biofuels in vehicles, especially in Sweden. Vegetable oils replace only diesel. In Sweden, the vegetable oil most often used is rape-seed oil. These oils are not very efficient in ''raw'' form and are used as basis in esters, such as rape-seed methyl ester (RME). Although RME is renewable, biobased and reduces the atmospheric CO2 emission, it increases the emission of nitrogen oxides, it may cause startup problems in cold weather and is not stable when stored for long. Most RME available in Sweden is imported and the potential for increased Swedish production is very limited. By using methanol and ethanol both petrol and diesel can be replaced. While mixtures of petrol and alcohols are being used increasingly, mixtures of diesel and alcohols are unstable and their use requires technological development

  6. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  7. Allies in Biofuels. Opportunities in the Dutch - Argentinean biofuels trade relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First generation biofuels as an environmental solution are showing their own negative environmental, social and economic side effects. These need to be dealt with, because it is apparent that those same biofuels can be produced in a sustainable manner, thereby contributing to a healthier planet. Since both Argentina and the Netherlands would benefit from sustainable biofuels trade, policy measures need to be taken to guide the proper way. In what manner could bilateral cooperation concerning biofuels, optimize trade and policy output in both countries? By answering this question, one can hand solutions to upcoming problems - barriers to a sustainable energy structure - while at the same time facilitating trade between Argentina and the Netherlands. Besides providing information about the European, Dutch and Argentine market, this report presents an overview of biofuel policies. Special attention is given to the issue of sustainable biofuel production, in order to spread the necessary awareness, create wide support for corresponding politics, and offer opportunities for cooperation to prevent future entrapment. An entrapment, which could easily occur when actors in politics and business ignore international requirements for sustainable biofuel production. The research aims to produce the following output: Policy recommendations regarding the promotion of environmentally sound biofuels in both countries; A set arena to support a policy dialogue between both countries; An overview of current Dutch and Argentinean biofuel policies; Up to date information on current volumes of production, consumption and trade; Data with contact information of partners in both countries. Argentina shows an extremely professional agricultural sector, producing large quantities of vegetable oils, specifically of soybean. This sector has started to turn its attention towards biofuels - particularly to biodiesel. Projected production (for 2007-2008) is astonishingly high. The sector mainly

  8. Guidance to the regulations on sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids Version 3.0; Vaegledning till regelverket om haallbarhetskriterier foer biodrivmedel och flytande biobraenslen Version 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Swedish Energy Agency is the regulatory authority for enforcement of the Act (2010:598) concerning sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids. The Act implements into Swedish law provisions on sustainability criteria in the so-called renewable-directive. Authority is based on the authorization issued regulations, but there are many details that are not regulated by statute. Many of the interested companies contacts the authority and want to know more about what will apply in various respects. The Agency has therefore chosen, in this guide, to introduce more detailed explanations of the rules that exist in law and regulation. It is thus not a question of legally binding rules. This third version of the guidance has been supplemented with sections on reporting. The Agency will gradually expand the guide to include more parts of the acquis. The guidance has been produced by the unit for sustainable fuels. Before the content was fixed definitively the guidance has been circulated to NGOs and government.

  9. Metabolic engineering of microalgal based biofuel production: prospects and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Chiranjib eBanerjee; Kashyap Kumar Dubey; Pratyoosh eShukla

    2016-01-01

    The current scenario in renewable energy is focused on development of alternate and sustainable energy sources, amongst which microalgae stands as one of the promising feedstock for biofuel production. It is well known that microalgae generate much larger amounts of biofuels in a shorter time than other sources based on plant seeds. However, the greatest challenge in a transition to algae-based biofuel production is the various other complications involved in microalgal cultivation, its harve...

  10. Metabolic Engineering of Microalgal Based Biofuel Production: Prospects and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Dubey, Kashyap K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    The current scenario in renewable energy is focused on development of alternate and sustainable energy sources, amongst which microalgae stands as one of the promising feedstock for biofuel production. It is well known that microalgae generate much larger amounts of biofuels in a shorter time than other sources based on plant seeds. However, the greatest challenge in a transition to algae-based biofuel production is the various other complications involved in microalgal cultivation, its harve...

  11. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  12. Lean environmental management integration system for sustainability of ISO 14001:2004 standard implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Puvanasvaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present a model for integrating Lean Principles with ISO 14001 Environmental Management System.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the objective of the study, the methodology used in this study is based on preliminary literature review of ISO 14001 standards and Lean Principles as well as certain case reports from various proponents and authors of ISO 14001 and Lean as noted in various articles and journals and some books.Findings and Originality/value: The findings of this study are a new model called Lean Environmental Management Integration System (LEMIS has been developed and leads to the creation of these measurement standards for evaluating the organization, making its environmental efforts more realistic, focused and attainable.Research limitations/implications: Future research should be conducted case studies in this direction are required to be conducted for examining the feasibility of amalgamation and implementing ISO 14001:2004 standards with the philosophy of Lean Principles to enable the achievement of world class standards.Practical implications: This model helps to eliminate any wasteful processes in the organization’s implementation of the ISO 14001 standard thus leading to higher environmental performance.  Integrating the standard with Lean principles through LEMIS model helps to specify these performance measures making the standard achieve sustainability and continual improvement.Originality/value: This study presents a unique approach of integrating the two main models, namely Lean Principles and ISO 14001 Environmental Management System, as a single framework benefiting contemporary organizations.

  13. The ISO 26000 standard as a driver for systemic design for sustainability 

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Cristina; Schmidt, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable product development is considered a key factor for sustainable development. Products are placed in the interface between production and consumption, therefore the consideration of sustainability criteria early in their development phase, to improve them throughout the life cycle, opens up for innovations that contribute to tackle major sustainability problems in the context of a globalized economy. Design for sustainability (DfS) is distinguished from ecodesign in terms of sustain...

  14. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  15. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  16. Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsheng Wen; H.Jiang; Kai Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly produced from biomass for transport sector applications.As biofuels are renewable,sustainable,carbon neutral and environmentally benign,they have been proposed as promising alternative fuels for gasoline and diesel engines.This paper reviews state-of-the-art application of the supercritical fluid(SCF)technique in biofuels production that includes biodiesel from vegetable oils via the transesterification process,bio-hydrogen from the gasification and bio-oil from the lique-faction of biomass,with biodiesel production as the main focus. The global biofuel situation and biofuel economics are also reviewed.The SCF has been shown to be a promising technique for future large-scale biofuel production,especially for biodiesel production from waster oil and fat.Compared with conventional biofuel production methods,the SCF technology possesses a number of advantages that includes fast inetics,high fuel production rate,ease of continuous operation and elimination of the necessity of catalysts.The harsh operation environment,i.e. the high temperature and high pressure,and its request on the materials and associated cost are the main concerns for its wide application.

  17. From first generation biofuels to advanced solar biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Roadmaps towards sustainable bioeconomy, including the production of biofuels, in many EU countries mostly rely on biomass use. However, although biomass is renewable, the efficiency of biomass production is too low to be able to fully replace the fossil fuels. The use of land for fuel production also introduces ethical problems in increasing the food price. Harvesting solar energy by the photosynthetic machinery of plants and autotrophic microorganisms is the basis for all biomass production. This paper describes current challenges and possibilities to sustainably increase the biomass production and highlights future technologies to further enhance biofuel production directly from sunlight. The biggest scientific breakthroughs are expected to rely on a new technology called "synthetic biology", which makes engineering of biological systems possible. It will enable direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel from inexhaustible raw materials: sun light, water and CO2. In the future, such solar biofuels are expected to be produced in engineered photosynthetic microorganisms or in completely synthetic living factories. PMID:26667057

  18. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  19. Biofuel Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    As concerns regarding increasing energy prices, global warming and renewable resources continue to grow, so has scientific discovery into agricultural biomass conversion. Plant Biomass Conversion addresses both the development of plant biomass and conversion technology, in addition to issues surrounding biomass conversion, such as the affect on water resources and soil sustainability. This book also offers a brief overview of the current status of the industry and examples of production...

  20. Biofuels of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Oxburgh, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are good biofuels and bad biofuels. The good ones offer the prospect of transport fuels that have much lower environmental impact than fossil fuels and could before long be less expensive as well. Bad or irresponsibly produced biofuels may at best bring little environmental advantage; at worst they may also cause serious environmental damage, habitat destruction and food shortages. The biofuel industry of the future will make a significant contribution to the greening of the world’s veh...

  1. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  2. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  3. Conflicting strategies towards sustainable heating at an urban junction of heat infrastructure and building standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches to ‘sustainability transitions’ stress the possibility of aligning actors around a shared vision of the future, e.g. at the scale of a city. Empirical accounts reveal how difficult such coordination often is due to contradictory views involved. How can we better understand related processes of searching and negotiation? What does this mean for the organization of decision making processes regarding long-term infrastructural change? We analyze a conflict which erupted in Freiburg, Germany when two strategies of reducing environmental impacts of space heating were to be applied in the Vauban ‘model district’: A) Efficient co-generation of heat and power (CHP) combined with district heating systems (DHS), and B) Reducing heat demand by low-energy designs and ambitious energy standards (‘passive house standard’). In order to understand the politics of infrastructure development, we unravel 1) enabling factors and driving forces of the conflict, 2) normative content of opposing viewpoints, 3) resources tapped into for settling the disagreement, and 4) the institutional setup of such decision making about energy policy priorities in the municipality. We reflect on implications of such a perspective on how policies and how governance arrangements should ideally be shaped and take a brief outlook on further research needed. - Highlights: • Foregrounds likeliness of conflicts over strategies within sustainability transitions. • District heating systems can be incommensurate with low energy building standards. • Studies one such conflict in an urban context (Freiburg, Germany) in depth. • Processes of urban planning can reveal frictions within and between infrastructures. • Can such junctions as opportunities for re-negotiation of strategies be anticipated?

  4. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    +6.1% The increase of biofuel consumption in European Union transport between 2013 and 2014 (in energy content). Biofuel consumption for transport picked up in Europe after a year of uncertainty and decline, increasing by 6.1% over 2013, to 14 million toe (Mtoe) according to EurObserv'ER's first estimates. However it is still below its 2012 level when 14.5 Mtoe of biofuel was incorporated. Consumption of biofuel that meets the European Renewable Energy directive's sustainability criteria rose to 12.5 Mtoe, its highest level so far

  5. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing. PMID:26479184

  6. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  7. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microalgae offer solution of wastewater treatment, CO2 sequestration, and energy crises. • Microalgal biofuel is renewable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly option. • Integration of wastewater treatment with biofuels production has made them more cost effective. • This article details out the potential production process and benefits of microalgal biofuels. - Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with

  8. Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Fogarty; Amy Villamagna; Allen Whitley; Kelly Pippins

    2013-01-01

    Many businesses today are striving to improve their environmental sustainability for a variety of reasons, ranging from consumer demand for “greener†products to potential cost-savings. For many business decision-makers who lack formal environmental training, the process of identifying facets of their organization that can be improved is unclear and challenging. Inspired by the fields of biomimicry, industrial ecology and organizational ecology, this paper draws on the inherent capacity to...

  9. Peroxidase Biocathodes for a Biofuel Cell Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Celso; Shipovskov, Stepan; Ferapontova, Elena

    energy sources in the world energy consumption within the period from 2006 to 2030, with a biomass conversion mentioned only briefly. Along with this, the expedient development of new bioenergy technologies may change the future role of biological sources. One example is production of bioethanol as...... alternative fuel5,6; another example is a steadily expanding field of biofuel cells development7-10, with a number of scientific publications and patent applications increased more than 40 times during the last decade11. In terms of sustainable energy production, enzymatic biofuel cells are attractive for a......Among such efficient sustainable energy sources, as wind and solar power, photovoltaics, geothermal and water power and other1-3, biofuels are ranked as less efficient. The latest 2009 report of the International Energy Agency4 plans approximately 100% increase of the contribution of the renewable...

  10. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor and...

  11. Assessment on the Use of Marginal Areas for Cultivation of Feedstock for Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Roehlano M.

    2011-01-01

    The Philippines has made a major push toward development of biofuel, enacting biofuels mandates and subsidies by the Biofuels Law. To maintain food security, biofuels policies currently restrict feedstock production to marginal lands. This raises its own issues related to commercial viability, small farmer livelihood, and environmental sustainability. This study conducts a field investigation of these issues, covering small holder feedstock producers producing sugarcane, cassava, and coconut....

  12. Sustainable transition of socio-technological systems: How can Governance Network Research and Transition Theory contribute to the transition to biofuel for transportation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Stærdahl, Jens; Søndergård, Bent

    The paper suggests that the challenge of sustainability demands a shift of the attention of environmental planning and policy to the transition of socio-technological systems. Deliberate planning for sustainability then becomes a question of addressing governance structures of socio......-technological systems, calling attention to how such governance structures emerge, stabilize and become dominant, which functions governance structures have to serve to become efficient, and how they can be made subject to deliberate and purposeful shaping and transition. Taking this approach, research in planning and...... policymaking for sustainability has to work with issues of understanding how actors and networks configure, requirements to effective networks and metagovernance of governance networks. Research within innovation systems, transition management and technology systems combined with planning and experimental...

  13. A viable technology to generate third-generation biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2011-01-01

    First generation biofuels are commercialized at large as the production technologies are well developed. However, to grow the raw materials, there is a great need to compromise with food security, which made first generation biofuels not so much promising. The second generation of biofuels does n...... organic waste and carbon dioxide in flue gases for the production of biomass further increases the sustainability of third generation biofuels, as it does minimize greenhouse gases emission and disposal problems....... have direct competition with food but requires several energy intensive processes to produce them and also increase the land use change, which reduces its environmental and economical feasibility. The third generation biofuels production avoids issues with first and second generation biofuels, viz...

  14. Food and sustainability: do consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information on production standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, Carolien T; de Boer, Joop; Boersema, Jan J

    2007-07-01

    We tested how consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information about food production methods that may contribute to a more sustainable agriculture. Nine copy tests were formed, each containing one out of three products and one out of three panels of information. The products were (1) fillet of chicken, (2) semi-skimmed milk and (3) fillet of salmon. The panels of information were (a) a certified organic logo and details about the animal welfare standards of organic products, (b) just the logo, or (c) a statement in which the product was attributed to the world market. About 371 customers of a supermarket in the city of Amsterdam filled in a questionnaire, which included a subset of three copy tests. The results showed that many consumers did not realize that the organic logo already covers all the standards. They were inclined to underestimate the distinctive advantage of the logo; products with logo and details got higher ratings of positive attributes but were also considered more expensive. As a consequence, the detailed information panels enabled consumers to choose more in agreement with their personal values but the net impacts on purchase intentions were small. PMID:17303285

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and Sustainability in Asian Luxury Hotels: Policies, Practices and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimolboon Cherapanukorn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The tourism and hospitality industry claims to embrace the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR but it seems unclear how and if companies integrate CSR activities into the core business and how they demonstrate real impacts and positive changes. The purpose of this research is to understand how Asian luxury hotels communicate about their CSR policies, practices and standards. It gives insights of best practices of CSR from luxury hotel groups that operate predominantly in Asia. The findings reveal that CSR is a blurry subject and there is a lack of an overall accepted definition and guidelines. The reporting of CSR activities by the Asian luxury hotels includes various overall activities, many of which are normal business practices. Many of these hotel groups are adopting international standards and most of them underline the importance of the environment and society. The study concludes that the motivation for CSR is oriented towards sustaining the basis for their operations. The outcome of the research suggests that further studies should analyze different hotel segments, such as local hotels or small-medium size hotels, in one particular country or comparing between various countries.

  16. The diffusion of global sustainability standards: an ex-ante assessment of the institutional fit of the ASC-shrimp standard in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.M.; Vellema, S.R.; Wijk, van J.

    2014-01-01

    Private sustainability standards (PSS) constitute a significant global governance policy instrument to regulate supply chains. A key outstanding issue in the study of PSS concerns their effectiveness. This workshop will focus on analysing the effectiveness of PSS from a multi-disciplinary perspectiv

  17. Biofuels, times are changing. Notification effect or real progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This well-documented book analyses the implications relative to the recent decisions taken for the development of biofuels. The history of alcohol-based biofuels, in France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, shows why the present day 'opportunity window' makes these fuels more 'sustainable' today than in the past: the common agricultural policy, the oil crisis, the global warming and its expected impacts have led governments to develop biofuels. The authors stress on the fragile equilibrium between agriculture and energy markets and on the fact that the viability/sustainability of biofuels-related decisions will depend on the economic scales (from micro- to macro-economy) and on the agronomic environmental scales (from the rural area to the global environment). Many researches remain to be carried out on biofuels, in particular with respect to their potential toxicity and to their conformability with recent regulations. (J.S.)

  18. Educating for Sustainability: Creating a Comprehensive, Coherent and Compelling Approach - Guidelines for Sustainability Standards and Resource Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, Fáilte Ireland's Environment Unit, in collaboration with the Education Policy Section,commissioned a review of sustainability content in tourism education and training programmes at NQAI levels 4-8 throughout the State with a view to recommending improvements where necessary. The review, carried out on Fáilte Ireland's behalf by the Tourism Research Centre of the Dublin Institute of Technology, was - in terms of breadth and depth - the first of its kind to be undertaken at a...

  19. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using combined biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the...

  20. Sustaining Sustainabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    exemplary case study in the field of urban sustainability to address how sustainability planning can more actively integrate civic aspirations as part of broader societal transformations towards sustainability. Conceptualised by the notion of sustaining sustain-abilities the role of planning implies...... strengthening possibilities for ecological and social life to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence. In this context the basis the paper exemplifies how action research methodologies can help strengthening transformative orientations towards future sustainability across citizens’ everyday...

  1. Integrated Algae Cultivation for Biofuels Production in Industrial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Sarah; Andersson, Vikor; Hackl, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Declining fossil resources and the issue of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases make global action towards a more sustainable society inevitable. The EU decided in 2007 that 20 % of the union´s energy use should origin from renewable resources by the year 2020. One way of achieving this goal is to increase the utilisation of biofuels. Today 2nd generation biofuels are being developed. They are seen as a more sustainable solution than 1st generation biofuels si...

  2. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union governments no longer view the rapid increase in biofuel consumption as a priority. Between 2010 and 2011 biofuel consumption increased by 3.1%, which translates into 14 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) used in 2011 compared to 13.6 million toe in 2010. The European Union's attention has shifted to setting up sustainability systems to verify that the biofuel used in the various countries complies with the Renewable Energy Directive's sustainability criteria

  3. Environmental and energy aspects of liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When spending public money to reduce CO2 emissions, it is necessary to establish which alternative energy source results in the largest reduction of CO2 emission per unit cost. Comparison of different biofuels with other energy resources is therefore important. Bioethanol is compared with leadfree gasoline, and rapeseed oil methylester (RME) is compared with diesel. Subsequently, biofuel production as a method to reduce CO2 emission will be compared with other sustainable energy resources. This comparison is based on the energy balance in chapter two and the final costs of biofuels in chapter six. The comparison of biofuels and current fossil fuels is based on emissions to the atmosphere of greenhouse gases and acidifying pollutants in chapter three. Pollution to soil and water by arable cropping is a specific characteristic of biofuel production and is difficult to compare with fossil fuels. On this subject biofuels are compared with other land uses in chapter four. This also applies to other adverse environmental aspects of agricultural production such as competition for land use with natural areas and recreation purposes. To explore future technological developments, a comparison is made in energy balances with estimated results after the year 2000. The overall conclusion is that there are far better options to achieve CO2 reduction. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 14 appendices, 28 refs

  4. Stagnating Jatropha Biofuel Development in Southwest China: An Institutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from jatropha has been considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels for some time. Consequently, China started promoting jatropha as one of the options to meet its ever-increasing energy consumption, and the Chinese biodiesel industry also gained interest. However, the excitement of the biofuel industry in jatropha faded after it did not bring about the expected results. This article investigates the stagnation in jatropha development and production for biodiesel in China, using two detailed case studies of jatropha biofuel production in southeast China. It is found that the underdeveloped biodiesel policy and regulation, such as a rather late formulation of standards for biodiesel (especially the B5 and the absence of mandatory targets, is an important reason for hampering jatropha development. Besides that, lack of financial support undermined sustained jatropha planting at the farm level and lack of sustained commitment from state-owned enterprises or private companies over a long time span further contributed to jatropha project’s failure. Better implementation of the rule of law, mandatory blending requirements, hazard insurance, as well as continuous financial support, might improve the continuation of jatropha plantation schemes.

  5. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Marjorie A. Jones; Moser, Bryan R.; Cox, Elby J.; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M.; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; David L. Cedeño; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C.; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for tr...

  6. Biomass, biogas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the different ways to produce biofuels. It appears that there are 3 generations of biofuels. The first generation was based on the use of the energetic reserves of the plants for instance sugar from beetroot or starch from cereals or oil from oleaginous plants. The second generation is based on a more complete use of the plant, the main constituents of the plant: cellulose and lignin are turned into energy. The third generation of biofuels relies on the use of energy plants and algae. The second generation of biofuels reduces drastically the competition between an alimentary use and a non-alimentary use of plants. In 2008 the production of biofuels reached 43 Mtep which represents only 2% of all the energy used in the transport sector. The international agency for energy expects that the production of biofuels would be multiplied by a factor 6 (even 10 if inciting measures are taken) by 2030. (A.C.)

  7. Biofuel goes underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, Norm

    2011-09-15

    Kirkland Lake Gold, a gold producer, is switching to a blend of biofuel to power the mine's underground equipment. Kirkland Lake Gold is using a soy-based product which has several advantages: less expensive: for example, the soybean-based biofuel used by Kirkland Lake Gold is 10 cents a liter less expensive than diesel; cleaner: biofuel can reduce emissions by up to 80 per cent compared to conventional diesel; and safer: biofuel is safer than miner's diesel because it has a much higher flash point. Testing with soybean-based biofuel began in the early 90s but its price was too high at that time. The federal government's regulation of renewable fuel quotas has led to the better availability of biofuel now. The supply should be doubled to meet government quotas.

  8. Biofuels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  9. LCA of Transportation Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Adlam, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    An increasing need to find alternatives to fossil fuels, and a growing awareness of the global warming effect has resulted in substantial research and development on biofuels. Biofuels are being considered a potential substitution of petroleum based fuels in the transport sector.With this increasing interest in biofuels comes the need to establish the environmental effect of the fuels. Results from several life cycle assessments reviewed in this report show that there are some benefits of bio...

  10. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the

  11. The impact of the life cycle analysis methodology on whether biodiesel produced from residues can meet the EU sustainability criteria for biofuel facilities constructed after 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, T.; Murphy, J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper considers biodiesel production from residues; tallow and used cooking oil (UCO). The tallow system is more complex involving two processes. The first process is rendering in which tallow (animal fat) and Meat and Bone Meal (MBM) are produced from the slaughter of cattle. MBM is assumed as a thermal energy source for cement manufacture and thus is not used for biodiesel production. The second process is biodiesel production from tallow. Three methodologies are employed to examine sustainability of the biodiesel. The no allocation approach assigns all the parasitic demands to the tallow; thus all energies required to make both MBM and tallow are associated with the tallow biodiesel. The resulting energy balance is negative. The substitution approach allocates the energy in MBM (used to produce cement) to tallow biodiesel. This results in the net energy being greater than the gross energy. The allocation by energy content method divides the parasitic demands of the rendering process between tallow and MBM by energy content. The parasitic demands of the biodiesel process are divided by energy content of the biodiesel, glycerol and K-fertiliser. For tallow biodiesel this yielded a net energy value of 38.6% of gross energy. The same method generated a net energy value of 67% for UCO biodiesel. More importantly the recommended method (allocation by energy content) generated a value of 54% greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings for tallow and a value of 69% for UCO. Plants commencing after 2017, need to have a 60% GHG emission savings, to be considered sustainable. Thus a facility treating both feedstocks would need to treat a maximum of 60% tallow to be considered sustainable after 2017. (author)

  12. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  13. Checklist’s compliance with other standards for organic/sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    van Mansvelt, J.D.; Znaor, Darko

    1999-01-01

    This work is an interdisciplinary, cross-cultural, widely-calibrated checklist for EU sustainable landscape management, which is intended to serve both as an analytical tool of reference as well as a design tool for local, regional and European policy making on sustainable developments. The tool has been developed out of a multidisciplinary study in EU countries which was designed to find out what would be the overall requirements for a sustainable management of the landscape of rural are...

  14. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.

  15. Liquid biofuels - can they meet our expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, G.

    2012-04-01

    timber forest if alternative fuel sources would outcompete biofuels in the future. Because second generation bioethanol plants are technically complex and will require substantial amounts of biomass - at least at current perception - the impact of large scale conversion of arable and forests to biofuel plantations on biodiversity, ground water, rural communities, tourism as well as traffic and transport, just to mention a few, must be considered. Another factor is storability of biomass. Whole plant and woody biomass is much more difficult to store than grains and a steady flux from the plantation to the mill might be difficult to sustain under adverse weather conditions.

  16. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  17. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  18. Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanseok Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC, turbidity, suspended solids (SS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse.

  19. A resilience perspective on biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas P; Rao, P Suresh C; Park, Jeryang; Zhao, Fu

    2011-07-01

    The recent investment boom and collapse of the corn ethanol industry calls into question the long-term sustainability of traditional approaches to biofuel technologies. Compared with petroleum-based transportation fuels, biofuel production systems are more closely connected to complex and variable natural systems. Especially as biofeedstock production itself becomes more independent of fossil fuel-based supports, stochasticity will become an increasingly important, inherent feature of biofuel feedstock production systems. Accordingly, a fundamental change in design philosophy is necessary to ensure the long-term viability of the biofuels industry. To respond effectively to unexpected disruptions, the new approach will require systems to be designed for resilience (indicated by diversity, efficiency, cohesion, and adaptability) rather than more narrowly defined measures of efficiency. This paper addresses important concepts in the design of coupled engineering-ecological systems (resistance, resilience, adaptability, and transformability) and examines biofuel conversion technologies from a resilience perspective. Conversion technologies that can accommodate multiple feedstocks and final products are suggested to enhance the diversity and flexibility of the entire industry. PMID:21309075

  20. Standards of socially responsible management – Impact on sustainable development of the organization, the social and natural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Peršič, Marko; Peršič, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the results of a study on the importance of the introduction/implementation of standards of socially responsible management and their impact on the business performance of organizations as well as to confirm the correlations with the sustainable development of the broader social and natural environment. The research included a population of medium-sized and large organizations (over 50 employees) in the fields of marketing services in the Republic of Sl...

  1. Energy crops for biofuel feedstocks: facts and recent patents on genetic manipulation to improve biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Burning fossil-fuels to meet the global energy requirements by human being has intensified the concerns of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Therefore, serious efforts are required to develop nonfossil-based renewable energy sources. Plants are more efficient in utilizing solar energy to convert it into biomass which can be used as feedstocks for biofuel production. Hence with the increasing demands of energy and the needs of cost-effective, sustainable production of fuels, it has become necessary to switch over to plant biomass as a renewable source of energy. Biofuels derived from more sustainable biological materials such as lignocellulosic plant residues, considered as second generation biofuels, are more dependable. However, there are technical challenges such as pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to convert it into fermentable sugars. Plant genetic engineering has already proven its potential in modifying cell wall composition of plants for enhancing the efficiency of biofuel production. Interest and potential in the area are very much evident from the growing number of patents in the recent years on the subject. In this review, recent trends in genetic engineering of energy crops for biofuel production have been introduced, and strategies for the future developments have been discussed. PMID:24456235

  2. Learning of the root factors of incidents potentially impacting the biofuel supply chains from some 100 significant cases

    OpenAIRE

    Riviere, Carine; Marlair, Guy; Vignes, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    A biofuel is most often defined as a liquid or gaseous fuel used for transport purposes that can be produced from biomass substrates or bioresources. There are numerous potential supply chains for the production of biofuels, depending on feedstock, conventional or advanced processes, and final end use. AH stakeholders involved in the promotion of more sustainable biofuels highly welcomed the area of industrialization of so called 2nd génération type of biofuels. However existing facilities pr...

  3. Extremophiles in biofuel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Desire; Casanueva, Ana; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The current global energy situation has demonstrated an urgent need for the development of alternative fuel sources to the continually diminishing fossil fuel reserves. Much research to address this issue focuses on the development of financially viable technologies for the production of biofuels. The current market for biofuels, defined as fuel products obtained from organic substrates, is dominated by bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol and biogas, relying on the use of substrates such as sugars, starch and oil crops, agricultural and animal wastes, and lignocellulosic biomass. This conversion from biomass to biofuel through microbial catalysis has gained much momentum as biotechnology has evolved to its current status. Extremophiles are a robust group of organisms producing stable enzymes, which are often capable of tolerating changes in environmental conditions such as pH and temperature. The potential application of such organisms and their enzymes in biotechnology is enormous, and a particular application is in biofuel production. In this review an overview of the different biofuels is given, covering those already produced commercially as well as those under development. The past and present trends in biofuel production are discussed, and future prospects for the industry are highlighted. The focus is on the current and future application of extremophilic organisms and enzymes in technologies to develop and improve the biotechnological production of biofuels. PMID:20662378

  4. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    6.8% the drop in biofuel consumption in European Union transport between 2012 and 2013. The growth of biofuel consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU -28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and 2013 according to EurObserv'ER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe. Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe

  5. Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Mossberg, Johanna; Torén, Johan; Hoffstedt, Christian; von Schenck, Anna; Berglin, Niklas; Lundmark, Robert; Lundgren, Joakim; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg

    2013-01-01

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with la...

  6. The biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO2 accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  7. DMF - A New Biofuel Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guohong; Daniel, Ritchie; Xu, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts...

  8. Biofuels: which interest, which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a synthesis of several studies concerning the production and utilization of bio-fuels: energy balance and greenhouse effect of the various bio-fuel systems; economical analysis and profitability of bio-fuel production; is the valorization of bio-fuel residues and by-products in animal feeding a realistic hypothesis?; assessment of the cost for the community due to tax exemption for bio-fuels

  9. Standard dossiers Energy Transition. Dossier R3 (previously Sustainable Rijnmond area)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R3 project is part of the transition towards a sustainable energy economy in the Netherlands, initiated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The R3 project is focused on setting up a hot water business, heat supply to the built environment and heat supply to the greenhouse sector in the Rijnmond area

  10. How Standards Enable the Emergence of Sustainable Construction as a New Organizational Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Georg, Susse; Reijonen, Satu; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    new field, and 3) drawing legitimacy from central actors and creating networks that facilitate the mobilization of new field members. We conclude with implications for institutionalist research on structuration and field formation as well as implications for the practice of sustainable construction....

  11. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  12. Market possibilities for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for biofuels in Sweden after introduction of a proposed CO2-tax on fossil fuels is forecast. The competition between biofuels, fossil fuels and electricity is described for important market segments such as: Paper industry, Sawmills, Other energy-intensive industry, Power and heat producers, small Heat producers, and for Space heating of one-family houses. A market increase of the use of biofuels is probable for the segment small (district) heating centrals, 10 TWh in the next ten year period and even more during a longer period. Other market segments will not be much affected. An increased use of biofuels in paper and pulp industry will not influence the fuel market, since the increase will happen in the industry's normal lumber purchase. (2 figs., 18 tabs.)

  13. The biofuels, situation, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic change with the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, sees the development of ''clean'' energy sources. Meanwhile the biofuels remain penalized by their high production cost, the interest is increasing. Facing their development ecologists highlight the environmental and social negative impacts of the development of the biofuels. The author aims to take stock on the techniques and the utilizations. (A.L.B.)

  14. Microalgae: biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Babita Kumari; Vinay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels....

  15. Turbomachinery in Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Görling, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the production processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel production process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...

  16. Public acceptance of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 Euro /L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 Euro /L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels.

  17. Public acceptance of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  18. Biofuel Policies and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify whether or not the green paradox is withheld when renewable fuel standards and blending mandate policies implemented by the U.S. and EU, respectively, are employed to promote the use of biofuels in the transport sector. The problem is addressed using a simplified model of the global transport market for energy, provided solely by fossil-based fuels made from oil and biofuels. A climate change model translates emissions from the use of the fossil-based fuels to ...

  19. Sustainability Performance of Scandinavian Corporations and their Value Chains assessed by UN Global Compact and Global Reporting Initiative standards - a way to identify superior performers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a combination of the two most adopted multi- stakeholder standards for sustainability reporting as an alternate framework for assessing sustainability performance in Scandinavian corporations. This novel approach leverages numeric measures on the criteria...... Strategies & Policies, Management Systems, Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanisms and Key Outcomes on sustainability defined broadly as the Human Rights, Labour, Environment and Anti-Corruption issues by the UN Global Compact. The study firmly concludes that Scandinavian corporations on average are not...

  20. Corporate social responsibility and global standardization: sustainable environmental management in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia R. TODD

    2009-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility and sustainable development are issues that been in the forefront of corporate strategy for several decades. The increase in the power of environmental groups, the ease of cross border information flow, and the rising concern of the public with regards to global impact of environmental issues are motivating factors resulting in the establishment of environmental management systems. Many multinational chemical companies, threatened with the possibility of the es...

  1. Global Standards and Ethical Stock Indexes: the case of the Dow Jones Sustainability Stoxx Index

    OpenAIRE

    Costanza Consolandi; Ameeta Jaiswal-Dale; Elisa Poggiani; Alessandro Vercelli

    2008-01-01

    The increased scrutiny of investors regarding the non-financial aspects of corporate performance have placed portfolio managers in the position of having to weigh the benefits of “holding the market” against the cost of having positions in companies that are subsequently found to have questionable business practices. The availability of stock indexes based on sustainability screening makes increasingly viable for institutional investors the transition to a portfolio based on a Socially Respon...

  2. Round table on bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  3. International Standards in Vocational Education and Training for Financial Services Sector to Ensure Sustainable Development and Environmental Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the Triple E Project developed by EBTN for the purpose to work out qualifications standards for finance services sector in the focus of sustainable development and environmental safety. The Triple E is based on the three instruments – European qualification framework and concept of learning outcomes (EQF, credit system (ECVET and quality assurance (EQAVET for vocational education and training. These three systems are the building blocks of European policy in vocational education and qualifications system with the task to strengthen the integration processes in the European educational area. They also take into account the concept of UNESCO in the field of education and sustainable development. Besides, the article traces the history of relations between educational providers, employers and public authorities in the Russian Federation in the context of setting requirements for learning outcomes and qualifications. The concepts of qualification, velocity of changes in educational standards, the establishment of a national system of qualifications of the Russian Federation, the emergence of professional standards are carefully analyzed. Current and potential problems in the assessment of qualifications are referred to. It is stressed that the volume of open data in the area of professional development, education and labor should be increased and the quality thereof significantly improved.

  4. District and University Perspectives on Sustaining Professional Development Schools: Do the NCATE Standards Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Chris; MacIsaac, Doug; Tichenor, Mercedes; Heins, Bette; Piechura, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Professional development school partnerships can improve teaching and learning in our schools. To support these partnerships, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) developed standards for professional development schools. In this article, we address the questions, "What NCATE standards work from the point of…

  5. Sustainable Process Design of Lignocellulose based Biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, Saranya; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    Worldwide energy demand has increased steadily as the world population has grown and more countries have become industrialized. The major energy sources of the world still depend on fossil fuels, which are also the main sources for carbon dioxide emission. As the fossil fuels always pass through ...... process design. The final process design includes 39 unit operations, has a capacity of 150,000 L/day and produces dry ethanol (approximately 13.0% of cassava rhizome is converted to ethanol)...

  6. Sustainable Biofuels from Forests: Woody Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin H. White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts involves multiple sources of material that together create year round supplies. The main sources of woody biomass include residues from wood manufacturing industries, low value trees including logging slash in forests that are currently underutilized and dedicated short-rotation woody crops. Conceptually a ton of woody biomass feedstocks can replace a barrel of oil as the wood is processed (refined through a biorefinery. As oil is refined only part of the barrel is used for liquid fuel, e.g., gasoline, while much of the carbon in oil is refined into higher value chemical products-carbon in woody biomass can be refined into the same value-added products.

  7. Criteria for a sustainable use of bioenergy on a global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Reinhardt, Guido; Schmitz, Jutta [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Sayer, Uwe; Gretz, Marco; Seizinger, Elmar [FSC Arbeitsgruppe Deutschland, Freiburg (Germany); Lanje, Kerstin [Germanwatch (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The German Biokraftstoffquotengesetz, the EU Biofuel Directive and other policy making initiatives lead to promote the production and use of bioenergy, liquid biofuel for transportation in particular. Such an increase requires a reliable verification on compliance with sustainability principles on a global scale. Domestic biofuels (e.g. RME) have to meet the same standards as palm oil or ethanol from sugarcane imported from tropical regions and vice verse. As a first step the German government has passed the Draft Biomass Sustainability Regulation in December 2007 hat die Bundesregierung. This research project supported UBA and BMU to prepare that regulation. The overall goal was to examine the applicability of exis The analysis of existing certification systems featured number of good practice examples, e.g. FSC, SAN, RSPO.ting certification systems in terms of sustainability approval for biomass and to propose a set of criteria. But in fact none of the existing systems addresses all sustainability issues raised by biomass production and use. Selection of the proposed set of criteria has taken into account the current international state of discussion. Just to name above others: Minimum target of GHG saving; avoidance of losses of HNV areas an losses of Biodiversity; minimizing the risk of water scarcity; involvement of stakeholders into decision making processes; respecting international labour standards. Within this research project the GHG methodology and the default values implemented in the Draft Biomass Sustainability Regulation have been elaborated. (orig.)

  8. Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jie

    Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant

  9. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  10. BioFuels Atlas (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation for biennial merit review of Biofuels Atlas, a first-pass visualization tool that allows users to explore the potential of biomass-to-biofuels conversions at various locations and scales.

  11. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies rely upon attributional lifecycle analysis (LCA) approaches to estimate water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/evapotranspiration water consumed for biofuel production. Such approaches can be misleading. From a policy perspective, a better approach is to compare differential water impacts among scenarios on a landscape scale. We address the shortcomings of existing studies by using consequential LCA, and incorporate direct and indirect land use (changes) of biofuel scenarios, marginal vs. average biofuel water use estimates, future climate, and geographic heterogeneity. We use the outputs of a partial equilibrium economic model, climate and soil data, and a process-based crop-soil-climate-water model to estimate differences in green water (GW - directly from precipitation to soil) and blue water (BW - supplied by irrigation) use among three scenarios: (1) business-as-usual (BAU), (2) Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. We use spatial statistical methods to interpolate key climatic variables using daily climate observations for the contiguous USA. Finally, we use FAO's crop model AquaCrop to estimate the domestic GW and BW impacts of biofuel policies from 2007-2035. We assess the differences among scenarios along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion at the county level, including prime and marginal lands, (2) crop-specific and overall annual/seasonal water balances including (a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (d) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm 3 /acre over the relevant time period. The functional unit of analysis is the BW and GW requirements of biofuels (mm3 per Btu biofuel) at the county level. Differential water use impacts among scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes

  12. Quantifying the regional water footprint of biofuel production by incorporating hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Chiu, Y.; Demissie, Y.

    2012-10-01

    A spatially explicit life cycle water analysis framework is proposed, in which a standardized water footprint methodology is coupled with hydrologic modeling to assess blue water, green water (rainfall), and agricultural grey water discharge in the production of biofuel feedstock at county-level resolution. Grey water is simulated via SWAT, a watershed model. Evapotranspiration (ET) estimates generated with the Penman-Monteith equation and crop parameters were verified by using remote sensing results, a satellite-imagery-derived data set, and other field measurements. Crop irrigation survey data are used to corroborate the estimate of irrigation ET. An application of the concept is presented in a case study for corn-stover-based ethanol grown in Iowa (United States) within the Upper Mississippi River basin. Results show vast spatial variations in the water footprint of stover ethanol from county to county. Producing 1 L of ethanol from corn stover growing in the Iowa counties studied requires from 4.6 to 13.1 L of blue water (with an average of 5.4 L), a majority (86%) of which is consumed in the biorefinery. The county-level green water (rainfall) footprint ranges from 760 to 1000 L L-1. The grey water footprint varies considerably, ranging from 44 to 1579 L, a 35-fold difference, with a county average of 518 L. This framework can be a useful tool for watershed- or county-level biofuel sustainability metric analysis to address the heterogeneity of the water footprint for biofuels.

  13. Modeling for sustainable use of biofuels, eolic and solar energy within the scope of the local Brazilian Integrated Planning of Energy Resources: case study of this plan in Aracatuba region, SP, Brazil; Modelagem para o aproveitamento sustentavel dos biocombustiveis, energia eolica e solar dentro do PIR (Planejamento Integrado de Recursos Energeticos) local: estudo de caso do PIR da regiao de Aracatuba, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jonathas Luiz de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    It is evaluated the wind power, solar energy resources and biofuels available in Aracatuba through integrated resources planning methodology. which seeks to systematize and qualify the impacts associated with the use of energy by integrating supply and demand and seeking the lowest full-cost recital characteristics of each energy resource in environmental, social, political and technical-economic dimensions . Working with the demand forecast for trend, sustainable energy scenarios, optimistic and sustainable-prime as a PIN for the integration of energy resources over time, and considering the vigilant of Energy-environmental parameters, fetching mapping meeting local demand and export of energy. Thus conclude that the energy resources considered may meet the requirements of demand in all scenarios, but with the possibility of exhaustion in certain scenarios with planning horizon larger than 30 years. (author)

  14. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  15. The Danish Biofuel Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    from the molecular level and envisions positive synergies in the use of biomass. The other is a holistic bioscarcity perspective originating in life-cycle analysis and ecology. This perspective works downwards from global resource scope conditions, and envisions negative consequences from an increased...... of biofuels enrol scientific authority to support their positions? The sociological theory of functional differentiation combined with the concept of advocacy coalition can help in exploring this relationship between scientific claims-making and the policy stance of different actors in public debates...... about biofuels. In Denmark two distinct scientific perspectives about biofuels map onto the policy debates through articulation by two competing advocacy coalitions. One is a reductionist biorefinery perspective originating in biochemistry and neighbouring disciplines. This perspective works upwards...

  16. Biogas and biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European union countries are becoming more and more interested by the characteristics of biogas in terms of environment and energy production and are developing their proper channels of valorization according to their potential. In this way, biogas production reached nearly 5,3 million tons oil equivalent in 2006, representing a 13,6% increase with respect to 2005. Statistical data are provided on the primary energy production of biogas, the electricity production from biogas, gross heat production from biogas, and the representative firms of the biogas sector. In a second part the biofuels barometer is presented. The agricultural environment and landscape of the European Union countries is redefined a little more each year by energy crops for biofuel production. According to the first estimates for 2006, biofuel consumption reached 5,38 Mtoe last year in the EU, corresponding to a 1,8% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport. (A.L.B.)

  17. Does Adoption of Management Standards Deliver Efficiency Gain in Firms’ Pursuit of Sustainability Performance? An Empirical Investigation of Chinese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Building on longitudinal data from 73 Chinese manufacturing firms during 2009–2012, we assess whether and how firms gain higher efficiency in achieving their sustainability goals by adopting management practice standards (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and/or OHSAS 18001. We propose four pathways for firms to gain sustainability efficiency in their certification journey: participation, qualitative integration, quantitative expansion, and temporal accumulation. Our results confirm that firms certifying management standards gain higher efficiency in pursuing their sustainability goals than firms without these standards. We also find some support for increased efficiency effect in firms with diverse management systems over firms with only a single certificate in 2011. Finally, our results highlight the experiential and temporal accumulation effect of such efficiency gains, that is, firms with prior certification experience or having a longer certification history demonstrate higher efficiency gains in pursuing their sustainability goals.

  18. Cost outlook for the production of biofuels. A cost comparison assessment of the future production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragettli, M.

    2007-02-15

    In this diploma thesis by Martin Ragettli a cost comparison assessment of the future production of biofuels is presented. The author states that biofuels can make a contribution to the reduction of the effects of fossil fuel depletion and regional and global environmental problems, as well as providing security of supply. The status of biofuels in the context of sustainability efforts and the use of renewable forms of energy are discussed as are the potential and costs of biomass-based energy supply. Various types of biomass for the production of biofuels are reviewed, as are production technologies. The global potential of biomass supplies is examined. The methodology applied and the system components examined are discussed and a regional approach is reviewed. Recommendations for further research are made.

  19. A modular step-by-step model for fixing environmental quality standards. On implementation of a sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By altering the procedure of fixing environmental quality standards in an environmentally just manner the Council of Environmental Advisors sees an essential contribution in building up a general device to render the model of a sustainable development. In practice the fixing varies a lot thus creating uncertainty and loss of confidence among the public. For the first time the Council of Environmental Advisors has taken extensive stock and critically evaluated the existing environmental quality standards in Germany detecting numerous deficits within the system. The Council of Environmental Advisors suggests a modular step by step procedure in order to resolve the regrettable situation. By dividing the procedure into three sets first of all the objects and goals of protection must be defined. The second step then is to encompass the provision of scientific and technological expertise and the third step leading to the social and political assessment and decision making. For the Council of Environmental Advisors it is essential that the elaboration of the environmental quality standards takes place in a transparent manner involving the public appropriately, i.e. the procedure of fixing environmental quality standards is comprehensive to the layman, too. (orig.)

  20. The Standardization of Geography Teachers' Practices: A Journey to Self-Sustainability and Professional Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Geography education in Portugal is still very much attached to what can be defined as a descriptive and factual approach, which seems to prevail in spite of all the changes introduced in the design of school geography. Given this context, the paper intends to foresee the process that leads to the standardization of teachers' knowledge and…

  1. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  2. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  3. Biofuels. Handle with care. An analysis of EU biofuel policy with recommendations for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    For many policymakers biofuels must have seemed like a dream-come-true. The arguments put forward by supporters were plentiful and powerful. Carbon Dioxide emissions (CO2) could be cut because the biofuel crops absorb CO2 while they grow and energy security could be guaranteed because biofuels can be grown at home or imported from stable regions rather than oil states. The car industry also liked them because they took political focus away from vehicle fuel efficiency as a route to cutting CO2 emissions. Cars require only minor modifications to become green-looking 'flexfuel' models. Farmers liked them because it created another market for their products and even oil companies came to like them, because it enabled them to look more 'green'. The EU and other regions hurried to put in place volume targets and financial incentives to force the market to adopt biofuels. However, in the rush, the full impacts of their production were not well understood. And, by focusing on a single nascent technology, rather than on the goal - carbon emissions reductions - the dream soon turned to a nightmare. It has now become clear that there is no simple answer to the question of whether biofuels are truly a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. The evidence, much of it published in the last three years, suggests that in the vast majority of existing cases, they are not. A change to current policy is needed. This report follows the adoption, at the end of 2008, of the European Union's mandatory 10% renewable energy target for transport, to be reached by 2020. It attempts to assess the environmental implications of that policy. Its key findings are that if the target is, as is widely accepted, almost completely to be met through the use of biofuels, it is highly unlikely to be met sustainably. In short, there is a very substantial risk that current policy will cause more harm than good. One of the most important reasons for this is the failure to account

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Sustainability in Asian Luxury Hotels: Policies, Practices and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Vimolboon Cherapanukorn; Kirsten Focken

    2014-01-01

    The tourism and hospitality industry claims to embrace the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) but it seems unclear how and if companies integrate CSR activities into the core business and how they demonstrate real impacts and positive changes. The purpose of this research is to understand how Asian luxury hotels communicate about their CSR policies, practices and standards. It gives insights of best practices of CSR from luxury hotel groups that operate predominantly in Asia. Th...

  5. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension....

  6. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  7. Biofuels from urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass from urban landscapes is an untapped resource. Lawn thatch and clippings, fallen leaves and tree limbs are all potential sources of biofuels. Most cities already collect and transport these materials to disposal sites; but, alternatively could collect and transport these materials to a loc...

  8. Meeting the Demand for Biofuels: Impact on Land Use and Carbon Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Madhu; Jain, Atul; Onal, Hayri; Scheffran, Jurgen; Chen, Xiaoguang; Erickson, Matt; Huang, Haixiao; Kang, Seungmo.

    2011-08-14

    The purpose of this research was to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary framework to investigate the implications of large scale production of biofuels for land use, crop production, farm income and greenhouse gases. In particular, we examine the mix of feedstocks that would be viable for biofuel production and the spatial allocation of land required for producing these feedstocks at various gasoline and carbon emission prices as well as biofuel subsidy levels. The implication of interactions between energy policy that seeks energy independence from foreign oil and climate policy that seeks to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for the optimal mix of biofuels and land use will also be investigated. This project contributes to the ELSI research goals of sustainable biofuel production while balancing competing demands for land and developing policy approaches needed to support biofuel production in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.

  9. Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry : Quantification of the Environmental Performance and Identification of Synergies

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The production of biofuels has increased in recent years, to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate climate change. However, current production practices are heavily criticized on their environmental sustainability. Life cycle assessments have therefore been used in policies and academic studies to assess the systems; with divergent results. In the coming years however, biofuel production practices must improve to meet strict environmental sustainability policies. The aims of the ...

  10. Biofuel on contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  11. Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article contains a short overview of biomass consumption in Eu countries. The market share of biomass comparing with the other renewable energy sources, analysis, figures of development options and potential barriers are presented. Some special paragraphs were devoted to liquid biofuels like ethanol, methanol and bio-diesel oils. Lacking of the distribution system of liquid biofuels is one of the barriers in implementation. The granulated wood pellets is going to be one of the most widespread bio fuel for households in Austria and Southern Germany and for small scale district heating in Denmark and Sweden. From the analyse follows, that in countries with the state support and subsidies, the biomass consumption is much more developed and is competing with the fossil fuels in heat and power market. But in countries without this support the share of biofuels is decreasing. The last paragraph is describing the situation of biomass consumption in Estonia. Up to now here are positive as well as negative examples of biomass boilers implementation. Comparison of the heat prices in Estonia and in E U countries is presented in Fig. 2. Considering that our heat prices are about 2 times less than the E U average, implementation of the quite expensive western burning technology in Estonia would be more complicated than in E U countries. This points out even bigger necessity of the state support or subsidizing in Estonia. But there is another, economically more feasible way for subsidizing - to start the production of the small bio-fuelled boilers and the fuel handling technology in Estonia. This should reduce the total investment cost of the bio-fuelled heating systems. (author)

  12. Passive energy standard in building as a perspective of sustainable development - first passive houses in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the projects and implementation of the first passive family houses in Croatia. The Croatian Solar House (CSH) is a national technological-development project by a group of authors, which is based on passive house standard as an energy-terms point of departure. The House EV1 is a wood-made passive house under construction, while the House M4 is the first passive house in Croatia made in poro-concrete and reinforced concrete made ceiling slabs. Both houses comply with the heating energy consumption requirements under the passive house definition, i.e., the annual consumption does not exceed 15 kWh/m2. These houses are also referred to as 'houses without heating', 'houses with thermal comfort without heating' or 'one-liter houses' because their consumption is equivalent to one liter of fuel oil by one square meter a year. Assuming the high-value thermal protection, passive house is equipped with an installation system which houses a heat pump and ventilation system for continuous introduction of fresh air indoors. The use of renewable energy sources enabled the accomplishment by far the biggest energy savings in the construction industry, ensuring optimal conditions for healthy living without harmful gas emissions. Since 1990 there is an exponential growth of constructed passive houses in Europe. Germany is leading this trend with total of 150,000 free-standing houses, house raw units or residential units in small multi-apartment buildings. The research project-program of the European Union: Cost Efficiency Passive Houses as European Union Standard (CEPHEUS) has confirmed, by scientific monitoring during several years, the energy- and cost-efficiency of such architecture and construction model in more than 250 units in Germany, France, Austria and Switzerland. Therefore the passive house is proposed as a standard for residential architecture and construction, but also for general construction of all functional types of non-residential architecture

  13. Panorama 2015 - Second generation biofuels: a new milestone reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commissioning of several commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production units worldwide marks a new stage in the development of second generation biofuels. Certainly many obstacles, both technological and economic, still remain to be overcome, and considerable investment amounts will have to be mobilized to develop and sustain these sectors. Favorable evolution of the regulatory environment in the markets remains the key to their future. (authors)

  14. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  15. Present and potential future oilseed production systems for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. agriculture is now depended on to produce renewable energy in addition to food, feed, and fuel, which if not properly managed could threaten long-term sustainability of our agricultural lands. Biofuels produced from oilseed crops, primarily biodiesel, will be an important addition to the renewa...

  16. Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios. Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is published within the framework of the European Commission-supported project 'Clear Views on Clean Fuels' or VIEWLS. The overall objectives of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuel and to identify the possibilities and strategies towards large-scale sustainable production, use and trading of biofuels for the transport sector in Europe, including Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). This reports constitutes the outcome of the Work Package 5 (WP5) of the VIEWLS project. In WP5 the EU biofuels and bioenergy markets are modelled with the aim to conduct quantitative analyses on the production and costs of biofuels and on the resulting market structure and supply chains. In a bigger context, where possible, WP5 aims also to provide insight into larger socio-economic impacts of bioenergy trade within Europe. The objective of this research is to develop a cost efficient biofuel strategy for Europe in terms of biofuel production, cost and trade, and to assess its larger impact on bioenergy markets and trade up to 2030. Based on the biomass availability and associated costs within EU25, under different conditions, scenarios for biofuels production and cost can be constructed using quantitative modelling tools. Combining this with (cost) data on biofuel conversion technologies and transport of biomass and biofuels, the lowest cost biofuel supply chain given a certain demand predetermined by the biofuels Directive can be designed. In a broader context, this is supplemented by a design of a sustainable bioenergy supply chain in view of the fact that biomass-heat, biomass-electricity and biofuels are competing for the same biomass resources. In other words, the scarcity of bioenergy crops, as manifested through overall bioenergy demand, is an essential variable in bioenergy scenarios

  17. Biomass and Biofuel Potential of Food Industry in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    İşçi, Ebru Deniz, Gülen Yeşilören, Necla Özdem

    2015-01-01

    Progressive decrease in fossil fuel resources as a natural consequence of rapid population growth anddeveloping technology has increased the need for renewable and sustainable energy resources. Inrecent years, interest in energy obtained from biomass (i.e. biofuel) has increased as an alternative toexisting energy sources due to its contribution to sustainable development. Food industry wastes arevaluable sources of biomass. In this study, the amount of food waste generated in fruit juice, ve...

  18. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  19. Life cycle assessment of biofuels: energy and greenhouse gas balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Villegas, J; Panichelli, L

    2009-11-01

    The promotion of biofuels as energy for transportation in the industrialized countries is mainly driven by the perspective of oil depletion, the concerns about energy security and global warming. However due to sustainability constraints, biofuels will replace only 10 to 15% of fossil liquid fuels in the transport sector. Several governments have defined a minimum target of GHG emissions reduction for those biofuels that will be eligible to public incentives, for example a 35% emissions reduction in case of biofuels in Members States of the European Union. This article points out the significant biases in estimating GHG balances of biofuels stemming from modelling choices about system definition and boundaries, functional unit, reference systems and allocation methods. The extent to which these choices influence the results is investigated. After performing a comparison and constructive criticism of various modelling choices, the LCA of wheat-to-bioethanol is used as an illustrative case where bioethanol is blended with gasoline at various percentages (E5, E10 and E85). The performance of these substitution options is evaluated as well. The results show a large difference in the reduction of the GHG emissions with a high sensitivity to the following factors: the method used to allocate the impacts between the co-products, the type of reference systems, the choice of the functional unit and the type of blend. The authors come out with some recommendations for basing the estimation of energy and GHG balances of biofuels on principles such as transparency, consistency and accuracy. PMID:19553106

  20. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  1. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  2. Biofuels in the U.S. Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekman, S. Kent [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Biofuels are of rapidly growing interest for reasons of energy security, diversity, and sustainability - as well as for greenhouse gas mitigation. In recent years, the U.S. has enacted regulations - and adopted aggressive goals - to encourage increased usage of biofuels. Individual States (especially California) have taken even stronger positions with respect to biofuels. Initial efforts have focused mainly on ethanol, produced via fermentation of sugars from grains (especially corn). Today's R and D focus is on '2nd Generation Biofuels' that are produced from a variety of biomass feedstocks utilizing a wide range of conversion technologies. This paper summarizes policy and regulatory drivers for biofuels in the U.S., describes usage trends and projections, and highlights major R and D efforts to promote development and commercialization of 2nd Generation Biofuels. R and D is being conducted in many areas, including biomass resource assessment, development of new biomass feedstocks, improved conversion technologies, and integration of systems. Other important considerations include fuel quality and specifications, as well as requirements for blending, distribution, and storage. Considerable R and D, policy, and regulatory efforts are also focused on the energy and environmental consequences of biofuels. This includes not only direct emissions associated with vehicular uses, but also the fuels' life-cycle impacts with respect to total energy usage, greenhouse gas emissions, and multi-media effects. Due to the wide diversity of biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies, and systems integration approaches, the life-cycle impacts of biofuels can vary widely. (author)

  3. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity. PMID:25289698

  4. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Wolfe, Alexis [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); English, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ruddick, Colleen [BCS, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States); Lambert, Devinn [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, is committed to advancing the vision of a viable, sustainable domestic biomass industry that produces renewable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower; enhances U.S. energy security; reduces our dependence on fossil fuels; provides environmental benefits; and creates economic opportunities across the nation. BETO’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws, including the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). To accomplish its goals, BETO has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, in partnership with national laboratories, academia, and industry.

  5. Fermentative biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

  6. Microalgae: biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.

  7. Carbon-negative biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem, in ways that are already technically feasible and practicable. The key to carbon negativity is to see it not as technically determined but as an issue of strategic choice, whereby farmers and fuel producers can decide how much carbon to return to the soil. Biochar amendment to the soil not only sequesters carbon but also enhances the fertility and vitality of the soil. The time is approaching when biofuels will be carbon negative by definition, and, as such, they will sweep away existing debates over their contribution to the solution of global warming. (author)

  8. Biofuels made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been said and written in Australia since the Federal Government introduced its Clean Fuels Policy in September 2001. Various biofuel projects are now being considered in different states of Australia for the manufacture of bioethanol and biodiesel from renewable resources. However, the economic viability required to establish an Australian liquid biofuels industry is predicated on supportive government legislation and an encouraging fuel excise regime. On the other hand, the benefits of such an industry are also in debate. In an attempt to clarify some of the concerns being raised, this paper endeavours to provide an overview of the current use of bioethanol and biodiesel around the world, to summarise the process technologies involved, to review the benefits and non-benefits of renewable fuels to the transport industry and to address the issues for such an industry here in Australia

  9. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  10. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from ''seed to wheel'', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its ''Plan Climat'' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (author)

  11. Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, Poonam Singh [Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Singh, Anoop [Biofuels Research Group, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    This article is an up-to-date review of the literature available on the subject of liquid biofuels. In search of a suitable fuel alternative to fast depleting fossil fuel and oil reserves and in serious consideration of the environmental issues associated with the extensive use of fuels based on petrochemicals, research work is in progress worldwide. Researchers have been re-directing their interests in biomass based fuels, which currently seem to be the only logical alternative for sustainable development in the context of economical and environmental considerations. Renewable bioresources are available globally in the form of residual agricultural biomass and wastes, which can be transformed into liquid biofuels. However, the process of conversion, or chemical transformation, could be very expensive and not worth-while to use for an economical large-scale commercial supply of biofuels. Hence, there is still need for much research to be done for an effective, economical and efficient conversion process. Therefore, this article is written as a broad overview of the subject, and includes information based on the research conducted globally by scientists according to their local socio-cultural and economic situations. (author)

  12. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  13. Biofuels barometer: Crops pending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actors and production capacities have changed only little in the biofuel sector from year to another. Nevertheless, it is interesting to take stock of the development of this sector at the end of 2002, so as to update the more complete barometer published in issue 144 of Systemes Solaires. Indeed, European ethanol production grew by 13% and that of bio-diesel by more than 20% in 2001. (authors)

  14. Biofuels - the UFIP position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 a directive promote the biofuels use. The industry is then using them in ETBE (Ethyl Tertio Butyl Ether) fuels and in diesel oil of vegetal oils esters EMHV. Meanwhile some of them present technical difficulties and must free themselves from fiscal incentives which make them competitive. For these reasons, the UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) do not agree their obligatory incorporation. (A.L.B.)

  15. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production: : Quantifying Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Jorge FONSECA

    2011-01-01

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about many issues, including the energy output versus input and the competition with food, has been raised andthe sustainability of biofuels in recent years has been constantly debated. However, the current biofuel systems may be optimized to increase the energy efficiency and environmentalperformance. By using concepts from industrial symbiosis, the material and energy exchangesmay be optimized to result in these performa...

  16. Plants producing biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    Biofuels are currently produced primarily from five plants, namely corn, canola, sugar cane, palm oil, jatropha. However, research and development efforts are underway around the world produce biofuels from other sources, particularly from algae. This paper described the characteristics of the top 5 plants and their role in the production of biofuels. Countries where these plants are cultivated were also summarized. The article indicated that producing ethanol from corn, is not very efficient since growing corn requires more fertilizer and pesticides than most other crops, plus the corn kernels have to undergo energy-intensive distillation and chemical extraction processes. China is the world's largest producer of rapeseed oil, with an annual production of 12 million tons. The countries of the European Union collectively produce another 16 million tons, of which nearly 4 million tons were used in 2006 to produce biodiesel. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, and accounts for about 45 per cent of global ethanol production. Malaysia and Indonesia are the key players in the palm oil market, accounting for 85 per cent of global production. India has identified more than 11 million hectares that would be suitable for growing jatropha, whose seeds contain up to 40 per cent oil that can be burned in a conventional diesel engine after extraction. 1 tab.

  17. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  18. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  19. Biofuel cells and their development

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, R.A.; Arnot, T.C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2006-01-01

    This review considers the literature published since 1994 on microbial and enzymatic biofuel cells. Types of biofuel cell are classified according to the nature of the electrode reaction and the nature of the biochemical reactions. The performance of fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications is considered. The current direction of development of biofuel cells is carefully analysed. While considerable chemical development of enzyme electrodes has occurred, relati...

  20. Biofuels, land use change, and greenhouse gas emissions: some unexplored variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungtae; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-02-01

    Greenhouse gas release from land use change (the so-called "carbon debt") has been identified as a potentially significant contributor to the environmental profile of biofuels. The time required for biofuels to overcome this carbon debt due to land use change and begin providing cumulative greenhouse gas benefits is referred to as the "payback period" and has been estimated to be 100-1000 years depending on the specific ecosystem involved in the land use change event. Two mechanisms for land use change exist: "direct" land use change, in which the land use change occurs as part of a specific supply chain for a specific biofuel production facility, and "indirect" land use change, in which market forces act to produce land use change in land that is not part of a specific biofuel supply chain, including, for example, hypothetical land use change on another continent. Existing land use change studies did not consider many of the potentially important variables that might affect the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. We examine here several variables that have not yet been addressed in land use change studies. Our analysis shows that cropping management is a key factor in estimating greenhouse gas emissions associated with land use change. Sustainable cropping management practices (no-till and no-till plus cover crops) reduce the payback period to 3 years for the grassland conversion case and to 14 years for the forest conversion case. It is significant that no-till and cover crop practices also yield higher soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in corn fields derived from former grasslands or forests than the SOC levels that result if these grasslands or forests are allowed to continue undisturbed. The United States currently does not hold any of its domestic industries responsible for its greenhouse gas emissions. Thus the greenhouse gas standards established for renewable fuels such as corn ethanol in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 set a

  1. The effect of cellulosic biofuel production on water resources at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. F.; Scheonholtz, S. H.; Nettles, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. government has mandated production of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, of which 16 billion gallons are required to be cellulosic biofuels. Production of cellulosic biomass offers a promising alternative to corn-based systems because large-scale production of corn-based ethanol often requires irrigation and is associated with increased erosion, excess sediment export, and enhanced leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although cultivation of switchgrass using standard agricultural practices is one option being considered for production of cellulosic biomass, intercropping cellulosic biofuel crops within managed forests could provide feedstock without primary land use change or the water resources impacts associated with annual crops. There are data sets and models that have been used to evaluate effects of agriculturally-based biofuel options on water quantity and quality, but the evaluation - from instrumentation through data analysis - is designed for these more disturbed systems and is not appropriate for the more subtle changes anticipated from a pine/switchgrass systems. Currently, there is no known hydrologic model that can explicitly assess the effect of intercropping on water resources. However, these models can evaluate the effects of growing switchgrass on water resources and would be useful in identifying the "worst case scenario". We used the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based hydrologic model, to examine effects of large scale conversion of pine plantations to switchgrass biofuel production on water resources in the ~ 5 mil ha Tombigbee Watershed in the southeastern U.S. Publically available datasets were used as input to the model and for calibration. To improve calibration statistics, five tree age classes were added to the model to more appropriately represent existing forested systems in the region, which are not included within the standard model set-up. Results suggest land use conversions result in 4 and

  2. Biofuel Subsidies and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Bhaumik, Sumon; Wall, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores optimal biofuel subsidization in the context of a general equilibrium trade model. The focus is on biofuels such as corn-based ethanol, which diverts corn from use as food to use as an intermediate input in energy production. In the small-country case, when a Pigouvian tax on conventional fuels such as crude is in place, the optimal biofuel subsidy is zero. When the tax on crude is not available as a policy option, however, a second-best biofuel subsidy (or tax) is opti...

  3. Potential impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana: A contribution to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.

  4. Molecular Breeding of Advanced Microorganisms for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakuragi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of fossil fuels are consumed every day in spite of increasing environmental problems. To preserve the environment and construct a sustainable society, the use of biofuels derived from different kinds of biomass is being practiced worldwide. Although bioethanol has been largely produced, it commonly requires food crops such as corn and sugar cane as substrates. To develop a sustainable energy supply, cellulosic biomass should be used for bioethanol production instead of grain biomass. For this purpose, cell surface engineering technology is a very promising method. In biobutanol and biodiesel production, engineered host fermentation has attracted much attention; however, this method has many limitations such as low productivity and low solvent tolerance of microorganisms. Despite these problems, biofuels such as bioethanol, biobutanol, and biodiesel are potential energy sources that can help establish a sustainable society.

  5. Is EarthCheck community standard an effective sustainable tourism management tool? : a case study on Snæfellsnes Peninsula, Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    The Westfjords Tourism Board decided to work towards gaining EarthCheck community standard in the Westfjords, Iceland in 2010. This sparked the researcher to determine if this international environmental community standard is more than just an eco-label. The research goals determined if gaining EarthCheck community certification improved the environmental, economic and social well-being in Snæfellsnes; if EarthCheck certification was an effective sustainable tourism marketing tool; and, how t...

  6. Fast measurement by infrared spectroscopy as support to woody biofuels quality determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the demand for energy supply during the past few decades has brought and will bring to a growth in the utilisation of renewable resources, in particular of solid biomasses. Considering the variability in the properties of biomass and the globalisation of the timber market, a chemical and physical characterisation is essential to determine the biomass quality. The specific international standards on solid biofuels (ISO 17225 series describe proper specification and classification of wood chip and pellet, to ensure appropriate quality. Moreover, standard requires information about origin and source of the biomass, normally only to be declared by the producers. In order to fulfill the requirements for the biomass quality, the origin and the source should be assessed, even if currently is hard to determine, in particular on milled or densified biomass. Infrared spectroscopy can provide information on the biomass at the chemical level, directly linked also to its origin and source. This technique is fast and not destructive thus suitable also for online monitoring along the biofuel production chain. In this study, 60 samples belonging to 8 different species were collected and related spectra were acquired using a Fourier transform infrared (IR spectrometer equipped with a module for solid analysis and analysed by principal component analysis. The results obtained show that the method is very efficient in the identification between coniferous and deciduous wood (99% confidence level and good results were obtained in the recognition of coniferous/deciduous mixtures, too. Nevertheless, some clear differences have been also noted among intra-class grouping, but additional tests should be carried out. This technique can provide useful information to solid biofuel stakeholders about wood quality and origin, important especially for sustainability issues. Further work will be oriented to the development of IR methodologies for the fast

  7. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, J.L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-08-19

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has generated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel market, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  8. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, J. L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has gener-ated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel mar-ket, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  9. Really sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2016-01-01

    concept of sustainability is an important additional issue. Experience from the MSC demonstrates that standardization of what is considered sustainable creates a monopoly-like situation. This produces a difficult situation for those who are least able to respond to new market requirements as well as those...... who respond to calls for sustainability in different ways compared to those that have received the approval of a few, large certification schemes such as the MSC....

  10. CONNECTICUT BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGY PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTONE, ERIK

    2010-09-28

    DBS Energy Inc. (“DBS”) intends on using the Connecticut Biofuels Technology Project for the purpose of developing a small-scale electric generating systems that are located on a distributed basis and utilize biodiesel as its principle fuel source. This project will include research and analysis on the quality and applied use of biodiesel for use in electricity production, 2) develop dispatch center for testing and analysis of the reliability of dispatching remote generators operating on a blend of biodiesel and traditional fossil fuels, and 3) analysis and engineering research on fuel storage options for biodiesel of fuels for electric generation.

  11. Biofuels: Project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  12. The biofuel potential of crop based biomass in Denmark in 2020; Danmarks potentiale for afgroedebaseret biobraendstofproduktion i aar 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelsen Blume, S.

    2008-02-15

    According to climate change observations and foresights several countries including Denmark have committed to reduce GHGemissions. However, the transport sector is still increasing its GHGemissions. Substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels seems to be the best way to reduce CO{sub 2}-emission from this sector on the shorter term. This project evaluates how Denmark can produce enough biofuels to fulfil the political goal of 10 % substitution of the fossil fuel consumption in the year of 2020. This project also approaches the suitability of different crop species to the biofuel industry. Maize and sugar beet are the most suitable crops for biofuel production when only focusing on maximum biofuel yield. Alfalfa is likewise showings great potential and is the most suitable crop in terms of sustainable biofuel production, because of low energy requirements (diesel, fertilizer, pesticide and irrigation) during cropping. Even though maize has higher needs for energy during cropping, it will still be suitable for sustainable biofuel production because of the high biofuel yield. Present calculations show that it is possible to meet the required amount of biofuels by using domestic biomass, which is currently exported (cereal grain) or not utilized (eg. straw). However, these calculations assume that it will become possible to convert the whole amount of carbohydrates into biofuel before 2020. In terms of assessing the biofuel production potential three storylines are defined for the development until 2020. Changes in land use and crop composition are suggested for each storyline to adjust the biofuel production to Danish agriculture. The biofuel production potential is also assessed for two regions in Denmark. Here the region of Storstroem shows greater potential than the region of Soenderjylland because of low density of domestic animals. (au)

  13. Energy Policy and Environmental Possibilities: Biofuels and Key Protagonists of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    While a growing body of research indicates the severe ecological and social costs of biofuel production worldwide, the U.S. government continues to promote the expansion of this fuel sector. Recent congressional testimony regarding the promotion of biofuels via the renewable fuel standard (RFS) offers a strategic research site for sociological…

  14. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  15. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  16. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  17. Biofuels. An overview. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this desk study is to get an overview of the most relevant liquid biofuels especially in the African context, and more specifically in the Netherlands' relevant partner countries. The study will focus on biofuels for transport, but will also consider biofuels for cooking and power generation. Biogas as the result of anaerobic fermentation which can be used for cooking, lighting and electricity generation will not be considered in this study. Liquid biofuels are usually divided into alcohols that are used to substitute for gasoline and oils that are used to substitute for diesel and are often called Biodiesel, and this division will be followed in this study. In chapter 2 we will analyse several aspects of the use of alcohols particularly ethanol, in chapter 3 the same analysis will be done for oils, using as example the very promising Jatropha oil. In chapter we will analyse socio-economic issues of the use of these biofuels

  18. Biofuels for transportation. From R and D to market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilo, C. [comp.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the Workshop was to bring together stakeholders in industry, government and science to identify technical, economic and institutional opportunities and/or barriers to the market penetration of biofuels and to tackle these issues jointly in an international environment. The Workshop was to cover the role of biofuels in replacing fossil fuels and achieving sustainable transportation. It was to be more oriented towards policy issues than towards analyses of scientific and technical details. The Workshop was focused on the conditions in Northern Europe and North America. Three main themes were chosen: THEME 1. Biomass Feedstocks. How do we produce them cost-effectively and for what purpose? THEME 2. Biofuels for Transportation. What will make them technically and economically competitive? THEME 3. Market Penetration of Biofuels. How do we remove barriers? The following biofuels were considered during the Workshop: Alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol. Ethers, such as MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether) and ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). Vegetable oils and esters, such as VME (vegetable-oil-methylester), RME (rape-oil-methyl-ester) and REE (rape-oil-ethyl-ester)

  19. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  20. Analysis of advanced biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, John E.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Welz, Oliver; Yang, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. Rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols efficiently. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially replace ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. The elementary autoignition reactions of isopentanol is investigated by analyzing product formation from laser-photolytic Cl-initiated isopentanol oxidation. Carbon-carbon bond-scission reactions in the low-temperature oxidation chemistry may provide an explanation for the intermediate-temperature heat release observed in the engine experiments. Overall, the results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

  1. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  2. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  3. Considering Trade Policies for Liquid Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami; Mitchell, Donald; Ward, William

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses the issues associated with trade in liquid biofuels is a second Energy Sector Management Assistance Program report on biofuels, and part of a broader assessment of bioenergy undertaken by the World Bank. The report asks how liberalizing trade in liquid biofuels might affect biofuel production and consumption. Bioenergy is playing an increasingly important role as an a...

  4. Catalyst technology for biofuel production: Conversion of renewable lipids into biojet and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharff Yves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable lipids based biofuels are an important tool to address issues raised by policies put in place in order to reduce the dependence of transportation sector on fossil fuels and to promote the development of non-food based, sustainable and eco-friendly fuels. This paper presents the main features of the heterogeneous catalysis technologies Axens has developed for the production of biofuels from renewable lipids: the first by transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl esters or biodiesel and the second by hydrotreating to produce isoparaffinic hydroprocessed ester and fatty acids, high blending rate drop-in diesel and jet biofuels.

  5. Algal Biofuels Strategy. Proceedings from the March 26-27, 2014, Workshop, Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-06-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s Algal Biofuel Strategy Workshop on March 26-27, 2014, in Charleston, South Carolina. The workshop objective was to convene stakeholders to engage in discussion on strategies over the next 5 to 10 years to achieve affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  6. Estimating Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of biofuels: Concepts and methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gnansounou, E.; Dauriat, A.; Panichelli, L.; Villegas, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in developing biofuels has rapidly increased during the last decades followed by a strong controversy about their sustainability. Diverting a large amount of land from agriculture to fuels, impacting forests and grasslands, loss of biodiversity due to large monocropped fields are some threats that inhibit the momentum towards a significant substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels. From a methodological point of view, several estimations of the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) em...

  7. Environmental assessment of mild bisulfite pretreatment of forest residues into fermentable sugars for biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Nwaneshiudu, Ikechukwu C; Ganguly, Indroneil; Pierobon, Francesca; Bowers, Tait; Eastin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Background Sugar production via pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic feedstock, in this case softwood harvest residues, is a critical step in the biochemical conversion pathway towards drop-in biofuels. Mild bisulfite (MBS) pretreatment is an emerging option for the breakdown and subsequent processing of biomass towards fermentable sugars. An environmental assessment of this process is critical to discern its future sustainability in the ever-changing biofuels landscape. Result...

  8. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  9. Mālama I Ka `Āina, Sustainability: learning from Hawai`i's displaced place and culture-based science standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2011-03-01

    This response to Mitchell and Mueller's "A philosophical analysis of David Orr's theory of ecological literacy" comments on their critique of Orr's use of the phrase "ecological crisis" and what I perceive as their conflicting views of "crisis." I present my views on ecological crisis informed by standpoint theory and the definition of crisis as turning point. I connect the concept of turning point to tipping point as used in ecology to describe potentially irreversible changes in coupled social-ecological systems. I suggest that sustainable societies may provide models of adaptive learning in which monitoring of ecological phenomena is coupled to human behavior to mitigate threats to sustainability before a crisis/tipping point is reached. Finally, I discuss the Hawai`i State Department of Education's removal of its Indigenous science content standard Mālama I Ka `Āina, Sustainability and its continued use in community-based projects.

  10. Global land-use implications of first and second generation biofuel targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, an active debate has emerged around greenhouse gas emissions due to indirect land use change (iLUC) of expanding agricultural areas dedicated to biofuel production. In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the iLUC effect, and further address the issues of deforestation, irrigation water use, and crop price increases due to expanding biofuel acreage. We use GLOBIOM - an economic partial equilibrium model of the global forest, agriculture, and biomass sectors with a bottom-up representation of agricultural and forestry management practices. The results indicate that second generation biofuel production fed by wood from sustainably managed existing forests would lead to a negative iLUC factor, meaning that overall emissions are 27% lower compared to the 'No biofuel' scenario by 2030. The iLUC factor of first generation biofuels global expansion is generally positive, requiring some 25 years to be paid back by the GHG savings from the substitution of biofuels for conventional fuels. Second generation biofuels perform better also with respect to the other investigated criteria; on the condition that they are not sourced from dedicated plantations directly competing for agricultural land. If so, then efficient first generation systems are preferable. Since no clear technology champion for all situations exists, we would recommend targeting policy instruments directly at the positive and negative effects of biofuel production rather than at the production itself.

  11. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  12. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  13. Overcoming the initial investment hurdle for advanced biofuels. An analysis of biofuel-related risks and their impact on project financing. Report of ELOBIO subtask 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ELOBIO research project aims to develop policies that will help achieve a higher share of biofuels in total transport fuel in a low-disturbing and sustainable way. Workpackage 7 of the ELOBIO project aims at addressing the objective of providing a reliable estimate of the potential and costs of biofuels, given the application of low-disturbing policy measures. More specifically, we seek to evaluate the impact of these biofuel policy measures on the investment climate for second-generation technologies. To this end, we try to answer several sub-questions in a following logical sequence: (1) What are the different factors that contribute to investment risk in biofuels and what are their relative contributions to overall biofuel project risk as perceived by finance providers?; (2) How do these risks translate into cost of capital for different biofuel technologies?; (3) How does cost of capital influence market penetration rates for the different technologies?; and (4) What is the best policy (or policy mix) to overcome the initial investment hurdle for advanced biofuels, thus lowering their cost of capital and achieve wider market deployment?.

  14. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    OpenAIRE

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has gener-ated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ide...

  15. Analyzing Drivers of World Food Prices: Weather, Growth, and Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Kaye-Blake, William; Cagatay, Selim

    2009-01-01

    The recent rise of food cost in world markets has accelerated the research examining the underlying factors for this rise. The present research investigated the separate and combined impacts of three factors thought to contribute to the price rise: adverse weather events, strong and sustained growth in high populated countries, and increased biofuels production. The research further analysed the effects of these price rises on consumption expenditures in Brazil, China and India. Analyses were...

  16. Peptide-mediated microalgae harvesting method for efficient biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Yoshiaki; Tateishi, Takuma; Niwa, Yuta; Muto, Masaki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Kisailus, David; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Production of biofuels from microalgae has been recognized to be a promising route for a sustainable energy supply. However, the microalgae harvesting process is a bottleneck for industrialization because it is energy intensive. Thus, by displaying interactive protein factors on the cell wall, oleaginous microalgae can acquire the auto- and controllable-flocculation function, yielding smarter and energy-efficient harvesting. Results Towards this goal, we established a cell-surface ...

  17. Transgenic woody plants for biofuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Anna Y.Tang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic trees as a new source for biofuel have brought a great interest in tree biotechnology. Genetically modifying forest trees for ethanol production have advantages in technical challenges, costs, environmental concerns, and financial problems over some of crops. Genetic engineering of forest trees can be used to reduce the level of lignin, to produce the fast-growing trees, to develop trees with higher cellulose, and to allow the trees to be grown more widely. Trees can establish themselves in the field with less care of farmers, compared to most of crops. Transgenic crops as a new source for biofuel have been recently reviewed in several reviews. Here, we overview transgenic woody plants as a new source for biofuel including genetically modified woody plants and environment; main focus of woody plants genetic modifications;solar to chemical energy transfer; cellulose biosynthesis;lignin biosynthesis;and cellulosic ethanol as biofuel.

  18. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  19. Sustainable bioenergy production

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Section I Fundamentals of Engineering Analysis and Design of Bioenergy Production SystemsGenetic Engineering of Bioenergy Crops toward High Biofuel ProductionGuosheng Xie and Liangcai PengNovel Cropping Technologies and Management Applied to Energy CropsLorenzo BarbantiMathematical Modeling in Biomass and Bioenergy SystemsLijun Wang, Samuel Asomaning Agyemang and Abolghasem ShahbaziLife-Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy SystemsReinout Heijungs and Edi Iswanto WilosoSustainability of Bioenergy Systems

  20. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NOx, smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  1. Does the Gold Standard label hold its promise in delivering higher Sustainable Development benefits? A multi-criteria comparison of CDM projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a twin objective: to help developed countries reduce GHG emissions, and to support developing countries in achieving Sustainable Development (SD). As a response to the widespread criticism of the CDM's unsatisfactory SD record, initiatives have developed premium labels like the Gold Standard, which applies two additional 'screens' to filter CDM projects for higher SD benefits. In order to determine whether Gold Standard projects can be associated with higher local SD benefits, this paper evaluates the potential benefits of 48 CDM projects using a multi-criteria method and building on existing work. The 18 evaluated Gold Standard projects are compared to a 'representative portfolio' of 30 unlabeled CDM projects in order to capture the 'full' effect of the additional Gold Standard requirements, which is further decomposed into the two 'screen' effects. The results suggest that Gold Standard Certified Emission Reductions can be associated with higher potential local SD benefits when compared to the 'representative portfolio' of unlabeled CDM projects, while the comparison of projects of the same type remains inconclusive. The results support previous findings showing that renewable energy projects may deliver comparatively high SD benefits. - Research highlights: → This study evaluates and compares the potential contribution of unlabeled- and Gold Standard labeled CDM projects to Sustainable Development (SD), extending the previously assessed projects as well as the methodological approach. → Gold Standard labeled Certified Emission Reductions (CER) can be associated with higher potential SD benefits compared to unlabeled projects. → A decomposition analysis shows that the Gold Standard s SD surplus must be primarily attributed to the favorable contribution of renewable energy projects to SD. → Policy makers might thus shift incentives towards renewable energy projects and buyers of CERs may shift their offset

  2. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Văn Quân; Ho Trung Phuoc

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engin...

  3. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Biofuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Subram Maniam

    Bioalcohols, such as bioethanol and biobutanol, are suitable replacements for gasoline, while biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This study's contribution is experimentally validated chemical kinetic combustion mechanisms for biobutanol and biodiesel. Fundamental combustion data and chemical kinetic mechanisms are presented and discussed to improve our understanding of biofuel combustion. The net environmental impact of biobutanol (i.e., n-butanol) has not been studied extensively, so this study first assesses the sustainability of n-butanol derived from corn. The results indicate that technical advances in fuel production are required before commercializing biobutanol. The primary contribution of this research is new experimental data and a novel chemical kinetic mechanism for n-butanol combustion. The results indicate that under the given experimental conditions, n-butanol is consumed primarily via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radical molecules, which subsequently decompose to smaller hydrocarbon and oxygenated species. The hydroxyl moiety in n-butanol results in the direct production of the oxygenated species such as butanal, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. The formation of these compounds sequesters carbon from forming soot precursors, but they may introduce other adverse environmental and health effects. Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents high quality experimental data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and models its combustion using an improved skeletal mechanism. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which ultimately lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular

  4. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  5. Advanced biofuels in a biorefinery approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Henning (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The conference was organized by the University of Copenhagen and Bio4Bio, a centre for development and implementation of biotechnology for bioenergy consisting of 8 Danish universities and companies. The conference was also coordinated with the International Energy Agency's two networks: Bioenergy Task 39 (commercializing liquid biofuels from biomass) and Task 42 (biorefineries). The conference was organized in the following sessions: Biorefineries seen from an ecological, economical and industrial point of view; Plants and biomass - input for the biorefinery; Biomass processing and pretreatment; Enzymatic hydrolysis in biorefineries; Sustainability; Fermentation technologies and systems biology; Biomass recalcitrance and conversion; Biorefinery technologies and integration; IEA Bioenergy Task 42; IEA Bioenergy Task 39; New materials and chemicals from biomass; Deployment of biorefinery technologies. The present report contains oral and poster abstracts, and most of them are indexed separately. (Author)

  6. Standardization perspectives of communication infrastructure of future homes : from automated home to sustainable, healthy and manufacturing home

    OpenAIRE

    Branger, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the Internet of Things, devices and appliances will be increasingly connected to each other and the people within the home. In order for the communication to be possible a standard for communication is needed. In many cases there are too many standards, and for other cases there may instead be an absence of standard. This thesis provides a contemporary view of future developments of homes and the current standardization progress. Four domains in homes are investigated: the automated...

  7. From Biomass to Biofuels: NREL Leads the Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-01

    This brochure covers how biofuels can help meet future needs for transportation fuels, how biofuels are produced, U.S. potential for biofuels, and NREL's approach to efficient affordable biofuels.

  8. FUNGIBLE AND COMPATIBLE BIOFUELS: LITERATURE SEARCH, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report is to summarize the various barriers to more widespread distribution of bio-fuels through our common carrier fuel distribution system, which includes pipelines, barges and rail, fuel tankage, and distribution terminals. Addressing these barriers is necessary to allow the more widespread utilization and distribution of bio-fuels, in support of a renewable fuels standard and possible future low-carbon fuel standards. These barriers can be classified into several categories, including operating practice, regulatory, technical, and acceptability barriers. Possible solutions to these issues are discussed; including compatibility evaluation, changes to bio-fuels, regulatory changes, and changes in the distribution system or distribution practices. No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but results are used to develop recommendations for future research and additional study as appropriate. This project addresses recognized barriers to the wider use of bio-fuels in the areas of development of codes and standards, industrial and consumer awareness, and materials compatibility issues.

  9. Biofuels feedstock development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires

  10. Improving Sustainability in Global Supply Chains with Private Certification Standards: Testing An Approach for Assessing Their Performance and Impact Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Walter; Metselaar, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable supply chain governance approaches aim for improvement of environmental and community living conditions at the developing country's side of the global supply chains. Impact evaluation in remote and multiple sourcing countries is hardly done in practice because of its complexity and costs

  11. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  12. Environmental and economic implications of second generation biofuels for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Pasanen, K. (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu (Finland)); Seppaelae, J. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Honkatukia, J. (Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki (Finland)), Thun, R. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The key objective of the project is to assess greenhouse gas and other environmental impacts of producing and using second generation biofuels. In addition, economic implications for Finland taking into account availability and competition of raw materials are analysed in three technology and target scenarios aiming to reach the EU's 10% target proposed for the biofuels in road transportation in 2020. Technologies for which environmental impact analysis are carried out are F-T diesel, NExBTL diesel, second generation ethanol and Brazilian ethanol. Raw materials considered include forest residues, peat, reed canary grass, straw, palm oil, rapeseed oil, waste fats and sugar cane. Economic implications for Finland by 2020 are studied in different scenarios with various assumptions as regards e.g. to self-sufficiency. Sustainability criteria for biofuels proposed by various organisations or institutions are critically analysed. The project is carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The current knowledge and ongoing national and international projects are exploited to produce transparent and reliable data on environmental and economic impacts of considered biofuels. The final report of the project is scheduled to he published at the end of this year. (orig.)

  13. Can biofuel crops alleviate tribal poverty in India's drylands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The on-going climate change concerns have stimulated heavy interest in biofuels, and supporters of biofuels hail that they are considered naturally carbon-neutral. Critiques on the other hand cry that the large-scale production of biofuels can not only strain agricultural resources, but also threaten future food security. People who live in the drylands of India are often faced with challenges and constraints of poverty. Foremost among the challenges are the marginal environmental conditions for agriculture, often influenced by low and erratic rainfall, frequent droughts, poor soil condition, unreliable irrigation water supply, and rural migration to urban areas in search of work. In this paper, we have analyzed a case study of community lift irrigation practiced in India and its impact in boosting agricultural productivity and enhancing local food security. The lift-irrigation model practiced in the drylands of India to grow food crops can be adopted for the expansion of biofuel crops that has the potential to eradicate poverty among farming communities if appropriate sustainable development measures are carefully implemented. (author)

  14. Metabolic engineering of microalgal based biofuel production: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjib eBanerjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario in renewable energy is focused on development of alternate and sustainable energy sources, amongst which microalgae stands as one of the promising feedstock for biofuel production. It is well known that microalgae generate much larger amounts of biofuels in a shorter time than other sources based on plant seeds. However, the greatest challenge in a transition to algae-based biofuel production is the various other complications involved in microalgal cultivation, its harvesting, concentration, drying and lipid extraction. Several green microalgae accumulate lipids, especially triacylglycerols (TAGs, which are main precursors in the production of lipid. The various aspects on metabolic pathway analysis of an oleaginous microalgae i.e. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have elucidated some novel metabolically important genes and this enhances the lipid production in this microalgae. Adding to it, various other aspects in metabolic engineering using OptFlux and effectual bioprocess design also gives an interactive snapshot of enhancing lipid production which ultimately improvises the oil yield. This article reviews the current status of microalgal based technologies for biofuel production, bioreactor process design, flux analysis and it also provides various strategies to increase lipids accumulation via metabolic engineering.

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Microalgal Based Biofuel Production: Prospects and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Dubey, Kashyap K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    The current scenario in renewable energy is focused on development of alternate and sustainable energy sources, amongst which microalgae stands as one of the promising feedstock for biofuel production. It is well known that microalgae generate much larger amounts of biofuels in a shorter time than other sources based on plant seeds. However, the greatest challenge in a transition to algae-based biofuel production is the various other complications involved in microalgal cultivation, its harvesting, concentration, drying and lipid extraction. Several green microalgae accumulate lipids, especially triacylglycerols (TAGs), which are main precursors in the production of lipid. The various aspects on metabolic pathway analysis of an oleaginous microalgae i.e., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have elucidated some novel metabolically important genes and this enhances the lipid production in this microalgae. Adding to it, various other aspects in metabolic engineering using OptFlux and effectual bioprocess design also gives an interactive snapshot of enhancing lipid production which ultimately improvises the oil yield. This article reviews the current status of microalgal based technologies for biofuel production, bioreactor process design, flux analysis and it also provides various strategies to increase lipids accumulation via metabolic engineering. PMID:27065986

  16. Metabolic Engineering of Microalgal Based Biofuel Production: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Dubey, Kashyap K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    The current scenario in renewable energy is focused on development of alternate and sustainable energy sources, amongst which microalgae stands as one of the promising feedstock for biofuel production. It is well known that microalgae generate much larger amounts of biofuels in a shorter time than other sources based on plant seeds. However, the greatest challenge in a transition to algae-based biofuel production is the various other complications involved in microalgal cultivation, its harvesting, concentration, drying and lipid extraction. Several green microalgae accumulate lipids, especially triacylglycerols (TAGs), which are main precursors in the production of lipid. The various aspects on metabolic pathway analysis of an oleaginous microalgae i.e., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have elucidated some novel metabolically important genes and this enhances the lipid production in this microalgae. Adding to it, various other aspects in metabolic engineering using OptFlux and effectual bioprocess design also gives an interactive snapshot of enhancing lipid production which ultimately improvises the oil yield. This article reviews the current status of microalgal based technologies for biofuel production, bioreactor process design, flux analysis and it also provides various strategies to increase lipids accumulation via metabolic engineering. PMID:27065986

  17. Too difficult to govern? An assessment of the governability of transport biofuels in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport biofuels are currently the subject of heated debate in the EU. In the past decade the deployment of these technologies has been justified by claims of attractive environmental, geopolitical and rural development benefits. However, expectations have rapidly turned into deep criticism regarding the sustainability of these technologies and the desirability of pursuing the biofuel path. This situation has generated an on-going controversy and policy deadlock at EU level. This study explores these issues from a governance perspective. Employing the concept of system governability, derived from interactive governance theory, it attempts to shed some light on the problems facing the governance of biofuels and on how the quality of the governance system could be improved. The analysis showed that the governability of the system decreased substantially in the period 2003–2012 due to increasing governing needs and decreasing governing capacity. The quality of the governance system can be improved by (i) improving governing capacity by reducing conflicts among governing actors, advancing consistency among institutions and creating capacity at international and global level; and (ii) promoting advanced technologies and adjusting societal ambitions and expectations regarding biofuels. - highlights: • Biofuels in the EU are significantly more difficult to govern today than in 2003. • This is due to the qualities of the system to be governed and the governing system. • Sustainable biofuel systems are inherently difficult to govern

  18. New Design & Build Biological System through the Use of Microalgae Addressed to Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Armen B. Avagyan

    2010-01-01

    Current trends in energy consumption and biofuel manufacturing are neither secure nor sustainable, because they are not provided by necessary cost effective technologies. Further reductions of cost and technological development will be needed for biofuels to be able to compete effectively without subsidy. With the debate raging about raw material of biofuel, microalgae may offer a solution to this conundrum; creating enormous reserves of biofuels and boosting feed production. In this goal Cen...

  19. Global production of biofuels in the context of food security

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiak, Ewa; Łopaciuk, Wiesław; Szajner, Piotr; Grochowska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is the issue of global production of biofuels in the context of food security. Production of biofuels and food security – competition and correlations. Raw materials for production of biofuels as compared to conditions on global markets. Global market of biofuels. Impact of production of biofuels on cereal market. Impact of production of biofuels on oilseed market.

  20. Biofuels system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels, or fuels produced from biomass resources, represent an environmentally responsible source of liquid fuels. The combustion of petroleum and coal releases large volumes of carbon dioxide which have been stored millions of years ago that contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Biomass resources sequester carbon during their growing period, and when processed, this recently stored carbon is released as carbon dioxide. If biomass is replanted after harvesting, the carbon is again sequestered, resulting in a short cycle carbon loop. Another growing problem is waste disposal. Biomass wastes such as wood residues and municipal solid waste (MSW) often are landfilled and produce methane, another greenhouse gas. Diverting these wastes to a processing facility can eliminate methane production from landfilling. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is developing technology to convert biomass resources to fuels, chemicals, and solid residue that can be used for power generation. There is an estimated 1,118 to 2,945 million tons of biomass resources available annually that can be converted to renewable fuels using newly developed conversion processes. Economic evaluation of these processes have shown promise. This paper compares the economics of six biomass conversion systems. Prices and costs vary for site-specific areas, and the cost numbers used in the TVA comparison represent general systems. The rate of return on investments vary from 15.5% to 19.8% depending on the feedstock, process, and products. TVA is continuing research and development activities to improve economics of biomass systems and make them more attractive to commercial users. These technologies are environmentally friendly and can help to reduce the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane accumulation

  1. The second generation biofuels from the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  2. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael; Wu, Weihua; Taatjes, Craig A.; Scheer, Adam Michael; Turner, Kevin M.; Yu, Eizadora T.; O' Bryan, Greg; Powell, Amy Jo; Gao, Connie W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  3. International trade in biofuels: Good for development? And good for Environment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufey, Annie

    2007-01-15

    Biofuels are heating up debates and energising activities on many policy fronts. On the surface, they offer significant opportunities to pursue environment and development goals both globally and domestically. There are both synergies and trade-offs between these goals and levels. Trade will drive biofuels growth, yet current trade regimes are not fit for maximising benefits nor minimising risks from the sector. The novelty of biofuels, the vast array of issues involved and the lack of knowledge to tackle many of them, together with diverging political and business interests, mean that consensus is elusive. It is therefore increasingly urgent to map a path for the global biofuels industry that supports sustainable development. Based on a new analysis of the sector, this briefing lays out some of the options for achieving this.

  4. Fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjin J. Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile energy costs and environmental concerns have spurred interest in the development of alternative, renewable, sustainable and cost-effective energy resources. Advanced biofuels have potential to replace fossil fuels in supporting high-power demanding machinery such as aircrafts and trucks. Microbial biosynthesis is generally considered as an environmental friendly refinery process, and fatty acid biosynthesis is an attractive route to synthesize chemicals and especially drop-in biofuels due to the high degree of reduction of fatty acids. The robustness and excellent accessibility to molecular genetics make the yeast S. cerevisiae a suitable host for the production of biofuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and recent advances in metabolic engineering as well as systems and synthetic biology allow us to engineer the yeast fatty acid metabolism and modification pathways for production of advanced biofuels and chemicals.

  5. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  6. Combined Sustainability Assessment and Techno-Economic Analysis for the Production of Biomass-Derived High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit

    2015-11-13

    Conversion technologies for biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are being actively developed. Converting biomass into advanced hydrocarbon fuels requires detailed assessments to help prioritize research; techno-economic analysis (TEA) is a long established tool used to assess feasibility and progress. TEA provides information needed to make informed judgments about the viability of any given conceptual conversion process; it is particularly useful to identify technical barriers and measure progress toward overcoming those barriers. Expansion of the cellulosic biofuels industry at the scale needed to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard goals is also expected to have environmental impacts. Hence, the success of the biofuels industry depends not only on economic viability, but also on environmental sustainability. A biorefinery process that is economically feasible but suffers from key sustainability drawbacks is not likely to represent a long-term solution to replace fossil-derived fuels. Overarching concerns like environmental sustainability need to be addressed for biofuels production. Combined TEA and environmental sustainability assessment of emerging pathways helps facilitate biorefinery designs that are both economically feasible and minimally impactful to the environment. This study focuses on environmental sustainability assessment and techno-economic analysis for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via gasification and methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. Results from the conceptual process design with economic analysis, along with the quantification and assessment of the environmental sustainability, are presented and discussed. Sustainability metrics associated with the production of high-octane gasoline include carbon conversion efficiency, consumptive water use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy consumption, energy return on investment and net energy value.

  7. Biofuels, a bad thing?; Boeser Biokraftstoff?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.; Bensmann, M.

    2008-05-15

    The discussions over biofuels are still going on. Critics claim that biofuels ruin engine components, destroy rainforests and cause high food prices and global hunger. According to this contribution, the Federal government's biofuels policy was wrong and was doomed to fail. (orig.)

  8. Overview on Biofuels from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    In light of the recently developed European Union (EU) Biofuels Strategy, the literature is reviewed to examine (a) the coherency of biofuel production with the EU nonindustrial vision of agriculture, and (b) given its insufficient land base, the implications of a proposed bioenergy pact to grow biofuel crops in the developing world to meet EU…

  9. Biofuels in Africa : Opportunities, Prospects, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels offer new opportunities for African countries. They can contribute to economic growth, employment, and rural incomes. They can become an important export for some countries and provide low-cost fuel for others. There is also a potentially large demand for biofuels to meet the rapidly growing need for local fuel. Abundant natural resources and low-cost labor make producing biofuel ...

  10. Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

  11. Panorama 2007: Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current leader on the world bio-diesel market, Europe is, after the United States and Brazil, one of the regions driving the production and utilization of biofuels. Its ambitious bio-fuel content targets for motor fuels (5.75% by 2010 and 8% by 2015) encourage Member States to significantly develop those pathways. This raises certain questions, especially about available biomass resources. It is likely that, beyond 2010, technologies other than those in existence today, using ligno-cellulosic biomass, will have to be implemented. (author)

  12. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  13. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  14. Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luisa; Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2009-02-01

    Biofuels demand is unquestionable in order to reduce gaseous emissions (fossil CO(2), nitrogen and sulfur oxides) and their purported greenhouse, climatic changes and global warming effects, to face the frequent oil supply crises, as a way to help non-fossil fuel producer countries to reduce energy dependence, contributing to security of supply, promoting environmental sustainability and meeting the EU target of at least of 10% biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. Biodiesel is usually produced from oleaginous crops, such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. However, the use of microalgae can be a suitable alternative feedstock for next generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels, using currently available technology; they have fast growth rate, permit the use of non-arable land and non-potable water, use far less water and do not displace food crops cultures; their production is not seasonal and they can be harvested daily. The screening of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina maxima, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleabundans, Scenedesmus obliquus and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was done in order to choose the best one(s), in terms of quantity and quality as oil source for biofuel production. Neochloris oleabundans (fresh water microalga) and Nannochloropsis sp. (marine microalga) proved to be suitable as raw materials for biofuel production, due to their high oil content (29.0 and 28.7%, respectively). Both microalgae, when grown under nitrogen shortage, show a great increase (approximately 50%) in oil quantity. If the purpose is to produce biodiesel only from one species, Scenedesmus obliquus presents the most adequate fatty acid profile, namely in terms of linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the microalgae Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta can also be used if associated with other

  15. Metabolic engineering for isoprenoid-based biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P; Phulara, S C

    2015-09-01

    Sustainable economic and industrial growth is the need of the hour and it requires renewable energy resources having better performance and compatibility with existing fuel infrastructure from biological routes. Isoprenoids (C ≥ 5) can be a potential alternative due to their diverse nature and physiochemical properties similar to that of petroleum based fuels. In the past decade, extensive research has been done to utilize metabolic engineering strategies in micro-organisms primarily, (i) to overcome the limitations associated with their natural and non-natural production and (ii) to develop commercially competent microbial strain for isoprenoid-based biofuel production. This review briefly describes the engineered isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways in well-characterized microbial systems for the production of several isoprenoid-based biofuels and fuel precursors. PMID:26095690

  16. Rail transportation of biofuels; Jaernvaegstransport av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frosch, Martin; Thoren, Peter

    2010-05-15

    The project has had the task of describing how the rail transportation of biofuels can be increased. This has been made by analyzing the current conditions of five transmission terminals and five different CHP plants, henceforth called reference cases, and the prevailing conditions at their reception terminals. For each of the five reference cases several transport solutions have been created that take in consideration how these conditions affect the efficiency of the transport solutions for 23 different relations. The study will also show to what extent reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved with the rail transportation of biofuels as alternative to road transport. Three of the reference cases are in operation, one under construction and one in the development phase. To develop transportation solutions and identify potential catchment areas for biofuels a slightly higher resolution than what normally is analyzed in existing literature is required. Therefore, these analysis have been made for each of the relevant catchment areas with the help of forest assessment data, kNN-data, from the Swedish agricultural university (SLU), statistics of peat production from the Swedish geological survey (SGU) and the Forestry boards (Skogsstyrelsen) statistical yearbook of 2008. The calculations underlying the transport solutions are relating to the sustainability of each catchment area, constraints and opportunities at both the reception and transmission terminals, and the practical solutions for wagons, containers and number of possible weekly circulations. The target audience is the heating and CHP plants in Sweden, wishing to use rail transport of biofuels, regardless of available infrastructure since remote receiving terminals also can be used if needed. The results of the economical analysis for all possible relations are based on calculations with 20 wagons in each circulation. Due to topographic limitations and limited traction capacity all relations

  17. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  18. Sustainable vehicle fuels - do they exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Pål; Ericsson, Karin; Di Lucia, Lorenzo; Nilsson, Lars J; Åhman, Max

    2009-01-01

    Our aim with this report is to discuss vehicle fuels from a wide perspective of sustainability. Biofuels and electricity are analyzed and compared to fossil vehicle fuels. Our goal is to try to point out the circumstances under which vehicle fuels can be reasonably perceived as sustainable, and which systems we should develop and which we should avoid. The all-embracing conclusion of this study is that one can not establish how sustainable fuels will develop in the future without simultaneous...

  19. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  20. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Văn Quân

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engine in area will reduce the HC, CO, SOx and NOx emission to the environment. Therefore, with a study on applying the catfish biofuel, it will reduce the climate change by the increasing of sea water level and save energy by using green energy to replace petrol oil.

  1. An Outlook on Microalgal Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Microalgae are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuels. The productivity of these photosynthetic microorganisms in converting carbon dioxide into carbon-rich lipids, only a step or two away from biodiesel, greatly exceeds that of agricultural oleaginous crops, without competing

  2. Four myths surrounding U.S. biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth of biofuels has elicited claims and predictions concerning the current and future role of these fuels in the U.S. vehicle-fuel portfolio. These assertions are at times based on a false set of assumptions concerning the biofuel's market related to the petroleum and agricultural commodities markets, and the nonmarket consequences of our automobile driving. As an aid in clarifying these market relations, the following four biofuel myths are presented: (1) biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil, (2) biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving, (3) biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue), and (4) biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel. - Highlights: → Biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil. → Biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving. → Biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue). → Biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel.

  3. A comparative sustainability assessment of standard housing blocks in Hong Kong and proposed integer concept tower alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlexAMATO; RichardFREWER; StevenHUMPHREY

    2003-01-01

    This study is a comparative assessment of the relative sustainability of three Hong Kong 40-storey residential tower types: a housing authority “standard” Harmony Block (HAB), a private sector housing block (PSB), and the Integer Concept Tower (ICT) (50-year and 75-year life). The ICT is a demonstration project showing how a future residential tower of 40 stories might be designed and built for a more sustainable construction industry in Hong Kong. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) are combined together to measure two of the three accepted environmental aspects of sustainability: economics and environment; using an internationally recognized methodology specially tailored to Hong Kong construction industry, including the South East Asia Region. According to the result study, the overall energy performance of the ICT lies between the HAB (0.22 MJ/m2 CFA/annum/occupant) and the PSB (1.16 MJ/m2 CFA/annum/occupant) with 0.95 MJ/m2 CFA/annum/occupant over 75-year life, and when amortized over 75-year life its rate per annum is best with 563 MJ/m2 CFA/annum (versus 709 for HAB and 750 for PSB). The annual rate per occupant of embodied energy is extremely efficient in the HAB. The ICT is the best performing building type for the waste indicator, over the 50 and 75-year life with respectively 19.45 and 12.51 dm3/m2 CFA/annum (against 20.84 for HAB and 23.37 for PSB). The results show that the ITC is the overall best performing building with 129 and 107 CO2 kg/m2 CFA/annum over 50 and 75-year life respectively, but the most striking aspect of the results is the predominance of the operational CO2 emissions. Also, the cost indicator appears to mirror the energy results. In this study, the ITC becomes the best performer over all the indicators in the 75-year life assessment, showing the importance of the following three main issues: longevity, allowing for better frame construction flexibility; energy efficiency, minimizing energy

  4. Resetting global expectations from agricultural biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive renewable energy policies have helped the biofuels industry grow at a rate few could have predicted. However, while discourse on the energy balance and environmental impacts of agricultural biofuel feedstocks are common, the potential they hold for additional production has received considerably less attention. Here we present a new biofuel yield analysis based on the best available global agricultural census data. These new data give us the first opportunity to consider geographically-specific patterns of biofuel feedstock production in different regions, across global, continental, national and sub-national scales. Compared to earlier biofuel yield tables, our global results show overestimates of biofuel yields by ∼100% or more for many crops. To encourage the use of regionally-specific data for future biofuel studies, we calculated complete results for 20 feedstock crops for 238 countries, states, territories and protectorates.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Impacts of Biofuel Production and Climate Variability on Water Quantity and Quality in Upper Mississippi River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Debjani Deb; Pushpa Tuppad; Prasad Daggupati; Raghavan Srinivasan; Deepa Varma

    2015-01-01

    Impact of climate change on the water resources of the United States exposes the vulnerability of feedstock-specific mandated fuel targets to extreme weather conditions that could become more frequent and intensify in the future. Consequently, a sustainable biofuel policy should consider: (a) how climate change would alter both water supply and demand; and (b) in turn, how related changes in water availability will impact the production of biofuel crops; and (c) the environmental implications...

  6. Mandates, Tax Credits, and Tariffs: Does the U.S. Biofuels Industry Need Them All?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock

    2010-01-01

    Expanded mandates under the Renewable Fuel Standard provide ethanol and biodiesel producers a guaranteed future market at volumes that exceed what they have produced in the past. Despite having these mandates in place, biofuel producers continue to support tax credits and ethanol import tariffs. An examination of how the new mandates will be implemented shows that biofuel producers will receive little or no additional benefit from tax credits. Ethanol import tariffs will continue to provide U...

  7. Sustainability of sunflower cultivation for biodiesel production in central Italy according to the Renewable Energy Directive methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies as alternative to fossil fuels has value from different points of view and has effects at environmental, social and economic level. These aspects are often connected to each other and together define the overall sustainability of bioenergy. At European level, the Directive 2009/28/EC gives the basic criteria for the estimation of sustainability of biofuels and indicates a minimum threshold of 35% of greenhouse gas saving for a biofuel in order to be considered sustainable. The Directive gives the possibility to identify standard regional values for the cultivation steps that could be utilized for the certification. This paper aims to give a contribution to the definition of these values considering the RED methodology applied to the sunflower cropped in central Italy which is characterized by a hilly landscape and not-irrigated crops. To determine input and output of sunflower cultivation in the central Italy, the results of PROBIO project, carried out by the Authors, were used. The sustainability of biodiesel produced from sunflower grown in central Italy is variable and depends on the nitrogen input and seasonal climatic conditions that affect the yields. The greenhouse gases savings of the Italian chain is 40% in average, greater than the required 35% and would be possible to assign this value as standard to the biofuel chain biodiesel from sunflower cultivated in central Italy. Using an averaged regional standard value guards against the possibility of considering unsustainable harvesting in unfavourable years and seeing it overestimated in the favourable ones.

  8. Exploring and integrating cellulolytic systems of insects to advance biofuel technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Zhong Sun; Michael E. Scharf

    2010-01-01

    @@ In line with the requirements for sustainable economics and clean environments, cellulose-based biofuels have recently received tremendous attention both in industry and academic communities worldwide.Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass of-fer the potential to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate global climate change.

  9. Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) oil as a biofuels feedstock: Golden opportunity or false hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) is a promising sustainable alternative energy crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family with several favorable agronomic characteristics that has potential to significantly enhance domestic biofuels production. With high seed oil content as well as high yield of ...

  10. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  11. Biofuels for transport in the 21th century : why fire safety is a real issue

    OpenAIRE

    Marlair, Guy; ROTUREAU, Patricia; Breulet, Hervé; Brohez, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Years after pioneering development of sugar cane ethanol in Brazil (started in the mid 70's), with the new century venue we are assisting of a booming industry regarding biofuels for transportation in general, at international level. However, fire safety has not appeared so far as a potential bottleneck for future sustainable development, nor has it been anticipated that fire safety misleading judgements or lack of safety management might act as a non technical barrier for sustainable develop...

  12. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia [Center for Biomass Resource Utilization, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University (East Campus), 17 Qing-Hua-Dong-Lu, Hai-Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xing, Li [Service Center for Trading Technology Service, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-12-15

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  13. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  14. Gene flow matters in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a potential widespread biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Charles; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a large push for the use, improvement, and expansion via landscape modification of dedicated biofuel crops (feedstocks) in the United States and in many parts of the world. Ecological concerns have been voiced because many biofuel feedstocks exhibit characteristics associated with invasiveness, and due to potential negative consequences of agronomic genes in native wild populations. Seed purity concerns for biofuel feedstock cultivars whose seeds would be harvested in agronomic fields also exist from the agribusiness sector. The common thread underlying these concerns, which have regulatory implications, is gene flow; thus detailed knowledge of gene flow in biofuel crop plants is important in the formulation of environmental risk management plans. Here, we synthesize the current state of knowledge of gene flow in an exemplary biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), which is native to eastern North America and is currently experiencing conventional and technological advances in biomass yields and ethanol production. Surprisingly little is known regarding aspects of switchgrass pollen flow and seed dispersal, and whether native populations of conspecific or congeneric relatives will readily cross with current agronomic switchgrass cultivars. We pose that filling these important gaps will be required to confront the sustainability challenges of widespread planting of biofuel feedstocks. PMID:22471071

  15. Microalgae biofuels: A critical review of issues, problems and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2012-01-01

    Culturing of microalgae as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production has received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fast growth rate and ability to accumulate high quantity of lipid and carbohydrate inside their cells for biodiesel and bioethanol production, respectively. In addition, this superior feedstock offers several environmental benefits, such as effective land utilization, CO(2) sequestration, self-purification if coupled with wastewater treatment and does not trigger food versus fuel feud. Despite having all these 'theoretical' advantages, review on problems and issues related to energy balance in microalgae biofuel are not clearly addressed until now. Base on the maturity of current technology, the true potential of microalgae biofuel towards energy security and its feasibility for commercialization are still questionable. Thus, this review is aimed to depict the practical problems that are facing the microalgae biofuel industry, covering upstream to downstream activities by accessing the latest research reports and critical data analysis. Apart from that, several interlink solutions to the problems will be suggested with the purpose to bring current microalgae biofuel research into a new dimension and consequently, to revolutionize the entire microalgae biofuel industry towards long-term sustainability. PMID:22166620

  16. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale. PMID:25099150

  17. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Escobar-Niño

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale.

  18. Palm-based biofuel refinery (PBR) to substitute petroleum refinery: An energy and emergy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    As the most active palm industry cluster in the world, Malaysia produces enormous amount of biomass from the industry. This work studies the possibility of creating a renewable and sustainable source of energy by fully utilizing an area of land to provide liquid biofuel for the country. Palm-based biofuel refinery (PBR) proposed in this study has the ultimate goal to displace petroleum fuels and fulfill domestic energy demand. It fully utilizes indigenous palm biomass to fulfill 35.5% of energy demand in the country by using land area of only 8% of current palm cultivation. The operation concept of PBR is similar to petroleum refinery in which a single source feedstock (crude petroleum) can be processed to multiple products. In PBR, products from an oil palm plantation will be converted to various biofuel end products. Renewable biofuel such as biodiesel and bioethanol can be produced from crude palm oil and lignocellulosic residues. Energy and emergy assessment were made in this work to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of PBR. Biofuel produced from PBR has a high energy equivalent of 31.56 MJ/kg as 1 ha of land can produce 182,142 MJ annually. Although there are still obstacles to be overcome, it is important for Malaysia to develop its own energy supply from indigenous resources as an initiative not only for security but also lower carbon emission. (author)

  19. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  20. Certification of biofuels based on waste materials and residual materials. Adaptation of the 36. BImSchV; Zertifizierung von abfall- und reststoffbasierten Biokraftstoffen. Anpassung des 36. BImSchV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindt, Wolf-Dietrich [Verband der Deutschen Biokraftstoffindustrie e.V. (VDB), Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Wastes and Residues are increasingly used for biofuel production. Since 2011 waste based biofuels are promoted in Germany through double counting towards the national biofuel quota. This makes the use of waste and residue-based biofuels attractive for mineral oil companies which are obliged to satisfy the quota. As of January 1{sup st} 2013 the legal framework for the production of waste based biofuels was revised. The amended 36th Regulation for the Implementation of the Federal Immissions Control Act aims to reduce existing legal uncertainties and mitigate fraud potentials up to the processing stage by introducing a proof of double counting (Doppelgewichtungsnachweis). Certification is now necessary across the entire value chain - analogous to the sustainability certification of agricultural commodity based biofuels. However there is need for further regulation with regard to traceability of biofuels after the processing stage and legal binding restriction of raw materials used on actual waste materials. (orig.)

  1. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  2. Integrated green algal technology for bioremediation and biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Xu, Jianfeng; Thompson, Robert W; Yang, Ying; Randol-Smith, Paula; Weathers, Pamela J

    2012-03-01

    Sustainable non-food energy biomass and cost-effective ways to produce renewable energy technologies from this biomass are continuously emerging. Algae are capable of producing lipids and hydrocarbons quickly and their photosynthetic abilities make them a promising candidate for an alternative energy source. In addition, their favorable carbon life cycle and a renewed focus on rural economic development are attractive factors. In this review the focus is mainly on the integrated approach of algae culture for bioremediation and oil-based biofuel production with mention of possible other value-added benefits of using algae for those purposes. PMID:22230775

  3. Miscanthus: practical aspects of biofuel development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarises the results of a study examining the production and harvesting of the non-straw biofuel miscanthus in the light of the UK government's objective regarding the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production. Details are given of the modification to the Elean Power Station to allow use of baled miscanthus as fuel, the mechanical handling system, the capital costs, and the production, harvesting and combustion trials. Plant emission, availability and sustainability of combustion, and the financial implications of miscanthus use are discussed.

  4. Toward nitrogen neutral biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Wernick, David G; Liao, James C

    2012-06-01

    Environmental concerns and an increasing global energy demand have spurred scientific research and political action to deliver large-scale production of liquid biofuels. Current biofuel processes and developing approaches have focused on closing the carbon cycle by biological fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and conversion of biomass to fuels. To date, these processes have relied on fertilizer produced by the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, and have not addressed the global nitrogen cycle and its environmental implications. Recent developments to convert protein to fuel and ammonia may begin to address these problems. In this scheme, recycling ammonia to either plant or algal feedstocks reduces the demand for synthetic fertilizer supplementation. Further development of this technology will realize its advantages of high carbon fixation rates, inexpensive and simple feedstock processing, in addition to reduced fertilizer requirements. PMID:22054644

  5. Evidence-based knowledge versus negotiated indicators for assessment of ecological sustainability: the Swedish Forest Stewardship Council standard as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Dahlberg, Anders; Degerman, Erik; Eggers, Sönke; Esseen, Per-Anders; Hjältén, Joakim; Johansson, Therese; Müller, Jörg; Paltto, Heidi; Snäll, Tord; Soloviy, Ihor; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards' ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC's ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process. PMID:23475658

  6. Life-Cycle-Analyses of biofuels: a review of controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of Life-Cycle-Analyses (LCA) of biofuels synthesizes a wide range of questions raised by the increasing production of biofuels and by agendas aimed at boosting biofuels in future energy consumption. It also shows that current LCAs must be deepened or harmonized in some methodological aspects, and that they remain restricted in number as well as focused on only few North-American and West-European agro-industries. Expanding these analyses to other contexts, bio-masses and agricultural modes of production would prove beneficial chiefly for two reasons: (1) there are almost no other ways of exploring and identifying sustainable reservoirs of bio-energies, (2) the LCA results turn out to be highly susceptible on the one hand to the agricultural techniques applied (motorization, chemical inputs, irrigation) in specific ecosystems (climate and soil types), on the other hand to arbitrations relating to the use of co-products (animal feed, soil enhancement, co-production of energy). (authors)

  7. Integrated microbial processes for biofuels and high value-added products: the way to improve the cost effectiveness of biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Teresa Lopes; Gouveia, Luísa; Reis, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    The production of microbial biofuels is currently under investigation, as they are alternative sources to fossil fuels, which are diminishing and their use has a negative impact on the environment. However, so far, biofuels derived from microbes are not economically competitive. One way to overcome this bottleneck is the use of microorganisms to transform substrates into biofuels and high value-added products, and simultaneously taking advantage of the various microbial biomass components to produce other products of interest, as an integrated process. In this way, it is possible to maximize the economic value of the whole process, with the desired reduction of the waste streams produced. It is expected that this integrated system makes the biofuel production economically sustainable and competitive in the near future. This review describes the investigation on integrated microbial processes (based on bacteria, yeast, and microalgal cultivations) that have been experimentally developed, highlighting the importance of this approach as a way to optimize microbial biofuel production process. PMID:24337249

  8. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improve...

  9. MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF SOLID BIOFUELS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRDİL, Gürkan A.K; Malaťák, Jan; Vaculík, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Solid biofuels are preferred as alternative source of energy in recent years. Although it’s not yet popular in Turkey but, there’s a big potential concerning agricultural residues. With the depletion of fossil fuels world wide researches for alternative energy sources, especially efforts for obtaining the energy from agricultural non-food products became important. Generally, two methods are used in mechanical processing of biofules obtained from plants and agricultural residues. These are pe...

  10. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  11. Greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuel use in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a primary fuel for much of the world's population. In some developing countries it can contribute 80-90% of total primary energy consumption. In Asia as a whole we estimate that biomass contributes about 22 EJ, almost 24% of total energy use. Much of this biomass is combusted in inefficient domestic stoves and cookers, enhancing the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PIC), many of which are greenhouse gases. An inventory of the combustion of biofuels (fuelwood, crop residues, and dried animal waste) in Asia is used to develop estimates of the emissions of carbon containing greenhouse gases (CO2, CO, CH4, and NMHC, i.e. non-methane hydrocarbons) in Asian countries. The data are examined from two perspectives: total carbon released and total global warming potential (GWP) of the gases. We estimate that biofuels contributed 573 Tg-C in 1990, about 28% of the total carbon emissions from energy use in Asia. China (259 Tg-C) and India (187 Tg-C) were the largest emitting countries by far. 'Me majority of the emissions, 504 Tg-C, are in the form of CO2; however, emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases are significant: 57 Tg-C as CO, 6.4 Tg-C as CH4, and 5.9 Tg-C as NMHC. Because of the high rate of incomplete combustion in typical biofuel stoves and the high GWP coefficients of the products of incomplete combustion, PIC comprise an even larger share of biofuel emissions when measured in terms of global warming potential (in CO2 equivalents): 48% over a 20-year time frame and 26% over 100 years. Even when the biofuel is assumed to be harvested on a completely sustainable basis (all CO2 emissions are reabsorbed in the following growing season), PIC emissions from biofuel combustion account for almost 5% of total carbon emissions (including emissions from fossil-fuel combustion) and nearly 25% of CO2 equivalents in terms of short term (20-year) GWP

  12. Principles of sustainable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank; Kreider, Jan F

    2010-01-01

    A transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to one that uses renewable energy has become inevitable; this transition will not only be an engineering challenge, but will also be an economic and environmental one. Offering an interdisciplinary, quantitative approach, Principles of Sustainable Energy presents a comprehensive overview of the major renewable energy technologies currently available, including biomass and biofuels, solar thermal conversion, photovoltaics, and wind energy conversion. Written by renowned expert Frank Kreith, the book emphasizes economics as well as energy return on i

  13. Food Aid and Biofuels: The Effects of Biofuel Policies on Procurement and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, Ryan T.; Kerr, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The food-aid community almost unanimously condemns policies that encourage crop production for fuel. Both food-aid donors and recipients are concerned that biofuels will increase foodgrain prices and leave donors unable to meet commitments. The effects of biofuel-induced higher cereal prices on food-aid recipients are complicated functions of several factors, each of which must be considered in an analysis of the effects of biofuel policies. These factors include the level of biofuel-induced ...

  14. Contrasts and synergies in different biofuel reports

    OpenAIRE

    Michalopoulos, A; Landeweerd, L.; Van der Werf-Kulichova, Z.; Puylaert, P. G. B.; Osseweijer, P.

    2011-01-01

    The societal debate on biofuels is characterised by increased complexity. This can hinder the effective governance of the field. This paper attempts a quantitative bird's eye meta-analysis of this complexity by mapping different stakeholder perspectives and expected outcomes as seen in the secondary literature on biofuels, along the lines of the People-Planet-Profit framework. Our analysis illustrates the tension between stated and actual drivers of large scale biofuel development, especially...

  15. Private governance in the biofuel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2010-01-01

    "The boom of biofuel is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with most crucial consequences in the agro-food sector. For instance, spurred by the increasing use of corn for ethanol, tortilla prices in Mexico suddenly tripled in early 2007. While the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food Jean Ziegler is demanding an international five-year ban on producing biofuels to combat soaring food prices, the biofuel industry is responding with first ini...

  16. Oil price, biofuels and food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels, but this issue has yet to be fully investigated in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65% increase in oil price in 2020 from the 2009 level would increase the global biofuel penetration to 5.4% in 2020 from 2.4% in 2009. If oil prices rise 150% from their 2009 levels by 2020, the resulting penetration of biofuels would be 9%, which is higher than that would be caused by current mandates and targets introduced in more than forty countries around the world. The study also shows that aggregate agricultural output drops due to an oil price increase, but the drop is small in major biofuel producing countries as the expansion of biofuels would partially offset the negative impacts of the oil price increase on agricultural outputs. An increase in oil price would reduce global food supply through direct impacts as well as through the diversion of food commodities and cropland towards the production of biofuels. - Highlights: ► A global CGE model to analyze impacts of oil price on biofuels and food supply. ► Global biofuel penetration increases from 2.4% (2009) to 5.4% (2020) in baseline. ► A 150% rise of oil price boosts biofuels more than current mandates and targets do. ► Biofuels partially offset drops in agricultural outputs caused by oil price rise. ► Biofuels as well as oil price rise negatively affect global food supply.

  17. World experience of formation and development trends of market biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchuk, O.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the current trends of the world market for biofuels. Substantiated the main factors underlying the formation of the biofuels market and the possible prospects of its development. Perspective directions of development of the biofuel industry in the world

  18. Political mechanisms of sustainable energy development in western countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the development of politic mechanisms in sustainable energy in western countries (primarily EC, USA). The development of sustainable energy in western countries should be greatly based on government and business support and common ways of such help are described below. Also shown the significance of development of sustainable energy, its importance for environmental protection and perspectives Key words: sustainable energy, government regulation, wind energy, EC, USA, biofuel

  19. Biofuels and climate neutrality - system analysis of production and utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the energy input at production (working machines, chipping and transport) and the expected reduction in soil carbon from utilising the residues. This means that biofuels with a short rotation period will result in lower radiative forcing than fuels with a longer rotation period, assuming all other factors equal. In order to estimate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted from a biofuel chain a life cycle analysis is needed. How system boundaries are set in such a life cycle assessment are of significant importance. Examples of important boundary definitions are whether the fuel is regarded as a bi-product or not and how soil emissions from the production area should be treated. Another important system boundary is the time perspective applied. In its fourth report on climate change the IPCC gives no explicit recommendation on what time perspective should be applied when comparing greenhouse gas emissions by the use of GWP-factors (Global Warming Potentials)Within the Kyoto-framework a 100-year perspective has been chosen. A 100-year perspective will include the thermal inertia of the oceans and their impact on global average temperatures. Carbon cycle models also show that within this time frame a considerable part of an emission of CO2 has left the atmosphere. These facts speak in favour of a long time perspective when comparing different fuel chains. In this study, net greenhouse gas emissions from imported biofuels have also been analysed. Focus was on emissions related to transports and forest legislation of the exporting countries. Sustainability in fuel production systems is of great importance since that ensures a continuous production potential and a continuous circulation of carbon between growing biomass and the atmosphere, which does not increase the atmospheric concentration of the gas. This makes the question of reforestation and sustainable management important. According to reviewed literature, the reforestation policies in Finland and Lithuania seem to

  20. Biotechnology in Biofuels-A Cleaner Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng-Seng Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly becoming one of the major technological, as well as and also important societal and political challenges. With increasing gap between the energy requirement of the industrialized world and inability to replenish such needs from the limited sources of energy like fossil fuels, ever increasing levels of greenhouse pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels in turn aggravate the perils of global warming and energy crisis. One quarter of the world's CO2 emissions are created by the transport sector which accounts for some 60% of the world's total oil consumption. Biofuel made from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. By using cleaner technology, it is possible to enhance economic growth in industries all over the world while at the same time saving water, energy, raw materials and waste to minimize the environmental footprint. The cleaner technology involves the use of enzymes in an industrial process. Enzymes can be used to make fuels and chemical intermediates in more sustainable, environmentally friendly ways. The development of new enzymes, including through the production and purification of enzymes from genetically modified organisms, is a major driving force in the commercialization of cleaner technology products and processes.