WorldWideScience

Sample records for biofuel plant electronic

  1. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  2. PLANTS, SOURCE FOR BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The most affordable alternative energy sources to fossil plants with hydropower are some oils that accumulate in different organs other accumulating carbohydrates with high energy value. They are known worldwide and cultivated a number of plant species entering the oilseeds, which provides significant production of edible oil (soybean, sunflower, etc. Vegetable oils or their product derived biodiesel fuels are potential diesel engines, representing an alternative to fuels. The most promising suitable for the production of oil crops "with short circuit "or biodiesel are fruits and seeds, both herbaceous and tree.

  3. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Flambeau River Biofuels Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Robert J. [Flambeau River Biofuels, Inc., Park Falls, WI (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. (FRB) proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, Flambeau River Papers, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy – making Flambeau River Papers the first pulp and paper mill in North America to be nearly fossil fuel free – and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. FRB planned to replicate this facility at other paper mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility.

  5. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  6. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, E.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  7. Biofuels 2.0 move to pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The second generation of biofuels, which use the non-energy parts of plants, do not compete with the food industry. These biofuels have been tried and tested at the laboratory but challenges are occurring with the transition to industrial plants. Demonstrators and prototypes are developing in Germany, Japan, USA and France and bet on two different processes, the biochemical way (enzymatic reaction and fermentation) and the thermochemical way (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis). Research is in progress on a possible third generation of biofuels which will use micro-algae. The interest of this third way is triple: no competition with the food industry, no land use (production in bioreactors), and enhanced CO 2 capture. (J.S.)

  8. Biofuel supply chain considering depreciation cost of installed plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Masoud; Ramezankhani, Farshad; Giahi, Ramin; Farshbaf-Geranmayeh, Amir

    2016-06-01

    Due to the depletion of the fossil fuels and major concerns about the security of energy in the future to produce fuels, the importance of utilizing the renewable energies is distinguished. Nowadays there has been a growing interest for biofuels. Thus, this paper reveals a general optimization model which enables the selection of preprocessing centers for the biomass, biofuel plants, and warehouses to store the biofuels. The objective of this model is to maximize the total benefits. Costs of the model consist of setup cost of preprocessing centers, plants and warehouses, transportation costs, production costs, emission cost and the depreciation cost. At first, the deprecation cost of the centers is calculated by means of three methods. The model chooses the best depreciation method in each period by switching between them. A numerical example is presented and solved by CPLEX solver in GAMS software and finally, sensitivity analyses are accomplished.

  9. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  10. The Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels: plant scientist input needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, Sébastien; Hardtke, Christian S

    2009-08-01

    The Energy Center at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Swiss federal institute of technology) is coordinating a multi-stakeholder effort, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (http://energycenter.epfl.ch/biofuels), to develop global standards for sustainable biofuels production and processing. Given that many of the aspects related to biofuel production request a high scientific level of understanding, it is crucial that scientists take part in the discussion.

  11. The life cycle emission of greenhouse gases associated with plant oils used as biofuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuels should not only consider fossil fuel inputs, but also N2O emissions and changes in carbon stocks of (agro) ecosystems linked to the cultivation of biofuel crops. When this is done, current plant oils such as European rapeseed

  12. Aquatic plant Azolla as the universal feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana F; Biswas, Bijoy; Ramkumar, Narasimhan; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; James, Anton; Roddick, Felicity; Lal, Banwari; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Bhaskar, Thallada; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2016-01-01

    The quest for sustainable production of renewable and cheap biofuels has triggered an intensive search for domestication of the next generation of bioenergy crops. Aquatic plants which can rapidly colonize wetlands are attracting attention because of their ability to grow in wastewaters and produce large amounts of biomass. Representatives of Azolla species are some of the fastest growing plants, producing substantial biomass when growing in contaminated water and natural ecosystems. Together with their evolutional symbiont, the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, Azolla biomass has a unique chemical composition accumulating in each leaf including three major types of bioenergy molecules: cellulose/hemicellulose, starch and lipids, resembling combinations of terrestrial bioenergy crops and microalgae. The growth of Azolla filiculoides in synthetic wastewater led up to 25, 69, 24 and 40 % reduction of NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P and selenium, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. This led to a 2.6-fold reduction in toxicity of the treated wastewater to shrimps, common inhabitants of wetlands. Two Azolla species, Azolla filiculoides and Azolla pinnata, were used as feedstock for the production of a range of functional hydrocarbons through hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-hydrogen and bio-ethanol. Given the high annual productivity of Azolla, hydrothermal liquefaction can lead to the theoretical production of 20.2 t/ha-year of bio-oil and 48 t/ha-year of bio-char. The ethanol production from Azolla filiculoides, 11.7 × 10 3  L/ha-year, is close to that from corn stover (13.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year), but higher than from miscanthus (2.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year) and woody plants, such as willow (0.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year) and poplar (1.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year). With a high C/N ratio, fermentation of Azolla biomass generates 2.2 mol/mol glucose/xylose of hydrogen, making this species a competitive feedstock for hydrogen production compared with other bioenergy crops

  13. Developing nanotechnology for biofuel and plant science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenstein, Justin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research on the development of mesoporous silica based nanotechnology for applications in biofuels and plant science. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been the subject of great interest in the last two decades due to their unique properties of high surface area, tunable pore size and particle morphology. The robust nature of the silica framework is easily functionalized to make the MSNs a promising option for selective separations. Also, the independent channels that form the pores of MSN have been exploited in the use of particles as platforms for molecular delivery. Pore size and organic functionality are varied to identify the ideal adsorbent material for free fatty acids (FFAs). The resulting material is able to sequester FFAs with a high degree of selectivity from a simulated solution and microalgal oil. The recyclability and industrial implications are also explored. A continuation of the previous material, further tuning of MSN pore size was investigated. Particles with a smaller diameter selectively sequester polyunsaturated free fatty acids (PUFAs) over monounsaturated FFAs and saturated FFAs. The experimental results were verified with molecular modeling. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials with a pore diameter of 10 nm (MSN-10) were decorated with small gold nanoparticles. The resulting materials were shown to deliver proteins and DNA into plant cells using the biolistic method.

  14. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ram B; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    ...-generation biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wood, and municipal solid wastes. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the...

  15. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  16. Plant-based biofuels [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Hood

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review is a short synopsis of some of the latest breakthroughs in the areas of lignocellulosic conversion to fuels and utilization of oils for biodiesel. Although four lignocellulosic ethanol factories have opened in the USA and hundreds of biodiesel installations are active worldwide, technological improvements are being discovered that will rapidly evolve the biofuels industry into a new paradigm. These discoveries involve the feedstocks as well as the technologies to process them.

  17. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The economic and environmental impacts of biofuel taxes on heating plants in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, R.; Kristroem, B.; Sisask, A.

    1998-12-31

    Sweden`s energy policy is currently based on a large-scale introduction of biofuels. Following a 1980 nuclear power referendum, the current plan is to phase out nuclear power, replacing nuclear energy with renewable energy sources. This policy is supported by various tax breaks for biofuels. There is an ongoing discussion about a restructuring of the energy tax system, which will have far-reaching impact on the markets for biofuels. This paper evaluates the impact of changes in current energy taxation by analyzing a panel of approximately 150 district heating plants in Sweden. We estimate plant-specific production functions and derive the economic repercussions of the tax. We also estimate the resulting changes of emissions of sulfur, NOX and particulates and assess the externality costs Arbetsrapport 258. 6 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  19. The economic and environmental impacts of biofuel taxes on heating plants in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, R.; Kristroem, B.; Sisask, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sweden's energy policy is currently based on a large-scale introduction of biofuels. Following a 1980 nuclear power referendum, the current plan is to phase out nuclear power, replacing nuclear energy with renewable energy sources. This policy is supported by various tax breaks for biofuels. There is an ongoing discussion about a restructuring of the energy tax system, which will have far-reaching impact on the markets for biofuels. This paper evaluates the impact of changes in current energy taxation by analyzing a panel of approximately 150 district heating plants in Sweden. We estimate plant-specific production functions and derive the economic repercussions of the tax. We also estimate the resulting changes of emissions of sulfur, NOX and particulates and assess the externality costs Arbetsrapport 258. 6 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  20. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

  1. Logistic regression models of factors influencing the location of bioenergy and biofuels plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Young; R.L. Zaretzki; J.H. Perdue; F.M. Guess; X. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Logistic regression models were developed to identify significant factors that influence the location of existing wood-using bioenergy/biofuels plants and traditional wood-using facilities. Logistic models provided quantitative insight for variables influencing the location of woody biomass-using facilities. Availability of "thinnings to a basal area of 31.7m2/ha...

  2. Economical analysis of biofuel products and nuclear plant hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2011-01-01

    The increasing in oil prices over the last six years is unprecedented that should be seen as a spur to increased efficiency. The surge in oil prices on the world market today is driven by strong demand factors in the depletion of world oil reserves. To replace the fuel oil from the bowels of the earth the various alternatives should be considered, including other crops or vegetable oil production of bio-fuels and hydrogen are produced by high temperature nuclear reactors. Biofuels in the form of ethanol made from corn or sugar cane and biodiesel made from palm oil or jatropha. With the latest world oil prices, future fuel vegetable oil and nuclear hydrogen-based energy technologies become popular in various parts of the world. Economics of biodiesel will be changed in accordance with world oil prices and subsidy regulations which apply to fuel products. On the other hand the role of nuclear energy in hydrogen production with the most potential in the techno-economics is a form of high temperature steam electrolysis, using heat and electricity from nuclear reactors. The production cost of biodiesel fuel on the basis of ADO type subsidy is 10.49 US$/MMBTU, while the production cost of hydrogen as an energy carrier of high temperature reactor is 15.30 US$/MMBTU. Thus, both types seem to have strong competitiveness. (author)

  3. Modern biofuel-fired power plants in power and heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives a survey of the gasification techniques, power plant technology and boiler solutions for small power plants using biofuels. Also some experiences from commercial projects and targets of development work are presented. At present, fluidized bed combustion is by far the most important combustion technique for biomass fuels in small power plants. Compared with grate combustion, fluidized bed combustion is a distinctly more economical combustion method, and so the thermic dimensioning of a steam boiler is easier. Besides, a wider range of fuels can be used in fluidized bed combustion. Fluidized bed combustion is an excellent combustion technique for biofuels. Plenty of experience has been gained in the combustion of peat and industrial waste wood, as far as both bubbling fluidized bed combustion (BFBC) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) are concerned. Both of the fluidized bed techniques are suitable for the combustion of biomasses

  4. A multi-biofuel, fluidised-bed district heating plant in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of 1984, the city of Haessleholm in Sweden started up a 65 MW district heating plant which included a 14 MW solid fuel plant. The plant included a specially-designed fluidised-bed boiler, capable of burning all grades of solid fuel, including organic fuel of such low grade that no other boilers around Haessleholm could use it. By 1992, the district heating system served some 250 detached houses and 6,000 flats as well as several schools and industrial premises. The biofuel boiler provides almost 60% of the energy required. (UK)

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of biofuel plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... several plant species including Arabidopsis (Chang et al.,. 1994; Clough and Bent, ... and Technology Talents Scheme of Yunnan Province. (Grant no. .... of shoots and roots from Jatropha curcas L. explants. J. Horticult. Sci.

  6. The biggest bio-fuel plant in Norway - a profitable environmental investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2002-01-01

    A few years ago, Norske Skog Saugbrugs in Halden, Norway, invested NOK 180 mill in a new combustion plant for bio-fuel. In 2001, the plant produced 400 GWh and so replaced about 35 000 tonnes of oil. Considering the Kyoto Agreement, the profitability is even greater. The capacity of the boiler is 400 - 450 GWh, which covers more than 40 percent of the paper factory's need for thermal energy. The paper factory in Halden is one of the largest in Europe. About half of the bio-fuel derives from the factory's own production, which is an important reason why the price of bio-energy is less than the price of oil. At the same time the use of the biomass for energy production implies that bark and mud does not pile up in the factory. The remaining half of the biomass, the external half, is wood returned from building activities in the form of wood chippings, one-time pallets and similar. This also solves a social problem. The bio-fuel plant uses a fluidized bed boiler of very high efficiency. This implies very small emissions of NOx and CO. Particles are removed by means of an electro filter. The system meets the requirements made by the EU and by Norwegian pollution control authorities

  7. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of biofuel plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of an efficient transformation system is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas, a promising biodiesel feedstock plant, by transgenic approach. In this study an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol using cotyledon explants from J. curcas seeds was developed.

  8. Does the use of biofuels affect respiratory health among male Danish energy plant workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Madsen, Anne Mette; Skov, Simon

    2011-01-01

    were collected by questionnaire. Spirometry, metacholine provocation tests and skin prick tests were performed on 310 workers. The work area concentrations of ‘total dust’ (n=181), airborne endotoxin (n=179), cultivable Aspergillus fumigatus (n=373) and cultivable fungi (n=406) were measured at each...... plant. Personal exposure was calculated from the time spent on different tasks and average work area exposures. Results Median (range) average personal exposures in biofuel plants were 0.05 (0 to 0.33) mg/m3 for ‘total’ dust and 3.5 (0 to 294) endotoxin units/m3 for endotoxin. Fungi were cultivated from...

  9. Ultrastructure of the Rust Fungus Puccinia miscanthi in the Teliospore Stage Interacting with the Biofuel Plant Miscanthus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Woo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of the the rust fungus Puccinia miscanthi with the biofuel plant Miscanthus sinensis during the teliospore phase was investigated by light and electron microscopy. P. miscanthi telia were oval-shaped and present on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Teliospores were brown, one-septate (two-celled, and had pedicels attached to one end. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous electron-translucent lipid globules in the cytoplasm of teliospores. Extensive cell wall dissolution around hyphae was not observed in the host tissues beneath the telia. Hyphae were found between mesophyll cells in the leaf tissues as well as in host cells. Intracellular hyphae, possibly haustoria, possessed electron-dense fungal cell walls encased by an electron-transparent fibrillar extrahaustorial sheath that had an electron-dense extrahaustorial membrane. The infected host cells appeared to maintain their membrane-bound structures such as nuclei and chloroplasts. These results suggest that the rust fungus maintains its biotrophic phase with most mesophyll cells of M. sinensis. Such a nutritional mode would permit the rust fungus to obtain food reserves for transient growth in the course of host alteration.

  10. Engineering of plants with improved properties as biofuels feedstocks by vessel-specific complementation of xylan biosynthesis mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia; Lau, Jane; Ebert, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cost-efficient generation of second-generation biofuels requires plant biomass that can easily be degraded into sugars and further fermented into fuels. However, lignocellulosic biomass is inherently recalcitrant toward deconstruction technologies due to the abundant lignin and cross......-linked hemicelluloses. Furthermore, lignocellulosic biomass has a high content of pentoses, which are more difficult to ferment into fuels than hexoses. Engineered plants with decreased amounts of xylan in their secondary walls have the potential to render plant biomass a more desirable feedstock for biofuel production...... in the xylem vessels is sufficient to complement the irx phenotype of xylan deficient mutants, while maintaining low overall amounts of xylan and lignin in the cell wall. This engineering approach has the potential to yield bioenergy crop plants that are more easily deconstructed and fermented into biofuels....

  11. Expanding xylose metabolism in yeast for plant cell wall conversion to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Vivian Yaci; Lin, Yuping; Chomvong, Kulika; Estrela, Raíssa; Park, Annsea; Liang, Julie M; Znameroski, Elizabeth A; Feehan, Joanna; Kim, Soo Rin; Jin, Yong-Su; Glass, N Louise; Cate, Jamie HD

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable biofuel production from renewable biomass will require the efficient and complete use of all abundant sugars in the plant cell wall. Using the cellulolytic fungus Neurospora crassa as a model, we identified a xylodextrin transport and consumption pathway required for its growth on hemicellulose. Reconstitution of this xylodextrin utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that fungal xylose reductases act as xylodextrin reductases, producing xylosyl-xylitol oligomers as metabolic intermediates. These xylosyl-xylitol intermediates are generated by diverse fungi and bacteria, indicating that xylodextrin reduction is widespread in nature. Xylodextrins and xylosyl-xylitol oligomers are then hydrolyzed by two hydrolases to generate intracellular xylose and xylitol. Xylodextrin consumption using a xylodextrin transporter, xylodextrin reductases and tandem intracellular hydrolases in cofermentations with sucrose and glucose greatly expands the capacity of yeast to use plant cell wall-derived sugars and has the potential to increase the efficiency of both first-generation and next-generation biofuel production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05896.001 PMID:25647728

  12. Biomass, biogas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the different ways to produce biofuels. It appears that there are 3 generations of biofuels. The first generation was based on the use of the energetic reserves of the plants for instance sugar from beetroot or starch from cereals or oil from oleaginous plants. The second generation is based on a more complete use of the plant, the main constituents of the plant: cellulose and lignin are turned into energy. The third generation of biofuels relies on the use of energy plants and algae. The second generation of biofuels reduces drastically the competition between an alimentary use and a non-alimentary use of plants. In 2008 the production of biofuels reached 43 Mtep which represents only 2% of all the energy used in the transport sector. The international agency for energy expects that the production of biofuels would be multiplied by a factor 6 (even 10 if inciting measures are taken) by 2030. (A.C.)

  13. Effect of auxins and associated biochemical changes during clonal propagation of the biofuel plant - Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Sunita; Singh, S.P.; Kochhar, V.K. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Rooting and sprouting behaviour of stem cuttings of biofuel plant Jatropha curcas and their performance under field conditions have been studied in relation to auxin application. Pretreatment with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) increased both the rooting and sprouting. Sprouting of buds on the cuttings preceded rooting. The rooting and sprouting in J. curcas was more with IBA than NAA. The endogenous auxin contents were found to increase almost 15 days prior to rooting, indicating that mobilization of auxin rather than the absolute contents of auxin may be involved in root initiation. Indole acetic acid oxidase (IAA-oxidase) seems to be involved for triggering and initiating the roots/root primordia, whereas peroxidase is involved in both root initiation and the elongation processes as supported by the peroxidase and IAA-oxidase isoenzyme analysis in the cuttings. The clonally propagated plants (cutting-raised plants) performed better in the field as compared to those raised from the seeds. The plants produced from auxin-treated cuttings produced fruits and seeds in the same year as compared to the plants raised from seeds or from untreated or control cuttings that did not produce any seeds in 1 year of this study. Jatropha plants in general produce seeds after 2-3 years. (author)

  14. Glucose oxidase anode for biofuel cell based on direct electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivnitski, Dmitri; Branch, Brittany; Atanassov, Plamen [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, 209 Farris Engineering Center, Room 150, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Apblett, Christopher [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents a new design concept of a glucose oxidase (GO{sub x}) electrode as an anode for the biofuel cell based on direct electron transfer (DET) between the active site of an enzyme and the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-modified electrode surface. Toray{sup (R)} carbon paper (TP) with a porous three-dimensional network (78% porosity) was used as a matrix for selectively growing multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The incorporation of MWCNTs into TP was provided by the chemical vapor deposition technique after an electrochemical transition of cobalt metal seeds. This approach has the ability to efficiently promote DET reactions. The morphologies and electrochemical characteristics of the GO{sub x} modified electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and potentiometric methods. The combination of poly-cation polyethylenimine (PEI) with negatively charged glucose oxidase provides formation of circa 100nm thick films on the TP/MWCNT surface. The tetrabutylammonium bromide salt-treated Nafion{sup (R)} was used as GO{sub x} binder and proton-conducting medium. The TP/MWCNT/PEI/GO{sub x}/Nafion{sup (R)} modified electrode operates at 25{sup o}C in 0.02M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) containing 0.1M KCl in the presence of 20mM glucose. The open circuit potential of GO{sub x} anode was between -0.38V and -0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl, which is closer to the redox potential of the FAD/FADH{sub 2} cofactor in the enzyme itself. The GO{sub x} electrode has a potential to work in vivo by using endogenous substances, such as glucose and oxygen. Such a glucose anode allows for the development of a new generation of miniaturized membrane-less biofuel cells. (author)

  15. Study of flue gas condensing for biofuel fired heat and power plants; Studie av roekgaskondensering foer biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Gustafsson, J O; Nystroem, Johan; Johansson, Kent

    2000-11-01

    This report considers questions regarding flue gas condensing plants connected to bio-fuelled heat and power plants. The report consists of two parts, one where nine existing plants are described regarding technical issues and regarding the experience from the different plants. Part two is a theoretical study where heat balance calculations are made to show the technical and economical performance in different plant configurations and operating conditions. Initially the different parts in the flue gas condensing plant are described. Tube, plate and scrubber condensers are described briefly. The different types of humidifiers are also described, rotor, cross-stream plate heat exchanger and scrubber. Nine flue gas-condensing plants have been visited. The plants where chosen considering it should be bio-fuel fired plant primarily heat and power plants. Furthermore we tried to get a good dissemination considering plant configuration, supplier, geographical position, operating situation and plant size. The description of the different plants focuses on the flue gas condenser and the belonging components. The fuel, flue gas and condensate composition is described as well as which materials are used in the different parts of the plant. The experience from operating the plants and the reasons of why they decided to chose the actual condenser supplier are reported.

  16. Inflammation but no DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage in mice exposed to airborne dust from a biofuel plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Nordly, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Particles in ambient air are associated with such health effects as lung diseases and cancer of the lung. Exposure to bioaerosols has been found to be associated with respiratory symptoms. The toxic properties of exposure to combustion and bioaerosol particles from biofuel plants have ...

  17. Engineering Plant Biomass Lignin Content and Composition for Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Marie Welker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer involved in providing structural support to plant cell walls. Compared to the other cell wall polymers, i.e., cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin has been considered a hindrance in cellulosic bioethanol production due to the complexity involved in its separation from other polymers of various biomass feedstocks. Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. Though the biosynthetic pathway of lignin has been elucidated in great detail, the random nature of the polymerization (free radical coupling process poses challenges for its depolymerization into valuable bioproducts. The absence of specific methodologies for lignin degradation represents an important opportunity for research and development. This review highlights research development in lignin biosynthesis, lignin genetic engineering and different biological and chemical means of depolymerization used to convert lignin into biofuels and bioproducts.

  18. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  19. Student Travel to Pan-Am Congress of Plants & Biofuels in Merida, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Kimnach [American Society of Plant Biologists, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Pan American Congress on Plants and BioEnergy convened in Mérida, Mexico, June 22 to 25, 2008. The program was organized by Steve Long (University of Illinois) and Nick Carpita (Purdue University), along with co-organizers Marcos Buckeridge (University of São Paulo, Brazil) and Federico Sánchez (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). More than 200 scientists from over a dozen nations around the world gathered to discuss key issues surrounding the development of biofuel feedstocks and to report on their research in this area. This three day conference had invited speakers surrounding developing renewable and sustainable energy resources which are typically propelled by three important drivers – security, cost and environmental impact.

  20. Heterologous Expression of Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes for Effective Production of Cellulosic Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Jeong, Seong Hun; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2012-01-01

    A major technical challenge in the cost-effective production of cellulosic biofuel is the need to lower the cost of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCDE), which is required for the production of sugars from biomass. Several competitive, low-cost technologies have been developed to produce PCDE in different host organisms such as Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, and plant. Selection of an ideal host organism is very important, because each host organism has its own unique features. Synthetic biology-aided tools enable heterologous expression of PCDE in recombinant E. coli or Z. mobilis and allow successful consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) in these microorganisms. In-planta expression provides an opportunity to simplify the process of enzyme production and plant biomass processing and leads to self-deconstruction of plant cell walls. Although the future of currently available technologies is difficult to predict, a complete and viable platform will most likely be available through the integration of the existing approaches with the development of breakthrough technologies. PMID:22911272

  1. Engineering plastid fatty acid biosynthesis to improve food quality and biofuel production in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Marcelo; Carrer, Helaine

    2011-06-01

    The ability to manipulate plant fatty acid biosynthesis by using new biotechnological approaches has allowed the production of transgenic plants with unusual fatty acid profile and increased oil content. This review focuses on the production of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) and the increase in oil content in plants using molecular biology tools. Evidences suggest that regular consumption of food rich in VLCPUFAs has multiple positive health benefits. Alternative sources of these nutritional fatty acids are found in cold-water fishes. However, fish stocks are in severe decline because of decades of overfishing, and also fish oils can be contaminated by the accumulation of toxic compounds. Recently, there is also an increase in oilseed use for the production of biofuels. This tendency is partly associated with the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of fossil oil and the attractive need to develop renewable sources of fuel. In contrast to this scenario, oil derived from crop plants is normally contaminant free and less environmentally aggressive. Genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages, including high-level foreign protein expression, marker-gene excision and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Here, we describe the possibility to improve fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, production of new fatty acids and increase their content in plants by genetic engineering of plastid fatty acid biosynthesis via plastid transformation. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I.; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world. PMID:26989640

  3. Procurement and handling of biofuel for a combined heat and power plant at Skoevde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola.

    1992-01-01

    A strategic analysis is made of the supply and suitable forms of delivery of biofuel to a plant located at Skoevde. The study is based on costs and not on market prices. The fuels considered are logging residues from final harvests, salix, sawmill residues and wood from young hardwood stands. The procurement area is restricted to a zone ranging about 70 km from Skoevde. The total supply encompasses 577,000 MWh per year. Logging residues contributes with 298,000, salix with 77,000, sawmill residues with 173,000 and hardwood with 29,000. The total energy requirement of the plant amounts to 378,000 MWh. There is only one delivery system available for salix, sawmill residues and hardwood. For logging residues, the most important raw material, there are several optional delivery systems. Logging residues is forwarded to the landing where it is stacked. Comminution takes place at the landing with mobile equipment or at the plant with stationary or mobile equipment. Unprocessed material can be stored for a shorter or longer period at the landing. The results of the analysis indicate: that the supply of biofuel is sufficient within the given area. Logging- and sawmill residues constitute the bulk of the supply; that stationary equipment for comminution at the plant is profitable. The total cost is reduced with about 1 MSEK a year, or 3 SEK per MWh, if such capacity is installed. In the base line scenario a total of 223,000 m 3 is processed with the stationary equipment. This volume warrants annual capital costs of some 4.1 MSEK, which can be compared with the calculated 3.0 MSEK with stationary equipment. The total cost per MWh is 92 SEK and increases to 95 SEK if the capacity is not available. The results of the study is based on quantitative estimates of costs. A number of other factors, such as consequences on traffic and environment, have only been briefly discussed. (2 refs., 9 figs.)

  4. Using The Corngrass1 Gene To Enhance The Biofuel Properties Of Crop Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Washington DC (United States); Chuck, George [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Washington DC (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The development of novel plant germplasm is vital to addressing our increasing bioenergy demands. The major hurdle to digesting plant biomass is the complex structure of the cell walls, the substrate of fermentation. Plant cell walls are inaccessible matrices of macromolecules that are polymerized with lignin, making fermentation difficult. Overcoming this hurdle is a major goal toward developing usable bioenergy crop plants. Our project seeks to enhance the biofuel properties of perennial grass species using the Corngrass1 (Cg1) gene and its targets. Dominant maize Cg1 mutants produce increased biomass by continuously initiating extra axillary meristems and leaves. We cloned Cg1 and showed that its phenotype is caused by over expression of a unique miR156 microRNA gene that negatively regulates SPL transcription factors. We transferred the Cg1 phenotype to other plants by expressing the gene behind constitutive promoters in four different species, including the monocots, Brachypodium and switchgrass, and dicots, Arabidopsis and poplar. All transformants displayed a similar range of phenotypes, including increased biomass from extended leaf production, and increased vegetative branching. Field grown switchgrass transformants showed that overall lignin content was reduced, the ratio of glucans to xylans was increased, and surprisingly, that starch levels were greatly increased. The goals of this project are to control the tissue and temporal expression of Cg1 by using different promoters to drive its expression, elucidate the function of the SPL targets of Cg1 by generating gain and loss of function alleles, and isolate downstream targets of select SPL genes using deep sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation. We believe it is possible to control biomass accumulation, cell wall properties, and sugar levels through manipulation of either the Cg1 gene and/or its SPL targets.

  5. Three TFL1 homologues regulate floral initiation in the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Luo, Li; Chen, Jianghua; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Recent research revealed that TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) homologues are involved in the critical developmental process of floral initiation in several plant species. In this study, the functions of three putative TFL1 homologues (JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c) in the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas were analysed using the transgenic approach. JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c, but not JcTFL1a, could complement the TFL1 function and rescue early flowering and determinate inflorescence phenotype in tfl1-14 Arabidopsis mutant, thus suggesting that JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c may be homologues of TFL1. Transgenic Jatropha overexpressing JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b or JcTFL1c showed late flowering, whereas only JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c overexpression delayed flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. JcTFL1b-RNAi transgenic Jatropha consistently exhibited moderately early flowering phenotype. JcFT and JcAP1 were significantly downregulated in transgenic Jatropha overexpressing JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b or JcTFL1c, which suggested that the late flowering phenotype of these transgenic Jatropha may result from the repressed expression of JcFT and JcAP1. Our results indicate that these three JcTFL1 genes play redundant roles in repressing flowering in Jatropha. PMID:28225036

  6. Radionuclide concentration in fuels and ash products from biofuel heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, B.; Hedvall, R.; Mattsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    The activity concentration of the radionuclides K-40, Ac-228, Pa-234, Mn-54, Co-60, Zr-95, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-125, Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ce-144 have been investigated in peat wood chips and ash products from 13 Swedish district heating plants during the winter seasons of 1986/1987, 1988/89, 1989/90 and 1990/91. There is a significant decrease in the activity concentration of Cs-137 in the fuel which is especially pronounced between the first two seasons, 86/87 and 88/89 after the Chernobyl accident. In spite of the varying deposition of Cs-137 over the country it has been possible to give a relation between the activity concentration in the peat and wood chips as a function of the deposition. The Swedish biofuel heating plants of which 35-40 are burning peat and 70-75 chips have been divided in three groups according to the activity concentration in the ash products. The mean Cs-137 concentration in ash and the total activity 'produced' per year in Sweden have been calculated. The maximum concentration in air at ground level and the corresponding effective dose rate of inhaled Cs-137 as a function of the emission rates of flue gases from stacks with varying heights and during different weather conditions has been calculated. 16 refs, 18 tabs, 4 figs

  7. Increased electrical efficiency in biofueled CHP plants by biomass drying; Oekat elutbyte i biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar med hjaelp av foertorkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Mikael; Thorson, Ola; Wennberg, Olle

    2010-09-15

    In this report, integrated biofuel drying has been studied for two cases. One is the existing CHP plant at ENA Energi AB in Enkoeping and the other is a theoretical case. The thought plant is assumed to have a steam generating performance that is probable for a future CHP plant optimised for power production. The CHP plant at ENA Energi with its integrated bed drying system has been used as a model in this study. The plant has a grate fired boiler with the capacity to co-produce 24 MW electricity and 55 MW heat. It is designed to use biofuel with moisture content between 40 and 55 %. However, the boiler is able to manage even dryer fuels with the moisture content of about 35 % without complications. Since the boiler operates on part load during most of the season, there are free capacity which can be used for delivering heat to the drying system. The increased power production is a result of mainly two factors: Increased demand of heat as the dryer uses district heating and thus improved possibility to produce steam; and, The season of operation can be extended, since the point where the minimum load of the boiler occurs can be pushed forward as a result of increased demand of heat. For future CHP plants, an optimised plant has been used as a model. The steam data is assumed to be 170 bar and 540 deg C with reheating. For this plant, both on-site and offsite drying have been studied. The case study comprises a whole season of operation and the fuel is assumed to be dried from 50 to 10 %. The size of the optimised plant is as to fit the dimension of a main production unit in a district heating net equal to the tenth largest in Sweden. Heat delivery is assumed to be 896 GWh/year and the maximum heat delivery of district heating is 250 MW. The sizing of the boiler is made to maximise the production of electricity, and thus dependent of the drying strategy used. Flue gas condensation is assumed to be used as much as possible. It decreases the basis for power production

  8. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of biofuel plant Euphorbia lathyris to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Yang, Ziyi; Lu, Changmei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanjing (China)], E-mail: 08134@njnu.edu.cn); Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Lijun [Nanjing Inst. for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild plants, Nanjing (China)

    2013-05-15

    Saline lands are characterized by salinity and nutrient deficiency and there is an ever increasing need for economical, adaptable plant species to rejuvenate these lands. In this study, we determined the suitability and tolerance of Euphorbia lathyris L. (Caper spurge), a well-known biofuel plant, as a sustainable candidate to colonize saline lands. We investigated the germination rate, seedling growth, solute change and anti-oxidative enzyme activities etc. under salt stress conditions. Our results showed that Caper spurge seeds prefer to germinate under nonsaline environments and high salt stress induced temporary dormancy during germination, but did not completely hamper the viability of the seeds. The seedling biomass increased without any visible distress symptoms in the presence of NaCl not over 171 mM. Further increase in NaCl concentration had a negative impact on the seedling growth. These demonstrate that Caper spurge seedlings have the potential to grow in saline lands. The salinity tolerance of Caper spurge seedlings was closely associated with the regional distribution of Na{sup + }in roots, stable absorption of Ca{sup 2{sup +,}} K{sup + }and Mg{sup 2{sup +,}} accumulation of organic solutes, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. However, excessive accumulation of Na{sup +,} sharp increase of superoxide (O{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, malonaldehyde (MDA) and cell membrane leakage, reduction of osmoprotectants, and decreased activities of CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) etc. under high salinity might be the reasons for the restrained seedling growth.

  9. TDZ-Induced Plant Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: A Promising Biofuel Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2018-03-23

    In recent years, Jatropha curcas has pronounced attention due to its capacity of production of biodiesel. Uniform large-scale propagation of J. curcas is one of the significant keys that will eventually decide victory. Direct regeneration is one of the methods which help in the production of uniform and homogenous plant, and TDZ plays an important role in the production of plantlets by direct organogenesis in several number of plant species including J. curcas. Measuring the economical importance of J. curcas and the role of TDZ in shoot regeneration, the present book chapter briefly reviews the impact of TDZ on shoot bud induction from various explants of J. curcas.

  10. TDZ-Induced Plant Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: A Promising Biofuel Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Bhatt, Vacha D.; Mastan, Shaik G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, Jatropha curcas has pronounced attention due to its capacity of production of biodiesel. Uniform large-scale propagation of J. curcas is one of the significant keys that will eventually decide victory. Direct regeneration is one of the methods which help in the production of uniform and homogenous plant, and TDZ plays an important role in the production of plantlets by direct organogenesis in several number of plant species including J. curcas. Measuring the economical importance of J. curcas and the role of TDZ in shoot regeneration, the present book chapter briefly reviews the impact of TDZ on shoot bud induction from various explants of J. curcas.

  11. Algal Biofuels | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    biofuels and bioproducts, Algal Research (2016) Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal cyanobacteria, Nature Plants (2015) Acid-catalyzed algal biomass pretreatment for integrated lipid and nitrogen, we can indefinitely maintain the genetic state of the sample for future research in biofuels

  12. Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

    2009-08-15

    high energy resource plant. European scientists already brought Asian Miscanthus species and bred a new hybrid called Miscanthus x giganteus, which is now being used as a biofuel material in Europe and would be widely used in the world in the near future if fundamental questions, such as fiber transformation to alcohol or other breeding techniques, are answered. (author)

  13. Transcriptome of the inflorescence meristems of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas treated with cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bang-Zhen; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Ni, Jun; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-11-17

    Jatropha curcas, whose seed content is approximately 30-40% oil, is an ideal feedstock for producing biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha plants have a low number of female flowers, which results in low seed yield that cannot meet the needs of the biofuel industry. Thus, increasing the number of female flowers is critical for the improvement of Jatropha seed yield. Our previous findings showed that cytokinin treatment can increase the flower number and female to male ratio and also induce bisexual flowers in Jatropha. The mechanisms underlying the influence of cytokinin on Jatropha flower development and sex determination, however, have not been clarified. This study examined the transcriptional levels of genes involved in the response to cytokinin in Jatropha inflorescence meristems at different time points after cytokinin treatment by 454 sequencing, which gave rise to a total of 294.6 Mb of transcript sequences. Up-regulated and down-regulated annotated and novel genes were identified, and the expression levels of the genes of interest were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The identified transcripts include those encoding genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of cytokinin and other plant hormones, flower development and cell division, which may be related to phenotypic changes of Jatropha in response to cytokinin treatment. Our analysis indicated that Jatropha orthologs of the floral organ identity genes known as ABCE model genes, JcAP1,2, JcPI, JcAG, and JcSEP1,2,3, were all significantly repressed, with an exception of one B-function gene JcAP3 that was shown to be up-regulated by BA treatment, indicating different mechanisms to be involved in the floral organ development of unisexual flowers of Jatropha and bisexual flowers of Arabidopsis. Several cell division-related genes, including JcCycA3;2, JcCycD3;1, JcCycD3;2 and JcTSO1, were up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased flower number after cytokinin treatment. This study

  14. Engineering of plants with improved properties as biofuels feedstocks by vessel-specific complementation of xylan biosynthesis mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Pia Damm

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-efficient generation of second-generation biofuels requires plant biomass that can easily be degraded into sugars and further fermented into fuels. However, lignocellulosic biomass is inherently recalcitrant toward deconstruction technologies due to the abundant lignin and cross-linked hemicelluloses. Furthermore, lignocellulosic biomass has a high content of pentoses, which are more difficult to ferment into fuels than hexoses. Engineered plants with decreased amounts of xylan in their secondary walls have the potential to render plant biomass a more desirable feedstock for biofuel production. Results Xylan is the major non-cellulosic polysaccharide in secondary cell walls, and the xylan deficient irregular xylem (irx mutants irx7, irx8 and irx9 exhibit severe dwarf growth phenotypes. The main reason for the growth phenotype appears to be xylem vessel collapse and the resulting impaired transport of water and nutrients. We developed a xylan-engineering approach to reintroduce xylan biosynthesis specifically into the xylem vessels in the Arabidopsis irx7, irx8 and irx9 mutant backgrounds by driving the expression of the respective glycosyltransferases with the vessel-specific promoters of the VND6 and VND7 transcription factor genes. The growth phenotype, stem breaking strength, and irx morphology was recovered to varying degrees. Some of the plants even exhibited increased stem strength compared to the wild type. We obtained Arabidopsis plants with up to 23% reduction in xylose levels and 18% reduction in lignin content compared to wild-type plants, while exhibiting wild-type growth patterns and morphology, as well as normal xylem vessels. These plants showed a 42% increase in saccharification yield after hot water pretreatment. The VND7 promoter yielded a more complete complementation of the irx phenotype than the VND6 promoter. Conclusions Spatial and temporal deposition of xylan in the secondary cell wall of

  15. Why do smallholders plant biofuel crops? The ‘politics of consent’ in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Navarrete, Antonio; Jansen, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have addressed the social and environmental impacts of biofuel crops but seldom the question as to why rural producers engage in their production. It is particularly unclear how governments worldwide, especially in middle-income countries such as Brazil, Thailand, and Mexico, could

  16. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif [SYCON Energikonsult, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller (2-50 MW) biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology (electrostatic precipitators) quickly increases with decreased plant size. Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years. Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter (including an upstream skimmer) and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW. For plants smaller than 5-10 MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Following up cleaning interval and/or emission during operation time, gives information about the development of bag condition and necessary bag change can be foreseen. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation. This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer

  17. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  18. Analysis of the behaviour of biofuel-fired gas turbine power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of biofuels in gas turbines is a promising alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. It would lead to a significant reduction of CO2 emissions using an existing combustion technology, although considerable changes appear to be required and further technological development is necessary. The goal of this work is to conduct energy and exergy analyses of the behaviour of gas turbines fired with biogas, ethanol and synthesis gas (bio-syngas, compared with natural gas. The global energy transformation process (i.e., from biomass to electricity also has been studied. Furthermore, the potential reduction of CO2 emissions attained by the use of biofuels has been determined, after considering the restrictions regarding biomass availability. Two different simulation tools have been used to accomplish this work. The results suggest a high interest in, and the technical viability of, the use of Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BioIGCC systems for large scale power generation.

  19. An overview of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels for transport have received considerable attention due to rising oil prices and growing concern about greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels namely ethanol and esters of fatty acids have the potential to displace a substantial amount of petroleum fuel in the next few decades which will help to conserve fossil fuel resources. Life cycle analyses show that biofuels release lesser amount of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Thus biofuels are seen as a pragmatic step towards reducing carbon dioxide emission from transport sector. Biofuels are compatible with petroleum and combustion engines can easily operate with 10% ethanol and 20% biodiesel blended fuel with no modification. However higher concentrations require 'flex-fuel' engines which automatically adjust fuel injection depending upon fuel mix. Biofuels are derived from renewable biomass and can be produced from a variety of feedstocks. The only limiting factors are the availability of cropland, growth of plants and the climate. Countries with warmer climate can get about five times more biofuel crops from each acre of land than cold climate countries. Genetically modified crops and fast growing trees are being developed increase the production of energy crops. (author)

  20. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    His, St.

    2004-01-01

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  1. Biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Biofuels represent 2,6% of the energy content of all the fuels used in road transport in Europe today. Nearly half of the target of 5,75% for 2010 set by the directive on biofuels has thus been reached in four years time. To achieve 5,75%, the european union is going to have to increase its production and doubtless call even more on imports, at a moment when biofuels are found at the core of complex ecological and economic issues. This analysis provided data and reflexions on the biofuels situation in the european union: consumption, bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, producers, environmental problems, directives. (A.L.B.)

  2. Growth, reproductive phenology and yield responses of a potential biofuel plant, Jatropha curcas grown under projected 2050 levels of elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Chaitanya, Bharatula S K; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil producing plant which is being advocated as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal requirements of essential agronomical inputs compared with other oilseed crops makes it viable for cost-effective advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) (550 ppm) on the growth, reproductive development, source-sink relationships, fruit and seed yield of J. curcas. We report, for the first time that elevated CO(2) significantly influences reproductive characteristics of Jatropha and improve its fruit and seed yields. Net photosynthetic rate of Jatropha was 50% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with field and ambient CO(2) -grown plants. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) atmosphere significantly increased female to male flower ratio, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Jatropha (24 kg carbon per tree) after 1 year. Our data demonstrate that J. curcas was able to sustain enhanced rate of photosynthesis in elevated CO(2) conditions as it had sufficient sink strength to balance the increased biomass yields. Our study also elucidates that the economically important traits including fruit and seed yield in elevated CO(2) conditions were significantly high in J. curcas that holds great promise as a potential biofuel tree species for the future high CO(2) world. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Biofuels and Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The world obtains 86% of its energy from fossil fuels, 40% from petroleum, a majority of which goes to the transportation sector (www.IEA.gov). Well-recognized alternatives are fuels derived from renewable sources known as biofuels. There are a number of biofuels useful for transportation fuels, which include ethanol, biobutanol, mixed alcohols, biodiesel, and hydrogen. These biofuels are produced from biologically derived feedstock, almost exclusively being plant materials, either food or feed sources or inedible plant material called biomass. This chapter will discuss technologies for production of liquid transportation biofuels from renewable feedstocks, but hydrogen will not be included, as the production technology and infrastructure are not near term. In addition, a specific emphasis will be placed upon the research opportunities and potential for application of system biology tools to dissect and understand the biological processes central to production of these biofuels from biomass and biological materials. There are a number of technologies for production of each of these biofuels that range from fully mature processes such as grain-derived ethanol, emerging technology of ethanol form cellulose derived ethanol and immature processes such thermochemical conversion technologies and production of hydrogen all produced from renewable biological feedstocks. Conversion of biomass by various thermochemical and combustion technologies to produce thermochemical biodiesel or steam and electricity provide growing sources of bioenergy. However, these technologies are outside of the scope of this chapter, as is the use of biological processing for upgrading and conversion of fossil fuels. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the current status of production of biofuels produced from biological-derived feedstocks using biological processes. Regardless of the status of development of the biological process for production of the biofuels, each process can benefit from

  4. Gold-Coated M13 Bacteriophage as a Template for Glucose Oxidase Biofuel Cells with Direct Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaik, Rita A; Lan, Esther; Huang, Yu; Dunn, Bruce

    2016-01-26

    Glucose oxidase-based biofuel cells are a promising source of alternative energy for small device applications, but still face the challenge of achieving robust electrical contact between the redox enzymes and the current collector. This paper reports on the design of an electrode consisting of glucose oxidase covalently attached to gold nanoparticles that are assembled onto a genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage using EDC-NHS chemistry. The engineered phage is modified at the pIII protein to attach onto a gold substrate and serves as a high-surface-area template. The resulting "nanomesh" architecture exhibits direct electron transfer (DET) and achieves a higher peak current per unit area of 1.2 mA/cm(2) compared to most other DET attachment schemes. The final enzyme surface coverage on the electrode was calculated to be approximately 4.74 × 10(-8) mol/cm(2), which is a significant improvement over most current glucose oxidase (GOx) DET attachment methods.

  5. Biofuel technology handbook. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, Dominik; Janssen, Rainer

    2008-01-15

    This comprehensive handbook was created in order to promote the production and use of biofuels and to inform politicians, decision makers, biofuel traders and all other relevant stakeholders about the state-of-the-art of biofuels and relevant technologies. The large variety of feedstock types and different conversion technologies are described. Explanations about the most promising bio fuels provide a basis to discuss about the manifold issues of biofuels. The impartial information in this handbook further contributes to diminish existing barriers for the broad use of biofuels. Emphasis of this handbook is on first generation biofuels: bio ethanol, Biodiesel, pure plant oil, and bio methane. It also includes second generation biofuels such as BTL-fuels and bio ethanol from lingo-cellulose as well as bio hydrogen. The whole life cycle of bio fuels is assessed under technical, economical, ecological, and social aspect. Characteristics and applications of bio fuels for transport purposes are demonstrated and evaluated. This is completed by an assessment about the most recent studies on biofuel energy balances. This handbook describes the current discussion about green house gas (GHG) balances and sustainability aspects. GHG calculation methods are presented and potential impacts of biofuel production characterized: deforestation of rainforests and wetlands, loss of biodiversity, water pollution, human health, child labour, and labour conditions.

  6. Regulating plant physiology with organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxson, David J; Karady, Michal; Gabrielsson, Roger; Alkattan, Aziz Y; Gustavsson, Anna; Doyle, Siamsa M; Robert, Stéphanie; Ljung, Karin; Grebe, Markus; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2017-05-02

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides flow-free and accurate delivery of small signaling compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the application of OEIPs has been limited to delivery of nonaromatic molecules to mammalian systems, particularly for neuroscience applications. However, many long-standing questions in plant biology remain unanswered due to a lack of technology that precisely delivers plant hormones, based on cyclic alkanes or aromatic structures, to regulate plant physiology. Here, we report the employment of OEIPs for the delivery of the plant hormone auxin to induce differential concentration gradients and modulate plant physiology. We fabricated OEIP devices based on a synthesized dendritic polyelectrolyte that enables electrophoretic transport of aromatic substances. Delivery of auxin to transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in vivo was monitored in real time via dynamic fluorescent auxin-response reporters and induced physiological responses in roots. Our results provide a starting point for technologies enabling direct, rapid, and dynamic electronic interaction with the biochemical regulation systems of plants.

  7. Mitochondrial Electron Transport and Plant Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan G; Møller, Ian Max

    2011-01-01

    Due to the sessile nature of plants, it is crucial for their survival and growth that they can handle a constantly changing, and thus stressful, ambient environment by modifying their structure and metabolism. The central metabolism of plants is characterized by many alternative options...... for metabolic pathways, which allow a wide range of adjustments of metabolic processes in response to environmental variations. Many of the metabolic pathways in plants involve the processing of redox compounds and the use of adenylates. They converge at the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) where...... redox compounds from carbon degradation are used for powering ATP synthesis. The standard ETC contains three sites of energy conservation in complexes I, III, and IV, which are in common with most other eukaryotes. However, the complexity of the plant metabolic system is mirrored in the ETC. In addition...

  8. Biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 bio-fuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union (EU). However its pace backs the assertion that bio-fuel consumption growth in EU slackened off in 2010. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total bio-fuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13.9 Mtoe that can be broken down into 10.7 Mtoe for bio-diesel, 2.9 Mtoe for bio-ethanol and 0.3 Mtoe for others. Germany leads the pack for the consumption of bio-fuels and for the production of bio-diesel followed by France and Spain

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a novel electron conducting biocomposite as biofuel cell anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Ruma; Inamuddin; Nasar, Abu; Beenish; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2018-01-01

    This study is based on the construction of an enzymatic bioanode adopting the exclusively reported layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Ppy-Ag-GO/ferritin (Frt)/glucose oxidase (GOx). The glassy carbon (GC) electrode was immobilised with the conducting polypyrrole (Ppy)-silver nanoparticles (Ag)-graphene oxide (GO) based biocomposite as electron transfer elevator, horse spleen ferritin (Frt) protein as electron transfer mediator and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme in layer by layer configuration. The fabricated bioanode exhibited good electrochemical performance with a maximum current response of 5.7mAcm -2 accompanied with biocompatibility and environmental stability because of the synergistic effect between outstanding properties of PPy, silver and GO, thereby, showing superior catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of glucose. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Euphorbia tirucalli L.-comprehensive characterization of a drought tolerant plant with a potential as biofuel source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Rina Hastilestari

    Full Text Available Of late, decrease in mineral oil supplies has stimulated research on use of biomass as an alternative energy source. Climate change has brought problems such as increased drought and erratic rains. This, together with a rise in land degeneration problems with concomitant loss in soil fertility has inspired the scientific world to look for alternative bio-energy species. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a tree with C3/CAM metabolism in leaves/stem, can be cultivated on marginal, arid land and could be a good alternative source of biofuel. We analyzed a broad variety of E. tirucalli plants collected from different countries for their genetic diversity using AFLP. Physiological responses to induced drought stress were determined in a number of genotypes by monitoring growth parameters and influence on photosynthesis. For future breeding of economically interesting genotypes, rubber content and biogas production were quantified. Cluster analysis shows that the studied genotypes are divided into two groups, African and mostly non-African genotypes. Different genotypes respond significantly different to various levels of water. Malate measurement indicates that there is induction of CAM in leaves following drought stress. Rubber content varies strongly between genotypes. An investigation of the biogas production capacities of six E. tirucalli genotypes reveals biogas yields higher than from rapeseed but lower than maize silage.

  11. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  12. Algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  13. Biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union governments no longer view the rapid increase in biofuel consumption as a priority. Between 2010 and 2011 biofuel consumption increased by only 3%, which translates into 13.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) used in 2011 compared to 13.2 million toe in 2010. In 2011 6 European countries had a biofuel consumption in transport that went further 1 million toe: Germany (2,956,746 toe), France (2,050,873 toe), Spain (1,672,710 toe), Italy (1,432,455 toe), United Kingdom (1,056,105 toe) and Poland (1,017,793 toe). The breakdown of the biofuel consumption for transport in the European Union in 2011 into types of biofuels is: bio-diesel (78%), bio-ethanol (21%), biogas (0.5%) and vegetable oil (0.5%). In 2011, 4 bio-diesel producers had a production capacity in Europe that passed beyond 900,000 tonnes: Diester Industrie International (France) with 3,000,000 tonnes, Neste Oil (Finland) with 1,180,000 tonnes, ADM bio-diesel (Germany) with 975,000 tonnes, and Infinita (Spain) with 900,000 tonnes. It seems that the European Union's attention has shifted to setting up sustainability systems to verify that the biofuel used in the various countries complies with the Renewable Energy Directive's sustainability criteria

  14. Mutagenesis of Jatropha curcas - Exploring new traits in the breeding of a biofuel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Sobri Hussein; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2010-01-01

    Mutagenesis in plant species is considered effective in recovering and producing useful mutants as it leads to a high degree of chimerism and produces high degree of somaclonal variations for further selection in breeding programmes. Jatropha curcas is a species with many attributes and considerable potential, especially as bio diesel. Narrow genetic background of Jatropha spp. gives less selection to growers for better quality plant materials. In this study, a new method through nuclear technology was used to increase the genetic variability of Jatropha towards novel superior potential mutant lines. The objective of the study is to generate new mutant varieties of Jatropha curcas through the mutagenesis approach in getting new sustainable mutants for high oil yield and improved plant characteristics. Seeds of a Jatropha cultivar were from selected materials from Lembaga Kenaf and Tembakau Negara, Kelantan. Radiosensitivity test was done by irradiating a total of each 60 seeds at multiple doses (0 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, 60 Gy, 80 Gy, 100 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 400 Gy, 600 Gy and 700 Gy). After getting the LD 50 , three doses i.e. 250 Gy, 300 Gy and 350 Gy were selected for mutagenesis, where a total of 1000 seeds were exposed to gamma radiation. The seeds were hardened and field planted at close distance of 1 m x 1 m. Pruning was conducted three times at two months interval prior to screening for early flowering, short stature and high branching mutant lines. Radiosensitivity of seeds to acute gamma irradiation revealed that the LD 50 was at 320 Gy. At nursery stage, somatic mutations related to chlorophyll changes were observed on leaves with certain shapes. Screening of Jatropha via seed mutagenesis bore 6 early flowering mutants, 7 dwarf mutants and, 17 high branching plants. In narrowing the mutant lines, cuttings from each selected trait were collected and re-planted for further evaluation. (author)

  15. The scope of environmental impact statements for biofuelled energy plants in Sweden and its environmental relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn-Tysk, S.

    2001-03-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate how the Swedish environmental impact assessment (EIA) system works in practice and to analyse the environmental relevance of the scoping process during the ElA process. As a case study, environmental impact statements (EISs) for bio fuelled energy plants have been reviewed in order to illustrate the scope of the statements and hence evaluate how the ElA system works and analyses what environmental aspects that are prioritised by ElA actors. Based on the review results, the scope of the EISs indicates that the Swedish ElA system did not work as intended during the studied period since not even the legal requirements were fulfilled in many of the EISs. In addition, international EIA practice does not seem to have influenced the Swedish practice of ElA at that time. The EISs also show that EIA actors apply narrow system boundaries, i.e. they focus only on the activities of the energy plant that are explicitly linked to the energy plant location and its immediate vicinity. Moreover, these narrow system boundaries exclude important aspects of an energy plant, like resource extraction and global and long-term effects. Many of the energy plants have been planned and developed partly due to a Government Bill, in which a development of the Swedish energy system was proposed in order to achieve a sustainable development of Sweden. However, a sustainable development requires that effects on present as well as future generations are focused on as well. Therefore, an ElA process and a decision-making process, which prioritises local and short-term effects, often do not promote the societal goals of sustainable development. In order to promote the goals of sustainable development, the perspectives of ElA actors have to widen to include global and future, long-term effects.

  16. Engineering management of gas turbine power plant co2 for microalgae biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Domoyi; Pilidis, Pericles; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel accounts for over 80% of the world`s primary energy, particularly in areas of transportation, manufacturing and domestic heating. However, depletion of fossil reserves, frequent threats to the security of fossil fuel supply, coupled with concerns over emissions of greenhouse gases associated with fossil fuel use has motivated research towards developing renewable and sustainable sources for energy fuels. Consequently, the use of microalgae culture to convert CO2 from power plants ...

  17. Direct electron transfer-based bioanodes for ethanol biofuel cells using PQQ-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino Neto, Sidney; Suda, Emily L.; Xu, Shuai; Meredith, Matthew T.; De Andrade, Adalgisa R.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of a DET (direct electron transfer) bioanode containing both PQQ-ADH (pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase) and PQQ-AldDH (PQQ-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase) immobilized onto different modified electrode surfaces employing either a tetrabutylammonium (TBAB)-modified Nafion ® membrane polymer or polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers for the enzyme immobilization. The electrochemical characterization showed that the prepared bioelectrodes were able to undergo DET onto glassy carbon surface in the presence as well as the absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); also, in the latter case a relevant shift in the oxidation peak of about 180 mV vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was observed. A very similar redox potential was achieved with the self-assembled bioelectrode prepared onto modified-gold surfaces with dendrimers, indicating that both methodologies provide an environment that enables the PQQ-enzymes to undergo DET. The biofuel cell tests confirmed the ease of the DET process and the enhanced performance in the presence of the carbon nanotubes. Considering the bioanodes prepared with PAMAM dendrimers, the power density values vary from 19.4 μW cm −2 without MWCNTs to 25.7 μW cm −2 in the presence of MWCNTs. Similarly, with the bioanodes prepared with the TBAB-modified-Nafion ® polymer, the results indicate power densities of 27.9 and 38.4 μW cm −2 respectively. These electrode modifications represent effective methods for immobilization and direct electrical connection of quinohemoproteins to electrode surfaces.

  18. Applications of Cyanobacteria in Biofuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K. Benedikt

    and to evolve from a wasteful petrochemical system into a sustainable bio-based society, biofuels and the introduction of bio-refineries play an essential role. Aquatic phototrophs are promising organisms to employ photosynthetic capacities as well as the derived carbohydrates for the production of biofuels......, enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for further fermentation or as a platform chemical in a bio-refinery concept. Autotrophically cultivated cells of the marine model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 (Synechococcus) were exposed to mild nitrogen starvation which has been identified...... for fermentation of plant waste material or a substitute for yeast extract. By mimicking photosynthetic electron transport from light excited photo pigments to LPMOs in combination with a reductant and cellulose as substrate, a 100-fold increase in catalytic activity of LPMOs was observed. Also, it was found...

  19. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  20. The rationality of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horta Nogueira, Luiz Augusto; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Schuchardt, Ulf; Goldemberg, Jose

    2013-01-01

    In an editorial of a recent issue of a known academic journal, Prof. Hartmut Michel affirmed that “…the production of biofuels constitutes an extremely inefficient land use… We should not grow plants for biofuel production.”, after comparing the area occupied with plants for bioenergy production with the one required for photovoltaic cells to supply the same amount of energy for transportation. This assertion is not correct for all situations and this comparison deserves a more careful analysis, evaluating the actual and prospective technological scenarios and other relevant aspects, such as capacity requirements, energy consumed during the life cycle of energy systems and the associated impacts. In this communication this comparison is revaluated, presenting a different perspective, more favorable for the bioenergy routes. - Highlights: • Energy systems and life cycle impacts are compared under equal conditions. • The comparison is done between biofuels and photovoltaic/battery in mobility uses. • Biofuels are a valuable option when produced sustainably by efficient routes

  1. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  2. Utilization of ash fractions from alternative biofuels used in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Hinge, J.; Christensen, I. (Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)); Dahl, J. (Force Technology, Broendby (Denmark)); Arendt Jensen, P. (DTU-CHEC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Soendergaard Birkmose, T. (Dansk Landbrugsraadgivning, Landscentret, Aarhus (Denmark)); Sander, B. (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Kristensen, O. (Kommunekemi A/S, Nyborg (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    It is expected, that demand for the traditional biomass resources wood and straw will increase over the next years. In other projects a number of agro industrial waste products has been tested and characterized as fuels for power plants. The annual production in Denmark of these fuels is estimated at roughly 400.000 tons of Dry Matter per year, so the potential is substantial. The agro industrial biomass products include: Grain screening waste, pea shells, soy waste, cocoa waste, sugar beet waste, sunflower waste, shea waste, coffee waste, olive waste, rice shell waste, potato waste, pectin waste, carrageen waste, tobacco waste, rape seed waste and mash from breweries. In the PSO project 5075, 5 different types of fuel pellets was produced, which were rendered suitable for combustion in power plants. In this project, ash is produced from the above mentioned 5 mixtures together with another 2 mixtures produced especially for this project. From the 5 mixtures from PSO 5075, ash is produced at Danish Technological Institute's slag analyzer. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash from grate fired boilers at power plants. The ash/slag from the combustion in the slag analyzer was then grinded - thus resulting in a total of 5 ash products. At DTU CHEC's Entrained Flow Reactor, ash products from the 5+2 mixtures were produced. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash produced form suspension fired boilers at power plants. For each of the 7 mixtures, bottom-, cyclone and filter ash was taken out separately resulting in a total of 21 ash samples. The produced ashes have been evaluated for their properties as directly applied fertilizer. Furthermore, scenarios have been set up to assess the feasibility in producing artificial fertilizer from the ash products, based on known processes. In the main components the content of Na, S, Cl and K is significantly higher in filter ashes, whereas the content of Mg, Al, Si and Ca is significantly lower. The

  3. Flux and concentration processes of radioactive elements in the forest industry; dosimetry, biofueled heating plants, the alkaline and the acidic pulp mill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1992-01-01

    A fraction of the radionuclides released to the forest ecosystem will be incorporated into different parts of the trees and the wood. A common factor for both biofueled power plants and pulp mills is that they concentrate the radionuclides initially present in the in the biofuel or wood in ashes or other products. The enrichment of radioactive elements is due to the combustion process or in a pulp mill, the combustion of bark and liquors, and also the processes in the pulp mill recycling system. The radiological impacts to man from forest industry arises form radiation emitted from the radionuclides present in ash and pulp mill liquors and liquor sludge. The quantification and calculation of past, present and future activity concentrations in biofuels, ash and pulp mill waste products are all important when assessments of the radiation dose is done. In order to assess the resulting dose to staff working close to radionuclide containing recycling systems and waste dumps, it is necessary to know the dynamics (inflow rate and residence time) of the radionuclides in that system

  4. Airborne fungal and bacterial components in PM1 dust from biofuel plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olsen, Tina; Sigsgaard, Torben; Avci, Hediye

    2009-10-01

    Fungi grown in pure cultures produce DNA- or RNA-containing particles smaller than spore size ( 3)-beta-D-glucans. In the 29 PM(1) samples, cultivable fungi were found in six samples and with a median concentration below detection level. Using microscopy, fungal spores were identified in 22 samples. The components NAGase and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans, which are mainly associated with fungi, were present in all PM(1) samples. Thermophilic actinomycetes were present in 23 of the 29 PM(1) samples [average = 739 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3)]. Cultivable and 'total bacteria' were found in average concentrations of, respectively, 249 CFU m(-3) and 1.8 x 10(5) m(-3). DNA- and RNA-containing particles of different lengths were counted by microscopy and revealed a high concentration of particles with a length of 0.5-1.5 microm and only few particles >1.5 microm. The number of cultivable fungi and beta-glucan in the total dust correlated significantly with the number of DNA/RNA-containing particles with lengths of between 1.0 and 1.5 microm, with DNA/RNA-containing particles >1.5 microm, and with other fungal components in PM(1) dust. Airborne beta-glucan and NAGase were found in PM(1) samples where no cultivable fungi were present, and beta-glucan and NAGase were found in higher concentrations per fungal spore in PM(1) dust than in total dust. This indicates that fungal particles smaller than fungal spore size are present in the air at the plants. Furthermore, many bacteria, including actinomycetes, were present in PM(1) dust. Only 0.2% of the bacteria in PM(1) dust were cultivable.

  5. Harnessing indigenous plant seed oil for the production of bio-fuel by an oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, isolated from tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrutha, S K; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2014-01-01

    Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) producing tropical fungal isolate, was utilized as a tool to evaluate the influence of various plant seed oils on biomass, oleagenicity and bio-fuel production. The fungus accumulated 26 % total lipid of their dry biomass (2 g/l) and 13 % of GLA in its total fatty acid. Among the various plant seed oils tested as carbon sources for biotransformation studies, watermelon oil had an effect on biomass and total lipid increasing up to 9.24 g/l and 34 % respectively. Sunflower, pumpkin, and onion oil increased GLA content between 15-18 %. Interestingly, an indigenous biodiesel commodity, Pongamia pinnata oil showed tremendous effect on fatty acid profile in C. blakesleeana- JSK2, when used as a sole source of carbon. There was complete inhibition of GLA from 13 to 0 % and increase in oleic acid content, one of the key components of biodiesel to 70 % (from 20 % in control). Our results suggest the potential application of indigenous plant seed oils, particularly P. pinnata oil, for the production of economically valuable bio-fuel in oleaginous fungi in general, and C. blakesleeana- JSK2, in particular.

  6. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Ed

    2008-01-01

    . Previous land use is also recorded. The indirect effects of biofuel production - such as land displacement - have recently been examined by a review commissioned by the U.K. Government and carried out by the Renewable Fuels Agency. It confirmed the concerns, and work is now under way to measure the indirect effects and incorporate them in reporting and analysis. It concluded that we need to be more cautious and discriminating in our use of biofuels and called for a slowing of targets until, in particular, the indirect efforts could be monitored and evaluated properly. But it also saw a way forward for a sustainable biofuels industry. If this is to happen, biofuels should use the right feedstocks, be grown on the right land and use the least energy intensive production processes. Thus, ethanol derived from sugar cane, grown on land not needed for food production, farmed with an efficient use of fertilisers and produced using bagasse (sugar cane waste) as a source of energy, would be a sustainable biofuel. However, ethanol derived from maize using highly intensive farming processes, grown on land needed for food, and using energy from coal-fired power stations, would be an unsustainable one. The Review recommended that biofuel production should be concentrated on idle agricultural land - areas that have been previously farmed but which would remain uncultivated if not used in this way - and on marginal areas which are unproductive when used for food crops or livestock. It also recommended increasing the use of wastes and residues for feedstocks and creating incentives for second generation biofuels using new technologies, such as cellulosic ethanol from woody plants or biodiesel from algae. The Review also concluded that, left to itself, the market was unlikely to develop in a sustainable way, and so recommended more research into both indirect and direct effects and introducing internationally agreed mandatory sustainability standards. These should be accompanied by full

  7. Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Hawthorne, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Increasing energy use, climate change, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels make switching to low-carbon fuels a high priority. Biofuels are a potential low-carbon energy source, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on how they are produced. Converting rainforests, peatlands, savannas, or grasslands to produce food crop based biofuels in Brazil, Southeast Asia, and the United States creates a “biofuel carbon debt” by releasing 17 to 420 times more CO2 than the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions that these biofuels would provide by displacing fossil fuels. In contrast, biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on degraded and abandoned agricultural lands planted with perennials incur little or no carbon debt and can offer immediate and sustained GHG advantages.

  8. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, M.A; Masjuki, H.H.; Maleque, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NO x , smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  9. A pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH)-electrode with direct electron transfer based on polyaniline modified carbon nanotubes for biofuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubart, Ivo W.; Göbel, Gero; Lisdat, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this study we present a pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase [(PQQ)-GDH] electrode with direct electron transfer between the enzyme and electrode. Soluble pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is covalently bound to an electropolymerized polyaniline copolymer film on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified gold electrode. The pulsed electropolymerization of 2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid (MASA) and m-aminobenzoic acid (ABA) is optimized with respect to the efficiency of the bioelectrocatalytic conversion of glucose. The glucose oxidation starts at −0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl and current densities up to 500 μA/cm 2 at low potential of +0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl can be achieved. The electrode shows a glucose sensitivity in the range from 0.1 mM to 5 mM at a potential of +0.1 V vs. Ag/Ag/Cl. The dynamic range is extended to 100 mM at +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer mechanism is studied and buffer effects are investigated. The developed enzyme electrode is examined for bioenergetic application by assembling of a membrane-less biofuel cell. For the cathode a bilirubin oxidase (BOD) based MWCNT-modified gold electrode with direct electron transfer (DET) is used. The biofuel cell exhibits a cell potential of 680 ± 20 mV and a maximum power density of up to 65 μW/cm 2 at 350 mV vs. Ag/AgCl.

  10. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  11. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  12. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  13. Biofuels from microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Inst. of Resource and Energy Technology; Zverlov, V.V.; Schwarz, W.H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Dept. of Microbiology

    2007-11-15

    Today, biomass covers about 10% of the world's primary energy demand. Against a backdrop of rising crude oil prices, depletion of resources, political instability in producing countries and environmental challenges, besides efficiency and intelligent use, only biomass has the potential to replace the supply of an energy hungry civilisation. Plant biomass is an abundant and renewable source of energy-rich carbohydrates which can be efficiently converted by microbes into biofuels, of which, only bioethanol is produced on an industrial scale today. Biomethane is produced on a large scale, but is not yet utilised for transportation. Biobutanol is on the agenda of several companies and may be used in the near future as a supplement for gasoline, diesel and kerosene, as well as contributing to the partially biological production of butyl-t-butylether, BTBE as does bioethanol today with ETBE. Biohydrogen, biomethanol and microbially made biodiesel still require further development. This paper reviews microbially made biofuels which have potential to replace our present day fuels, either alone, by blending, or by chemical conversion. It also summarises the history of biofuels and provides insight into the actual production in various countries, reviewing their policies and adaptivity to the energy challenges of foreseeable future. (orig.)

  14. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  15. Biofuel application of biomass obtained from a meat industry wastewater plant through the flotation process. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sena, Rennio F.; Claudino, Andreia; Moretti, Karine; Bonfanti, Iris C.P.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J. [Laboratory of Energy and the Environment LEMA, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering EQA, Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSC, Center of Tecnology CTC, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Physicochemical treatment of meat industry wastewater is used to increase the organic matter removal efficiency, and it generates great amounts of sludge. Treatment using commercial ferric sulfate as coagulant for this specific wastewater gave high organic matter removals, decreasing considerably the amount of waste material to be treated in biological systems, and also allowing the obtention of 0.83-0.87 kg of biomass fuel for each m{sup 3} of treated wastewater. Due to sanitary, environmental problems and operational costs related to the discharge, land disposal and re-use of wastes, the utilization of this Biofuel (dried sludge) for steam generation has shown to be a viable alternative. This type of fuel has a high heating value, and it is a renewable energy source. The combustion test with a Biofuel to sawdust ratio of 4:1 met the technical requirements for the characterization of this promising fuel; nevertheless, operating conditions must be well designed to achieve NO{sub X} and SO{sub 2} emissions below local and/or international limits. (author)

  16. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.

  17. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion......-VS/(m3•d) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic operation was, however, less robust towards further increase of the loading rate and for loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3•d) the yield was higher...... for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery compared to a system...

  18. Fuelling biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian government has recently committed to legislation ensuring that all transportation fuels will be supplemented with biofuels by 2010. This article provided details of a position paper written by the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association in response to the legislation. Details of new research to optimize the future biodiesel industry were also presented. Guiding principles of the paper included the creation of open markets across provincial boundaries; the manipulation of tax structures to make products competitive in the United States; and establishing quality standards via the Canadian General Standards Board. It is expected that the principles will reassure petroleum producers and retailers, as ethanol behaves differently than gasoline in storage tanks. As ethanol is water-absorbing, retailers must flush and vacuum their tanks to remove water, then install 10 micron filters to protect fuel lines and dispenser filters from accumulated gasoline residue loosened by the ethanol. Refineries are concerned that the average content of ethanol remains consistent across the country, as refiners will be reluctant to make different blends for different provinces. Critics of biodiesel claim that it is not energy-intensive enough to meet demand, and biodiesel crops are not an efficient use of soils that could otherwise be used to grow food crops. However, researchers in Saskatchewan are committed to using a variety of methods such as reduced tillage systems to make biodiesel production more efficient. Laboratory research has resulted in improved refining processes and genetic manipulation of potential biodiesel crops. Membrane technology is now being used to select water from ethanol. A process developed by the Ottawa company Iogen Corporation uses enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the tough fibres found in corn stalks, leaves, wood and other biomass into sugars. Scientists are also continuing to improve oil content yields in canola and soybean crops. It was

  19. Photovoltaic plants in the electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzio, L.; Vigotti, R.

    1999-01-01

    The article provides a 1998 updated picture of Italy's and the world's photovoltaic market in terms of produced modules and total installed capacity, as well as market growth forecasts up to 2010. After a short description of the state-of-the-art of cell and module manufacturing, ana analysis of the cost of producing a photovoltaic kW is reported for different plant types: stand-alone plants with energy storage batteries, plants connected to low low voltage networks or intended for supporting medium voltage networks, hybrid plants with diesel sets. The article is concluded by illustrating ENEL's (Electric Power Production Company) engagement in the field of photovoltaic solar energy as regards theoretical studies, research and testing of new technologies, and installing plants; over nearly twenty years of activity, ENEL has designed and built a few hundreds of photovoltaic plants for a total capacity of about 4.000 kW, and is currently in the process of setting up a further 370 kW [it

  20. Savannah River Plant californium-252 Shuffler electronics manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Gallegos, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    Detailed information is presented in this report, an electronics manual for the Savannah River Plant Shuffler, about the electronics associated with the various control and data acquisition functions of the Shuffler subsystems. Circuit diagrams, interconnection information, and details about computer control and programming are included

  1. Energetic and Environmental Impacts Related to Transport and Assembling Processes in ABiogas Production Plant from Marine Macroalgae (FP7 Project BioWALK4Biofuels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Andrea; Gigli, Emanuele; Muzi, Luca; Renda, Roberto; Simoni, Silvano

    2010-01-01

    GHG emissions, eutrophication and energy dependence are problems that the EU has to face in the near future. The BioWALK4Biofuels project aims to find a common response to these challenges, taking advantage of spontaneous biological processes: the growth of algae and anaerobic digestion of biomass. This project is being built thanks to European funding under the 7th Framework Programme. To evaluate the results obtained, a first LCA study was carried out that, as regards the data on infrastructure and on the assembly of the plant, refers to data supplied by manufacturers, while the study of algal growth was made on the basis of a model of cultivation that takes account of the aspects that most affect this key process among all the ones that cooperate in the whole plant. The electricity and heat produced through a co-generator fueled by biogas produced from algal biomass, according to this study, are responsible for GHG emissions reduced by 52% compared to traditional technologies. The biogas produced during the 4 years of the project allows the substitution of 85 tonnes of oil equivalent (toe).

  2. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  3. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur-Vernat, A.; His, St.

    2007-01-01

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  4. Biofuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihersaari, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to produce more information on the environmental impacts of biomass production and use. Energy consumption and environmental impacts of different biomass and fossil fuel production techniques combined with transportation and end use figures are needed for comparing different fuel alternatives to reach a maximum environmental benefits from the total energy system. The energy demand of different biomass production chains was calculated and compared. Special attention was paid to new production techniques, developed in the ongoing Finnish BIOENERGY research programme. The energy consumption and the emissions from biomass production were compared with the corresponding parametres for fossil fuels used in Finland. The use of biomass for energy purposes provides environmental benefits compared to fossile fuels. The most notable ones are very small or none net emissions of greenhouse gases and SO 2 when burning biomass. NO x emissions from the production and transportation chain form a notable part of the total NO x emissons of the bioenergy production and utilization chain, especially for large biomass plants, and therefore attention should be paid to the possibilities to lower these emissions. Biomass fuel production is not free from fossil fuels. About 2-6 per cent of the produced energy is used in the production chain. The amount of used energy rises much higher, if the biofuel is processed to be an alternative for e.g. fossil diesel fuels. The energy demand in the fossil fuel production chain is though greater than in the production chain of basic biofuels. (52 refs.)

  5. Biofuels securing the planet's future energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    The biofuels include bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils, biomethanol, pyrolysis oils, biogas, and biohydrogen. There are two global biomass based liquid transportation fuels that might replace gasoline and diesel fuel. These are bioethanol and biodiesel. World production of biofuel was about 68 billion L in 2007. The primary feedstocks of bioethanol are sugarcane and corn. Bioethanol is a gasoline additive/substitute. Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. About 60% of global bioethanol production comes from sugarcane and 40% from other crops. Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent mono alkyl ester based oxygenated fuel. Biodiesel production using inedible vegetable oil, waste oil and grease has become more attractive recently. The economic performance of a biodiesel plant can be determined once certain factors are identified, such as plant capacity, process technology, raw material cost and chemical costs. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment.

  6. Transgenic perennial biofuel feedstocks and strategies for bioconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of transgenic tools for the improvement of plant feedstocks will be required to realize the full economic and environmental benefits of cellulosic and other biofuels, particularly from perennial plants. Traits that are targets for improvement of biofuels crops include he...

  7. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  8. Flexible 75 kWel Stirling CHP-plant for bio-fuels with low emissions and a high fuel utilization. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the project ''Flexible 75 kWel Stirling CHP-plant for bio-fuels with low emissions and a high fuel utilization'' was to combine the Danish experiences with the Stirling engine and updraft gasification with the application of the FLOX gas burner technology for developing and demonstrating a flexible biomass-based small scale CHP plant with 75 kW electrical output, high power efficiency and low emissions. Further, the project has aimed at increasing the technology's reliability and decreasing the need for service. Also, the project has included the development of a control and communication system for unmanned start-up and operation of the plant. During the project the objective was altered and so the development of a new Stirling engine design was done on the 4-cylindred 35 kWe Stirling engine instead of the 8-cylindred 75 kWe Stirling engine. Focus has been on designing a more durable engine designed for easy and fast service. Cold test of the engine has been successful and now full-scale hot tests are to be performed. In the project Stirling DK has also in cooperation with project partner Danish gas Technology Centre developed the Stirling Engine with Diluted Oxidation (SEDIOX) concept which is a combustion technology based on the diluted oxidation principle. A trademark is obtained and also a patent application is filed and pending regarding the SEDIOX combustion chamber concept. All components for the Stirling gasification plant were produced and installed at Svanholm Estate. The plant consisted of one conventional combustion chamber and one SD3E-type Stirling engine. The plant was commissioned in June 2009 and 1,472 hours of operation and 43 MWh of electricity production was achieved before the plant was de-commissioned in February 2010 due to divergences between Svanholm Estate and Stirling DK. During operation the control system including remote access was tested thoroughly and with great success. The new overall

  9. A biofuel-based cogeneration plant in a natural gas expansion system: An energetic and economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Marco; Modica, Stefano; Portoraro, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Natural Gas Turbo Expander system with a rapeseed oil fueled CHP is studied. • The experimental data of the plant are considered in the analyses. • The energetic index of performance shows the attractiveness of the plant. • Incentives and fuel price volatility effects on economic profitability are analysed. - Abstract: The paper deals with an analysis of the energetic and economic performance of a City Gas Station (CGS) plant, made up of a rapeseed oil cogenerator coupled to a turbo-expansion system for the reduction of natural gas pressure, which is currently in operation in Italy. Although this kind of systems concept is well known, the plant can be considered unusual because the heat needed to pre-heat the gas before its expansion is obtained from a renewable source. The aim of the paper is to analyse the energetic efficiency of the plant and its economic viability, which is affected to a great extent by subsidizing energy policies and by the volatility of vegetable oil prices. All the evaluations have been based on a real set of experimental data.

  10. Glucose-based Biofuel Cells: Nanotechnology as a Vital Science in Biofuel Cells Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Aghahosseini; Ali Ramazani; Pegah Azimzadeh Asiabi; Farideh Gouranlou; Fahimeh Hosseini; Aram Rezaei; Bong-Ki Min; Sang Woo Joo

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has opened up new opportunities for the design of nanoscale electronic devices suitable for developing high-performance biofuel cells. Glucose-based biofuel cells as green energy sources can be a powerful tool in the service of small-scale power source technology as it provides a latent potential to supply power for various implantable medical electronic devices. By using physiologically produced glucose as a fuel, the living battery can recharge for continuous production of el...

  11. The Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the many compelling reasons for the development of biofuels on remote Pacific islands, several of the most important include: (1) a lack of indigenous fossil fuels necessitates their import at great economic loss to local island economics, (2) ideal conditions for plant growth exist on many Pacific islands to produce yields of biomass feedstocks, (3) gaseous and liquid fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol manufactured locally from biomass feedstocks are the most viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels for transportation, and (4) the combustion of biofuels is cleaner than burning petroleum products and contributes no net atmospheric CO2 to aggravate the greenhouse effect and the subsequent threat of sea level rise to low islands. Dr. Vic Phillips, HNEI Program Manager of the Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program welcomed 60 participants to the Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop at the Sheraton Makaha Hotel, Waianae, Oahu, on March 27 and 28, 1989. The objectives of the workshop were to update progress since the Second Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop in April 1987 and to develop a plan for action for biofuels R and D, technology transfer, and commercialization now (immediate attention), in the near-term (less than two years), in the mid-term (three to five years), and in the long-term (more than six years). An emerging theme of the workshop was how the production, conversion, and utilization of biofuels can help increase environmental and economic security locally and globally. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  12. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  13. Limits to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  14. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  16. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, Bala; Kumar, Ritunesh; Deshmukh, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microalgae offer solution of wastewater treatment, CO 2 sequestration, and energy crises. • Microalgal biofuel is renewable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly option. • Integration of wastewater treatment with biofuels production has made them more cost effective. • This article details out the potential production process and benefits of microalgal biofuels. - Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with

  17. Radiosterilization process control in plants using electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam parameters deciding the irradiation dose in radiosterilization plants should be continuously controlled during the process. Dosimetric procedure suitable to irradiated material and dose range should be chosen. The practical advice and directions in this subject have been done. 7 refs

  18. The Danish Biofuel Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    of biofuels enrol scientific authority to support their positions? The sociological theory of functional differentiation combined with the concept of advocacy coalition can help in exploring this relationship between scientific claims-making and the policy stance of different actors in public debates about...... biofuels. In Denmark two distinct scientific perspectives about biofuels map onto the policy debates through articulation by two competing advocacy coalitions. One is a reductionist biorefinery perspective originating in biochemistry and neighbouring disciplines. This perspective works upwards from...

  19. Biofuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  20. Land availability for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dingbao

    2011-01-01

    Marginal agricultural land is estimated for biofuel production in Africa, China, Europe, India, South America, and the continental United States, which have major agricultural production capacities. These countries/regions can have 320-702 million hectares of land available if only abandoned and degraded cropland and mixed crop and vegetation land, which are usually of low quality, are accounted. If grassland, savanna, and shrubland with marginal productivity are considered for planting low-input high-diversity (LIHD) mixtures of native perennials as energy crops, the total land availability can increase from 1107-1411 million hectares, depending on if the pasture land is discounted. Planting the second generation of biofuel feedstocks on abandoned and degraded cropland and LIHD perennials on grassland with marginal productivity may fulfill 26-55% of the current world liquid fuel consumption, without affecting the use of land with regular productivity for conventional crops and without affecting the current pasture land. Under the various land use scenarios, Africa may have more than one-third, and Africa and Brazil, together, may have more than half of the total land available for biofuel production. These estimations are based on physical conditions such as soil productivity, land slope, and climate.

  1. Liquid biofuels - can they meet our expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Liquid biofuels are one of the options for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and the dependence on fossil fuels. This is reflected in the DIRECTIVE 2003/30/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport. The promotion of E10, an automotive fuel containing 10 percent bioethanol, is based on this directive. At present almost all bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as maize, corn or sugar beet and sugar cane in suitable climates. In view of shortages and rising prices of food, in particular in developing countries, the use of food and feed crops for biofuel production is increasingly criticized. Alternative sources of biomass are perennial grasses and wood, whose cellulose fraction can be converted to alcohol by the so called "second generation" processes, which seem to be close to commercial deployment. The use of the total plant biomass increases the biofuel yield per hectare as compared to conventional crops. Of special interest for biofuel production is woody biomass from forests as this avoids competition with food production on arable land. Historically woody biomass was for millennia the predominant source of thermal energy. Before fossil fuels came into use, up to 80 percent of a forest was used for fuel wood, charcoal and raw materials such as potash for trade and industry. Now forests are managed to yield up to 80 percent of high grade timber for the wood industry. Replacing sophisticatedly managed forests by fast growing biofuel plantations could make economic sense for land owners when a protected market is guaranteed by politics, because biofuel plantations would be highly mechanized and cheap to operate, even if costs for certified planting material and fertilizer are added. For forest owners the decision to clear existing long rotation forests for biofuel plantations would still be weighty because of the extended time of decades required to rebuild a

  2. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  3. Toward nitrogen neutral biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Wernick, David G; Liao, James C

    2012-06-01

    Environmental concerns and an increasing global energy demand have spurred scientific research and political action to deliver large-scale production of liquid biofuels. Current biofuel processes and developing approaches have focused on closing the carbon cycle by biological fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and conversion of biomass to fuels. To date, these processes have relied on fertilizer produced by the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, and have not addressed the global nitrogen cycle and its environmental implications. Recent developments to convert protein to fuel and ammonia may begin to address these problems. In this scheme, recycling ammonia to either plant or algal feedstocks reduces the demand for synthetic fertilizer supplementation. Further development of this technology will realize its advantages of high carbon fixation rates, inexpensive and simple feedstock processing, in addition to reduced fertilizer requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Iller, E.; Tyminnski, B.; Zimek, Z; Ostapczuk, A.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology was invented many years ago. Research on the process has been carried out in Japan, USA, Germany and Poland. However, the recent fidings, based on the experiments performed at pilot plant at Electric Power Station Kaweczyn, led to developments which made process mature just at the dawn of the XXI century. The process is being implemented in the full industrial scale at Electric Power Station Pomorzany (Dolna Odra EPS Group). Other developments are reported in Japan and after Nagoya's pilot plant experiments, an industrial plant has been built in China and another one is constructed in Japan. There are remarkable differences in technological and design solutions applied in all these installations. Developments achieved at EPS Kaweczyn pilot plant and INCT laboratory unit were the basis for the project realized at EPS Pomorzan

  6. Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world were discussed in present article. First-generation biofuels, i.e., grain and land based biofuels, occupied large areas of arable lands and severely constrained food supplies, are widely disputed. They have been replaced by second-generation biofuels. The raw materials of the second-generation biofuels include plants, straw, grass and other crops and forest residues. However, the cost for production of the second-generation biofuels is higher. Therefore the development of the third-generation biofuels is undergoing. The third-generation technologies use, mainly algae, as raw material to produce bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel and hydrogen, and use discarded fruits to produce dimethylfuran, etc. Different countries and regions are experiencing different stages of biofuel industry. In the future the raw materials for biofuel production will be focused on various by-products, wastes, and organisms that have not direct economic benefit for human. Production technologies should be improved or invented to reduce carbon emission and environmental pollution during biofuel production and to reduce production cost.

  7. The impact of first-generation biofuels on the depletion of the global phosphorus reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Leemans, Rik

    2012-06-01

    The large majority of biofuels to date is "first-generation" biofuel made from agricultural commodities. All first-generation biofuel production systems require phosphorus (P) fertilization. P is an essential plant nutrient, yet global reserves are finite. We argue that committing scarce P to biofuel production involves a trade-off between climate change mitigation and future food production. We examine biofuel production from seven types of feedstock, and find that biofuels at present consume around 2% of the global inorganic P fertilizer production. For all examined biofuels, with the possible exception of sugarcane, the contribution to P depletion exceeds the contribution to mitigating climate change. The relative benefits of biofuels can be increased through enhanced recycling of P, but high increases in P efficiency are required to balance climate change mitigation and P depletion impacts. We conclude that, with the current production systems, the production of first-generation biofuels compromises food production in the future.

  8. A strategic assessment of biofuels development in the Western States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert Rummer; Bryan Jenkins; Nathan Parker; Peter Tittman; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson; Ed Gray; Anneliese Schmidt; Marcia Patton-Mallory; Gordon Gayle

    2009-01-01

    The Western Governors' Association assessment of biofuels potential in western states estimated the location and capacity of biofuels plants that could potentially be built for selected gasoline prices in 2015 using a mixed integer programming model. The model included information on forest biomass supply curves by county (developed using Forest Service FIA data...

  9. From first generation biofuels to advanced solar biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Roadmaps towards sustainable bioeconomy, including the production of biofuels, in many EU countries mostly rely on biomass use. However, although biomass is renewable, the efficiency of biomass production is too low to be able to fully replace the fossil fuels. The use of land for fuel production also introduces ethical problems in increasing the food price. Harvesting solar energy by the photosynthetic machinery of plants and autotrophic microorganisms is the basis for all biomass production. This paper describes current challenges and possibilities to sustainably increase the biomass production and highlights future technologies to further enhance biofuel production directly from sunlight. The biggest scientific breakthroughs are expected to rely on a new technology called "synthetic biology", which makes engineering of biological systems possible. It will enable direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel from inexhaustible raw materials: sun light, water and CO2. In the future, such solar biofuels are expected to be produced in engineered photosynthetic microorganisms or in completely synthetic living factories.

  10. A roadmap for biofuels...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.; Londo, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels have been in the eye of the storm, in particular since 2008, when the food crisis was considered by many to be caused by the increased production of biofuels. Heavy criticism in public media made various governments, including the European Commission, reconsider their targets and ambitions

  11. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  12. Evaluation of the Green Microalga Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 Growth Utilizing Ethanol Plant Side Streams and Potential for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, David Michael

    This research was conducted to evaluate the potential for growth of Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 using side streams from an ethanol plant for culture medium. Additionally, the potential of using enzymes to break down the cell wall material to release fermentable sugars and oil was examined. The ethanol streams selected were methanator influent, methanator effluent, and thin stillage. This species of microalgae has been previously studied and found to have the ability to grow in and remediate the effluent water from the DeKalb Sanitary District (DSD). The Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 was grown in various concentrations of the ethanol plant side streams concurrently with algae cultures grown in the DSD effluent. The algae cultures were grown in 250ml flasks to determine the optimal concentrations of the ethanol streams. The concentrations with the growth rate and cell counts closest to or higher than the DSD effluents were selected for further examination. These concentrations were repeated to evaluate the most optimal growth conditions using the ethanol streams in comparison to the DSD effluent grown algae. The selected growth condition for the ethanol streams was determined to be using the methanator effluent as the base water component with the thin stillage added to a 2% concentration. The 2% concentration showed an average increase in cell count to be 8.49% higher than the control cell count. The methanator influent was discarded as a base water component, as the growth of the algae was 40.18% less than that of the control. Other concentrations considered resulted in a decrease in cell. count ranging from 9.20-48.97%. The three closest growth results of the concentration of thin stillage and methanator effluent (1%, 2%, and 4%) were scaled up to 2L flasks to confirm the results on a larger scale. The results showed a greater reduction in the cell count of the 1% and 4% concentrations, 23.52% and 16.31% reduction in cell count respectively. The 2% concentration showed a

  13. The Impact of First-Generation Biofuels on the Depletion of the Global Phosphorus Reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    The large majority of biofuels to date is “first-generation” biofuel made from agricultural commodities. All first-generation biofuel production systems require phosphorus (P) fertilization. P is an essential plant nutrient, yet global reserves are finite. We argue that committing scarce P to

  14. Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Visuwan D.; Phruksaphanrat B

    2014-01-01

    In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and de...

  15. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  16. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria.

  17. Biofuels for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of strong government policies, the IEA projects that the worldwide use of oil in transport will nearly double between 2000 and 2030, leading to a similar increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels, such as ethanol, bio-diesel, and other liquid and gaseous fuels, could offer an important alternative to petroleum over this time frame and help reduce atmospheric pollution. This book looks at recent trends in biofuel production and considers what the future might hold if such alternatives were to displace petroleum in transport. The report takes a global perspective on the nascent biofuels industry, assessing regional similarities and differences as well as the cost and benefits of the various initiatives being undertaken around the world. In the short term, conventional biofuel production processes in IEA countries could help reduce oil use and thence greenhouse gas emissions, although the costs may be high. In the longer term, possibly within the next decade, advances in biofuel production and the use of new feedstocks could lead to greater, more cost-effective reductions. Countries such as Brazil are already producing relatively low-cost biofuels with substantial reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. This book explores the range of options on offer and asks whether a global trade in biofuels should be more rigorously pursued

  18. Consequences of field N2O emissions for the environmental sustainability of plant-based biofuels produced within an organic farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    One way of reducing the emissions of fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels produced from agricultural biomasses or residuals. However, cultivation of soils results in emission of other greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Previous st...

  19. Biofuels and food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. STREBKOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The major source of energy comes from fossil fuels. The current situation in the field of fuel and energy is becoming more problematic as world population continues to grow because of the limitation of fossil fuels reserve and its pressure on environment. This review aims to find economic, reliable, renewable and non-polluting energy sources to reduce high energy tariffs in Russian Federation. Biofuel is fuel derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Other alternative energy sources including solar energy and electric power generation are also discussed. Over 100 Mt of biomass available for energy purposes is produced every year in Russian. One of the downsides of biomass energy is its potential threatens to food security and forage industries. An innovative approach proved that multicomponent fuel (80% diesel oil content for motor and 64% for in stove fuel can remarkably reduce the costs. This paper proposed that the most promising energy model for future is based on direct solar energy conversion and transcontinental terawatt power transmission with the use of resonant wave-guide technology.

  20. biofuel development in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaprasad Bandaru

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are expected to play a major role in meeting California's long-term energy needs, but many factors influence the commercial viability of the various feedstock and production technology options. We developed a spatially explicit analytic framework that integrates models of plant growth, crop adoption, feedstock location, transportation logistics, economic impact, biorefinery costs and biorefinery energy use and emissions. We used this framework to assess the economic potential of hybrid poplar as a feedstock for jet fuel production in Northern California. Results suggest that the region has sufficient suitable croplands (2.3 million acres and nonarable lands (1.5 million acres for poplar cultivation to produce as much as 2.26 billion gallons of jet fuel annually. However, there are major obstacles to such large-scale production, including, on nonarable lands, low poplar yields and broad spatial distribution and, on croplands, competition with existing crops. We estimated the production cost of jet fuel to be $4.40 to $5.40 per gallon for poplar biomass grown on nonarable lands and $3.60 to $4.50 per gallon for biomass grown on irrigated cropland; the current market price is $2.12 per gallon. Improved poplar yields, use of supplementary feedstocks at the biorefinery and economic supports such as carbon credits could help to overcome these barriers.

  1. Electron beam treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 of textile dyeing wastewater per day with electron beam has constructed and operated continuously in Daegu, Korea since 1998. This plant is combined with biological treatment system and it shows the reduction of chemical reagent consumption, and also the reduction in retention time with the increase in removal efficiencies of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30∼40%. Increase in biodegradability after radiation treatment of aqueous-organic systems is due to radiolytical conversions of non-biodegradable compounds. On the basis of data obtained from pilot plant operation, construction of actual industrial scale plant has started in 2003, and will be finished by 2005. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility (Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex) and to have treatment capacity 10,000 m 3 of wastewater per day using one 1 MeV, 400 kW accelerator, and combined with existing bio- treatment facility. The overall construction cost and the operation cost in the radiation processing, when compared to other conventional and advanced oxidation techniques, are more cost-effective and convenient for wastewater treatment. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. (author)

  2. The biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO 2 accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  3. Enzymatic deconstruction of xylan for biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    DODD, DYLAN; CANN, ISAAC K. O.

    2010-01-01

    The combustion of fossil-derived fuels has a significant impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and correspondingly is an important contributor to anthropogenic global climate change. Plants have evolved photosynthetic mechanisms in which solar energy is used to fix CO2 into carbohydrates. Thus, combustion of biofuels, derived from plant biomass, can be considered a potentially carbon neutral process. One of the major limitations for efficient conversion of plant biomass to biofuels is the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall, which is composed mostly of lignocellulosic materials (lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose). The heteropolymer xylan represents the most abundant hemicellulosic polysaccharide and is composed primarily of xylose, arabinose, and glucuronic acid. Microbes have evolved a plethora of enzymatic strategies for hydrolyzing xylan into its constituent sugars for subsequent fermentation to biofuels. Therefore, microorganisms are considered an important source of biocatalysts in the emerging biofuel industry. To produce an optimized enzymatic cocktail for xylan deconstruction, it will be valuable to gain insight at the molecular level of the chemical linkages and the mechanisms by which these enzymes recognize their substrates and catalyze their reactions. Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and structural biology have revolutionized our understanding of the microbial xylanolytic enzymes. This review focuses on current understanding of the molecular basis for substrate specificity and catalysis by enzymes involved in xylan deconstruction. PMID:20431716

  4. Coproduction of bioethanol with other biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    pilot-scale biorefineries for multiple fuel production and also discuss perspectives for further enhancement of biofuel yields from biomass. The major fuels produced in this refinery are ethanol, hydrogen, and methane. We also discuss the applicability of our biorefinery concept as a bolt-on plant...

  5. Biorefineries for chemical and biofuel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene

    crops for biofuel production is research in biorefineries using a whole-crop approach with the aim of having an optimal use of all the components of the specific crop. Looking at rape as a model crop, the components can be used for i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, feed, food and plant...

  6. Driving biofuels from field to fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gura, Trisha

    2009-07-10

    Rising oil prices, fears of global warming, and instability in oil-producing countries have ignited the rush to produce biofuels from plants. The science is progressing rapidly, driven by favorable policies and generous financing, but many hurdles remain before cars and trucks run on "gasohol" or "grassoline."

  7. Glucose-based Biofuel Cells: Nanotechnology as a Vital Science in Biofuel Cells Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Aghahosseini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has opened up new opportunities for the design of nanoscale electronic devices suitable for developing high-performance biofuel cells. Glucose-based biofuel cells as green energy sources can be a powerful tool in the service of small-scale power source technology as it provides a latent potential to supply power for various implantable medical electronic devices. By using physiologically produced glucose as a fuel, the living battery can recharge for continuous production of electricity. This review article presents how nanoscience, engineering and medicine are combined to assist in the development of renewable glucose-based biofuel cell systems. Here, we review recent advances and applications in both abiotic and enzymatic glucose biofuel cells with emphasis on their “implantable” and “implanted” types. Also the challenges facing the design and application of glucose-based biofuel cells to convert them to promising replacement candidates for non-rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Nanotechnology could make glucose-based biofuel cells cheaper, lighter and more efficient and hence it can be a part of the solutions to these challenges.

  8. Biofuels: which interest, which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of several studies concerning the production and utilization of bio-fuels: energy balance and greenhouse effect of the various bio-fuel systems; economical analysis and profitability of bio-fuel production; is the valorization of bio-fuel residues and by-products in animal feeding a realistic hypothesis?; assessment of the cost for the community due to tax exemption for bio-fuels

  9. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  10. Market possibilities for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The market for biofuels in Sweden after introduction of a proposed CO 2 -tax on fossil fuels is forecast. The competition between biofuels, fossil fuels and electricity is described for important market segments such as: Paper industry, Sawmills, Other energy-intensive industry, Power and heat producers, small Heat producers, and for Space heating of one-family houses. A market increase of the use of biofuels is probable for the segment small (district) heating centrals, 10 TWh in the next ten year period and even more during a longer period. Other market segments will not be much affected. An increased use of biofuels in paper and pulp industry will not influence the fuel market, since the increase will happen in the industry's normal lumber purchase. (2 figs., 18 tabs.)

  11. The biofuels, situation, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2007-03-01

    The climatic change with the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, sees the development of ''clean'' energy sources. Meanwhile the biofuels remain penalized by their high production cost, the interest is increasing. Facing their development ecologists highlight the environmental and social negative impacts of the development of the biofuels. The author aims to take stock on the techniques and the utilizations. (A.L.B.)

  12. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  13. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Kosmal, W.; Malec-Czechowska, K.; Maciszewski, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plants is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  15. Next generation biofuel engineering in prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronenberg, Luisa S.; Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation biofuels must be compatible with current transportation infrastructure and be derived from environmentally sustainable resources that do not compete with food crops. Many bacterial species have unique properties advantageous to the production of such next-generation fuels. However, no single species possesses all characteristics necessary to make high quantities of fuels from plant waste or CO2. Species containing a subset of the desired characteristics are used as starting points for engineering organisms with all desired attributes. Metabolic engineering of model organisms has yielded high titer production of advanced fuels, including alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives. Technical developments now allow engineering of native fuel producers, as well as lignocellulolytic and autotrophic bacteria, for the production of biofuels. Continued research on multiple fronts is required to engineer organisms for truly sustainable and economical biofuel production. PMID:23623045

  16. Industrial plant for flue gas cleaning with use of electron beam at the 'Pomorzany' Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Kostrzewski, R.; Sobolewski, L.; Cybulski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Construction of the second in the world installation for fuel gas cleaning with the use of electron beam at the POMORZANY Power Plant has been completed in 2001 and test operation started. During the last year all the units of installation as well as measuring and control systems were tested and corrected. 200 t of a fertilizer have been produced in 2001 and ca. 31 t in January 2002. Emission of corresponding amount of acidic pollutants was reduced and the Power Plant POMORZANY paid lower fines for the emission. (author)

  17. Recent Inventions and Trends in Algal Biofuels Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemore, Ankush; Nayak, Manoranjan; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, when energy crisis compounded by global warming and climate change is receiving worldwide attention, the emergence of algae, as a better feedstock for third-generation biofuels than energy crops or plants, holds great promise. As compared to conventional biofuels feedstocks, algae offer several advantages and can alone produce a significant amount of biofuels sustainably in a shorter period to fulfill the rising demand for energy. Towards commercialisation, there have been numerous efforts put for- ward for the development of algae-derived biofuel. This article reviews and summarizes the recent inventions and the current trends that are reported and captured in relevant patents pertaining to the novel methods of algae biomass cultivation and processing for biofuels and value-added products. In addition, the recent advancement in techniques and technologies for microalgal biofuel production has been highlighted. Various steps involved in the production of algal biofuels have been considered in this article. Moreover, the work that advances to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the processes for the manufacture of biofuels has been presented. Our survey was conducted in the patent databases: WIPO, Spacenet and USPTO. There are still some technological bottlenecks that could be overcome by designing advanced photobioreactor and raceway ponds, developing new and low cost technologies for biomass cultivation, harvesting, drying and extraction. Recent advancement in algae biofuels methods is directed toward developing efficient and integrated systems to produce biofuels by overcoming the current challenges. However, further research effort is required to scale-up and improve the efficiency of these methods in the upstream and downstream technologies to make the cost of biofuels competitive with petroleum fuels.

  18. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Berndes, G.; Prieler, S.; Fischer, G.; Cueste Cabal, H.

    2010-06-01

    also demanded by other sectors, particularly the energy sector to produce renewable electricity and heat, and the forest-based industries to produce wood products. Yet, policy support and initiatives can stimulate the synergies between the stationary energy sector and biofuels and the forest industry can include biofuels among the wide range of products already produced. One possible option is to stimulate supply side development by promoting dedicated biomass plantations to achieve learning and cost reduction in the production of short rotation woody plants and perennial herbaceous plants. This can for instance be done by linking credits for green electricity from co-firing applications with the requirement that a certain share of the biomass fuel is derived from production of such plants within EU. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Integration initiatives may involve cooperation between actors that earlier have not invested in biofuel production, such as municipalities having large district heating networks and power companies that see new opportunities for optimizing their production and improving resource use efficiency. In an increasingly globalized economy, decreasing negative impacts of biofuels on commodity markets and the environment require not only integration of various policy domains but also strategies that are internationally recognized. The early stimulation and learning in new biomass supply systems and the involvement of new types of actors cooperating in biofuel production can facilitate a positive development by reducing strains between sectors and offering opportunities for improving economic and resource use efficiency.

  19. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  20. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  1. External noise when using biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaleski, J.

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to cover sources of noise dealing with all steps in a biofuel chain; producing, transporting, storing and firing the biofuel. When the availability of relevant test results from noise surveys is not so good and mostly badly documented, the study has been concentrated on estimation of external noise for planning and design purposes, from a prospective biofuel-fired plant. A synoptic tabulation of estimated acoustic power levels from different noise sources, has been done. The results from measurements of external noise from different existing combined power and heating plants are tabulated. The Nordic model for simulation of external noise has been used for a prospective plant - VEGA - designed by Vattenfall. The aim has been to estimate its noise pollutions at critical points at the nearest residential area (250 m from the fenced industry area). The software - ILYD - is easy to handle, but knowledge about the model is necessary. A requisite for the reliability is the access to measurements or estimations of different sources of noise, at different levels of octaves from 63 to 8000 Hz. The degree of accuracy increases with the number of broad band sources, that are integrated. Using ILYD with available data, a night limit of 40 dB(A) should be possible to fulfill with good degree of accuracy at VEGA, between 10 pm and 7 am, with good planning and under normal operation conditions. A demand for 35 dB(A) as a limit can be harder to fulfill, especially at mornings from 6 to 7. Noise from heavy vehicles within the plant area is classified as industrial noise and not as road traffic noise. This type of noise depends very much on the way of driving and assumed acceleration. Concerning wheel-mounted loaders, they may then only be used during daytime. The simulations show, that even at daytime from 7 to 6 pm, it would be possible to use an acoustically damped chipping machine, inside the power industry area. 31 refs, 13 figs, tabs, 8

  2. Panorama 2018 - 2017 biofuels scoreboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anne; Lorne, Daphne

    2018-01-01

    This note presents some 2017 statistical data about biofuels: consumption, fuel substitution rate, world ethanol and bio-diesel markets, diesel substitutes, French market, R and D investments, political measures for biofuels development

  3. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  4. Integrated biofuels process synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Second and third generation bioethanol and biodiesel are more environmentally friendly fuels than gasoline and petrodiesel, andmore sustainable than first generation biofuels. However, their production processes are more complex and more expensive. In this chapter, we describe a two-stage synthesis......% used for bioethanol process), and steam and electricity from combustion (54%used as electricity) in the bioethanol and biodiesel processes. In the second stage, we saved about 5% in equipment costs and 12% in utility costs for bioethanol separation. This dual synthesis methodology, consisting of a top......-level screening task followed by a down-level intensification task, proved to be an efficient methodology for integrated biofuel process synthesis. The case study illustrates and provides important insights into the optimal synthesis and intensification of biofuel production processes with the proposed synthesis...

  5. Microalgae biofuel potentials (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Naseri, A T; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Mobasher, M A; Dabbagh, F

    2012-01-01

    With the decrease of fossil based fuels and the environmental impact of them over the planet, it seems necessary to seek the sustainable sources of clean energy. Biofuels, is becoming a worldwide leader in the development of renewable energy resources. It is worthwhile to say that algal biofuel production is thought to help stabilize the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decrease global warming impacts. Also, among algal fuels' attractive characteristics, algal biodiesel is non toxic, with no sulfur, highly biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae are capable of producing in excess of 30 times more oil per acre than corn and soybean crops. Currently, algal biofuel production has not been commercialized due to high costs associated with production, harvesting and oil extraction but the technology is progressing. Extensive research was conducted to determine the utilization of microalgae as an energy source and make algae oil production commercially viable.

  6. Inhibition of Snl6 expression for biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Rebecca; Chern, Mawsheng; Ronald, Pamela; Vega-Sanchez, Miguel

    2018-04-03

    The invention provides compositions and methods for inhibiting the expression of the gene Snl6 in plants. Plants with inhibited expression of Snl6 have use in biofuel production, e.g., by increasing the amount of soluble sugar that can be extracted from the plant.

  7. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    and accrual of land rents to smallholders, compared with the more capital-intensive plantation approach. Moreover, the benefits of outgrower schemes are enhanced if they result in technology spillovers to other crops. These results should not be taken as a green light for unrestrained biofuels development...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor...

  8. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  9. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    To assess which biofuels have the better potential for the short-term or the longer term (2030), and what developments are necessary to improve the performance of biofuels, the production of four promising biofuels-methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, and synthetic diesel-is systematically analysed. This present paper summarises, normalises and compares earlier reported work. First, the key technologies for the production of these fuels, such as gasification, gas processing, synthesis, hydrolysis, and fermentation, and their improvement options are studied and modelled. Then, the production facility's technological and economic performance is analysed, applying variations in technology and scale. Finally, likely biofuels chains (including distribution to cars, and end-use) are compared on an equal economic basis, such as costs per kilometre driven. Production costs of these fuels range 16-22 Euro /GJ HHV now, down to 9-13 Euro /GJ HHV in future (2030). This performance assumes both certain technological developments as well as the availability of biomass at 3 Euro /GJ HHV . The feedstock costs strongly influence the resulting biofuel costs by 2-3 Euro /GJ fuel for each Euro /GJ HHV feedstock difference. In biomass producing regions such as Latin America or the former USSR, the four fuels could be produced at 7-11 Euro /GJ HHV compared to diesel and gasoline costs of 7 and 8 Euro /GJ (excluding distribution, excise and VAT; at crude oil prices of ∼35 Euro /bbl or 5.7 Euro /GJ). The uncertainties in the biofuels production costs of the four selected biofuels are 15-30%. When applied in cars, biofuels have driving costs in ICEVs of about 0.18-0.24 Euro /km now (fuel excise duty and VAT excluded) and may be about 0.18 in future. The cars' contribution to these costs is much larger than the fuels' contribution. Large-scale gasification, thorough gas cleaning, and micro-biological processes for hydrolysis and fermentation are key major fields for RD and D efforts, next to

  10. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    to be 'like' a compliant biofuel. A more economically rational way to reduce GHG emissions, and one that might attract greater public support, would be for the RED to reward emission reductions along the lines of the FQD. Moreover, this modification would probably make the provisions more acceptable...... in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension....

  11. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  12. Liquid Biofuels: We Lose More than We Win

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine

    2013-01-01

    biofuels, including first-generation bio-diesels (plant bio-diesels) as well as first- and second-generation bioethanols produced in Europe and the USA. When we prioritise biomass for these biofuels, we deprive ourselves the better alternative of using the same limited biomass for heat and power...... fuel substitution, and biomass is increasingly used for both the transport and the heat and power sectors, with increasing interest in using it for chemicals production as well. For the transport sector, the conversion of biomass to the liquid biofuels of bio-diesel and bioethanol is at present...

  13. Electron beams for power plant flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Among the processes in which fuel is used for energy generation coal burning plays leading role. On the other hand combustion of fossil fuels is the biggest source of air pollution. When burning fossil fuel pollutants such as particulate, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and others are emitted. Air pollution caused by these pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. The advanced technology for simultaneous SO 2 , NO x and VOC removal is discussed in the paper. The technology is based on electron accelerators applications. Many new solutions have been introduced in the new pilot plants which have been operated at coal fired power stations. 98% SO 2 and up to 90% NO x removals were obtained at very moderate energy consumption (for de SO x ). Additional agricultural tests have proven full applicability of byproduct in pure form or as a blending stock for NPK fertilizers. Two full scale industrial plants are being built in China (640 kW accelerators) and Poland (1.2 MW accelerators). These will be the biggest radiation processing units using accelerator technology all over the world

  14. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Stachowicz, W.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations on food irradiation began in Poland in the end of 50-ties. Till the end of 70-ties the research activity on food irradiation was rather of the random nature and the objectives involved the fundamental research areas of food science. After the JECFI recommended in 1980 the general approval of foods treated with the doses of ionizing radiation up to 10 kG as unconditionally wholesome, the interest on practical application of food irradiation was gained in Poland. In 1986 the governmental bodies decided to recognize the possibilities of practical application of radiation techniques in agriculture, and the Central Research and Development Project No 10.13. ''Radiation Techniques in Agriculture'' was initiated for the period of 5 years. The project in the part that refers to food irradiations involved 3 major objectives: - radiation preservation of food; - radiation hygienization of animal feed; - Pilot plants for food irradiation. The most liable project of the programme was the construction of experimental plant for electron beam food irradiation, intended to be the national center for future testing and implementary works in this field. (orig.)

  15. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  16. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  17. Optimized raw material usage and utilization degree in a polygeneration plant for heat, electricity, biofuel and market fuel; Optimal raavaruinsats och utnyttjandegrad i energikombinat foer vaerme, el, biodrivmedel och avsalubraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennie Rodin; Olle Wennberg; Mikael Berntsson; Rolf Njurell; Ola Thorson

    2012-01-15

    Energy and economic efficiency for six different types of energy combines which include heat, electricity, pellets and fuel production have been studied. The basic case is a conventional power plant, which subsequently is expanded with various additional facilities (dryer, pellets and/or fuel). Maximum exploitation of the product against inserted biofuel was obtained in case 6, pulp mills that use waste heat for district heating supply and drying of bark. Case 6 had also the lowest payoff period; two years. Of the CHP [combined heat and power] based energy combines 'the big combine' with four different products generally showed best marginal efficiency and economy. The results indicate that drying may be an economical way to extend the operating season and increase the production of electricity in a CHP based energy combine.

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  19. Utilization of residues from firing with biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, P O; Nelson, B; Sjoeberg, A

    1983-10-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse various possibilities of using residues from firing with biofuels, to assess the environmental consequences of such use and to prepare proposal and programme for investigations and tests concerning the use and its environmental consequences. Peat fly ashes have been tested in making concrete with promising results. On the other hand it is doubtful if wood ashes can be used, as the lime content is high. Generally can be said that ashes from biofuels are produced by many small combustion plants and that the quality is unequal. It should be possible to use fly ashes as well as bottom ashes from biofuels as borrow material in road works and construction works. Lime and cement are binders used for stabilization of gravel, sand and clay. Coal fly ashes can partly substitute such binders. Ground stabilization is usual in connection with road construction. It is also probable that fly ashes from biofuels can partly be substituted for cement and lime. Higher prices can be obtained for bio ashes used as binders than used as borrow material. Especially wood ashes are considered to be valuable as forest manure. The value roughly estimated by means of comparison to fertilizer is 400 - 800 SEK/ton. Bottom ashes which are an important part of the total ash production have low contents of heavy metals and are thus perhaps suitable for agricultural use. It seems to be possible to substitute fly ashes from biofuel for part of the precipitation chemicals used for reduction of phosphorus and for sludge conditioning at the local water treatment plants. The estimated Swedish production of wood ashes in 1990 could account for 10 per cent of the present production of potash in Europe. There is a need to cover old tailingponds of rests of sulphide ore with an alkaline and dense material. Locally (Dalecarlia) the good properties of fly ashes for this purpose should be utilized.

  20. The biofuels in debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    As the development of the biofuels is increasing in the world, many voices are beginning to rise to denounce the environmental risks and the competition of the green fuels with the alimentary farming. The debate points out the problems to solve to develop a sustainable channel. (A.L.B.)

  1. Biofuel seeks endorsement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, C.; Rentmeester, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane and cellulose ‘waste’ are theoretically sustainable, as their combustion releases no more CO2 than is absorbed during production. Even so, they are also controversial, because they are believed to be grown at the expense of food crops, or because areas of

  2. Bio-fuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    European Union bio-fuel use for transport reached 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009. The slowdown in the growth of European consumption deepened again. Bio-fuel used in transport only grew by 18.7% between 2008 and 2009, as against 30.3% between 2007 and 2008 and 41.8% between 2006 and 2007. The bio-fuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the E.U. is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009. We can note that: -) the proportion of bio-fuel in the German fuels market has plummeted since 2007: from 7.3% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2009; -) France stays on course with an incorporation rate of 6.25% in 2009; -) In Spain the incorporation rate reached 3.4% in 2009 while it was 1.9% in 2008. The European bio-diesel industry has had another tough year. European production only rose by 16.6% in 2009 or by about 9 million tonnes which is well below the previous year-on-year growth rate recorded (35.7%). France is leading the production of bio-ethanol fuels in Europe with an output of 1250 million liters in 2009 while the total European production reached 3700 million litters and the world production 74000 million liters. (A.C.)

  3. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the

  4. The EU's Biofuel Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EU is supporting biofuels, with the aim of reducing greenhouse-gas emission, encouraging the decarbonisation of fuels used in transportation, diversifying energy procurement, offering new earning opportunities in rural areas, and developing long-term replacements for oil. We publish lengthy excerpts from the recent Communication, COM(2006) 34def. which describes the strategy adopted by the Commission [it

  5. Smart choices for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Much of the strong support for biofuels in the United States is premised on the national security advantages of reducing dependence on imported oil. In late 2007, these expected payoffs played a major role in driving an extension and expansion of the...

  6. Panorama 2007: New Bio-fuel Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    His, St.

    2007-01-01

    New pathways are emerging in the wake of the boom in the biofuels market. Their development is driven by the search for improved product quality and a broader range of natural plant feedstock. Interested in these new pathways, the oil companies are seeking to differentiate themselves on a market that promises to be very competitive in future. This is a turning point in a sector that has historically been dominated by agro-food companies. (author)

  7. Competitive liquid biofuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    The cost of biodiesels varies depending on the feedstock, geographic area, methanol prices, and seasonal variability in crop production. Most of the biodiesel is currently made from soybean, rapeseed, and palm oils. However, there are large amounts of low-cost oils and fats (e.g., restaurant waste, beef tallow, pork lard, and yellow grease) that could be converted to biodiesel. The crop types, agricultural practices, land and labor costs, plant sizes, processing technologies and government policies in different regions considerably vary ethanol production costs and prices by region. The cost of producing bioethanol in a dry mill plant currently totals US$1.65/galon. The largest ethanol cost component is the plant feedstock. It has been showed that plant size has a major effect on cost. The plant size can reduce operating costs by 15-20%, saving another $0.02-$0.03 per liter. Thus, a large plant with production costs of $0.29 per liter may be saving $0.05-$0.06 per liter over a smaller plant. Viscosity of biofuel and biocrude varies greatly with the liquefaction conditions. The high and increasing viscosity indicates a poor flow characteristic and stability. The increase in the viscosity can be attributed to the continuing polymerization and oxidative coupling reactions in the biocrude upon storage. Although stability of biocrude is typically better than that of bio-oil, the viscosity of biocrude is much higher. The bio-oil produced by flash pyrolysis is a highly oxygenated mixture of carbonyls, carboxyls, phenolics and water. It is acidic and potentially corrosive. Bio-oil can also be potentially upgraded by hydrodeoxygenation. The liquid, termed biocrude, contains 60% carbon, 10-20 wt.% oxygen and 30-36 MJ/kg heating value as opposed to <1 wt.% and 42-46 MJ/kg for petroleum. (author)

  8. Competitive liquid biofuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Dean of Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sirnak (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    The cost of biodiesels varies depending on the feedstock, geographic area, methanol prices, and seasonal variability in crop production. Most of the biodiesel is currently made from soybean, rapeseed, and palm oils. However, there are large amounts of low-cost oils and fats (e.g., restaurant waste, beef tallow, pork lard, and yellow grease) that could be converted to biodiesel. The crop types, agricultural practices, land and labor costs, plant sizes, processing technologies and government policies in different regions considerably vary ethanol production costs and prices by region. The cost of producing bioethanol in a dry mill plant currently totals US$1.65/galon. The largest ethanol cost component is the plant feedstock. It has been showed that plant size has a major effect on cost. The plant size can reduce operating costs by 15-20%, saving another $0.02-$0.03 per liter. Thus, a large plant with production costs of $0.29 per liter may be saving $0.05-$0.06 per liter over a smaller plant. Viscosity of biofuel and biocrude varies greatly with the liquefaction conditions. The high and increasing viscosity indicates a poor flow characteristic and stability. The increase in the viscosity can be attributed to the continuing polymerization and oxidative coupling reactions in the biocrude upon storage. Although stability of biocrude is typically better than that of bio-oil, the viscosity of biocrude is much higher. The bio-oil produced by flash pyrolysis is a highly oxygenated mixture of carbonyls, carboxyls, phenolics and water. It is acidic and potentially corrosive. Bio-oil can also be potentially upgraded by hydrodeoxygenation. The liquid, termed biocrude, contains 60% carbon, 10-20 wt.% oxygen and 30-36 MJ/kg heating value as opposed to <1 wt.% and 42-46 MJ/kg for petroleum. (author)

  9. Demonstration plant of smoke treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Keita

    1989-01-01

    The acid rain caused by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides has become the large social problem as it damages forests, lakes and agricultural crops and also buildings in Europe and America. In such circumstances, concern has been expressed in various countries on the smoke treatment technology, EBA process, which removes the sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in smoke simultaneously by irradiating electron beam on the smoke which is exhausted from power station boilers and industrial boilers and mainly causes acid rain. The research and development of this technology were begun in 1971 based on the original idea of Ebara Corp., and from 1972, those were advanced as the joint research with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Thereafter, by the joint research with the technical research association on prevention of nitrogen oxides in iron and steel industry, by ammonia addition and irradiation process, the desulfurization and denitration performance was heightened, and the byproduct was successfully captured as powder, in this way, the continuous dry treatment process was established. The demonstration test plant was constructed in a coal-firing power station in Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was carried out from 1985 for two years. (K.I.)

  10. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbasha Sarkar

    Full Text Available Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼ 2 nm, and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF, cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we

  11. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  12. Microalgae: biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.

  13. The bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.H.

    1993-02-01

    In France, using fallow soils for energy production may be a solution to agriculture problems. Technical and economical studies of biofuels (ethanol, methanol, ethyl tributyl ether, methyl tributyl ether and methyl ester) are presented with costs of production from the raw material to the end product, characteristics of the end product, engine consumption for pure or mixed fuels, and environmental impacts. For the author, the mixed ethanol process shows no advantages in term of energy dependency (ETBE, MTBE and colza ester give better results), ethanol production uses 90% and colza ester production 53% of the calorific power of the produced biofuels. Commercial balance: damaged, fiscal receipts: reduced, new jobs creation: inferior to 10.000 and the majority outside of the agriculture sphere, environmental impacts: slight diminution of greenhouse gases, but growth of soil and water pollution, all these points are developed by the author. Observations of some contradictors are also given. (A.B.). refs. figs., tabs

  14. Biofuels made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, C.

    2004-01-01

    Much has been said and written in Australia since the Federal Government introduced its Clean Fuels Policy in September 2001. Various biofuel projects are now being considered in different states of Australia for the manufacture of bioethanol and biodiesel from renewable resources. However, the economic viability required to establish an Australian liquid biofuels industry is predicated on supportive government legislation and an encouraging fuel excise regime. On the other hand, the benefits of such an industry are also in debate. In an attempt to clarify some of the concerns being raised, this paper endeavours to provide an overview of the current use of bioethanol and biodiesel around the world, to summarise the process technologies involved, to review the benefits and non-benefits of renewable fuels to the transport industry and to address the issues for such an industry here in Australia

  15. Time for commercializing non-food biofuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The booming automobile in China has added additional pressure on the country that needs to import almost 50% of its oil. Non-food-based biofuel is a viable fuel alternative for cars. China already has the required-foundation to commercialize non-food-based biofuel. Chinese crop straw and stock, energy crop, and woody biomass that could potentially be converted into energy are projected to be 700 million toe (ton of oil equivalent) in the near future. Meanwhile, Chinese food-based ethanol fuel industry ranks as the world's third after United States and Brazil. Several non-food-based ethanol plants are constructed or under constructed, one of which has been licensed. However, more efforts should be directed to commercializing non-food-based biofuel, including industrialized feedstock, strengthening key technology research, supporting private enterprise, and E10 upgrading to E20. The enormous increase in private ownership of car must compel China to commercialize biofuel. (author)

  16. Algae biofuels: versatility for the future of bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carla S; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2012-06-01

    The world continues to increase its energy use, brought about by an expanding population and a desire for a greater standard of living. This energy use coupled with the realization of the impact of carbon dioxide on the climate, has led us to reanalyze the potential of plant-based biofuels. Of the potential sources of biofuels the most efficient producers of biomass are the photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria. These versatile organisms can be used for the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, and biogas. In fact, one of the most economic methods for algal biofuels production may be the combined biorefinery approach where multiple biofuels are produced from one biomass source. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Panorama 2014 - Overview of biofuel sectors throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, Marie-Francoise; Gruson, Jean-Francois; Sagnes, Charlene

    2013-12-01

    Biomass is all of the organic matter derived from the animal and plant organisms that make up our environment. Nowadays, it is possible to efficiently convert biomass into energy - biofuels in particular, which can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels - thanks to the increased use of new technologies. After a number of years of extremely high growth until 2008, world production of biofuels has continued to increase, but at a slower rate. Investment in them is starting to fall, mainly as a result of a more constrained global economy and the volatility of regulations governing how they can be used. The outlook does, however, look good for biofuels: a number of new promising technologies, still in the R and D stage, are starting to emerge. To a very great extent, their viability will be determined by the development of various state policies on biofuels. (authors)

  18. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  19. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Prieur, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010

  20. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Prieur, A.

    2006-10-01

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  1. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  2. Biofuels barometer: Crops pending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The actors and production capacities have changed only little in the biofuel sector from year to another. Nevertheless, it is interesting to take stock of the development of this sector at the end of 2002, so as to update the more complete barometer published in issue 144 of Systemes Solaires. Indeed, European ethanol production grew by 13% and that of bio-diesel by more than 20% in 2001. (authors)

  3. Biofuels and WTO Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Brühwiler, Claudia Franziska; Hauser, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Given the sharp rise in crude oil prices and growing awareness of climate change, the potential of biofuels, particularly of bioethanol, has become an ubiquitous topic of public debate and has induced ambitious policy initiatives. The latter are mostly paired with protectionist measures as the examples of the European Union and the United States show, where domestic producers of energy crops are put at an advantage thanks to subsidisation, direct payments and/or favourable tax schemes.Moreove...

  4. Biofuels - the UFIP position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since 2003 a directive promote the biofuels use. The industry is then using them in ETBE (Ethyl Tertio Butyl Ether) fuels and in diesel oil of vegetal oils esters EMHV. Meanwhile some of them present technical difficulties and must free themselves from fiscal incentives which make them competitive. For these reasons, the UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) do not agree their obligatory incorporation. (A.L.B.)

  5. Hawaii Algal Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Spirulina Algea, Swine Manure , and Digested Anaerobic Sludge." Bioresource Technology 102: 8295- 8303. Viets, John W., Narasimhan Sundaram, Bal K. Kaul, and...biofuel source. Dr. Zimmerman noted that since algae decompose easily in landfills, the nutrients produced by anaerobic digestion of biomass can be...resource requirements would be pivotal to the offices of the U.S. Navy Resource entities such as OPNAV. In order for decision makers to digest the

  6. The multiplicity of dehydrogenases in the electron transport chain of plant mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan G; Geisler, Daniela A; Møller, Ian Max

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport chain in mitochondria of different organisms contains a mixture of common and specialised components. The specialised enzymes form branches to the universal electron path, especially at the level of ubiquinone, and allow the chain to adjust to different cellular and metabolic...... and their consequences for the understanding of electron transport and redundancy of electron paths...... requirements. In plants, specialised components have been known for a long time. However, recently, the known number of plant respiratory chain dehydrogenases has increased, including both components specific to plants and those with mammalian counterparts. This review will highlight the novel branches...

  7. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  8. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  9. Electronic data processing codes for California wildland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merton J. Reed; W. Robert Powell; Bur S. Bal

    1963-01-01

    Systematized codes for plant names are helpful to a wide variety of workers who must record the identity of plants in the field. We have developed such codes for a majority of the vascular plants encountered on California wildlands and have published the codes in pocket size, using photo-reductions of the output from data processing machines. A limited number of the...

  10. European biofuel policies in retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuijl, E.; Deurwaarder, E.P.

    2006-05-01

    Despite the benefits of the production and use of biofuels in the fields of agriculture, security of energy supply and the environment, in India and surrounding countries, the barriers to the use of biofuels are still substantial. The project ProBios (Promotion of Biofuels for Sustainable Development in South and South East Asia) aims at promoting biofuels in the view of sustainable development in the Southern and South eastern Asian countries. The first stage of this project concerns a study, which will provide a thorough review of the complicated and sector-overarching issue of biofuels in India and surrounding countries. This report describes past experiences with the policy context for a selection of EU countries, with the purpose of identifying conclusions from the European experience that may be valuable for Indian and South East Asian policy makers and other biofuels stakeholders

  11. Near-zero emissions combustor system for syngas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongho, Kim; Rosocha, Louis

    2010-01-01

    A multi-institutional plasma combustion team was awarded a research project from the DOE/NNSA GIPP (Global Initiative for Prolifereation Prevention) office. The Institute of High Current Electronics (Tomsk, Russia); Leonardo Technologies, Inc. (an American-based industrial partner), in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory are participating in the project to develop novel plasma assisted combustion technologies. The purpose of this project is to develop prototypes of marketable systems for more stable and cleaner combustion of syngas/biofuels and to demonstrate that this technology can be used for a variety of combustion applications - with a major focus on contemporary gas turbines. In this paper, an overview of the project, along with descriptions of the plasma-based combustors and associated power supplies will be presented. Worldwide, it is recognized that a variety of combustion fuels will be required to meet the needs for supplying gas-turbine engines (electricity generation, propulsion), internal combustion engines (propulsion, transportation), and burners (heat and electricity generation) in the 21st Century. Biofuels and biofuel blends have already been applied to these needs, but experience difficulties in modifications to combustion processes and combustor design and the need for flame stabilization techniques to address current and future environmental and energy-efficiency challenges. In addition, municipal solid waste (MSW) has shown promise as a feedstock for heat and/or electricity-generating plants. However, current combustion techniques that use such fuels have problems with achieving environmentally-acceptable air/exhaust emissions and can also benefit from increased combustion efficiency. This project involves a novel technology (a form of plasma-assisted combustion) that can address the above issues. Plasma-assisted combustion (PAC) is a growing field that is receiving worldwide attention at present. The project is focused on

  12. Devices for separation of particle emissions from biofuel plants smaller than 10 MW - Today's technology and potential for development; Stoftreningsteknik foer biobraensleanlaeggningar mindre aen 10 MW - tekniklaege och utvecklingspotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Gustavsson, Lennart; Martinsson, Lars; Tullin, Claes; Johansson, Linda

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to compile a survey of available technologies for separation of particles and to present research and development in the area of particle separation for biofuel plants smaller than 10 MW. Technical and economical opportunities to transfer the technologies used today in larger plants to smaller ones are discussed. As the health effects of aerosols are under investigation, the issue of separation of particle less than 1 {mu}m is especially scrutinised. Current research concerning the particle size distribution at different load is presented. The project has been realised partly as a literature survey, partly through contacts with scientists in the area and manufacturers of devices for flue gas cleaning and particle separation. The target group is owners of plants, manufacturers of devices and authorities with responsibility for air quality and energy planning. Fabric filters is an established technology that can perform low particle emissions (less than a few mg/m{sup 3}) at a low cost also at smaller plants. Also electrostatic precipitators can perform the same low emissions, but the cost for installation at smaller plants has to be reduced. Both these technologies can, properly designed, separate submicron particles. Cyclones can today as its best perform a little less than 100 mg/m{sup 3} at 13 % CO{sub 2}. Cyclones are used together with other technologies to achieve high separation at a low cost. Cyclones are attractive because of their simplicity and low price, but because they use inertia forces as separation mechanism, they can never separate submicron particles. Conventional scrubbers and flue gas condensers are capable of separation of submicron particles but the efficiency is lower compared with fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators. The emission level after a scrubber/flue gas condenser is about 70 - 80 mg/m{sup 3} at 13 % CO{sub 2}. New technologies for separation of particles oriented towards smaller plants and

  13. Sustainability development: Biofuels in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels are socially and politically accepted as a form of sustainable energy in numerous countries. However, cases of environmental degradation and land grabs have highlighted the negative effects to their adoption. Smallholder farmers are vital in the development of a biofuel industry. The study sort to assess the implications in the adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 129 smallholder farmers who were sampled from the Easter...

  14. Bio-fuels are not so green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, F.

    2007-01-01

    Today there is an unrelenting trend for bio-fuels but some scientists question their utility. Some surveys show that the environmental balance sheet for bio-fuels is strongly positive for instance it is assessed that the production of 1 MJ of ethanol from beet roots of wheat requires only 0.49 MJ of fossil energy, interesting figure when compared to the 1.14 MJ of fossil energy needed to produce 1 MJ of gasoline. Other studies are less optimistic, all depends strongly on the basic data used and on the approach followed. Some scientists wonder whether all the pollutants generated in the transformation processes are well taken into account. In fact the environment benefit of the first generation of bio-fuels is mild because scientists do not know how to use efficiently the wood-cellulose by-products of plants. There is a notably exception to that, it is the sugar cane in Brazil, this plant has a good energy conversion rate and its by-products are completely and efficiently used in industry. A way to valorize cellulose by-products is to transform them in ethanol and hydrogen through the use of mushroom enzymes. (A.C.)

  15. Biofuels: from microbes to molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of different biofuel molecules including hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, higher chain alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives, from genetically engineered microbes...

  16. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  17. The price for biofuels sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini, Henrique; Assunção, Lucas; Dam, Jinke van; Toneto, Rudinei

    2013-01-01

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, low-carbon energy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introduced sustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were then confronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were that sustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review of recent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whether sustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market for sustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differently between 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence between biofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certification in the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in terms of finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements. - Highlights: • EU biofuel sustainability rules were once thought to reward compliant producers with price-premiums. • Premiums for certified biofuels, however, have been small for biodiesel and almost non-existent for ethanol. • As sustainable biofuels became the new norm, premiums disappeared almost completely in 2012. • Early stages of supply chains concentrate the highest compliance costs, affecting specially developing country producers. • Producers are now in a market where sustainable biofuels have become the new norm

  18. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  19. Biofuels and the biorefinery concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Liquid fuels can be made by refining a range of biomass materials, including oil-rich and sugar-rich crops such as oil-seed rape and sugar beet, biomass that consists mainly of plant cell walls (second generation lignocellulosics), macro- and micro-alga, or material that would now be discarded as waste. This can include animal bi-products as well as waste wood and other resources. In the medium-term, plant cell (lignocellulosic) material is likely to be favoured as the feedstock for biorefineries because of its availability. The UK may make use of a number of these options because of its complex agricultural landscape. There are now a range of targets for biofuel use in the UK, although their environmental effects are disputed. The technology of refining these materials is well known. Possible outputs include biodiesel and bioethanol, both of which can be used as transport fuel. Other potential products include hydrogen, polymers and a wide range of value-added chemicals, making this technology important in a post-petrochemical world. Biorefineries could use cogeneration to produce electricity. The paper identifies a range of research and development priorities which must be met if this opportunity is to be exploited fully

  20. Biofuels: What Are They and How Can They Improve Practical Work and Discussions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the potential of bioenergy as a replacement for fossil fuels, the cutting-edge research being undertaken by scientists, and classroom resources available for teaching this topic. There is currently a large programme of scientific research aiming to develop advanced biofuels (replenishable liquid biofuels from non-food plants,…

  1. Life Cycle Energy and CO2 Emission Optimization for Biofuel Supply Chain Planning under Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; An, Da; Liang, Hanwei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for the decision-makers/stakeholders to design biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Life cycle energy and CO2 emission of biofuel supply chain are employed as the objective functions, multiple feedstocks, multiple transportation modes, multiple...... sites for building biofuel plants, multiple technologies for biofuel production, and multiple markets for biofuel distribution are considered, and the amount of feedstocks in agricultural system, transportation capacities, yields of crops, and market demands are considered as uncertainty variables...... in this study. A bi-objective interval mix integer programming model has been developed for biofuel supply chain design under uncertainties, and the bio-objective interval programming method has been developed to solve this model. An illustrative case of a multiple-feedstock-bioethanol system has been studied...

  2. Potential Applications and Limitations of Electronic Nose Devices for Plant Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cellini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology has recently been applied to the detection of several plant diseases and pests, with promising results. However, in spite of its numerous advantages, including operational simplicity, non-destructivity, and bulk sampling, drawbacks include a low sensitivity and specificity in comparison with microbiological and molecular methods. A critical review of the use of an electronic nose for plant disease diagnosis and pest detection is presented, describing the instrumental and procedural advances of sensorial analysis, for the improvement of discrimination between healthy and infected or infested plants. In conclusion, the use of electronic nose technology is suggested to assist, direct, and optimise traditionally adopted diagnostic techniques.

  3. Biofuels in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, E.

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the biofuel markets in El Salvador, Panama, Costa Rica and Honduras. The aim of this report is to provide insight in the current situation and the expected developments in these markets and thus to provide investors with an image of the opportunities that could be present in this sector. An attempt has been made to provide a clear overview of this sector in the countries concerned. Due to a lack of data this has not been fully accomplished in some cases. [mk] [nl

  4. Biofuels: Project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  5. Byproducts for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondt, N.; Meeusen, M.J.G.

    2008-02-01

    This report examines the market for residues from the Dutch food and beverage industry, and the appeal of these residues for the production of bio-ethanol and biodiesel. The firstgeneration technology is readily suited to the conversion of no more than 29% of the 7.5 million tonnes of residues into biofuels. Moreover, when non-technological criteria are also taken into account virtually none of the residues are of interest for conversion into bioethanol, although vegetable and animal fats can be used to produce biodiesel. The economic consequences for sectors such as the animal-feed sector are limited [nl

  6. Investigating biofuels through network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curci, Ylenia; Mongeau Ospina, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel policies are motivated by a plethora of political concerns related to energy security, environmental damages, and support of the agricultural sector. In response to this, much scientific work has chiefly focussed on analysing the biofuel domain and on giving policy advice and recommendations. Although innovation has been acknowledged as one of the key factors in sustainable and cost-effective biofuel development, there is an urgent need to investigate technological trajectories in the biofuel sector by starting from consistent data and appropriate methodological tools. To do so, this work proposes a procedure to select patent data unequivocally related to the investigated sector, it uses co-occurrence of technological terms to compute patent similarity and highlights content and interdependencies of biofuels technological trajectories by revealing hidden topics from unstructured patent text fields. The analysis suggests that there is a breaking trend towards modern generation biofuels and that innovators seem to focus increasingly on the ability of alternative energy sources to adapt to the transport/industrial sector. - Highlights: • Innovative effort is devoted to biofuels additives and modern biofuels technologies. • A breaking trend can be observed from the second half of the last decade. • A patent network is identified via text mining techniques that extract latent topics.

  7. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  8. State-of-art in liquid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitrat, E. [Agency for Environment and Energy Management, Dept. of Agriculture and Bioenergies, Paris (France)

    2001-09-01

    European production of fuel alcohol/ETBE and VOME has now become significant and the research work undertaken i) to reduce the energy requirements and financial costs and ii) to improve environmental benefits, are of major importance. While optimisation still seems necessary, the gain to be achieved should come from the valorisation of co-products and increasing the size of production plants. Larger production plants will make it possible to implement techniques with higher investment costs but having greater energy efficiency. For VOME, the importance of the cost of producing the agricultural feedstock remains very critical, more so than the size of the industrial plant where the size of new plants (100 000 tons up to 250 000 tons) seems a good compromise. Wider use of biofuels will also depend on agricultural policy (setaside status), tax system and harmonisation of the European legislation on oxyfuels. It will improve the greenhouse effect in harmony with the KYOTO agreement. Environmental impacts, and more particularly their quantification in terms of externalities, remain a very crucial topic. In this situation, the quantity of produced biofuels is or will be more 2 millions tons now, including forecasted quantities, which represent 11% of the objective by 2010. Otherwise, the repartition of this current production is very unequal between the different countries of EC. The first production is planned by Germany with 1 millions tons, the second by France with 570 000 tons and the third by Spain with 306 000 tons. Smaller quantities are linked at Italy, Austria, Sweden and Belgium. Other countries have not biofuels production currently. (au)

  9. Biofuels. An overview. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.F.M.

    2007-05-01

    The overall objective of this desk study is to get an overview of the most relevant liquid biofuels especially in the African context, and more specifically in the Netherlands' relevant partner countries. The study will focus on biofuels for transport, but will also consider biofuels for cooking and power generation. Biogas as the result of anaerobic fermentation which can be used for cooking, lighting and electricity generation will not be considered in this study. Liquid biofuels are usually divided into alcohols that are used to substitute for gasoline and oils that are used to substitute for diesel and are often called Biodiesel, and this division will be followed in this study. In chapter 2 we will analyse several aspects of the use of alcohols particularly ethanol, in chapter 3 the same analysis will be done for oils, using as example the very promising Jatropha oil. In chapter we will analyse socio-economic issues of the use of these biofuels

  10. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  11. Biofuels and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-fuels based on micro-algae are promising, their licensing for being used in plane fuels in a mix containing 50% of fossil kerosene is expected in the coming months. In United-States research on bio-fuels has been made more important since 2006 when 2 policies were launched: 'Advanced energy initiative' and 'Twenty-in-ten', the latter aiming to develop alternative fuels. In Europe less investment has been made concerning micro-algae fuels but research programs were launched in Spain, United-Kingdom and France. In France 3 important projects were launched: SHAMASH (2006-2010) whose aim is to produce lipidic fuels from micro-algae, ALGOHUB (2008-2013) whose aim is to use micro-algae as a raw material for humane and animal food, medicine and cosmetics, SYMBIOSE (2009-2011) whose aim is the optimization of the production of methane through the anaerobic digestion of micro-algae, SALINALGUE (2010-2016) whose aim is to grow micro-algae for the production of bio-energies and bio-products. (A.C.)

  12. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  13. Application of Electroporation Technique in Biofuel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels production is mostly oriented with fermentation process, which requires fermentable sugar as nutrient for microbial growth. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB represents the most attractive, low-cost feedstock for biofuel production, it is now arousing great interest. The cellulose that is embedded in the lignin matrix has an insoluble, highly-crystalline structure, so it is difficult to hydrolyze into fermentable sugar or cell protein. On the other hand, microbial lipid has been studying as substitute of plant oils or animal fat to produce biodiesel. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae investing minimum energy.Electroporation (EP of LCB results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. EP is required to alter the size and structure of the biomass, to reduce the cellulose crystallinity, and increase their porosity as well as chemical composition, so that the hydrolysis of the carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be achieved rapidly and with greater yields. Furthermore, EP has a great potential to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to bring out the intracellular materials (lipid to the solution. Therefore, this study aims to describe the challenges and prospect of application of EP technique in biofuels processing.

  14. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  15. Environmental effect of constructed wetland as biofuel production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Being as a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted worldwide attention. Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Biofuel may offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but serious concerns arise about the adverse greenhouse gas consequences from using nitrogen fertilizers. Waste-nitrogen recycling is an attractive idea. Here we advocate a win-win approach to biofuel production which takes advantage of excessive nitrogen in domestic wastewater treated via constructed wetland (CW) in China. This study will carry on environmental effect analysis of CW as a biomass generation system through field surveys and controllable simulated experiments. This study intends to evaluate net energy balance, net greenhouse effect potential and ecosystem service of CW as biomass generation system, and make comparation with traditional wastewater treatment plant and other biofuel production systems. This study can provide a innovation mode in order to solve the dilemma between energy crops competed crops on production land and excessive nitrogen fertilizer of our traditional energy plant production. Data both from our experimental CWs in China and other researches on comparable CWs worldwide showed that the biomass energy yield of CWs can reach 182.3 GJ ha-1 yr-1, which was two to eight times higher than current biofuel-production systems. Energy output from CW was ˜137% greater than energy input for biofuel production. If CWs are designed with specific goal of biofuel production, biofuel production can be greatly enhanced through the optimization of N supply, hydraulic structures, and species selection in CWs. Assuming that 2.0 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) waste nitrogen contained in domestic wastewater is treated by CWs, biofuel production can account for 1.2% of national gasoline consumption in China. The proportion would increase to 6.7% if extra nitrogen (9.5 Tg) from industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff was included

  16. Competitivity of biofuels in heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyktman, M.

    1996-01-01

    The competitivity of indigenous fuels in heating of residential houses in comparison with imported fuels, and both electricity and district heating, has been studied in this research, ordered by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. Heating plants of residential house scale (20-1000 kW) have been investigated in the research. Only the new heating plants are included in the investigation. The heat generation calculations concerning the residential heating plants have been made for following indigenous fuels: sod peat, fuel-chips, peat and wood pellets, firewood and straw. In addition to these, the calculations have been made for light fuel-oil, electric heating, district heating and natural gas. The local energy tariffs have to be taken into account in electric heating, district heating and natural gas heating. A calculation model, based on flowsheet calculation, forms the main result of the project. By using the model it is possible to update the competitivity data rapidly. Of all the indigenous fuels, sod peat and fuel-chips appeared to be competitive with electric and district heating costs in nearly all scales investigated. The construction of the heat generation costs of solid indigenous fuels differs remarkably from those of electric and district heating. The main part of the heating costs of wood chips and sod peat is formed of fixed costs; i.e. of investment costs and of the costs of heating and control work. The energy costs are the highest costs items in electric an district heating, as well as in the oil heating. It is possible to improve the competitivity of biofuels by developing cheaper boilers and fuel processing and storage devices

  17. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Simon; Chavarriaga, Paul; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  18. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  19. Methods and materials for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeniger, Joseph S; Hadi, Masood Zia

    2015-05-05

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids, peptides, vectors, cells, and plants useful in the production of biofuels. In certain embodiments, the invention relates to nucleic acid sequences and peptides from extremophile organisms, such as SSO1949 and Ce1A, that are useful for hydrolyzing plant cell wall materials. In further embodiments, the invention relates to modified versions of such sequences that have been optimized for production in one or both of monocot and dicot plants. In other embodiments, the invention provides for targeting peptide production or activity to a certain location within the cell or organism, such as the apoplast. In further embodiments, the invention relates to transformed cells or plants. In additional embodiments, the invention relates to methods of producing biofuel utilizing such nucleic acids, peptides, targeting sequences, vectors, cells, and/or plants.

  20. Fundamental studies of electron beam welding of heat-resistant superalloys for nuclear plants, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Terai, Kiyohide; Nagai, Hiroyoshi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Aota, Toshiichi.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of base metal, its electron beam and TIG weld joint of superalloys for nuclear plants were made clear and compared with each other. As a result, it has been clarified that electron beam weld joint is superior to TIG weld joint and nearly comparable to base metal. (author)

  1. Coproduction of bioethanol with other biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Large scale transformation of biomass to more versatile energy carriers has most commonly been focused on one product such as ethanol or methane. Due to the nature of the biomass and thermodynamic and biological constraints, this approach is not optimal if the energy content of the biomass...... pilot-scale biorefineries for multiple fuel production and also discuss perspectives for further enhancement of biofuel yields from biomass. The major fuels produced in this refinery are ethanol, hydrogen, and methane. We also discuss the applicability of our biorefinery concept as a bolt-on plant...

  2. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  3. Crop residues for advanced biofuels workshop: A synposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues are being harvested for a variety of purposes including their use as livestock feed and to produce advanced biofuels. Crop residue harvesting, by definition, reduces the potential annual carbon input to the soil from aboveground biomass but does not affect input from plant roots. The m...

  4. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  5. Direct fuel cell - A high proficiency power generator for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Steinfeld, G.; Baker, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion of renewable bio-based resources into energy offers significant benefits for our environment and domestic economic activity. It also improves national security by displacing fossil fuels. However, in the current economic environment, it is difficult for biofuel systems to compete with other fossil fuels. The biomass-fired power plants are typically smaller than 50 MW, lower in electrical efficiencies (<25%) and experience greater costs for handling and transporting the biomass. When combined with fuel cells such as the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC), biofuels can produce power more efficiently with negligible environmental impact. Agricultural and other waste biomass can be converted to ethanol or methane-rich biofuels for power generation use in the DFC. These DFC power plants are modular and factory assembled. Due to their electrochemical (non-combustion) conversion process, these plants are environmentally friendly, highly efficient and potentially cost effective, even in sizes as small as a few meagawatts. They can be sited closer to the source of the biomass to minimize handling and transportation costs. The high-grade waste heat available from DFC power plants makes them attractive in cogeneration applications for farming and rural communities. The DFC potentially opens up new markets for biofuels derived from wood, grains and other biomass waste products

  6. Development of mobile electron beam plant for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinkyu; Kang, Wongu; Choi, Jang Seung; Jeong, Kwang-Young

    2016-01-01

    Due to the necessity of pilot scale test facility for continuous treatment of wastewater and gases on site, a mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. This mobile electron beam irradiation system is designed for the individual field application with self-shielded structure of steel plate and lead block which will satisfy the required safety figures of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Shielding of a mobile electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA has been designed and examined by Monte Carlo technique. Based on a 3-D model of electron accelerator shielding which is designed with steel and lead shield, radiation leakage was examined using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) Code. Simulations with two different versions (version 4c2 and version 5) of MCNP code showed agreements within statistical uncertainties, and the highest leakage expected is 5.5061×10 −01 (1±0.0454) μSv/h, which is far below the tolerable radiation dose limit for occupational workers. This unit could treat up to 500 m 3 of liquid waste per day at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m 3 of gases per hour at 15 kGy. - Highlights: • A mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. • It is designed for treatment of wastewater and flue gas on site. • Shielding of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA accelerator has done by a Monte Carlo technique. • It can treat up to 500 m 3 /d of liquid waste at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m 3 /h of gas at 15 kGy.

  7. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  8. Import of biofuels and peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertsson, N.

    1993-06-01

    In areas neighbouring Sweden, i.e., foremost the Baltic States, it is probable that a large part of the available amounts will be consumed on the domestic market. Studies of the possible use of wood fuel in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are being made by the World Bank. Considerable investments will probably be made in the near future to replace existing coal- and oil-fired boiler plants with plants burning wood fuel. Consequently, the opportunities for exports of wood fuel will probably be small. In a global perspective, peat is used only to a limited extent as fuel. In the former Soviet Union alone it is estimated that the amount of peat that is economically feasible to extract is about 166x10 9 tonnes at a moisture content of 40%. Among the most interesting bio products that can be used in energy production from different food processing industries are nut-shells and fruit stones. Some stones, such as those in olives, plums and peaches, are excellent as fuels. The advantage with olive stones, in comparison with chips is that the bulk weight is high and the moisture content is low. Olive stones are thus similar to processed biofuels such as pellets. Due to their high energy content the olive stones can replace coal, which cannot be done by unprocessed fuels without expensive investments in materials handling equipment. Our survey shows that processed forest fuels and crushed olive stones are the products of greatest interest for the Swedish market. It also shows that both chips and peat-based products from the Baltic States are competitive

  9. Life cycle analyses applied to first generation bio-fuels consumed in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This rather voluminous publication reports detailed life cycle analyses for the different present bio-fuels channels also named first-generation bio-fuels: bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, pure vegetal oils, and oil. After a recall of the general principles adopted for this life-cycle analysis, it reports the modelling of the different channels (agricultural steps, bio-fuel production steps, Ethyl tert-butyl ether or ETBE steps, vehicles, animal fats and used vegetal oils, soil assignment change). It gives synthetic descriptions of the different production ways (methyl ester from different plants, ethanol from different plants). It reports and compares the results obtained in terms of performance

  10. Sustainability aspects of biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, L.; Cel, W.; Wójcik Oliveira, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, world development depends on the energy supply. The use of fossil fuels leads to two threats: depletion of resources within a single century and climate changes caused by the emission of CO2 from fossil fuels combustion. Widespread application of renewable energy sources, in which biofuels play a major role, is proposed as a counter-measure. The paper made an attempt to evaluate to what extent biofuels meet the criteria of sustainable development. It was shown that excessive development of biofuels may threaten the sustainable development paradigms both in the aspect of: intergenerational equity, leading to an increase of food prices, as well as intergenerational equity, resulting in degradation of the environment. The paper presents the possibility of sustainable biofuels production increase.

  11. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  12. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) includes about hundred factories occupying the area of 600,000m 2 with 13,000 employees in total. The production requires high consumption of water (90,000m 3 /day), steam, and electric power, being characterized by large amount of highly colored industrial wastewater. Because of increase in productivity and increased assortment of dyes and other chemicals, substantial necessity appears in re-equipment of purification facilities by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment

  13. Coupling auto trophic in vitro plant cultivation system to scanning electron microscope to study plant-fungal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, N. de; Decock, C.; Declereck, S.; Providencia, I. E. de la

    2010-07-01

    The interactions of plants with pathogens and beneficial micro-organisms have been seldom compared on the same host and under strict controlled auto trophic in vitro culture conditions. Here, the life cycle of two plant beneficial (Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 and Trichoderma harzianum) and one plant pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were described on potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantlets under auto trophic in vitro culture conditions using video camera imaging and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). (i) The colony developmental pattern of the extraradical mycelium within the substrate, (ii) the reproduction structures and (iii) the three-dimensional spatial arrangements of the fungal hyphae within the potato root cells were successfully visualized, monitored and described. The combination of the autotrophic in vitro culture system and SEM represent a powerful tool for improving our knowledge on the dynamics of plant-fungal interactions. (Author) 41 refs.

  14. Properties, performance, and applications of biofuel blends: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Al-Mashhadani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel derived from living plants or animal matter can be used directly in their neat forms or as blends with their fossil counterparts in internal combustion engines. Although the properties and performance of neat biofuels have been extensively reported, this is not the case for many blends. The purpose of this review is to analyze different forms of biofuel blends that are under research and development comparing their utility and performance in the two primary classes of engines, i.e., spark ignition and compression ignition engines. The fuel properties, performance and emission characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of various fuel blends are compared and discussed. The analysis reveals certain blends possess better overall fuel properties and yield better overall performance than the neat or fossil forms.

  15. Continuous monitoring of odours from a composting plant using electronic noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Capelli, Laura; Céntola, Paolo; Del Rosso, Renato; Il Grande, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    The odour impact of a composting plant situated in an urbanized area was evaluated by continuously monitoring the ambient air close to the plant during a period of about 4 days using two electronic noses. One electronic nose was installed in a nearby house, and the other one inside the perimeter of the composting plant in order to compare the response of both instruments. The results of the monitoring are represented by tables that report the olfactory class and the odour concentration value attributed to the analyzed air for each of the 370 measurements carried out during the monitoring period. The electronic nose installed at the house detected the presence of odours coming from the composting plant for about 7.8% of the monitoring total duration. Of the odour detections, 86% (25 of 29 measurements) were classified as belonging to the olfactory class corresponding to the open air storage of the waste screening overflows heaps, which was therefore identified to be the major odour source of the monitored composting plant. In correspondence of the measurements during which the electronic nose inside the house detected the presence of odours from the composting plant, the olfactory classes recognized by both instruments coincide. Moreover, the electronic nose at the house detected the presence of odours from the composting plant at issue in correspondence of each odour perception of the house occupants. The results of the study show the possibility of using an electronic nose for environmental odours monitoring, which enables the classification of the quality of the air and to quantify the olfactory nuisance from an industrial source in terms of duration and odour concentration.

  16. Development of a membraneless ethanol/oxygen biofuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcagic, Sabina; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2006-01-01

    Biofuel cells are similar to traditional fuel cells, except the metallic electrocatalyst is replaced with a biological electrocatalyst. This paper details the development of an enzymatic biofuel cell, which employs alcohol dehydrogenase to oxidize ethanol at the anode and bilirubin oxidase to reduce oxygen at the cathode. This ethanol/oxygen biofuel cell has an active lifetime of about 30 days and shows power densities of up to 0.46 mW/cm 2 . The biocathode described in this paper is unique in that bilirubin oxidase is immobilized within a modified Nafion polymer that acts both to entrap and stabilize the enzyme, while also containing the redox mediator in concentrations large enough for self-exchange based conduction of electrons between the enzyme and the electrode. This biocathode is fuel tolerant, which leads to a unique fuel cell that employs both renewable catalysts and fuel, but does not require a separator membrane to separate anolyte from catholyte

  17. Biofuels feedstock development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Martin, S.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires

  18. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  19. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  20. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigun, Bamikole; Stafford, William [Sustainable Energy Futures, Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), 7599 Stellenbosch (South Africa); Musango, Josephine Kaviti [Resource Based Sustainable Development, Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), 7599 Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  1. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigun, Bamikole; Stafford, William; Musango, Josephine Kaviti

    2011-01-01

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  2. Multidimensional Quantum Mechanical Modeling of Electron Transfer and Electronic Coherence in Plant Cryptochromes: The Role of Initial Bath Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Mangaud, Etienne; Firmino, Thiago; de la Lande, Aurélien; Desouter-Lecomte, Michèle; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Gatti, Fabien

    2018-01-11

    A multidimensional quantum mechanical protocol is used to describe the photoinduced electron transfer and electronic coherence in plant cryptochromes without any semiempirical, e.g., experimentally obtained, parameters. Starting from a two-level spin-boson Hamiltonian we look at the effect that the initial photoinduced nuclear bath distribution has on an intermediate step of this biological electron transfer cascade for two idealized cases. The first assumes a slow equilibration of the nuclear bath with respect to the previous electron transfer step that leads to an ultrafast decay with little temperature dependence; while the second assumes a prior fast bath equilibration on the donor potential energy surface leading to a much slower decay, which contrarily displays a high temperature dependence and a better agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results. Beyond Marcus and semiclassical pictures these results unravel the strong impact that the presence or not of equilibrium initial conditions has on the electronic population and coherence dynamics at the quantum dynamics level in this and conceivably in other biological electron transfer cascades.

  3. Integration of plant viruses in electron beam lithography nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Jose M; Bittner, Alexander M; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is the textbook example of a virus, and also of a self-assembling nanoscale structure. This tubular RNA/protein architecture has also found applications as biotemplate for the synthesis of nanomaterials such as wires, as tubes, or as nanoparticle assemblies. Although TMV is, being a biological structure, quite resilient to environmental conditions (temperature, chemicals), it cannot be processed in electron beam lithography (eBL) fabrication, which is the most important and most versatile method of nanoscale structuring. Here we present adjusted eBL-compatible processes that allow the incorporation of TMV in nanostructures made of positive and negative tone eBL resists. The key steps are covering TMV by polymer resists, which are only heated to 50 °C, and development (selective dissolution) in carefully selected organic solvents. We demonstrate the post-lithography biochemical functionality of TMV by selective immunocoating of the viral particles, and the use of immobilized TMV as direct immunosensor. Our modified eBL process should be applicable to incorporate a wide range of sensitive materials in nanofabrication schemes. (paper)

  4. Panorama 2011: New bio-fuel production technologies: overview of these expanding sectors and the challenges facing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, D.; Chabrelie, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The numerous research programmes looking at new-generation biofuels that were initiated over the last ten years are now starting to bear fruit. Although no plants are producing and marketing biofuels yet, the large-scale, industrial feasibility of second-generation bio-fuel production at competitive cost may be demonstrated in the short-term. As far as third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass are concerned, there is a great deal of R and D interest in the sector, but the technology is still only in its infancy. (author)

  5. Assessment of pelletized biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, R.; Duxbury, P.; Drisdelle, M.; Lapointe, C.

    2000-04-01

    There has been an increased interest in the development of economical and convenient renewable energy fuels, resulting from concerns about climate change and rising oil prices. An opportunity to use agricultural land as a means of producing renewable fuels in large quantities, relying on wood and agricultural residues only has come up with recent advances in biomass feedstock development and conversion technologies. Increasing carbon storage in the landscape and displacing fossil fuels in combustion applications can be accomplished by using switchgrass and short rotation willow which abate greenhouse gas emissions. The potential of switchgrass and short rotation willow, as well as other biomass residues as new feedstocks for the pellet industry is studied in this document. Higher throughput rates are facilitated by using switchgrass, which shows potential as a pelleting feedstock. In addition, crop drying requires less energy than wood. By taking into consideration energy for switchgrass production, transportation to the conversion facility, preprocessing, pelleting, and marketing, the overall energy balance of switchgrass is 14.5:1. Research on alfalfa pelleting can be applied to switchgrass, as both exhibit a similar behaviour. The length of chop, the application of high temperature steam and the use of a die with a suitable length/diameter ratio are all factors that contribute to the successful pelleting of switchgrass. Switchgrass has a similar combustion efficiency (82 to 84 per cent) to wood (84 to 86 per cent), as determined by combustion trials conducted by the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) in the Dell-Point close coupled gasifier. The energy content is 96 per cent of the energy of wood pellets on a per tonne basis. Clinker formation was observed, which necessitated some adjustments of the cleaner grate settings. While stimulating rural development and export market opportunities, the high yielding closed loop biofuels show

  6. Biofuels securing the planet's future energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Univ. Mah, Mekan Sok No: 24, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The biofuels include bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils, biomethanol, pyrolysis oils, biogas, and biohydrogen. There are two global biomass based liquid transportation fuels that might replace gasoline and diesel fuel. These are bioethanol and biodiesel. World production of biofuel was about 68 billion L in 2007. The primary feedstocks of bioethanol are sugarcane and corn. Bioethanol is a gasoline additive/substitute. Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. About 60% of global bioethanol production comes from sugarcane and 40% from other crops. Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent mono alkyl ester based oxygenated fuel. Biodiesel production using inedible vegetable oil, waste oil and grease has become more attractive recently. The economic performance of a biodiesel plant can be determined once certain factors are identified, such as plant capacity, process technology, raw material cost and chemical costs. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. (author)

  7. The second generation biofuels from the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  8. Solid and liquid biofuels markets in Finland. A study on international biofuels trade. IEA bioenergy task 40 and EUROBIONET II. Country report of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinimoe, J.; Alakangas, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study considered the current situation of solid and liquid biofuels markets and international biofuels trade in Finland and identified the challenges of the emerging international biofuels markets for Finland. The fact that industry consumes more than half of the total primary energy, widely applied combined heat and power production (CHP) and a high share of biofuels in the total energy consumption are specific to the Finnish energy system. One third of the electricity is generated in CHP plants. As much as 27% of the total energy consumption is met by using wood and peat, which makes Finland the leading country in the use of biofuels. Finland has made a commitment to maintain greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level at the highest during the period 2008-2012. The Finnish energy policy aims to achieve the target, and a variety of measures are taken to promote the use of renewable energy sources and especially wood fuels. In this study, the wooden raw material streams of the forest industry were included the international biofuels trade in addition to biomass streams that are traded for energy production. In 2004, as much as 45% of the raw wood imported into Finland ended up in energy production. The total international trading of biofuels was evaluated at 72 PJ, of which the majority, 58 PJ, was raw wood. About 22% of wood based energy in Finland originated from imported raw wood. Tall oil and wood pellets composed the largest export streams of biofuels. The annual turnover of international biofuels trade was estimated at about euro 90 million for direct trade and at about euro 190 million for indirect trade. The forest industry as the biggest user of wood, and the producer and user of wood fuels has a central position in biomass and biofuels markets in Finland. Lately, the international aspects of Finnish biofuels markets have been emphasised as the import of raw wood and the export of wood pellets have increased. Expanding the use of biofuels in the road

  9. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cellulosic biofuels from crop residue and groundwater extraction in the US Plains: the case of Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmero, Juan P

    2014-11-01

    This study develops a model of crop residue (i.e. stover) supply and derived demand for irrigation water accounting for non-linear effects of soil organic matter on soil's water holding capacity. The model is calibrated for typical conditions in central Nebraska, United States, and identifies potential interactions between water and biofuel policies. The price offered for feedstock by a cost-minimizing plant facing that stover supply response is calculated. Results indicate that as biofuel production volumes increase, soil carbon depletion per unit of biofuel produced decreases. Consumption of groundwater per unit of biofuel produced first decreases and then increases (after a threshold of 363 dam(3) of biofuels per year) due to plants' increased reliance on the extensive margin for additional biomass. The analysis reveals a tension between biofuel and water policies. As biofuel production raises the economic benefits of relaxing water conservation policies (measured by the "shadow price" of water) increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  12. Solar heating for an electronics manufacturing plant--Blue Earth, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Partial space heating for 97,000 square foot plant is supplied by 360 flat plate solar collectors; energy is sorted as heat in indoor 20,000 gallon water tank. System includes all necessary control electronics for year round operation. During December 1978, solar energy supplied 24.4 percent of building's space heating load.

  13. Power electronics solution to dust emissions from thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power stations emit significant amounts of fly ash and ultra fine particles into the atmosphere. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP or electro filters remove flying ashes and fine particles from the flue gas before passing the gas into the chimney. Maximum allowable value of dust is 50 mg/m3 and it requires that the efficiency of the ESPs better than 99 %, which calls for an increase of active surface of the electrodes, hence increasing the filter volume and the weight of steel used for the filter. In previous decades, electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants were fed by thyristor controlled, single phase fed devices having a high degree of reliability, but with a relatively low collection efficiency, hence requiring large effective surface of the collection plates and a large weight of steel construction in order to achieve the prescribed emission limits. Collection efficiency and energy efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator can be increased by applying high frequency high voltage power supply (HF HV. Electrical engineering faculty of the University of Belgrade (ETF has developed technology and HF HV equipment for the ESP power supply. This solution was subjected to extensive experimental investigation at TE Morava from 2008 to 2010. High frequency power supply is proven to reduce emission two times in controlled conditions while increasing energy efficiency of the precipitator, compared to the conventional thyristor controlled 50Hz supply. Two high frequency high voltage unit AR70/1000 with parameters 70 kV and 1000 mA are installed at TE Morava and thoroughly testes. It was found that the HF HV power supply of the ESP at TE Morava increases collection efficiency so that emission of fine particles and flying ashes are halved, brought down to only 50 % of the emissions encountered with conventional 50 Hz thyristor driven power supplies. On the basis of this study, conclusion is drawn that the equipment comprising HF HV

  14. Panorama 2007: Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur-Vernat, A.; His, St.

    2007-01-01

    The current leader on the world bio-diesel market, Europe is, after the United States and Brazil, one of the regions driving the production and utilization of biofuels. Its ambitious bio-fuel content targets for motor fuels (5.75% by 2010 and 8% by 2015) encourage Member States to significantly develop those pathways. This raises certain questions, especially about available biomass resources. It is likely that, beyond 2010, technologies other than those in existence today, using ligno-cellulosic biomass, will have to be implemented. (author)

  15. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  16. The occurrence and control of nitric oxide generation by the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Nicole A; Sivanesan, Hampavi; Vanlerberghe, Greg C

    2017-07-01

    The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is bifurcated such that electrons from ubiquinol are passed to oxygen via the usual cytochrome path or through alternative oxidase (AOX). We previously showed that knockdown of AOX in transgenic tobacco increased leaf concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), implying that an activity capable of generating NO had been effected. Here, we identify the potential source of this NO. Treatment of leaves with antimycin A (AA, Q i -site inhibitor of Complex III) increased NO amount more than treatment with myxothiazol (Myxo, Q o -site inhibitor) despite both being equally effective at inhibiting respiration. Comparison of nitrate-grown wild-type with AOX knockdown and overexpression plants showed a negative correlation between AOX amount and NO amount following AA. Further, Myxo fully negated the ability of AA to increase NO amount. With ammonium-grown plants, neither AA nor Myxo strongly increased NO amount in any plant line. When these leaves were supplied with nitrite alongside the AA or Myxo, then the inhibitor effects across lines mirrored that of nitrate-grown plants. Hence the ETC, likely the Q-cycle of Complex III generates NO from nitrite, and AOX reduces this activity by acting as a non-energy-conserving electron sink upstream of Complex III. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview on Biofuels from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    In light of the recently developed European Union (EU) Biofuels Strategy, the literature is reviewed to examine (a) the coherency of biofuel production with the EU nonindustrial vision of agriculture, and (b) given its insufficient land base, the implications of a proposed bioenergy pact to grow biofuel crops in the developing world to meet EU…

  19. Biofuels, a bad thing?; Boeser Biokraftstoff?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.; Bensmann, M.

    2008-05-15

    The discussions over biofuels are still going on. Critics claim that biofuels ruin engine components, destroy rainforests and cause high food prices and global hunger. According to this contribution, the Federal government's biofuels policy was wrong and was doomed to fail. (orig.)

  20. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Jennifer Pc; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N; Elich, Tedd

    2010-09-08

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration.

  1. Evaluation of biofuels sustainability: can we keep biofuel appropriate and green?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amigun, B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available and Industrial Research (CSIR) Pretoria, South Africa bamigun@csir.co.za Outlines • State of biofuels in Africa - Biofuels initiatives in Africa • Barriers to biofuels market penetration and policy incentives to stimulate the market. • Sustainability... are then motivated to put these ideas into practice. The end of Phase I is the political decision to invest money and other resources into biofuel research. Biofuels developmental stages in Africa…explanation © CSIR 2009 www...

  2. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  3. Recent Operating Experience involving Power Electronics Failure in Korea Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaedo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, modern power electronics devices for electrical component were steadily increased in electrical systems which used for main power control and protection. To upgrade the system reliability we recommended the redundancy for electrical equipment trip system. The past several years, Korean Nuclear power plants have changed the electrical control and protection systems (Auto Voltage Regulator, Power Protection Relay) for main generator and main power protection relay systems. In this paper we deal with operating experience involving modern solid state power electronics failure in Korean nuclear power plants. One of the failures we will discuss the degraded phenomenon of power electronics device for CEDMCS(Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System). As the result of the failure we concerned about the modification for trip source of main generator excitation systems and others. We present an interesting issue for modern solid state devices (IGBT, Thyristors). (authors)

  4. Alternative route of process modification for biofuel production by embedding the Fischer–Tropsch plant in existing stand-alone power plant (10 MW) based on biomass gasification – Part I: A conceptual modeling and simulation approach (a case study in Thailand)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Cheali, Peam; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip; Chollacoop, Nuwong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SynBiofuel production through existing gasification plants in Thailand, using waste agricultural biomass as raw material, was studied. The process design was initiated conceptually in the areas of gas phase reaction system via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The development of FT configurations on syngas conversion to transportation fuels (e.g., diesel range) was investigated. In order to develop a techno-economic assessment, the three different capacities corresponding to 1 MW, 2 MW and 3 MW based on thermal input of syngas were evaluated. Once-through FT concept was proposed in which the unconverted syngas was combusted with air in an externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) to produce surplus electricity. The results of process simulation were discussed open-mindedly including the overall plant design and energy efficiency. Preliminary economics, and some site specific situations under which additional capital cost savings on existing infrastructure was realized. - Highlights: • Experimental results were used and integrated with a reactor model for SynBiofuel. • Process simulation with the lumped reaction rate was used to achieve accurate results. • Process simulation was performed using ASPEN Plus to design FT configurations. • Maximum energy FT efficiency was approximately 37%. • Economic potential was computed by ROI and PBP resulting in the attractive solutions. - Abstract: The utilization of syngas shows a highly potential to improve the economic potential of the stand-alone power unit-based gasification plants as well as enhancing the growing demand of transportation fuels. The thermochemical conversion of biomass via gasification to heat and power generations from the earlier study is further enhanced by integrating Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis with the existing gasification pilot scale studied previously. To support the potential and perspectives in major economies due to scaling up in developing countries such as Thailand

  5. Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Austenitic Stainless Steels during Conversion of Waste to Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Marina; Lorenzi, Sergio; Pastore, Tommaso; Pellegrini, Simone; Burattini, Mauro; Miglio, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the corrosion behavior of stainless steels as candidate materials for biofuel production plants by liquefaction process of the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Corrosion tests were carried out on AISI 316L and AISI 304L stainless steels at 250 °C in a batch reactor during conversion of raw material to bio-oil (biofuel precursor), by exposing specimens either to water/oil phase or humid gas phase. General corrosion rate was measured by weight loss tests. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was evaluated by means of U-bend specimens and slow stress rate tests at 10−6 or 10−5 s−1 strain rate. After tests, scanning electron microscope analysis was carried out to detect cracks and localized attacks. The results are discussed in relation with exposure conditions. They show very low corrosion rates strictly dependent upon time and temperature. No stress corrosion cracking was observed on U-bend specimens, under constant loading. Small cracks confined in the necking cone of specimens prove that stress corrosion cracking only occurred during slow strain rate tests at stresses exceeding the yield strength. PMID:28772682

  6. A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis

    2012-05-15

    The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Biofuel production by recombinant microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C.; Atsumi, Shota; Cann, Anthony F.

    2017-07-04

    Provided herein are metabolically-modified microorganisms useful for producing biofuels. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing high alcohols including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol from a suitable substrate.

  10. An Outlook on Microalgal Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Microalgae are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuels. The productivity of these photosynthetic microorganisms in converting carbon dioxide into carbon-rich lipids, only a step or two away from biodiesel, greatly exceeds that of agricultural oleaginous crops, without competing

  11. Biofuels for automobiles - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Vetter, A. [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Dornburg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Due to increasing oil prices and climate change concerns, biofuels have become more important as potential alternative energy sources. It is an open question as to which types of biofuels have the best yield potentials, characteristic properties and environmental consequences for providing the largest contribution to future energy requirements. Apart from the quality aspects, the question of quantity is very important, i.e., yields of biomass raw materials from agriculture and forestry as well as the conversion efficiencies/yields of the conversion process to automotive fuels. The most widely used biofuel forms today are fatty acid methyl esters and ethanol. However, in the future it is possible that synthetic hydrocarbons and hydrogen, produced via biotechnological or chemical processes may become feasible as fuel sources. Limitations in quantity are caused by net productivities of photosynthesis, which are limited by several factors, e.g., by the supply of water, limited availability of land, and conversion losses. As a consequence, biofuels as they exist can only contribute to a limited extent to securing raw material supplies for energy requirements in the future. Efficiency improvements in processing technologies and changes in consumer behavior and attitude will also be required. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Employment effects of biofuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, B.O.; Hektor, B.

    1992-01-01

    Effects on employment - national and regional - from an expanding market for biofuels in Sweden are estimated in this article. The fuels considered are: Peat, straw, energy crops, silviculture, forestry waste, wood waste, by-products from paper/wood industry and processed fuels from these sources. (22 refs., tabs.)

  13. Biofuels: What potential for development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The current production chain of the first generation of biofuels has quite real limits. To overcome them, efforts are being made to develop processes for converting vegetable resources of little worth into fuel. This research focuses both on these resources and on the technology and processes for turning them into fuel

  14. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group to be covered by this certification. The intent of the... North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated... Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment...

  15. Four myths surrounding U.S. biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzstein, M.; Wetzstein, H.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of biofuels has elicited claims and predictions concerning the current and future role of these fuels in the U.S. vehicle-fuel portfolio. These assertions are at times based on a false set of assumptions concerning the biofuel's market related to the petroleum and agricultural commodities markets, and the nonmarket consequences of our automobile driving. As an aid in clarifying these market relations, the following four biofuel myths are presented: (1) biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil, (2) biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving, (3) biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue), and (4) biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel. - Highlights: → Biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil. → Biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving. → Biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue). → Biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel.

  16. Biofuels Refining Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobban, Lance [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-03-28

    The goal of this project is the development of novel catalysts and knowledge of reaction pathways and mechanisms for conversion of biomass-based compounds to fuels that are compatible with oil-based fuels and with acceptable or superior fuel properties. The research scope included both catalysts to convert lignocellulosic biomass-based molecules (from pyrolysis) and vegetable oil-based molecules (i.e., triglycerides and fatty acid methyl esters). This project comprised five technical tasks. Each task is briefly introduced below, and major technical accomplishments summarized. Technical accomplishments were described in greater detail in the quarterly progress reports, and in even more detail in the >50 publications acknowledging this DoE project funding (list of publications and presentations included at the end of this report). The results of this research added greatly to the knowledge base necessary for upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals, and for conversion of vegetable oils to fungible diesel fuel. Numerous new catalysts and catalytic reaction systems were developed for upgrading particular compounds or compound families found in the biomass-based pyrolysis oils and vegetable oils. Methods to mitigate catalyst deactivation were investigated, including novel reaction/separation systems. Performance and emission characteristics of biofuels in flames and engines were measured. Importantly, the knowledge developed from this project became the basis for a subsequent collaborative proposal led by our research group, involving researchers from the University of Wisconsin, the University of Pittsburg, and the Idaho National Lab, for the DoE Carbon, Hydrogen and Separations Efficiency (CHASE) program, which was subsequently funded (one of only four projects awarded in the CHASE program). The CHASE project examined novel catalytic processes for lignocellulosic biomass conversion as well as technoeconomic analyses for process options for maximum

  17. Metabolic engineering of microalgal based biofuel production: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjib eBanerjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario in renewable energy is focused on development of alternate and sustainable energy sources, amongst which microalgae stands as one of the promising feedstock for biofuel production. It is well known that microalgae generate much larger amounts of biofuels in a shorter time than other sources based on plant seeds. However, the greatest challenge in a transition to algae-based biofuel production is the various other complications involved in microalgal cultivation, its harvesting, concentration, drying and lipid extraction. Several green microalgae accumulate lipids, especially triacylglycerols (TAGs, which are main precursors in the production of lipid. The various aspects on metabolic pathway analysis of an oleaginous microalgae i.e. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have elucidated some novel metabolically important genes and this enhances the lipid production in this microalgae. Adding to it, various other aspects in metabolic engineering using OptFlux and effectual bioprocess design also gives an interactive snapshot of enhancing lipid production which ultimately improvises the oil yield. This article reviews the current status of microalgal based technologies for biofuel production, bioreactor process design, flux analysis and it also provides various strategies to increase lipids accumulation via metabolic engineering.

  18. Stagnating liquid biofuel developments in Russia: Present status andfuture perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pristupa, Alexey O.; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Oosterveer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that Russia possesses enormous biomass resources (). Its vast areas devoted to agricultural production and plentiful timber resources suggest good prospects for the development of liquid biofuel production. However, no significant advances in this direction have been reported till now. None of the numerous investment projects announced at the heydays of biofuel excitement in Russia (2006-2008) are at the moment commercially operating. There are no specialised plants for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel in Russia. Little is known of the reasons for this discrepancy between biofuel potential and actual development. In investigating this discrepancy, this article analyses national developments and investigates local dynamics through a case-study in the Omsk region. It is found that the reasons for this discrepancy are not related to technological incapabilities, but are to be found in the low policy and institutional priority given to non-fossil fuel exploitation and lack of market opportunities. Sprouts of second generation liquid biofuel technologies can be identified within the state system, but it remains to be seen how strong and how long these will be supported by the Russian state.

  19. The macro-environment for liquid Biofuels in Brazilian science and public policies

    OpenAIRE

    E. Talamini; H. Dewes

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the macro-environmental dimensions through which Brazilian scientists and government officials have framed issues surrounding liquid biofuels over a period of time. This study analyzes scientific papers published by researchers affiliated with Brazilian institutions and official documents of the Brazilian government related to liquid biofuels. Documents published during a ten-year period (1997--2006) were collected from electronic sources. Text-mining ...

  20. Unburned carbon in combustion residues from mainly solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem H; Lind B; Lagerkvist A

    2012-02-15

    Unburned carbon in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels is investigated using several methods of analysis (a.o. LOI and TOC), as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results are used to discuss the distribution of unburned carbon in the residues from the different combustion plants and its nature (organic or elemental). The consequences of the elemental nature of carbon for environmental properties of the residue are noted

  1. Development of electronic barcodes for use in plant pathology and functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Monto H; Miller, Philip

    2006-06-01

    We have developed a novel 'electronic barcode' system that uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, cell phones, and portable computers to link phenotypic, environmental, and genomic data. We describe a secure, inexpensive system to record and retrieve data from plant samples. It utilizes RFID tags, computers, PDAs, and cell phones to link, record, and retrieve positional, and functional genomic data. Our results suggest that RFID tags can be used in functional genomic screens to record information that is involved in plant development or disease.

  2. Energy valuation methods for biofuels in South Florida: Introduction to life cycle assessment and emergy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treese II, J. Van [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Amponsah, Nana [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Izursa, Jose -Luis [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Capece, John C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Here, recent changes in the United States requiring the use of ethanol in gasoline for most vehicular transportation have created discussion about important issues, such as shifting the use of certain plants from food production to energy supply, related federal subsidies, effects on soil, water and atmosphere resources, tradeoffs between food production and energy production, speculation about biofuels as a possible means for energy security, potential reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or development and expansion of biofuels industry. A sustainable approach to biofuel production requires understanding inputs (i.e., energy required to carry out a process, both natural and anthropogenic) and outputs (i.e., energy produced by that process) and cover the entire process, as well as environmental considerations that can be overlooked in a more traditional approach. This publication gives an overview of two methods for evaluating energy transformations in biofuels production: (1) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (2) Emergy Assessment (EA). The LCA approach involves measurements affecting greenhouse gases (GHG), which can be linked to the energy considerations used in the EA. Although these two methods have their basis in energy or GHG evaluations, their approaches can lead to a reliable judgment regarding a biofuel process. Using these two methods can ensure that the energy components are well understood and can help to evaluate the economic environmental component of a biofuel process. In turn, using these two evaluative tools will allow for decisions about biofuel processes that favor sustainability

  3. Recent developments and key barriers to advanced biofuels: A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You-Kwan; Hwang, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Changman; Kim, Jung Rae; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2018-06-01

    Biofuels are regarded as one of the most viable options for reduction of CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. However, conventional plant-based biofuels (e.g., biodiesel, bioethanol)'s share of total transportation-fuel consumption in 2016 was very low, about 4%, due to several major limitations including shortage of raw materials, low CO 2 mitigation effect, blending wall, and poor cost competitiveness. Advanced biofuels such as drop-in, microalgal, and electro biofuels, especially from inedible biomass, are considered to be a promising solution to the problem of how to cope with the growing biofuel demand. In this paper, recent developments in oxy-free hydrocarbon conversion via catalytic deoxygenation reactions, the selection of and lipid-content enhancement of oleaginous microalgae, electrochemical biofuel conversion, and the diversification of valuable products from biomass and intermediates are reviewed. The challenges and prospects for future development of eco-friendly and economically advanced biofuel production processes also are outlined herein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The reactivity of plant, murine and human genome to electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrila, L.; Usurelu, D.; Radu, I.; Timus, D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad spectrum of chromosomal rearrangements is described in plants (Allium cepa), mouse (Mus musculus domestics) and in humans (Homo sapiens sapiens), following in vivo and in vitro beta irradiation. Irradiations were performed at EAL, using a 2.998 GHz traveling-wave electron accelerator. The primary effect of electron beam irradiation is chromosomal breakage followed up by a variety of chromosomal rearrangements i.e. chromosomal aberrations represented mainly by chromatid gaps, deletions, ring chromosomes, dicentrics, translocations, complex chromosomal interchanges, acentric fragments and double minutes (DM). The clastogenic effects were associated in some instances with cell sterilization (i.e. cell death)

  5. Economic and social implications of biofuel use and production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, K.

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of biofuels in meeting Canadian commitments to greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The characteristics of various biofuels were presented, including ethanol, methanol, biodiesel and biogas. Benefits of biofuels included a reduction in air contaminants as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Federal and provincial programs are currently in place to encourage production and use of biofuels. The Federal Ethanol Expansion Plan was outlined with reference to its target to increase ethanol production from 238 m litres to 1400 m litres by 2010. The main instruments of the program include excision of the gasoline tax exemption, ethanol expansion and the fact that ethanol can operate a polyfuels vehicle fleet. Provincial policies on ethanol were outlined, driven by characteristics of provincial economies. Provincial tax exemptions for ethanol were provided and an overview of the global ethanol market was presented. A map of existing and projected ethanol projects in Canada was presented, along with a forecast of Canadian ethanol production capacity. A time-line of Nebraska's ethanol production from the years 1985 to 2004 was provided. Economic drivers for ethanol include additional markets for products of agricultural, marine and forestry industries; the enhancement and diversification of rural and regional economies; employment; and energy security. Challenges to growth in biofuel production include technological knowledge and a lack of public awareness concerning the benefits of biofuel. The production and use of biofuels may increase environmental amenities but decrease economic growth. Issues concerning the economics of biofuel research were reviewed. The demand for biofuels has grown slowly in Canada, but has been promoted or mandated federally and in several provinces. The costs of biofuel production were reviewed, with a chart presenting ethanol production costs by plant size. Barriers to trade include the complexity of provincial tax

  6. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  7. Graphene paper based bioelectrodes for enzymatic biofuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werchmeister, Rebecka Maria Larsen; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Jingdong

    We aim at developing bioelectrodes for enzymatic biofuel cells, where sustainable and renewable enzymes are used for catalyzing the oxidation and reduction of fuel molecules. Here glucose is chosen as fuel molecule and glucose oxidase (GOx) is target enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of glucose...... of glucose. This indicates that the enzyme has been successfully immobilized and is actively consuming glucose while transferring electrons to the graphene paper-GOx bioanode. Stability and efficiency of the bioelectrodes are under investigation....

  8. Optimal localisation of next generation Biofuel production in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mossberg, Johanna [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with large production capacities are likely to be required. Feedstock intake capacities in the range of about 1-2 million tonnes per year, corresponding to a biomass feed of 300-600 MW, can be expected, which may lead to major logistical challenges. To enable expansion of biofuel production in such large plants, as well as provide for associated distribution requirements, it is clear that substantial infrastructure planning will be needed. The geographical location of the production plant facilities is therefore of crucial importance and must be strategic to minimise the transports of raw material as well as of final product. Competition for the available feedstock, from for example forest industries and CHP plants (combined heat and power) further complicates the localisation problem. Since the potential for an increased biomass utilisation is limited, high overall resource efficiency is of great importance. Integration of biofuel production processes in existing industries or in district heating systems may be beneficial from several aspects, such as opportunities for efficient heat integration, feedstock and equipment integration, as well as access to existing experience and know-how. This report describes the development of Be Where Sweden, a geographically explicit optimisation model for localisation of next generation biofuel production plants in Sweden. The main objective of developing such a model is to be able to assess production plant locations that are robust to varying

  9. Use of complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants: feability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, P.; Carquet, M.

    1988-01-01

    EDF has undertaken a study in order to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of using complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants. This study lies on tests of VLSI components (Random Access Memories) under gamma rays irradiations, which aims are to evaluate the radiation dose that they can withstand and to develop a selection method. 125 rad/h and 16 rad/h tests results are given [fr

  10. A conducting polymer/ferritin anode for biofuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamuddin; Shin, Kwang Min; Kim, Sun I.; So, Insuk; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2009-01-01

    An enzyme anode for use in biofuel cells (BFCs) was constructed using an electrically connected bilayer based on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode immobilized with the conducting polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) as electron transfer enhancer, and with horse spleen ferritin protein (Frt) as electron transfer mediator. The surface-coupled redox system of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) catalyzed with diaphorase (Di) was used for the regeneration of NAD + in the inner layer and the NAD + -dependent enzyme catalyst glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the outer layer. The outer layer of the GC-Ppy-Frt-Di-NADH-GDH electrode effectively catalyzes the oxidation of glucose biofuel continuously; using the NAD + generated at the inner layer of the Di-catalyzed NADH redox system mediated by Frt and Ppy provides electrical communication with enhancement in electron transport. The electrochemical characteristics of the electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). This anode provides a current density of 1.2 mA cm -2 in a 45 mM glucose solution and offers a good possibility for application in biofuel cells.

  11. Fundamental studies on electron beam welding on heat resistant superalloys for nuclear plants, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susei, Syuzo; Shimizu, Sigeki; Nagai, Hiroyoshi; Aota, Toshikazu; Satoh, Keisuke

    1980-01-01

    In this report, base metal of superalloys for nuclear plants, its electron beam and TIG weld joints were compared with each other in the mechanical properties. Obtained conclusions are summarized as follows: 1) TIG weld joint is superior to electron beam weld joint and base metal in 0.2% proof stress irrespective of the material, and electron beam weld joint is also superior to base metal. There is an appreciable difference in tensile stress between base metal and weld joint regardless of the materials. Meanwhile, electron beam weld joint is superior to TIG weld joint in both elongation and reduction of area. 2) Electron beam weld joint has considerably higher low-cycle fatigue properties at elevated temperatures than TIG weld joint, and it is usually as high as base metal. 3) In the secondary creep rate, base metal of Hastelloy X (HAEM) has higher one than its weld joints. However, electron beam weld joint is nearly comparable to the base metal. 4) There is hardly any appreciable difference between base metal and weld joint in the creep rupture strength without distinction of the material. In the ductility, base metal is much superior and is followed by electron beam weld joint and TIG weld joint in the order of high ductility. However, electron beam weld joint is rather comparable to base metal. 5) In consideration of welded pipe with a circumferential joint, the weld joint should be evaluated in terms of secondary creep rate, elongation and rupture strength. As the weld joint of high creep rupture strength approaches the base metal in the secondary creep rate and the elongation, it seems to be more resistant against the fracture due to creep deformation. In this point of view, electron beam weld joint is far superior to TIG weld joint and nearly comparable to the base metal. (author)

  12. Redox Homeostasis in Plants under Abiotic Stress: Role of electron carriers, energy metabolism mediators and proteinaceous thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhriti Kapoor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous presence of both oxidized and reduced forms of electron carriers is mandatory in efficient flux by plant electron transport cascades. This requirement is considered as redox poising that involves the movement of electron from multiple sites in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains to molecular oxygen. This flux triggers the formation of superoxide, consequently give rise to other reactive oxygen species (ROS under adverse environmental conditions like drought, high or low temperature, heavy metal stress etc. that plants owing during their life span. Plant cells synthesize ascorbate, an additional hydrophilic redox buffer, which protect the plants against oxidative challenge. Large pools of antioxidants also preside over the redox homeostasis. Besides, tocopherol is a liposoluble redox buffer, which efficiently scavenges the ROS like singlet oxygen. In addition, proteinaceous thiol members such as thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin and glutaredoxin, electron carriers and energy metabolism mediators phosphorylated (NADP and non-phosphorylated (NAD+ coenzyme forms interact with ROS, metabolize and maintain redox homeostasis.

  13. Agave: a biofuel feedstock for arid and semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Stephen; Martin, Jeffrey; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2011-05-31

    Efficient production of plant-based, lignocellulosic biofuels relies upon continued improvement of existing biofuel feedstock species, as well as the introduction of newfeedstocks capable of growing on marginal lands to avoid conflicts with existing food production and minimize use of water and nitrogen resources. To this end, specieswithin the plant genus Agave have recently been proposed as new biofuel feedstocks. Many Agave species are adapted to hot and arid environments generally unsuitable forfood production, yet have biomass productivity rates comparable to other second-generation biofuel feedstocks such as switchgrass and Miscanthus. Agavesachieve remarkable heat tolerance and water use efficiency in part through a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) mode of photosynthesis, but the genes andregulatory pathways enabling CAM and thermotolerance in agaves remain poorly understood. We seek to accelerate the development of agave as a new biofuelfeedstock through genomic approaches using massively-parallel sequencing technologies. First, we plan to sequence the transcriptome of A. tequilana to provide adatabase of protein-coding genes to the agave research community. Second, we will compare transcriptome-wide gene expression of agaves under different environmentalconditions in order to understand genetic pathways controlling CAM, water use efficiency, and thermotolerance. Finally, we aim to compare the transcriptome of A.tequilana with that of other Agave species to gain further insight into molecular mechanisms underlying traits desirable for biofuel feedstocks. These genomicapproaches will provide sequence and gene expression information critical to the breeding and domestication of Agave species suitable for biofuel production.

  14. Analyzing the impact of intermodal facilities to the design and management of biofuels supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact that an intermodal facility has on location and transportation : decisions for biofuel production plants. Location decisions impact the management of the in-bound and out-bound logistics of a plant. We model this supply...

  15. Prospects for Jatropha biofuels in developing countries : an analysis for Tanzania with strategic niche management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van J.A.J.; Romijn, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on recent research in Tanzania about the scope for developing biofuels from an oil-seed bearing plant called Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus. The plant is widely seen to have potential to help combat the greenhouse effect, help to stop local soil erosion, create additional income for the

  16. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biofuels 2020: Biorefineries based on lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Miguel; Galan, Jose Luis; Laffarga, Joaquina; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2016-09-01

    The production of liquid biofuels to blend with gasoline is of worldwide importance to secure the energy supply while reducing the use of fossil fuels, supporting the development of rural technology with knowledge-based jobs and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Today, engineering for plant construction is accessible and new processes using agricultural residues and municipal solid wastes have reached a good degree of maturity and high conversion yields (almost 90% of polysaccharides are converted into monosaccharides ready for fermentation). For the complete success of the 2G technology, it is still necessary to overcome a number of limitations that prevent a first-of-a-kind plant from operating at nominal capacity. We also claim that the triumph of 2G technology requires the development of favourable logistics to guarantee biomass supply and make all actors (farmers, investors, industrial entrepreneurs, government, others) aware that success relies on agreement advances. The growth of ethanol production for 2020 seems to be secured with a number of 2G plants, but public/private investments are still necessary to enable 2G technology to move on ahead from its very early stages to a more mature consolidated technology. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Health effects of biofuel exhaust

    OpenAIRE

    Vugt, M.A.T.M. van; Mulderij, M.; Usta, M.; Kadijk, G.; Kooter, I.M.; Krul, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Alternatives to fossil fuels receive a lot of attention. In particular, oil derived of specific crops forms a promising fuel. In order to warrant global expectance of such novel fuels, safety issues associated with combustion of these fuels needs to be assessed. Although only a few public reports exist, recently potential toxic effects associated with biofuels has been published. Here, we report the analysis of a comprehensive study, comparing the toxic effects of conventional diesel, biodies...

  19. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  20. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  1. The potential of liquid biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, Etienne

    1999-01-01

    The objective fixed by the European Commission in 1995 was that 5% of the fuel used for transport in Fance should be produced from renewable energy by 2005. As opposed to some other European countries, there is no environmental tax on fossil fuels in France, but the Government has agreed to a tax incentive system on biofuels. Experimental work on liquid biofuels as a transport fuel started in France in the early 80's, but the use of biofuels on a commercial basis really started to develop when the setaside rules and tax incentives came into force in 1991. Out of the two routes originally considered for development; bioethanol and its ETBE derivative, and vegetable oils and their methyl ester derivatives, priority has now been given to: ETBE produced from sugar beet and wheat and now from sub-products of starch industry, which are widely grown in France; ETBE is blended with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. Production of wheat and beet for energy purposes is very similar to food production. In France, ethanol produce from sugar beet is a traditional industry; this was the first route to be developed. The results of a life cycle analysis made for ETBE produce from sugar beet will be given, showing advantages and limitations. Alcohol produced from wheat is a more recent activity; two industrial plants have been built since beginning of the 90's and other projects are planned like for example a production from starch industry. RME (rapeseed methyl ester) for use in diesel engines at various blend rates. Vegetable oils or their derivatives such as esters can be used directly in diesel engines. Pure, filtered and degummed oils can be used in pre-chamber engines. Relatively advanced knowledge has now been gained about esters; because their characteristics are very similar to those of conventional diesel fuel, they are considered suitable for use in direct injection diesel engines without engine modification. In France, methyl ester is at present produced mainly

  2. Efficient production of automotive biofuels; Effektiv produktion av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hagberg, Linus; Rydberg, Tomas; Raadberg, Henrik; Saernholm, Erik

    2008-07-01

    The report describes opportunities and consequences associated with biomass polygeneration plants, in particular the role that heat plants (HP) or combined heat and power plants (CHP) in district heating systems can play in the production of automotive biofuels. The aim of the report is to provide a knowledge base to stakeholders to help assess energy and environmental benefits associated with collaborative approaches in planning, constructing and operating energy plants. Several configurations are possible for an energy polygeneration plant, but this report focuses on configurations in which a plant for automotive biofuel production and a district heating system with HPs or CHPs have been integrated in some way in order to achieve added value. The modes of integration are several, e.g.: - Supply of process steam from the CHP to the fuel plant, by which the time of operation for the CHP can be extended; Supply of surplus heat from the fuel plant to the district heating system; Material exchange between the systems, by use of residue streams from the fuel plant as fuel in the HP/CHP; Surplus heat from the fuel plant used for drying of the solid fuel to the HP/CHP or for drying of raw material for pellets production; Co-location providing opportunities for shared infrastructure for raw material handling, service systems, utilities and/or logistics. The report principally addresses integration options of the first three types, but describes briefly also pellets production. The starting point for the analysis of integration options is the description of technologies of interest for the production of automotive biofuels. Commercially available technologies are of prime interest, but also a couple of technologies under development are included in this part of the study. In addition to outlining the process characteristics for these processes, surrounding conditions and system requirements are briefly outlined. The results are summarized in Table S1. Ethanol fermentation

  3. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Ciaian, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  4. Frames in the Ethiopian Debate on Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Portner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production, while highly contested, is supported by a number of policies worldwide. Ethiopia was among the first sub-Saharan countries to devise a biofuel policy strategy to guide the associated demand toward sustainable development. In this paper, I discuss Ethiopia’s biofuel policy from an interpretative research position using a frames approach and argue that useful insights can be obtained by paying more attention to national contexts and values represented in the debates on whether biofuel production can or will contribute to sustainable development. To this end, I was able to distinguish three major frames used in the Ethiopian debate on biofuels: an environmental rehabilitation frame, a green revolution frame and a legitimacy frame. The article concludes that actors advocating for frames related to social and human issues have difficulties entering the debate and forming alliances, and that those voices need to be included in order for Ethiopia to develop a sustainable biofuel sector.

  5. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Joerg; Thielmann, Sascha

    2008-01-01

    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  6. Recent advances on enzymatic glucose/oxygen and hydrogen/oxygen biofuel cells: Achievements and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnier, Serge; J. Gross, Andrew; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of producing electrical power from chemical energy with biological catalysts has induced the development of biofuel cells as viable energy sources for powering portable and implanted electronic devices. These power sources employ biocatalysts, called enzymes, which are highly specific and catalytic towards the oxidation of a biofuel and the reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes, on one hand, are promising candidates to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts in fuel cell research. On the other hand, they offer the exciting prospect of a new generation of fuel cells which harvest energy from body fluids. Biofuel cells which use glucose as a fuel are particularly interesting for generating electricity to power electronic devices inside a living body. Hydrogen consuming biofuel cells represent an emerging alternative to platinum catalysts due to comparable efficiencies and the capability to operate at lower temperatures. Currently, these technologies are not competitive with existing commercialised fuel cell devices due to limitations including insufficient power outputs and lifetimes. The advantages and challenges facing glucose biofuel cells for implantation and hydrogen biofuel cells will be summarised along with recent promising advances and the future prospects of these exotic energy-harvesting devices.

  7. Oil price, biofuels and food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Mevel, Simon; Shrestha, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels, but this issue has yet to be fully investigated in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65% increase in oil price in 2020 from the 2009 level would increase the global biofuel penetration to 5.4% in 2020 from 2.4% in 2009. If oil prices rise 150% from their 2009 levels by 2020, the resulting penetration of biofuels would be 9%, which is higher than that would be caused by current mandates and targets introduced in more than forty countries around the world. The study also shows that aggregate agricultural output drops due to an oil price increase, but the drop is small in major biofuel producing countries as the expansion of biofuels would partially offset the negative impacts of the oil price increase on agricultural outputs. An increase in oil price would reduce global food supply through direct impacts as well as through the diversion of food commodities and cropland towards the production of biofuels. - Highlights: ► A global CGE model to analyze impacts of oil price on biofuels and food supply. ► Global biofuel penetration increases from 2.4% (2009) to 5.4% (2020) in baseline. ► A 150% rise of oil price boosts biofuels more than current mandates and targets do. ► Biofuels partially offset drops in agricultural outputs caused by oil price rise. ► Biofuels as well as oil price rise negatively affect global food supply.

  8. Biofuels in Italy: obstacles and development opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, Vito; Clementi, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    Today biofuels are the sole realistically practical way to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transportation sector. In many countries, including Italy, biofuel production and use are already a reality corresponding to a large agro-industrial production system that uses essentially mature technologies. To significantly lower production costs and optimise land use, Italy needs to develop new, second-generation biofuel production operations that can offer significant opportunities to the nation's agro-industrial sector [it

  9. DLA Energy Biofuel Feedstock Metrics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    moderately/highly in- vasive  Metric 2: Genetically modified organism ( GMO ) hazard, Yes/No and Hazard Category  Metric 3: Species hybridization...4– biofuel distribution Stage # 5– biofuel use Metric 1: State inva- siveness ranking Yes Minimal Minimal No No Metric 2: GMO hazard Yes...may utilize GMO microbial or microalgae species across the applicable biofuel life cycles (stages 1–3). The following consequence Metrics 4–6 then

  10. Isoprenoid drugs, biofuels, and chemicals--artemisinin, farnesene, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kevin W; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Keasling, Jay D; Lee, Taek Soon

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids have been identified and used as natural pharmaceuticals, fragrances, solvents, and, more recently, advanced biofuels. Although isoprenoids are most commonly found in plants, researchers have successfully engineered both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways to produce these valuable chemicals in microorganisms at high yields. The microbial synthesis of the precursor to artemisinin--an important antimalarial drug produced from the sweet wormwood Artemisia annua--serves as perhaps the most successful example of this approach. Through advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, microbial-derived semisynthetic artemisinin may soon replace plant-derived artemisinin as the primary source of this valuable pharmaceutical. The richness and diversity of isoprenoid structures also make them ideal candidates for advanced biofuels that may act as "drop-in" replacements for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Indeed, the sesquiterpenes farnesene and bisabolene, monoterpenes pinene and limonene, and hemiterpenes isopentenol and isopentanol have been evaluated as fuels or fuel precursors. As in the artemisinin project, these isoprenoids have been produced microbially through synthetic biology and metabolic engineering efforts. Here, we provide a brief review of the numerous isoprenoid compounds that have found use as pharmaceuticals, flavors, commodity chemicals, and, most importantly, advanced biofuels. In each case, we highlight the metabolic engineering strategies that were used to produce these compounds successfully in microbial hosts. In addition, we present a current outlook on microbial isoprenoid production, with an eye towards the many challenges that must be addressed to achieve higher yields and industrial-scale production.

  11. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  12. Strategic niche management for biofuels : analysing past experiments for developing new biofuels policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, W.W.M.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels have gained a lot of attention since the implementation of the 2003 European Directive on biofuels. In the Netherlands the contribution of biofuels is still very limited despite several experiments in the past. This article aims to contribute to the development of successful policies for

  13. Towards Sustainable Production of Biofuels from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Ragnar Giselrød

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and carbon neutral biofuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. The viability of the first generation biofuels production is however questionable because of the conflict with food supply. Microalgal biofuels are a viable alternative. The oil productivity of many microalgae exceeds the best producing oil crops. This paper aims to analyze and promote integration approaches for sustainable microalgal biofuel production to meet the energy and environmental needs of the society. The emphasis is on hydrothermal liquefaction technology for direct conversion of algal biomass to liquid fuel.

  14. Soybean-derived biofuels and home heating fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrush, George W; Wynne, James H; Willauer, Heather D; Lloyd, Christopher L

    2006-01-01

    It is environmentally enticing to consider replacing or blending petroleum derived heating fuels with biofuels for many reasons. Major considerations include the soaring worldwide price of petroleum products, especially home heating oil, the toxicity of the petroleum-derived fuels and the environmental damage that leaking petroleum tanks afford. For these reasons, it has been suggested that domestic renewable energy sources be considered as replacements, or at the least, as blending stocks for home heating fuels. If recycled soy restaurant cooking oils could be employed for this purpose, this would represent an environmental advantage. Renewable plant sources of energy tend to be less toxic than their petroleum counterparts. This is an important consideration when tank leakage occurs. Home fuel oil storage tanks practically always contain some bottom water. This water environment has a pH value that factors into heating fuel stability. Therefore, the question is: would the biofuel help or exacerbate fuel stability and furnace maintenance issues?

  15. Second-generation pilot biofuel units worldwide - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The production of biofuels from agricultural raw material is attracting great interest for many reasons, among them global warming, oil price hikes, the depletion of oil reserves and the development of new agricultural markets. However, the technologies currently under development are hindered by the fact that available land is limited and by a risk of competition with food crops. In the last few years, research and development efforts have sought to alleviate these limitations by exploring new pathways to convert little-used plant feedstocks to biofuels with better efficiencies. Large-scale research programs concentrating on these new technologies are underway in the U.S. and Europe, with industrial development expected between 2012 and 2020

  16. Review and experimental study on pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, David; Prussi, Matteo; Buffi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Maria; Pari, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A review of microalgae thermochemical conversion to bioliquids was carried out. • We focused on pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction for biocrude/biofuels. • Original experimental research on microalgae pyrolysis was also carried out. • Starvation does not impact significant on the energy content of the biocrude. • This result is relevant for designing full scale microalgae production plants. - Abstract: Advanced Biofuels steadily developed during recent year, with several highly innovative processes and technologies explored at various scales: among these, lignocellulosic ethanol and CTO (Crude Tall Oil)-biofuel technologies already achieved early-commercial status, while hydrotreating of vegetable oils is today fully commercial, with almost 3.5 Mt/y installed capacity worldwide. In this context, microalgae grown in salt-water and arid areas represent a promising sustainable chain for advanced biofuel production but, at the same time, they also represent a considerable challenge. Processing microalgae in an economic way into a viable and sustainable liquid biofuel (a low-cost mass-product) is not trivial. So far, the most studied microalgae-based biofuel chain is composed by microorganism cultivation, lipid accumulation, oil extraction, co-product valorization, and algae oil conversion through conventional esterification into Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAME), i.e. Biodiesel, or Hydrotreated Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA), the latter representing a very high quality drop-in biofuel (suitable either for road transport or for aviation). However, extracting the algae oil at low cost and industrial scale is not yet a mature process, and there is not yet industrial production of algae-biofuel from these two lipid-based chains. Another option can however be considered: processing the algae through dedicated thermochemical reactors into advanced biofuels, thus approaching the downstream processing of algae in a completely different way than

  17. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel is an alternative diesel engine fuel is produced from oils/fats of plants and animals (including the fisheries industry waste through the esterification and transesterifiksi reactions. A transesterification is reaction to form esters and glycerol from trigliserin (fat/oil and bioalcohol (methanol or ethanol. Transesterification is an equilibrium reaction so that the presence of a catalyst can accelerate the achievement of a state of equilibrium. Process of the transesterification reaction of sardine flour oil waste with NaOH as base catalyst in producing biofuels was conducted.The research purpose has studied the influence of NaOH concentration in transesterification process and examinate its effect on the quality of biofuels production, conversion, and physic quality. The variables that analysed was the effect of NaOH concentration as catalyst (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% from amount of oil and methanol in the transesterification reaction step. The result showed that the increasing NaOH concentration (0.5 - 1.5%, enhanced the biofuel conversion (%. The highest conversion of biofuels was achieved by using 1.50% NaOH (w/w with 45.34% biofuels conversion. The major component in the biofuels was methyl palmitate (20.31%. ASTM analysis data also supported that the biofuel product was in agreement with automotive diesel fuel specification.

  18. Strategic niche management for biofuels: Analysing past experiments for developing new biofuel policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laak, W.W.M. van der; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels have gained a lot of attention since the implementation of the 2003 European Directive on biofuels. In the Netherlands the contribution of biofuels is still very limited despite several experiments in the past. This article aims to contribute to the development of successful policies for stimulating biofuels by analysing three experiments in depth. The approach of strategic niche management (SNM) is used to explain success and failure of these projects. Based on the analysis as well as recent innovation literature we develop a list of guidelines that is important to consider when developing biofuel policies

  19. Supply chain design under uncertainty for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2014-01-01

    An advanced biofuels supply chain is proposed to reduce biomass transportation costs and take advantage of the economics of scale for a gasification facility. In this supply chain, biomass is converted to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, and after bio-oil gasification, the syngas is upgraded to transportation fuels at a centralized biorefinery. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to maximize biofuel producers' annual profit considering uncertainties in the supply chain for this pathway. The first stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants as well as the centralized biorefinery, while the second stage determines the biomass and biofuels flows. A case study based on Iowa in the U.S. illustrates that it is economically feasible to meet desired demand using corn stover as the biomass feedstock. The results show that the locations of fast pyrolysis plants are sensitive to uncertainties while the capacity levels are insensitive. The stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model in the stochastic environment, especially when there is insufficient biomass. Also, farmers' participation can have a significant impact on the profitability and robustness of this supply chain. - Highlights: • Decentralized supply chain design for advanced biofuel production is considered. • A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to consider uncertainties. • Farmers' participation has a significant impact on the biofuel supply chain design

  20. Electronic isolators used in safety systems of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation program has been conducted for electronic isolators used in safety systems of US nuclear power plants. As a result of the program, some recommendations are made for test methods that can be used to ensure that isolation devices are being qualified adequately to satisfy IEEE-279 requirements. These recommendations are based on studies made on National Standards; conversations held with utility personnel, Nuclear Steam System Suppliers, Architect Engineers, and the isolator vendor staff; and analysis of actual tests performed on sample isolators

  1. Measures to increase the availability of electronic control units, illustrated by examples from power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1976-01-01

    The availibility of electric control units in the power plant engineering is increased by a decentralized construction, redundant current supply. miniaturized electronic modules, short-circuit-safe outputs, efficient protection of the wiring against over-voltage and intensive control of the afferent cables against wire break and short circuits. To reduce disturbing and damaging influences on the control multiple earthings should be avoided, the inductive coupling of distrubances should be reduced by parallel earth wires, and cable shields handled according to the prescriptions should reduce influences on the capacity. (orig.) [de

  2. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  3. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  4. Zinc-Laccase Biofuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A zinc-laccase biofuel cell adapting the zinc-air cell design features is investigated. A simple cell design configuration is employed: a membraneless single chamber and a freely suspended laccase in a quasi-neutral buffer electrolyte. The cell is characterised according to its open-circuit voltage, polarization profile, power density plot and discharge capacity at constant current. The biocatalytic role of laccase is evident from the polarization profile and power output plot. Performance comparison between a single chamber and dual chamber cell design is also presented. The biofuel cell possessed an open-circuit voltage of 1.2 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.9 mW/cm2 at current density of 2.5 mA/cm2. These characteristics are comparable to biofuel cell utilising a much more complex system design.KEY WORDS (keyword:  Biofuel cell, Bioelectrochemical cell, Zinc anode, Laccase and Oxidoreductase.ABSTRAK: Sel bio-bahan api zink-laccase dengan adaptasi daripada ciri-ciri rekabentuk sel zink-udara telah dikaji. Sel dengan konfigurasi rekabentuk yang mudah digunapakai: ruangan tunggal tanpa membran dan laccase diampaikan secara bebas di dalam elektrolit pemampan quasi-neutral. Sel dicirikan berdasarkan voltan litar terbuka, profil polarisasi, plot ketumpatan kuasa dan kapasiti discas pada arus malar. Peranan laccase sebagai bio-pemangkin adalah amat ketara daripada profil polarisasi dan plot ketumpatan kuasa. Perbandingan prestasi di antara sel dengan rekabentuk ruangan tunggal and dwi-ruangan turut diketengahkan. Seperti dijangkakan, sel dengan rekabentuk ruangan tunggal menunjukkan kuasa keluaran yang lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan rekabentuk dwi-ruangan kemungkinan disebabkan fenomena cas bocor. Sel bio-bahan api ini mempunyai voltan litar terbuka 1.2 V dan memberikan ketumpatan kuasa maksima 0.9 mW/cm2 pada ketumpatan arus 2.5 mA/cm2. Ciri-ciri ini adalah sebanding dengan sel bio-bahan api yang menggunapakai rekabentuk sel

  5. 3D Printing of Plant Golgi Stacks from Their Electron Tomographic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Keith Ka Ki; Kang, Madison J; Kang, Byung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an effective tool for preparing tangible 3D models from computer visualizations to assist in scientific research and education. With the recent popularization of 3D printing processes, it is now possible for individual laboratories to convert their scientific data into a physical form suitable for presentation or teaching purposes. Electron tomography is an electron microscopy method by which 3D structures of subcellular organelles or macromolecular complexes are determined at nanometer-level resolutions. Electron tomography analyses have revealed the convoluted membrane architectures of Golgi stacks, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. But the intricacy of their 3D organizations is difficult to grasp from tomographic models illustrated on computer screens. Despite the rapid development of 3D printing technologies, production of organelle models based on experimental data with 3D printing has rarely been documented. In this chapter, we present a simple guide to creating 3D prints of electron tomographic models of plant Golgi stacks using the two most accessible 3D printing technologies.

  6. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  7. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  8. Increase of the investments for the biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    With the construction for 2007 of six new units of biofuels (three bio-diesel and three bio-ethanol), France is developing its energy policy in favor of the biofuels. This decision benefits Diester and Sofiproteol industries which will invest in the development of their deposits. The enthusiasm is less for the bio-ethanol industries. (A.L.B.)

  9. Next generation of liquid biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2012-01-01

    More than 99% of all currently produced biofuels are classified as “first generation” (i.e. fuels produced primarily from cereals, grains, sugar crops and oil seeds) (IEA, 2008b). “Second generation” or “next generation” biofuels, on the other hand, are produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks such

  10. NREL Algal Biofuels Projects and Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights several algal biofuels research and development projects focused on improving the economics of the algal biofuels production process. These projects should serve as a foundation for the research efforts toward algae as a source of fuels and other chemicals.

  11. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  12. Biofuels. Environment, technology and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Jose C.; Lora, Electo S.; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Yanez, Edgar E.; Castillo, Edgar F.; Almazan, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)

  13. Microalgae for biofuels production and environmental applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review presents the current classification of biofuels, with special focus on microalgae and their applicability for the production of biodiesel. The paper considered issues related with the processing and culturing of microalgae, for not only those that are involved in biofuel production, but as well as the possibility of their ...

  14. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib-Mintz, Nazia

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  15. Global nitrogen requirement for increased biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Joris

    2008-01-01

    Biofuels are thought to be one of the options to substitute fossil fuels and prevent global warming by the greenhouse gas (GHG) effect as they are seen as a renewable form of energy. However, biofuels are almost solely subjected to criticism from an energ

  16. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    establishment of biofuel-processing plants in Nigeria.

  17. The European biofuels policy: from where and where to?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, H.; Silveira, S.

    2011-05-15

    Biofuels for transport had a long history prior to their formal introduction in the European Union by means of formal directives in 2003 and 2009. Dating back to years before the First World War, busses were already rolling in Paris on a mixture of ethanol and petrol. Between 1920 and 1950 the French continued using sugar-beet-based ethanol as a tool to improve energy independence and reduce trade deficits. Ethanol utilization as a fuel blend only fell once oil prices achieved record lows in the 1960s., as large reserves started being tapped in the middle-east. In the 1970s. oil price shocks brought concerns about the European dependence on foreign energy, and the following decades saw many actions which started to change the biofuels panorama in Europe. By 1973 biodiesel research was already being conducted in Wieselburg, Austria, and in 1982 the country had its first pilot plant for biodiesel (producing fatty-acid methyl ester - FAME). After successful experiences with ethanol in Brazil, the first European directive which opened potential large markets for biofuels in Europe was the Council Directive 85/536/ECC, which authorized blends of 5% ethanol and 15% Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE, a bio-ether) on petrol. The usage of bioethanol for blending, however, was hampered by the low prices of oil products which marked the late 1980s. and most of the 1990s. (the same reasons which dealt a blow to the Brazilian ethanol program during that time). In tandem with the development of biofuels in Europe, carbon emissions were already consolidated in scholarly literature as the major causal factor behind climate change. Since the UN's Brundtland commission report from 1987, alternatives to de-carbonize the transport sector were in high demand, but the deployment of alternatives was hampered by a conjuncture of low oil prices. The following years in the 1990s. were instrumental for the emergence of the modern environmental policy pursued by the EU, which became

  18. Scope of algae as third generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvashish eBehera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An initiative has been taken to develop different solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels as the alternative energy resources. The current research and technology based on the third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass have been considered as the best alternative bioresource that avoids the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels. Algal biomass have been investigated for the implementation of economic conversion processes producing different biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen and other valuable co-products. In the present review, the recent findings and advance developments in algal biomass for improved biofuel production. This review discusses about the importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security.

  19. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chamoli Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  20. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, Jean; Combarnous, Michel; Jarry, Bruno; Monsan, Pierre; Burzynski, Jean-Pierre; Jeuland, Nicolas; Porot, Pierre; Demoment, Pascale; Gillmann, Marc; Marchand, Philippe; Kuentzmann, Paul; Kurtsoglou, Nicolas; Lombaert-Valot, Isabelle; Pelegrin, Marc; Renvier, Jacques; Rousseau, Julien; Stadler, Thierry; Tremeau, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  1. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Du Xiaodong; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: → Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. → Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. → The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  2. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A., E-mail: miguelc@iastate.edu [Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University (United States); Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.edu [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.org [Development Research Group, The World Bank (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: > Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. > Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. > The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  3. Possibility in application of electron beam irradiation to plant quarantine of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of developing new quarantine procedure alternative to fumigation, electron beam irradiation was examined in the disinfestation of arthroped pests that infest cut flowers. Immature and adult two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, which is a typical pest in horticulture due to high fertility, parthenogenesis and chemical resistance, were irradiated at a Van de graaf electron accelerator (2.5 MeV) at 0.2 - 1.4 kGy. They decreased radiosensitivity with aging. Female was much more tolerant than male throughout their life. Irradiation controlled the fertility of both sexes, and also feeding and behavioral activities. Cut flowers irradiated with the Dynamitron accelerator (5 MeV) showed various responses according to species, cultivars and tissues of plants. Carnations, tulips and gladioluses were tolerant in disinfesting or sterilizing, but some cultivars of chrysanthemum and rose showed the symptom of injury, in which flowering was delayed at low dose, and the failure of flowering and the chlorosis of leaves occurred at high dose. Floral organs were much more sensitive to radiation than others. Sensitive plants also showed the reduced production of ethylene. (K.I.)

  4. Metabolic engineering of yeast for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Su; Cate, Jamie Hd

    2017-12-01

    Production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass remains an unsolved challenge in industrial biotechnology. Efforts to use yeast for conversion face the question of which host organism to use, counterbalancing the ease of genetic manipulation with the promise of robust industrial phenotypes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains the premier host for metabolic engineering of biofuel pathways, due to its many genetic, systems and synthetic biology tools. Numerous engineering strategies for expanding substrate ranges and diversifying products of S. cerevisiae have been developed. Other yeasts generally lack these tools, yet harbor superior phenotypes that could be exploited in the harsh processes required for lignocellulosic biofuel production. These include thermotolerance, resistance to toxic compounds generated during plant biomass deconstruction, and wider carbon consumption capabilities. Although promising, these yeasts have yet to be widely exploited. By contrast, oleaginous yeasts such as Yarrowia lipolytica capable of producing high titers of lipids are rapidly advancing in terms of the tools available for their metabolic manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploitation of endophytic fungus as a potential source of biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawed Anjum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel demand is unquestionable in order to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission which can lead to climatic changes and global warming effect. Finding sufficient supply of clean energy for the upcoming is one of the society’s most daunting challenges and is directly linked with global stability, economic prosperity and quality of life. Endophytic microbes reside in the healthy part of the plant without causing any symptoms of disease. It is well known that the endophytic microbes produces wide variety of bioactive compound having, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive drugs, and volatile organic compounds having similarity with conventional diesel fuel. Now the endophytic fungi, have also been known to possess a suitable lipid matrix at high concentrations and volatile organic compounds having similarity with conventional diesel fuel that make them promising sources for next generation biofuels. This would be more efficient and having lesser number of biosynthetic steps in production, can be brought to immediate use in the existing internal combustion engines without taking about any major modification in automobile design. The present article therefore aims to review the current status of research in the field of alternative source of energy emphasizing endophytic fungi as a source of biofuel precursor, in order to encourage and generate interest among research groups across India and the world for initiating and undertaking more enthusiastic and intensive research activity on endophytic fungi from the Indian subcontinent having the potential to make fuel-related hydrocarbons.

  6. In Silico Analysis of the Regulation of the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain in C3 Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alejandro; Yin, Xinyou; Harbinson, Jeremy; Driever, Steven M; Molenaar, Jaap; Kramer, David M; Struik, Paul C

    2018-02-01

    We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and noncyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). A dataset was constructed from multiple sources, including measurements of steady-state and dynamic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and absorbance spectroscopy under different light intensities and CO 2 , to test predictions of the model under different experimental conditions. Simulations suggested that there are strong interactions between cyclic and noncyclic alternative electron transport and that an excess capacity for alternative electron transport is required to ensure adequate redox state and lumen pH. Furthermore, the model predicted that, under specific conditions, reduction of ferredoxin by plastoquinol is possible after a rapid increase in light intensity. Further analysis also revealed that the relationship between ATP synthesis and proton motive force was highly regulated by the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and inorganic phosphate, and this facilitated an increase in nonphotochemical quenching and proton motive force under conditions where metabolism was limiting, such as low CO 2 , high light intensity, or combined high CO 2 and high light intensity. The model may be used as an in silico platform for future research on the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Optimal testing input sets for reduced diagnosis time of nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.S.; Seong, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the optimal testing input sets required for the fault diagnosis of the nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits. With the complicated systems such as very large scale integration (VLSI), nuclear power plant (NPP), and aircraft, testing is the major factor of the maintenance of the system. Particularly, diagnosis time grows quickly with the complexity of the component. In this research, for reduce diagnosis time the authors derived the optimal testing sets that are the minimal testing sets required for detecting the failure and for locating of the failed component. For reduced diagnosis time, the technique presented by Hayes fits best for the approach to testing sets generation among many conventional methods. However, this method has the following disadvantages: (a) it considers only the simple network (b) it concerns only whether the system is in failed state or not and does not provide the way to locate the failed component. Therefore the authors have derived the optimal testing input sets that resolve these problems by Hayes while preserving its advantages. When they applied the optimal testing sets to the automatic fault diagnosis system (AFDS) which incorporates the advanced fault diagnosis method of artificial intelligence technique, they found that the fault diagnosis using the optimal testing sets makes testing the digital electronic circuits much faster than that using exhaustive testing input sets; when they applied them to test the Universal (UV) Card which is a nuclear power plant digital input/output solid state protection system card, they reduced the testing time up to about 100 times

  8. Environmental alterations in biofuel generating molecules in Zilla spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Hemmat; El Marid, Zeinab

    2017-03-01

    Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons. Environmental stresses evoked reduction in the energy trapping pigments concomitant with increments in chlorophyll fluorescence in summer harvested plants particularly at downstream. Furthermore, the biofuels generating compounds including carbohydrate, lignin, and lipid making the plant biomasses are greatly affected by environmental conditions. Greater amount of lignin was estimated in summer harvested Z. spinosa shoots particularly at downstream. Moreover, the total oil content which is a promising source of biodiesel was considerably decreased during summer season particularly at downstream. The physical properties of the lipids major constituent fatty acid methyl esters determine the biofuel properties and contribute in the adaptation of plants against environmental stresses. Hence, the analysis of fatty acid profile showed significant modifications under combined drought and heat stress displayed in the summer season. The maximum increase in saturated fatty acid levels including tridecanoic acid (C13:0), pentadeanoic acid (C15:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and stearic acid (C18:0) were estimated in spring harvested Z. spinosa aerial portions particularly at midstream. In spite of the reduction in the total oil content, a marked increase in the value of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and thereby the unsaturation index were achieved during the dry summer period. Henceforth, these seasonal and spatial variations in fatty acids profiles may

  9. Biofuels in Central America, a real potential for commercial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, O.L. (Regional Coordinator Energy and Environmental Partnership with Central America EEP (El Salvador))

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the current capabilities of the Central American countries regarding the production of biofuels, and the real potential in increasing the volumes produced and the impacts that can be generated if a non sustainable policy is followed for achieving the targets of biofuel production. Due to the world oil price crisis, and the fact that Central American counties are fully dependant on oil imports (just Guatemala and Belize produce little amounts of oil), just to mention, in some countries the imports of oil is equivalent to the 40% of the total exports, the region started to look for massive production of biofuels, something that it is not new for us. The countries have started with programs for producing ethanol from sugar cane, because it is one of the most strongest industries in Central America and they have all the infrastructure and financial sources to develop this project. The ethanol is a biofuel that can be mixed with gasoline or a complete substitute. Another biofuel that is currently under develop, is the production of biodiesel, and the main source for it nowadays is the Palm oil, where Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala have already commercial productions of crude palm oil, but the principal use of it is for the food industry, but now it is under assessment for using part of it for biodiesel. EEP is now developing pilot programs for production of biodiesel from a native plant named Jatropha curcas, and up to now we have a commercial plantation in Guatemala, and we started as well in Honduras for start spreading this plantations. In El Salvador we installed a pilot processing plant for biodiesel that can be operated with multiple feed stock, such as Jatropha, palm oil, castor oil, vegetable used oil and others. Currently we have interesting and good results regarding the production of Jatropha, we have developed a methodology for its cropping, harvesting and processing. All the vehicles and equipment involved in the

  10. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  11. Uncertainty, irreversibility, and investment in second-generation biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Tanner Joseph

    The present study formalizes and quantifies the importance of uncertainty for investment in a corn-stover based cellulosic biofuel plant. Using a real options model we recover prices of gasoline that would trigger entry into the market and calculate the portion of that entry trigger price required to cover cost and the portion that corresponds to risk premium. We then discuss the effect of managerial flexibility on the entry risk premium and the prices of gasoline that would trigger mothballing, reactivation, and exit. Results show that the risk premium required by plants to enter the second-generation biofuel market is likely to be substantial. The analysis also reveals that a break-even approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of risk premium), and the traditional Marshallian approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of both the risk premium and the drift rate), would significantly underestimate the gasoline entry trigger price and the magnitude of that underestimation increases as both volatility and mean of gasoline prices increase. Results also uncover a great deal of hysteresis (i.e. a range of gasoline prices for which there is neither entry nor exit in the market) in entry/exit behavior by plants. Hysteresis increases as gasoline prices become more volatile. Hysteresis suggests that, at the industry level, positive (negative) demand shocks will have a significant impact on prices (production) and a limited impact on production (prices). In combination all of these results suggest that policies supporting second generation biofuels may have fallen short of their targets because of their failure to alleviate uncertainty.

  12. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO 2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO 2 price of $80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO 2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  13. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  14. Biofuels - Illusion or Reality? - The european experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental issues, rising prices and security of supply are putting energy at the centre of all attentions. Policy-makers pushed by various stakeholders are struggling to find more sustainable solutions to the world legitimate demand for energy. The transport sector is especially under pressure as it relies for 98% on oil. Despite vast research and development investments, no short-term solutions appeared to be reliable. Thanks to lawmakers support to biofuels, these substitutes for oil are now seen as the potential solution for a sustainable transport. This book analyses the real possibility of biofuels. Does Europe has enough land to produce the needed feedstock? What are the real gains in terms of greenhouse gases emissions and energy efficiency? Are biofuels really a sustainable solution? Will this policy succeed? Are the targets reachable? The reader will find some indications in this book to make up his mind on this complex, multifaceted and highly political subject. Contents: Summary. Introduction. Biofuels in the U.S.A. and Brazil. Do we have enough land in Europe? Biofuels life cycle analysis. Greenhouse gases reduction and efficiency. Case of the glycerin price. Variables affecting biofuels sustainability. Standard for Biofuels. Conclusion. General Bibliography. Annexes. References

  15. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  16. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

    2009-09-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  17. Global biofuel use, 1850-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Suneeta D.; Trautmann, Nina M.; Streets, David G.; Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents annual, country-level estimates of biofuel use for the period 1850-2000. We estimate that global biofuel consumption rose from about 1000 Tg in 1850 to 2460 Tg in 2000, an increase of 140%. In the late 19th century, biofuel consumption in North America was very high, ˜220-250 Tg/yr, because widespread land clearing supplied plentiful fuelwood. At that time biofuel use in Western Europe was lower, ˜180-200 Tg/yr. As fossil fuels became available, biofuel use in the developed world fell. Compensating changes in other parts of the world, however, caused global consumption to remain remarkably stable between 1850 and 1950 at ˜1200 ± 200 Tg/yr. It was only after World War II that biofuel use began to increase more rapidly in response to population growth in the developing world. Between 1950 and 2000, biofuel use in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia grew by 170%, 160%, and 130%, respectively.

  18. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Marette, Stephan; Treguer, David

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. (author)

  19. Metabolomics of Clostridial Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Aristilde, Ludmilla [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Amador-Noguez, Daniel [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-09-08

    Members of the genus Clostridium collectively have the ideal set of the metabolic capabilities for fermentative biofuel production: cellulose degradation, hydrogen production, and solvent excretion. No single organism, however, can effectively convert cellulose into biofuels. Here we developed, using metabolomics and isotope tracers, basic science knowledge of Clostridial metabolism of utility for future efforts to engineer such an organism. In glucose fermentation carried out by the biofuel producer Clostridium acetobutylicum, we observed a remarkably ordered series of metabolite concentration changes as the fermentation progressed from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In general, high-energy compounds decreased while low-energy species increased during solventogenesis. These changes in metabolite concentrations were accompanied by large changes in intracellular metabolic fluxes, with pyruvate directed towards acetyl-CoA and solvents instead of oxaloacetate and amino acids. Thus, the solventogenic transition involves global remodeling of metabolism to redirect resources from biomass production into solvent production. In contrast to C. acetobutylicum, which is an avid fermenter, C. cellulolyticum metabolizes glucose only slowly. We find that glycolytic intermediate concentrations are radically different from fast fermenting organisms. Associated thermodynamic and isotope tracer analysis revealed that the full glycolytic pathway in C. cellulolyticum is reversible. This arises from changes in cofactor utilization for phosphofructokinase and an alternative pathway from phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. The net effect is to increase the high-energy phosphate bond yield of glycolysis by 150% (from 2 to 5) at the expense of lower net flux. Thus, C. cellulolyticum prioritizes glycolytic energy efficiency over speed. Degradation of cellulose results in other sugars in addition to glucose. Simultaneous feeding of stable isotope-labeled glucose and unlabeled pentose sugars

  20. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  1. Contrasts and synergies in different biofuel reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, A; Landeweerd, L; Van der Werf-Kulichova, Z; Puylaert, P G B; Osseweijer, P

    2011-04-06

    The societal debate on biofuels is characterised by increased complexity. This can hinder the effective governance of the field. This paper attempts a quantitative bird's eye meta-analysis of this complexity by mapping different stakeholder perspectives and expected outcomes as seen in the secondary literature on biofuels, along the lines of the People-Planet-Profit framework. Our analysis illustrates the tension between stated and actual drivers of large scale biofuel development, especially for first generation biofuels. Although environmental (Planet) aspects have dominated the biofuel debate, their overall assessment is mostly negative with regard to first generation biofuels. By contrast, economic (Profit) aspects are the only ones that are assessed positively with regard to first generation biofuels. Furthermore, positive and negative assessments of biofuel development are strongly influenced by the differences in focus between different stakeholder clusters. Stakeholders who appear generally supportive to biofuel development (industry) focus relatively more on aspects that are generally assessed as positive (Profit). By contrast, non-supportive stakeholders (NGO's) tend to focus mainly on aspects that are generally assessed as negative (Planet). Moreover, our analysis of reference lists revealed few citations of primary scientific data, and also that intergovernmental organizations produce the most influential publications in the debate. The surprising lack of listed references to scientific (primary) data reveals a need to assess in which arena the transition of scientific data towards secondary publications takes place, and how one can measure its quality. This work should be understood as a first effort to take some control over a complex and contradictory number of publications, and to allow the effective governance of the field through the identification of areas of overlapping consensus and persisting controversy, without reverting to claims on

  2. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  3. Miscanthus: practical aspects of biofuel development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarises the results of a study examining the production and harvesting of the non-straw biofuel miscanthus in the light of the UK government's objective regarding the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production. Details are given of the modification to the Elean Power Station to allow use of baled miscanthus as fuel, the mechanical handling system, the capital costs, and the production, harvesting and combustion trials. Plant emission, availability and sustainability of combustion, and the financial implications of miscanthus use are discussed.

  4. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, Goeran; Hansson, Julia; Egeskog, Andrea; Johnsson, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO 2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies. (author)

  5. Liquid biofuels in the aeroderivative gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCampli, James; Schornick, Joe; Farr, Rachel

    2010-09-15

    While there are regional economic and political incentives for using liquid biofuels for renewable power generation, several challenges must be addressed. Given the fuel volumes required, base-load operation with renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol are not likely sustainable with today's infrastructure. However, blending of biofuels with fossil fuels is a more economic option to provide renewable power. In turn, this lays the foundation to increase to more power generation in the future as new generation biofuels come on line. And, much like the automotive industry, the power industry will need to institute design changes to accommodate these fuels.

  6. Biofuels development and the policy regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Guy, Ken; Ritchie, Rachael J

    2013-01-01

    Any major change to the energy order is certain to provoke both positive and negative societal responses. The current wave of biofuels development ignited controversies that have re-shaped the thinking about their future development. Mistakes were made in the early support for road transport biofuels in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This article examines some of the policies that shaped the early development of biofuels and looks to the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanova, Sofia; Yolina Hubenova; Mario Mitov

    2009-01-01

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  8. Session 8: biofuels; Session 8: Les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botte, J.M.

    2006-01-15

    Here are given the summaries of the speeches of Mr Daniel Le Breton (Total): the transports of the future: the role of biofuels; of Mr Pierre Rouveirolles (Renault): the future expectations and needs; of Mr Frederic Monot (IFP): the developments of new generations of biofuels from biomass; of Mr Willem Jan Laan (Unilever): the use of bio resources for food and fuel: a fair competition? All these speeches have been presented at the AFTP yearly days (12-13 october 2005) on the session 8 concerning the biofuels. (O.M.)

  9. Energy balance of solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, V.; Berg, W.; Kaulfuss, P.

    1998-01-01

    The input and output of energy are two important factors used to determine the energetic and ecological usefulness of a fuel or its production technology. In this paper, a number of different methods for the production of five biofuels which can be produced in agriculture and forestry are analysed and energetic balances are presented. The results show that the energetic input is relatively low compared to the output, especially for by-products and residual substances such as cereal straw and forest pruning timber (thinning). Whenever fuel crops are cultivated, the energetic efficiency is critically determined by the quantity of nitrogen applied. Depending on the crop and technology, each gigajoule of energy input can provide 7-30 GJ or with by-products up to 50 GJ of thermally utilizable energy without any additional CO 2 pollution. (author)

  10. The effect of native and introduced biofuel crops on the composition of soil biota communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan; Hedenec, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel crops are an accepted alternative to fossil fuels, but little is known about the ecological impact of their production. The aim of this contribution is to study the effect of native (Salix viminalis and Phalaris arundinacea) and introduced (Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria sachalinensis and Silphium perfoliatum) biofuel crop plantations on the soil biota in comparison with cultural meadow vegetation used as control. The study was performed as part of a split plot field experiment of the Crop Research Institute in the city of Chomutov (Czech Republic). The composition of the soil meso- and macrofauna community, composition of the cultivable fraction of the soil fungal community, cellulose decomposition (using litter bags), microbial biomass, basal soil respiration and PLFA composition (incl. F/B ratio) were studied in each site. The C:N ratio and content of polyphenols differed among plant species, but these results could not be considered significant between introduced and native plant species. Abundance of the soil meso- and macrofauna was higher in field sites planted with S. viminalis and P. arundinacea than those planted with S. perfoliatum, H. tuberosus and R. sachalinensis. RDA and Monte Carlo Permutation Test showed that the composition of the faunal community differed significantly between various native and introduced plants. Significantly different basal soil respiration was found in sites planted with various energy crops; however, this difference was not significant between native and introduced species. Microbial biomass carbon and cellulose decomposition did not exhibit any statistical differences among the biofuel crops. The largest statistically significant difference we found was in the content of actinobacterial and bacterial (bacteria, G+ bacteria and G- bacteria) PLFA in sites overgrown by P. arundinacea compared to introduced as well as native biofuel crops. In conclusion, certain parameters significantly differ between various native

  11. The economics of cyanobacteria-based biofuel production: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, N.K.; Stal, L.J.; Sharma, N.K.; Rai, A.K.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current scenario, biofuels based on algae, including cyanobacteria, are expensive, complex to produce, and are only just entering the commercial phase in small quantities in pilot or demonstration plants. This chapter discusses the current scenario of using cyanobacteria for the production of

  12. The Jathopha biofuels sector in Tanzania 2005-9 : evolution towards sustainability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, M.C.J.; Romijn, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel production from the tropical plant Jatropha curcas L. has recently attracted a great deal of attention. Some anticipate substantial social and environmental benefits from its cultivation, while at the same time expecting sound profitability for investors. Others are more doubtful, envisaging

  13. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  14. Small scale combustion of solid biofuels; Smaaskalig foerbraenning av fasta biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this assignment is to explore the need and the consequences of giving municipalities more power to intervene in the case of individual plants of local heating creates a nuisance in the surrounding areas as high emissions of hazardous air pollutants. The mission does not include an analysis of general instruments for small-scale combustion of biofuels

  15. Spatio-temporal availability of field crop residues for biofuel production in Northwest and Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, L.; Wang, X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Yang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, J.; Xie, G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing bioenergy from plant feedstocks is considered an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure biofuel supply. This study is an assessment of the availability of field crop residues for bioenergy feedstocks in northwest China (NWC) and southwest China (SWC). The amount of

  16. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  17. Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohimain, Elijah I.

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria's economy is largely dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel supply shortages. In response to the transportation fuel supply difficulties in Nigeria, the country released the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives in 2007 to create favorable investment climate for the entrance of Nigeria into the biofuel sector. The paper assessed the progress made thus far by Nigeria, 4 years after the Nigerian biofuel was released in an attempt to answer the question whether the policy is adequate to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy. The study found that little progress has been made, which includes commencement of the construction of 20 bioethanol factories, installation of biofuel handling facilities at two depots (Mosimi and Atlas Cove), and selection of retail outlets for biofuel/conventional fuel mix. The site construction of the announced biofuel projects is now slow and other progress is marginal. We therefore conclude that the Nigerian biofuel policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy unless the Government revert and refocus on biofuel and include additional financial incentives such as grants and subsidy to complement the tax waivers (income, import duty, VAT), loans, and insurance cover contained in the policy. - Highlights: ► Nigeria's economy is dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel shortages. ► The Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives was released in 2007. ► Little progress has been made since the policy was released 4 years ago. ► Hence, the policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy

  18. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W.

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator

  19. Tracking U.S. biofuel innovation through patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Jeff; Sperling, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We use biofuel patents as a proxy for biofuel innovation. Through use of natural language processing and machine-learning algorithms, we expand patent classification capabilities to better explain the history of biofuels innovation. Results indicate that after the initial establishment of the U.S. biofuel industry, there were two surges in biofuel innovation: 1995–2000, characterized by heavy patenting by 1st generation (food-based) biofuel firms; and 2005–2010, characterized by a second surge of innovation by those same large firms, complemented by a large number of biotechnology firms producing a relatively small number of 2nd generation biofuel patents. Our analysis corroborates the widespread understanding that the first surge in biofuel innovation was linked to innovations in agriculture, and that the second surge of biofuel innovation was driven by demand-pull policies mandating and incentivizing biofuels. But the slow emergence of a 2nd generation cellulose-based biofuels industry, far slower than called for by policy, suggests that technology-push policies more focused on R&D and investment may be needed to accelerate the commercialization of 2nd generation biofuels. - Highlights: • Patenting activity closely corresponds to sociotechnical shifts in biofuel innovation. • The Renewable Fuel Standard likely contributed to the rise in biofuel patenting activity after 2005. • 2nd generation biofuel technology innovation appears lacking compared to 1st generation technologies.

  20. Figure 5, Biofuel refinery facility locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This workbook contains the locations and types of current and anticipated biofuel feedstock processing facilities assumed under the simulated scenarios. This dataset...

  1. Biofuel characteristics of beniseed (Sesanum indicum) oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... Local method was used to extract oil from beniseed (Sesanum indicum). ... fuel properties similar to common biofuels, hence beniseed could be utilized as an .... industries for the manufacture of soap and vegetable oil –.

  2. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biofuel Production is the topic covered in this edition.

  3. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biofuels promise to play a key role by providing the Nation with homegrown sustainable energy options and... publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.BARACK OBAMATHE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, May 5, 2009. ...

  4. Technical solutions to make biofuels more competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    With the present day environmental and economical stakes, the French government has announced in 2005 a plan for the accelerated development of biofuels. In France, two traditional ways of biofuel generation exist: the bio-ethanol way and the bio-diesel way (methyl esters of vegetable oils). Two problems limit today the development of biofuels: the available cultivation surfaces and the production costs. The challenge of the next generation of biofuels concerns the better use of the available biomass, with no competition with the food productions, and in particular the development of ethyl esters of vegetable oils or the hydrogen processing of vegetable oils. Other processes are making their way, like the biomass to liquid (BTL) process, based on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, which allows to convert any type of biomass source into liquid fuels with a high production rate (about 5000 l/Ha). Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. Third Generation Biofuels via Direct Cellulose Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP is a system in which cellulase production, substrate hydrolysis, and fermentation are accomplished in a single process step by cellulolytic microorganisms. CBP offers the potential for lower biofuel production costs due to simpler feedstock processing, lower energy inputs, and higher conversion efficiencies than separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, and is an economically attractive near-term goal for “third generation” biofuel production. In this review article, production of third generation biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will be addressed in respect to the metabolism of cellulolytic bacteria and the development of strategies to increase biofuel yields through metabolic engineering.

  6. Biofuels and bioenergy: processes and technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sunggyu; Shah, Yatish T

    2013-01-01

    ... since the early twentieth century. Up until recently, however, development interest in biofuels had lessened due to the availability of relatively inexpensive fossil energy resources as well as the handling and transportation...

  7. setting sustainable standards for biofuel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Director for Research, Training and International Development, Institute for Oil, Gas, ..... Table 3 presents the five stages in the product lifecycle for biofuel production ..... Principles on Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade and Investment.

  8. Biofuels for transportation : a climate perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    As the United States seeks to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from motor vehicles and to lessen its dependence on imported oil, biofuels are gaining increasing attention as one possible solution. This paper offers an introduction to the current...

  9. Biofuels: The hidden cause of deforestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alison; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Lickacz, Lindsay; Clarke, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a causal relationship between the biofuel market in the USA and the Amazonic Deforestation. The project parts from an objectivist approach and uses economic as well as environmental theories as a starting point. It attempts to demonstrate that biofuels are not as environmentally friendly as advertised, but instead have a detrimental effect on the Amazon Rainforest. The project utilizes statistics as a main source for empirical data, as well various...

  10. Panorama 2011: Water and bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, water is seen as a major sustainability criterion for bio-energies. Although the biofuels being produced by food crops are subject to the same risks as the farming sector as far as water resources are concerned, future sectors have a significant potential to reduce these risks, and this potential needs to be better understood in order for biofuels as a resource and their related technologies to develop properly. (authors)

  11. An electron beam flue gas treatment plant for a coal fired thermal power station. EBA demonstration plant in Chengdu thermal power station (China EBA Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Shi, Jingke

    1999-01-01

    Ebara's electron beam flue gas treatment plant was installed and is being demonstrated in Chengdu Thermal Power Station, Sichuan, China. The demonstration is proving that this plant is fully capable of meeting the target removal of sulfur dioxides from flue gas (flow rate : 300-thousand m 3 /h). Recovered by-products, namely ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, from the treatment were actually tested as fertilizers, the result of which was favorable. The sale and distribution of these by-products are already underway. In May 1995, this plant was presented the certificate of authorization by China's State Power Corporation. It is noted that this was the first time a sulfur dioxide removal plant was certified as such in China. (author)

  12. An assessment of Thailand's biofuel development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, S.; Salam, P. Abdul; Shrestha, Pujan

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects. The pol......The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects...... to land and water use and food security are important considerations to be addressed for its large scale application. Second generation biofuels derived from agricultural residues perform favorably on environmental and social sustainability issues in comparison to first generation biofuel sources...... as transportation fuel. Alternatively, the same amount of residue could provide 0.8-2.1 billion liters per year of diesel (biomass to Fischer-Tropsch diesel) to potentially offset 6%-15% of national diesel consumption in the transportation sector....

  13. Environmental and energy aspects of liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boo, W.

    1993-02-01

    When spending public money to reduce CO 2 emissions, it is necessary to establish which alternative energy source results in the largest reduction of CO 2 emission per unit cost. Comparison of different biofuels with other energy resources is therefore important. Bioethanol is compared with leadfree gasoline, and rapeseed oil methylester (RME) is compared with diesel. Subsequently, biofuel production as a method to reduce CO 2 emission will be compared with other sustainable energy resources. This comparison is based on the energy balance in chapter two and the final costs of biofuels in chapter six. The comparison of biofuels and current fossil fuels is based on emissions to the atmosphere of greenhouse gases and acidifying pollutants in chapter three. Pollution to soil and water by arable cropping is a specific characteristic of biofuel production and is difficult to compare with fossil fuels. On this subject biofuels are compared with other land uses in chapter four. This also applies to other adverse environmental aspects of agricultural production such as competition for land use with natural areas and recreation purposes. To explore future technological developments, a comparison is made in energy balances with estimated results after the year 2000. The overall conclusion is that there are far better options to achieve CO 2 reduction. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 14 appendices, 28 refs

  14. Estimation of un-used land potential for biofuels development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yishui [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026 (China); Maelardalen University, Vaesteraas SE-721 23 (Sweden); Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Sun, Liying [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026 (China); Yan, Jinyue [Maelardalen University, Vaesteraas SE-721 23 (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents the current status of biofuel development and estimates the potential of un-used land for biofuel development. The potential of crops including cassava, sweet potato, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, sugar beet and Jerusalem artichoke were assessed and discussed for different regions considering the geographical conditions and features of agricultural production. If reserved land resources are explored together with substitute planting implemented and unit area yield improved, potential production of ethanol fuel will be 22 million ton in 2020. The study also recommends the use of winter idle lands for rapeseed plantation for biofuel production. The potential for production of biodiesel by rapeseed and cottonseed can reach to 3.59 million ton. (author)

  15. Bio-fuels: energies between decline and revival; Les biocombustibles: des energies entre declin et renouveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, A.

    1999-12-01

    The development of bio-fuels is highly dependent of the variations of the prices of major energies, of the agriculture prices and of the situation of the environmental concerns. Thus at the crossroad of various sectors of activity one can question the relevance of the use of bio-fuels, today marginalized. Their development is always taken into consideration during crisis periods (agriculture, energy and pollution). However, once the crisis is gone, it remains the question of the economical viability and sustainability of the infatuation for these non-conventional energies. This paper presents some modalities of valorization of bio-fuels in France and in foreign countries: 1 - the renewable energy sources in France and in the European Union; 2 - the development of bio-fuels at the service of foresters and agriculturists: present day situation and perspectives of wood fuel in France (individual and collective uses), perspectives of biomass energy after the common agricultural policy reform, the objectives of the European Union; 3 - the energy valorization of biomass at the service of environment: forestry exploitation (land planning, pollution abatement), management of public dumps and water processing plants (incineration of household wastes, biogas generation); 4 - the bio-fuels competitiveness. (J.S.)

  16. Efficient eucalypt cell wall deconstruction and conversion for sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Healey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the world’s growing energy demand and reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion, renewable plant-based feedstocks for biofuel production must be considered. First generation biofuels, derived from starches of edible feedstocks such as corn, creates competition between food and fuel resources, both for the crop itself and the land on which it is grown. As such, biofuel synthesized from non-edible plant biomass (lignocellulose generated on marginal agricultural land, will help to alleviate this competition. Eucalypts, the broadly defined taxa encompassing over 900 species of Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora, are the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, harvested mainly for timber, pulp and paper, and biomaterial products. More recently, due to their exceptional growth rate and amenability to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, eucalypts are a leading option for the development of a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels. However, efficient conversion of woody biomass into fermentable monomeric sugars is largely dependent on pretreatment of the cell wall, whose formation and complexity lends itself towards natural recalcitrance against its efficient deconstruction. A greater understanding of this complexity within the context of various pretreatments will allow the design of new and effective deconstruction processes for bioenergy production. In this review, we present the various pretreatment options for eucalypts, including research into understanding structure and formation of the eucalypt cell wall.

  17. Efficient Eucalypt Cell Wall Deconstruction and Conversion for Sustainable Lignocellulosic Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam L; Lee, David J; Furtado, Agnelo; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the world's growing energy demand and reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion, renewable plant-based feedstocks for biofuel production must be considered. The first-generation biofuels, derived from starches of edible feedstocks, such as corn, create competition between food and fuel resources, both for the crop itself and the land on which it is grown. As such, biofuel synthesized from non-edible plant biomass (lignocellulose) generated on marginal agricultural land will help to alleviate this competition. Eucalypts, the broadly defined taxa encompassing over 900 species of Eucalyptus, Corymbia, and Angophora are the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, harvested mainly for timber, pulp and paper, and biomaterial products. More recently, due to their exceptional growth rate and amenability to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, eucalypts are a leading option for the development of a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels. However, efficient conversion of woody biomass into fermentable monomeric sugars is largely dependent on pretreatment of the cell wall, whose formation and complexity lend itself toward natural recalcitrance against its efficient deconstruction. A greater understanding of this complexity within the context of various pretreatments will allow the design of new and effective deconstruction processes for bioenergy production. In this review, we present the various pretreatment options for eucalypts, including research into understanding structure and formation of the eucalypt cell wall.

  18. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.janssen@wip-munich.de [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany); Rutz, Dominik Damian [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: > This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. > Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. > Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. > Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. > Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  19. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Rainer; Rutz, Dominik Damian

    2011-01-01

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  20. The pilot plant experiment of electron beam irradiation process for removal of NOx and SOx from sinter plant exhaust gas in the iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Katayama, T.; Kawamura, Ke.

    1981-01-01

    Air pollution problem has become more important in the progress of industry. Nitrogen oxides (NOx, mostly NO) and sulfur oxides (SOx, mostly SO 2 ) which are contained in a sinter plant exhaust gas, are known as serious air pollutants. In such circumstances, an attempt has been made to simultaneously remove NOx and SOx from the sinter plant exhaust gas by means of a new electron beam irradiation process. The process consists of adding a small amount of NH 3 to the exhaust gas, irradiating the gas by electron beam, forming ammonium salts by reactions of NOx and SOx with the NH 3 and collecting ammonium salts by dry electrostatic precipitator (E.P.). Basic research on the present process had been performed using heavy oil combustion gas. Based on the results research was launched to study the applicability of the process to the treatment of sinter plant exhaust gas. A pilot plant, capable of treating a gas flow of 3000 Nm 3 /H was set up, and experiments were performed from July 1977 to June 1978. The plant is described and the results are presented. (author)

  1. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  2. Allelopathic effect of new introduced biofuel crops on the soil biota: A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heděnec, Petr; Novotný, D.; Usťak, S.; Honzík, R.; Kovářová, M.; Šimáčková, H.; Frouz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, July (2014), s. 14-20 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08081 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : allelopathic effect * biofuel crops * invasive plant species * plant biomass chemistry * seedling germination Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.719, year: 2014

  3. Privileged Biofuels, Marginalized Indigenous Peoples: The Coevolution of Biofuels Development in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefrio, Marvin Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels development has assumed an important role in integrating Indigenous peoples and other marginalized populations in the production of biofuels for global consumption. By combining the theories of commoditization and the environmental sociology of networks and flows, the author analyzed emerging trends and possible changes in institutions…

  4. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  5. Modification of Glucose Oxidase biofuel cell by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Ladan; Farahbakhsh, Afshin; Aghili, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Biofuel cells are a subset of fuel cells that employ biocatalysts. Enzyme-based biofuel cells (EBFCs) generate electrical energy from biofuels such as glucose and ethanol, which are renewable and sustainable energy sources. Glucose biofuel cells (GBFCs) are particularly interesting nowadays due to continuous harvesting of oxygen and glucose from bioavailable substrates, activity inside the human body, and environmental benign, which generate electricity through oxidation of glucose on the anode and reduction of oxygen on the cathode. Promoting the electron transfer of redox enzymes at modified electrode utilizing Nano size materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT), to achieve the direct electrochemistry of enzymes has been reported. The polypyrrole-MWCNTs-glucose oxidase (PY-CNT-GOx) electrode has been investigated in the present work. Cyclic voltammetry tests were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical set-up with modified electrode (Pt/PPy/MWCNTs/GOx) was used as working electrode. Platinum flat and Ag/AgCl (saturated KCl) were used as counter electrode and the reference electrode, respectively. The biofuel cells probe was prepared by immobilizing MWCNTs at the tip of a platinum (Pt) electrode (0.5 cm2) with PPy as the support matrix We have demonstrated a well-dispersed nanomaterial PPy/MWNT, which is able to immobilize GOx firmly under the condition of the absence of any other cross-linking agent.

  6. A wireless transmission system powered by an enzyme biofuel cell implanted in an orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Kevin; Conlon, Tyler; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-12-01

    A biofuel cell composed of catalytic electrodes made of "buckypaper" modified with PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and FAD-dependent fructose dehydrogenase on the anode and with laccase on the cathode was used to activate a wireless information transmission system. The cathode/anode pair was implanted in orange pulp extracting power from its content (glucose and fructose in the juice). The open circuit voltage, Voc, short circuit current density, jsc, and maximum power produced by the biofuel cell, Pmax, were found as ca. 0.6 V, ca. 0.33 mA·cm(-2) and 670 μW, respectively. The voltage produced by the biofuel cell was amplified with an energy harvesting circuit and applied to a wireless transmitter. The present study continues the research line where different implantable biofuel cells are used for the activation of electronic devices. The study emphasizes the biosensor and environmental monitoring applications of implantable biofuel cells harvesting power from natural sources, rather than their biomedical use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Second generation biofuels, an accelerator of the transition toward an economy driven by energy drawn from hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabroy, O.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the bio economy, especially in transportation, involves developing a bio-fuel industry. First generation bio-fuels were produced from plant sugars like starch or from plant oils. Second generation bio fuels use as raw materials the whole plant and especially agricultural and forestry wastes which extend the resource considerably and limit the competition between food use and fuel use. Second generation bio-fuels can be made with not only biological methods but also biomass-to-liquid processes borrowed from thermochemistry. Players in this field, including 'Air Liquide' company, are drawing up a technical and economic road-map for competitiveness in this emerging branch of industry. Since the thermochemical approach for gasifying a biomass also yields large quantities of hydrogen, the industrialization of this branch and concomitant production of bio-hydrogen at competitive prices provide leverage for accelerating the transition toward using H 2 for transportation

  9. Identification of the site where the electron transfer chain of plant mitochondria is stimulated by electrostatic charge screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krab, K.; Wagner, M.J.; Wagner, A.M.; Moller, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    Modular kinetic analysis was used to determine the sites in plant mitochondria where charge-screening stimulates the rate of electron transfer from external NAD(P)H to oxygen. In mitochondria isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber callus, stimulation of the rate of oxygen uptake was

  10. Operational experience of electron beam flue gases treatment pilot installation at the Maritsa East 2 Thermal Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutskinov, N. [NEK-EAD (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    The electron beam flue gases treatment process is very versatile and effective technology for simultaneous removal of acidic pollutants i.e. sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas produced in the combustion of fossil fuel. The technology allows decomposition of VOC (volatile organic compound) such as polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) and persistent organic pollutants (POP). The electron beam flue gases treatment technology for combustion flue gases purification was applied in Maritsa-East 2 Thermal Power Plant. The decision for construction of Electron Beam Pilot Plant at Maritsa-East 2 TPP was taken at the technical meeting in IAEA Vienna, November 1998. The flue gases of 10 000 nm³/h are irradiated by three high energy electron accelerators of 800 keV and 35 kW beam power each. The plant has been operated since November 2003. The removal efficiency 90-99% for SO{sub x} and 85-90% for NO{sub x} was observed. The quality of coals are characterised with high ash content up to 45%, high moisture up to 57%, low calorific value from 1196 kcal/kg up to 1603 kcal/kg and high concentration of sulphur. The Bulgarian lignite coals are unique in their usage as fuel for the thermal power plants in Maritsa East region. (author)

  11. Radiosterilization process control in plants using electron accelerators; Kontrola procesu sterylizacji radiacyjnej w stacjach korzystajacych z akceleratorow elektronow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuglik, Z [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Electron beam parameters deciding the irradiation dose in radiosterilization plants should be continuously controlled during the process. Dosimetric procedure suitable to irradiated material and dose range should be chosen. The practical advice and directions in this subject have been done. 7 refs.

  12. Biofuel Production Initiative at Claflin University Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Kamal

    2011-07-20

    For US transportation fuel independence or reduced dependence on foreign oil, the Federal Government has mandated that the country produce 36 billion gallons (bg) of renewable transportation fuel per year for its transportation fuel supply by 2022. This can be achieved only if development of efficient technology for second generation biofuel from ligno-cellulosic sources is feasible. To be successful in this area, development of a widely available, renewable, cost-effective ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock that can be easily and efficiently converted biochemically by bacteria or other fast-growing organisms is required. Moreover, if the biofuel type is butanol, then the existing infrastructure to deliver fuel to the customer can be used without additional costs and retrofits. The Claflin Biofuel Initiative project is focused on helping the US meet the above-mentioned targets. With support from this grant, Claflin University (CU) scientists have created over 50 new strains of microorganisms that are producing butanol from complex carbohydrates and cellulosic compounds. Laboratory analysis shows that a number of these strains are producing higher percentages of butanol than other methods currently in use. All of these recombinant bacterial strains are producing relatively high concentrations of acetone and numerous other byproducts as well. Therefore, we are carrying out intense mutations in the selected strains to reduce undesirable byproducts and increase the desired butanol production to further maximize the yield of butanol. We are testing the proof of concept of producing pre-industrial large scale biobutanol production by utilizing modifications of currently commercially available fermentation technology and instrumentation. We have already developed an initial process flow diagram (PFD) and selected a site for a biobutanol pilot scale facility in Orangeburg, SC. With the recent success in engineering new strains of various biofuel producing bacteria at CU

  13. Fundamental studies on electron beam welding on heat-resistant superalloys for nuclear plants, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Terai, Kiyohide; Nagai, Hiroyoshi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Aota, Toshiichi.

    1978-01-01

    In this report, the correlation was discussed between the susceptibility to weld cracking in electron beam welding of heat-resistant superalloys for nuclear plants and its characteristics of hot ductility. Trans-Varestraint and Varestraint tests. Obtained conclusions may be summarized as follows, using technical symbols which are given meanings in this report. 1) Such criteria obtained in the hot ductility test are herein employed to evaluate the susceptibility to microcracking as sub(ND) T sub(H), sub(ND) T sub(C), ΔT sub(H.C) (= sub(ND) T sub(H) - sub(ND) T sub(C)) and sub(B) T sub(R) (= T sub(L) - sub(ND) T sub(C)). Both with the decrease of sub(ND) T sub(H) and sub(ND) T sub(C) and with the increase of ΔT sub(H.C) and sub(B) T sub(R), superalloys are considered to become more susceptible to microcracking. Of these criteria, ΔT sub(H.C.) and sub(B) T sub(R) correlate best with q sub(CR) which is one of the effective criteria to evaluate the susceptibility to microcracking in the electron beam welding. 2) It is recognized that ΔT sub(H.C) and sub(B) T sub(R) in hot ductility test correlate well with sub(TV) T sub(R.5%) in Trans-Varestraint test and sub(V) C sub(m.1%) in the Varestraint test. 3) sub(TV) T sub(R.5%) in the Trans-Varestraint test and sub(V) C sub(m.1%) in the Varestraint test are respectively effective to evaluate the susceptibility to microcracking. Moreover, these criteria clearly correlate with q sub(CR). (auth.)

  14. Biofuels production for smallholder producers in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Urooj S.; Ahmed, Mahfuz; Sombilla, Mercedita A.; Cueno, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Looming concerns on rising food prices and food security has slowed down the impetus in biofuel production. The development of the sub-sector, however, remains an important agenda among developing countries like those of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that have abundant labour and natural resources but have limited supply of fossil fuels which continues to serve as a constraint to economic growth. Five crops have been selected to be further developed and use for biofuel production in the GMS, namely sugarcane, cassava, oil palm, sweet sorghum and Jathropa curcas. The expanded use of sugarcane, cassava, and oil palm for biofuel production can cause problems in the food sector. The other two crops, sweet sorghum and J. curcas, are non-food crops but could still compete with the food crops in terms of resource use for production. In all cases, the GMS needs to formulate a sustainable strategy for the biofuel development that will not compete with the food sector but will rather help achieve energy security, promote rural development and protect the environment. Except for People's Republic of China (PRC) and Thailand that already have fairly developed biofuel sub-sector, the other GMS countries are either poised to start (Lao PDR and Cambodia) or ready to enhance existing initiatives on biofuel production (Myanmar and Vietnam), with support from their respective governments. Biofuel development in these countries has to be strongly integrated with smallholder producers in order to have an impact on improving livelihood. At this initial stage, the sub-sector does not need to compete on a price basis but should rather aim to put up small-scale biofuel processing plants in remote rural areas that can offer an alternative to high-priced diesel and kerosene for local electricity grids serving homes and small enterprises. The social and economic multiplier effects are expected to be high when farmers that produce the energy crops also produce the biofuels to generate

  15. Biofuels production for smallholder producers in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Urooj S.; Ahmed, Mahfuz [Southeast Asia Department, Asian Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 (Philippines); Sombilla, Mercedita A. [Southeast Asian Center for Graduate Studies and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), Consulting Services Department, 4031 College, Laguna (Philippines); Cueno, Sarah L. [Agricultural Economist and Regional Program Coordinator Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program Working Group on Agriculture, Southeast Asia Department, Asian Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 (Philippines)

    2009-11-15

    Looming concerns on rising food prices and food security has slowed down the impetus in biofuel production. The development of the sub-sector, however, remains an important agenda among developing countries like those of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that have abundant labour and natural resources but have limited supply of fossil fuels which continues to serve as a constraint to economic growth. Five crops have been selected to be further developed and use for biofuel production in the GMS, namely sugarcane, cassava, oil palm, sweet sorghum and Jathropa curcas. The expanded use of sugarcane, cassava, and oil palm for biofuel production can cause problems in the food sector. The other two crops, sweet sorghum and J. curcas, are non-food crops but could still compete with the food crops in terms of resource use for production. In all cases, the GMS needs to formulate a sustainable strategy for the biofuel development that will not compete with the food sector but will rather help achieve energy security, promote rural development and protect the environment. Except for People's Republic of China (PRC) and Thailand that already have fairly developed biofuel sub-sector, the other GMS countries are either poised to start (Lao PDR and Cambodia) or ready to enhance existing initiatives on biofuel production (Myanmar and Vietnam), with support from their respective governments. Biofuel development in these countries has to be strongly integrated with smallholder producers in order to have an impact on improving livelihood. At this initial stage, the sub-sector does not need to compete on a price basis but should rather aim to put up small-scale biofuel processing plants in remote rural areas that can offer an alternative to high-priced diesel and kerosene for local electricity grids serving homes and small enterprises. The social and economic multiplier effects are expected to be high when farmers that produce the energy crops also produce the biofuels to

  16. Integrated systems optimization model for biofuel development: The influence of environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.

    2012-12-01

    -systems. Additional scenarios are analyzed to show the synergies of crop pattern choice (first versus second generation of biofuel crops), refinery technology adaptation (particularly on water use), refinery plant distribution, and economic incentives in terms of balanced environmental protection and bioenergy development objectives.

  17. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael, E-mail: mqwang@anl.gov [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Huo Hong [Institute of Energy, Environment, and Economics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Arora, Salil [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  18. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael; Huo Hong; Arora, Salil

    2011-01-01

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  19. Miscanthus - Practical aspects of biofuel development: Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A.; Newman, R.

    2002-07-01

    A 4-year project to plant, grow, harvest and deliver a crop of Miscanthus (a tall perennial grass) to a power station and thus evaluate its potential as a biofuel began in April 1999. Progress to March 2002 is summarised. Miscanthus is envisaged as a possible replacement for straw as a fuel, and the combustion studies are to be carried out at a straw-fired power station in Cambridgeshire England. Work carried out to March 2002 focused on: (1) modifications at the power station to accept the miscanthus as a fuel and (2) planting, growing and future harvesting of the crop. Details of the growth of the miscanthus on a two-hectare site close to the power station are given. It is intended to burn the miscanthus in March or April 2002. The study is being carried out by Energy Power Resources Ltd. on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry.

  20. Allies in Biofuels. Opportunities in the Dutch - Argentinean biofuels trade relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, M.

    2007-01-01

    First generation biofuels as an environmental solution are showing their own negative environmental, social and economic side effects. These need to be dealt with, because it is apparent that those same biofuels can be produced in a sustainable manner, thereby contributing to a healthier planet. Since both Argentina and the Netherlands would benefit from sustainable biofuels trade, policy measures need to be taken to guide the proper way. In what manner could bilateral cooperation concerning biofuels, optimize trade and policy output in both countries? By answering this question, one can hand solutions to upcoming problems - barriers to a sustainable energy structure - while at the same time facilitating trade between Argentina and the Netherlands. Besides providing information about the European, Dutch and Argentine market, this report presents an overview of biofuel policies. Special attention is given to the issue of sustainable biofuel production, in order to spread the necessary awareness, create wide support for corresponding politics, and offer opportunities for cooperation to prevent future entrapment. An entrapment, which could easily occur when actors in politics and business ignore international requirements for sustainable biofuel production. The research aims to produce the following output: Policy recommendations regarding the promotion of environmentally sound biofuels in both countries; A set arena to support a policy dialogue between both countries; An overview of current Dutch and Argentinean biofuel policies; Up to date information on current volumes of production, consumption and trade; Data with contact information of partners in both countries. Argentina shows an extremely professional agricultural sector, producing large quantities of vegetable oils, specifically of soybean. This sector has started to turn its attention towards biofuels - particularly to biodiesel. Projected production (for 2007-2008) is astonishingly high. The sector mainly

  1. Associative properties of 137Cs in biofuel ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal how radiocesium is associated to the ash particles derived from biofuel combustion. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out for the characterisation of radiocesium speciation in ash generated by different fuels and burner types. The ash types considered were fly ash and bottom ash collected from Swedish district heating plants using bark wood or peat as fuel. A fraction of the radiocesium in biofuel ash can easily become solubilised and mobilised by water and also, a significant fraction of the radionuclides can be bound to the ash particles in cation-exchangeable forms. Therefore, at using the ash derived from biofuels to recycle mineral nutrients for forestry or short rotation coppicing, radiocesium solubilised and leached from the ash by rains has a potential to rather quickly enter the rooting zone of forest vegetation or energy crops. On the other hand, radiocesium strongly bound to the ash will migrate slowly into the soil column with the successive accumulation of litter and in the process act to maintain the external dose rate at an elevated level for a long time. The results of the sequential extraction procedure and activity determination of the different extracted fractions implies that the bioavailable fraction of radiocesium in ash from bark, wood or peat is in the range between 20-85% of the total ash contents. Peat ash collected from a powder burner strongly retained a large fraction (70-90%) of its radiocesium content while the peat ash from a continuos fluidized bed type burner retained nearly 100% of the radiocesium in the bottom ash and only about 15% in the fly ash

  2. Synthetic biology and the technicity of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    The principal existing real-world application of synthetic biology is biofuels. Several 'next generation biofuel' companies-Synthetic Genomics, Amyris and Joule Unlimited Technologies-claim to be using synthetic biology to make biofuels. The irony of this is that highly advanced science and engineering serves the very mundane and familiar realm of transport. Despite their rather prosaic nature, biofuels could offer an interesting way to highlight the novelty of synthetic biology from several angles at once. Drawing on the French philosopher of technology and biology Gilbert Simondon, we can understand biofuels as technical objects whose genesis involves processes of concretisation that negotiate between heterogeneous geographical, biological, technical, scientific and commercial realities. Simondon's notion of technicity, the degree of concretisation of a technical object, usefully conceptualises this relationality. Viewed in terms of technicity, we might understand better how technical entities, elements, and ensembles are coming into being in the name of synthetic biology. The broader argument here is that when we seek to identify the newness of disciplines, their newness might be less epistemic and more logistic. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  4. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Barbara Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  5. Round table on bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  6. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  7. Forecast for biofuel trade in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.; Toro, A.de; Nilsson, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    One principal general conclusion is that the European biofuel market for the period up to the year 2000 will be competitive, dynamic and affected by technical development and innovations. That leads to the conclusion that prices will go down, which will increase the ability of biofuels to compete in the market. Still, biofuels will generally not be able to compete at the price level of fossil fuels in the world market, but will need support or protection to reach a competitive position. There are several reasons for support, e.g. offsetting the green-house effect and acid rain, conservation of the limited fossil fuel deposits, utilisation of local and domestic energy resources, etc. As energy crops in Europe are at an introductory stage, no large international trade can be expected within the next ten years. In this study it is assumed that some limited protective measures are imposed, which is a possible result of the energy and environmental policy currently discussed for the European Community, EC. The study implies that in the year 2000 it is possible to transport large quantities of biofuels to large energy consumers if taxes and other incentives now under discussion in the EC and national governments are introduced. The study also implies that in the year 2000 it is possible to utilise biofuels primarily in local and national markets. In the latter case, international trade will be reduced to minor spot quantities

  8. The Genetics of Biofuel Traits in Panicum Grasses: Developing a Model System with Diploid Panicum Hallii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juenger, Thomas [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Wolfrum, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-31

    Our DOE funded project focused on characterizing natural variation in C4 perennial grasses including switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Hall’s panicgrass (Panicum hallii). The main theme of our project was to better understand traits linked with plant performance and that impact the utility of plant biomass as a biofuel feedstock. In addition, our project developed tools and resources for studying genetic variation in Panicum hallii. Our project successfully screened both Panicum virgatum and Panicum hallii diverse natural collections for a host of phenotypes, developed genetic mapping populations for both species, completed genetic mapping for biofuel related traits, and helped in the development of genomic resources of Panicum hallii. Together, these studies have improved our understanding of the role of genetic and environmental factors in impacting plant performance. This information, along with new tools, will help foster the improvement of perennial grasses for feedstock applications.

  9. Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokinsky, Gregory; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; George, Anthe; Holmes, Bradley M.; Steen, Eric J.; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Soon Lee, Taek; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle; Voigt, Christopher A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical fuels. Such an organism would require pathways for hydrocarbon production and the capacity to secrete sufficient enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. To demonstrate how one might engineer and coordinate all of the necessary components for a biomass-degrading, hydrocarbon-producing microorganism, we engineered a microorganism naïve to both processes, Escherichia coli, to grow using both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of several types of plant biomass pretreated with ionic liquids. Our engineered strains express cellulase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylobiosidase enzymes under control of native E. coli promoters selected to optimize growth on model cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates. Furthermore, our strains grow using either the cellulose or hemicellulose components of ionic liquid-pretreated biomass or on both components when combined as a coculture. Both cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains were further engineered with three biofuel synthesis pathways to demonstrate the production of fuel substitutes or precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated switchgrass without externally supplied hydrolase enzymes. This demonstration represents a major advance toward realizing a consolidated bioprocess. With improvements in both biofuel synthesis pathways and biomass digestion capabilities, our approach could provide an economical route to production of advanced biofuels. PMID:22123987

  10. Stochastic production planning for a biofuel supply chain under demand and price uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awudu, Iddrisu; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The proposed stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model. ► The price of biofuel is modeled as Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). ► The proposed model can be applied in any biofuel supply chain. -- Abstract: In this paper, we propose a stochastic production planning model for a biofuel supply chain under demand and price uncertainties. The supply chain consists of biomass suppliers, biofuel refinery plants and distribution centers. A stochastic linear programming model is proposed within a single-period planning framework to maximize the expected profit. Decisions such as the amount of raw materials purchased, the amount of raw materials consumed and the amount of products produced are considered. Demands of end products are uncertain with known probability distributions. The prices of end products follow Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). Benders decomposition (BD) with Monte Carlo simulation technique is applied to solve the proposed model. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stochastic model and the decomposition algorithm, a representative supply chain for an ethanol plant in North Dakota is considered. To investigate the results of the proposed model, a simulation framework is developed to compare the performances of deterministic model and proposed stochastic model. The results from the simulation indicate the proposed model obtain higher expected profit than the deterministic model under different uncertainty settings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to gain management insight on how profit changes due to the uncertainties affect the model developed.

  11. Mitigating secondary aerosol generation potentials from biofuel use in the energy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Colls, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates secondary aerosol generation potential of biofuel use in the energy sector from the photochemical interactions of precursor gases on a life cycle basis. The paper is divided into two parts-first, employing life cycle analysis (LCA) to evaluate the extent of the problem for a typical biofuel based electricity production system using five baseline scenarios; second, proposing adequate mitigation options to minimise the secondary aerosol generation potential on a life cycle basis. The baseline scenarios cover representative technologies for 2010 utilising energy crop (miscanthus), short rotation coppiced chips and residual/waste wood in different proportions. The proposed mitigation options include three approaches-biomass gasification prior to combustion, delaying the harvest of biomass, and increasing the geographical distance between the biomass plant and the harvest site (by importing the biofuels). Preliminary results indicate that the baseline scenarios (assuming all the biomass is sourced locally) bear significant secondary aerosol formation potential on a life cycle basis from photochemical neutralisation of acidic emissions (hydrogen chloride and sulphur dioxide) with ammonia. Our results suggest that gasification of miscanthus biomass would provide the best option by minimising the acidic emissions from the combustion plant whereas the other two options of delaying the harvest or importing biofuels from elsewhere would only lead to marginal reduction in the life cycle aerosol loadings of the systems.

  12. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  13. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  14. MAIN TRENDS OF BIOFUELS PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslav PANCHUK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biological resources for biofuels production in Ukraine has been carried out, and it has been shown that usage of alternative energy sources has great potential for substantially improving energy supply of the state and solving environmental problems. The directions of development and new technologies of obtaining motor fuels from biomass are systematized. It has been established that usage of different types of biofuels and their mixtures for feeding internal combustion engines involves application of modified engines in terms of structure and algorithms and usage of traditional designs of cars without significant structural changes. Moreover, the impact of biofuels on the efficient operation of the engine requires further integrated research.

  15. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    13,6 % the increase in EU biofuel consumption in 2010. In 2010 biofuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union. However its pace backs the assertion that EU biofuel consumption growth slackened off. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total biofuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13,9 Mtoe

  16. Institutional analysis of biofuel production in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kwoyiga, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The thesis studied the nature of institutional arrangement around biofuel production and how this arrangement has shaped the production outcome of biofuel companies and community development. The study was conducted in two communities of the Yendi Municipal Assembly of the Northern Region of Ghana. In this area, a biofuel company called Biofuel Africa Limited has acquired areas of land and cultivated Jatropha plantations. A total of 32 informants were interviewed to arrive at information ne...

  17. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  18. Prospects of using algae in biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Maltsev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture and the transport sector is associated with the use of various energy sources. Renewable energy sources, including biofuels, are highly promising in this respect. As shown by a number of scientific studies, a promising source for biofuel production that would meet modern requirements may be algal biomass. After activation of the third generation biodiesel production it was assumed that the algae would become the most advantageous source, because it is not only able to accumulate significant amounts of lipids, but could reduce the of agricultural land involved in biofuel production and improve air quality by sequestering CO2. However, a major problem is presented by the cost of algae biomass cultivation and its processing compared to the production of biodiesel from agricultural crops. In this regard, there are several directions of increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production from algae biomass. The first direction is to increase lipid content in algae cells by means of genetic engineering. The second direction is connected with the stimulation of increased accumulation of lipids by stressing algae. The third direction involves the search for new, promising strains of algae that will be characterized by faster biomass accumulation rate, higher content of TAG and the optimal proportions of accumulated saturated and unsaturated fatty acids compared to the already known strains. Recently, a new approach in the search for biotechnologically valuable strains of algae has been formed on the basis of predictions of capacity for sufficient accumulation of lipids by clarifying the evolutionary relationships within the major taxonomic groups of algae. The outcome of these studies is the rapid cost reduction of biofuel production based on algae biomass. All this emphasizes the priority of any research aimed at both improving the process of production of biofuels from algae, and the search for new sources for

  19. Autoignition Studies of Diesel Alternative Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijing

    The autoignition of biofuel compounds that offer potential as diesel fuel alternatives was studied under high-pressure engine-like conditions using the shock tube technique. Ignition delay times were determined in reflected shock experiments using measured pressure and electronically-excited OH emission. Measurements were made at conditions ranging from 650 to 1350 K, pressures from 6 to 50 atm, and for fuel/air/diluent mixtures at equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2. The wide range of temperatures examined provides observation of autoignition in three reactivity regimes, including the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) regime which is characteristic of fuels containing alkyl functionalities. Compounds studied include biodiesel-related compounds and real biodiesel fuels, dimethyl ether, and 3-methylheptane which is representative of compounds found in synthetic diesel fuels produced using the Fischer-Tropsch and hydrotreatment processes. Biodiesel compounds studied include biodiesel surrogates, methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, and methyl-9-decenoate; compounds found in large quantities in biodiesels, methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, and methyl linoleate; and soy-based and animal fat based methyl ester biodiesels. Comparison of biodiesel compounds illustrates the influence of molecular structure (e.g., chain length, double bonds, and ester functionality) on reactivity. For methyl decanoate, the effect of high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions relevant to internal combustion engines was also determined. Results showed that the first-order influence of EGR by displacing fuel and O2 to decrease radical branching. Measurements were compared to kinetic modeling results from models available in the literature providing varying degrees of model validation. Reaction flux analyses were also carried out to further examine the kinetic differences in different temperature regimes for fuel compounds. For example, reaction flux analyses

  20. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  1. Assessing the biofuel options for Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Malititz, GP

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available with nested levels of resource use rights. Despite the fact that this land is under-producing from a commercial agricultural perspective, this does not automatically translate into this land being available for biofuels. Due to the complex nature... the Biofuel yield in l/ha used in table one, using sugar cane and Jatropha as feedstock. These values are therefore not linked to specific country level growth conditions and assume suitable land is available. 3 It is very difficult to estimate total job...

  2. Microspora floccosa; a potential biofuel producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.A.S.; Pathan, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is focused on biofuel production from local specie of algae. Initially samples were observed to identify the algal specie. Afterward oil was extracted from algae by Soxhlet extraction method, retention time was optimized to improve the yield of oil at different intervals. The recovered oil from algae was subjected to qualitative analysis by Gas Chromatography. Four major peaks were appeared on GC chromatogram which correspond to methyl esters of dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 8,11,14-Eicosadienoic acid and 9,10-dihydroxy octadecanoic. The results reflect that Microspora floccosa algae considered to be favorable for biofuel production. (author)

  3. Microspora Floccosa; A Potential Biofuel Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Abdul Sattar Memon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study is focused on biofuel production from local specie of algae. Initially samples were observed to identify the algal specie. Afterward oil was extracted from algae by Soxhlet extraction method, retention time was optimized to improve the yield of oil at different intervals. The recovered oil from algae was subjected to qualitative analysis by Gas Chromatography. Four major peaks were appeared on GC chromatogram which correspond to methyl esters of Dodecanoic acid, Tetradecanoic acid, 8,11,14-Eicosadienoic acid and 9,10-Dihydroxy octadecanoic. The results reflect that Microspora floccosa algae considered to be favorable for biofuel production.

  4. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies rely upon attributional lifecycle analysis (LCA) approaches to estimate water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/evapotranspiration water consumed for biofuel production. Such approaches can be misleading. From a policy perspective, a better approach is to compare differential water impacts among scenarios on a landscape scale. We address the shortcomings of existing studies by using consequential LCA, and incorporate direct and indirect land use (changes) of biofuel scenarios, marginal vs. average biofuel water use estimates, future climate, and geographic heterogeneity. We use the outputs of a partial equilibrium economic model, climate and soil data, and a process-based crop-soil-climate-water model to estimate differences in green water (GW - directly from precipitation to soil) and blue water (BW - supplied by irrigation) use among three scenarios: (1) business-as-usual (BAU), (2) Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. We use spatial statistical methods to interpolate key climatic variables using daily climate observations for the contiguous USA. Finally, we use FAO's crop model AquaCrop to estimate the domestic GW and BW impacts of biofuel policies from 2007-2035. We assess the differences among scenarios along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion at the county level, including prime and marginal lands, (2) crop-specific and overall annual/seasonal water balances including (a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (d) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm 3 /acre over the relevant time period. The functional unit of analysis is the BW and GW requirements of biofuels (mm3 per Btu biofuel) at the county level. Differential water use impacts among scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes

  5. Gas Emissions in Combustion of Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitázek Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biomass or more precisely biofuel is more and more being exploited as a substitute for fossil fuels for heating as well as for example for heating a drying environment. This contribution focuses on assessing a heat source by combusting various types of solid biofuels. It is a boiler VIGAS 25 with AK 2000 regulation for heating a family house. Gaseous emissions were measured using a device TESTO 330-2LL. Firewood, peat briquettes, bark briquettes and hardwood briquettes were burnt. Results of experimental measurements concerning the production of gaseous emissions are processed in tables and graphs depending on boiler performance and combustion time.

  6. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Biofuels AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS), USDA. ACTION: Notice of Contract for Proposal... Year 2009 for the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP... Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels. In response to the previously published NOCP, approximately $14.5...

  7. A viable technology to generate third-generation biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2011-01-01

    First generation biofuels are commercialized at large as the production technologies are well developed. However, to grow the raw materials, there is a great need to compromise with food security, which made first generation biofuels not so much promising. The second generation of biofuels does...

  8. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The European biofuel market is now regulated by the directive, known as ILUC, whose wording focuses on the environmental impact of first generation biofuel development. This long-awaited clarification has arrived against the backdrop of falling oil prices and shrinking European Union biofuel consumption, which should drop by 1.7% between 2014 and 2015, according to EurObserv'ER

  9. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel

  10. Market conditions for wind power and biofuel-based cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the prerequisites for biofuel-based cogeneration plants and for wind power, with special emphasis on following factors: 1/ The effect on the Swedish energy market of the opening of the power transmission networks for free competition within the electric power supply sector. 2/ A market model for the connection between the prices on fossil fuels, biomass fuels, electric power, and heating on the Swedish market. The analysis is made for three scenarios concerning carbon dioxide/energy taxation and the oil price development. The three scenarios are: A. Constant prices on heating oil and coal., B. An internationally uniform carbon dioxide tax, which successively is raised to SEK 0.40 per kilo carbon dioxide to the year 2010. In the year 2005 this will correspond to a doubling of the present prices on crude oil., C. An unilateral Swedish energy- and carbon dioxide tax of todays model (without exception for electric power generation), with constant import prices on heating oil and coal. The decisive factors for bio-cogeneration are construction- and operation costs, the costs of biofuels, and the sales price on electric power and heat. For wind power it is the construction- and operation costs that settle the conditions. 18 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Stagnating Jatropha Biofuel Development in Southwest China: An Institutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from jatropha has been considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels for some time. Consequently, China started promoting jatropha as one of the options to meet its ever-increasing energy consumption, and the Chinese biodiesel industry also gained interest. However, the excitement of the biofuel industry in jatropha faded after it did not bring about the expected results. This article investigates the stagnation in jatropha development and production for biodiesel in China, using two detailed case studies of jatropha biofuel production in southeast China. It is found that the underdeveloped biodiesel policy and regulation, such as a rather late formulation of standards for biodiesel (especially the B5 and the absence of mandatory targets, is an important reason for hampering jatropha development. Besides that, lack of financial support undermined sustained jatropha planting at the farm level and lack of sustained commitment from state-owned enterprises or private companies over a long time span further contributed to jatropha project’s failure. Better implementation of the rule of law, mandatory blending requirements, hazard insurance, as well as continuous financial support, might improve the continuation of jatropha plantation schemes.

  12. Experimental approaches for evaluating the invasion risk of biofuel crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke Flory, S; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Lorentz, Kimberly A; Gordon, Doria R

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern that non-native plants cultivated for bioenergy production might escape and result in harmful invasions in natural areas. Literature-derived assessment tools used to evaluate invasion risk are beneficial for screening, but cannot be used to assess novel cultivars or genotypes. Experimental approaches are needed to help quantify invasion risk but protocols for such tools are lacking. We review current methods for evaluating invasion risk and make recommendations for incremental tests from small-scale experiments to widespread, controlled introductions. First, local experiments should be performed to identify conditions that are favorable for germination, survival, and growth of candidate biofuel crops. Subsequently, experimental introductions in semi-natural areas can be used to assess factors important for establishment and performance such as disturbance, founder population size, and timing of introduction across variable habitats. Finally, to fully characterize invasion risk, experimental introductions should be conducted across the expected geographic range of cultivation over multiple years. Any field-based testing should be accompanied by safeguards and monitoring for early detection of spread. Despite the costs of conducting experimental tests of invasion risk, empirical screening will greatly improve our ability to determine if the benefits of a proposed biofuel species outweigh the projected risks of invasions. (letter)

  13. High temperature, radiation hardened electronics for application to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic circuits were developed and built at Sandia for many aerospace and energy systems applications. Among recent developments were high temperature electronics for geothermal well logging and radiation hardened electronics for a variety of aerospace applications. Sandia has also been active in technology transfer to commercial industry in both of these areas

  14. Freeze-fracture of infected plant leaves in ethanol for scanning electron microscopic study of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jayma A; Payne, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Fungi often are found within plant tissues where they cannot be visualized with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). We present a simple way to reveal cell interiors while avoiding many common causes of artifact. Freeze-fracture of leaf tissue using liquid nitrogen during the 100% ethanol step of the dehydration process just before critical point drying is useful in exposing intracellular fungi to the SEM.

  15. Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: Bioethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of different cropping systems emphasizing corn and soybean production was performed, assuming that biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for producing biofuels (i.e., ethanol and biodiesel). The functional unit is defined as 1 ha of arable land producing biomass for biofuels to compare the environmental performance of the different cropping systems. The external functions are allocated by introducing alternative product systems (the system expansion allocation approach). Nonrenewable energy consumption, global warming impact, acidification and eutrophication are considered as potential environmental impacts and estimated by characterization factors given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-TRACI). The benefits of corn stover removal are (1) lower nitrogen related environmental burdens from the soil, (2) higher ethanol production rate per unit arable land, and (3) energy recovery from lignin-rich fermentation residues, while the disadvantages of corn stover removal are a lower accumulation rate of soil organic carbon and higher fuel consumption in harvesting corn stover. Planting winter cover crops can compensate for some disadvantages (i.e., soil organic carbon levels and soil erosion) of removing corn stover. Cover crops also permit more corn stover to be harvested. Thus, utilization of corn stover and winter cover crops can improve the eco-efficiency of the cropping systems. When biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for biofuel production, all the cropping systems studied here offer environmental benefits in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and global warming impact. Therefore utilizing biomass for biofuels would save nonrenewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gases. However, unless additional measures such as planting cover crops were taken, utilization of biomass for biofuels would also tend to increase acidification and eutrophication, primarily because large nitrogen (and phosphorus

  16. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [nl

  17. Exploring new strategies for cellulosic biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Langan; S. Gnankaran; Kirk D. Rector; Norma Pawley; David T. Fox; Dae Won Cho; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2011-01-01

    A research program has been initiated to formulate new strategies for efficient low-cost lignocellulosic biomass processing technologies for the production of biofuels. This article reviews results from initial research into lignocellulosic biomass structure, recalcitrance, and pretreatment. In addition to contributing towards a comprehensive understanding of...

  18. Impact of biofuels on contrail warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Agarwal, Akshat; Speth, Raymond L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2017-11-01

    Contrails and contrail-cirrus may be the largest source of radiative forcing (RF) attributable to aviation. Biomass-derived alternative jet fuels are a potentially major way to mitigate the climate impacts of aviation by reducing lifecycle CO2 emissions. Given the up to 90% reduction in soot emissions from paraffinic biofuels, the potential for a significant impact on contrail RF due to the reduction in contrail-forming ice nuclei (IN) remains an open question. We simulate contrail formation and evolution to quantify RF over the United States under different emissions scenarios. Replacing conventional jet fuels with paraffinic biofuels generates two competing effects. First, the higher water emissions index results in an increase in contrail occurrence (~ +8%). On the other hand, these contrails are composed of larger diameter crystals (~ +58%) at lower number concentrations (~ -75%), reducing both contrail optical depth (~ -29%) and albedo (~ -32%). The net changes in contrail RF induced by switching to biofuels range from -4% to +18% among a range of assumed ice crystal habits (shapes). In comparison, cleaner burning engines (with no increase in water emissions index) result in changes to net contrail RF ranging between -13% and +5% depending on habit. Thus, we find that even 67% to 75% reductions in aircraft soot emissions are insufficient to substantially reduce warming from contrails, and that the use of biofuels may either increase or decrease contrail warming—contrary to previous expectations of a significant decrease in warming.

  19. Production of biofuels via hydrothermal conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    as the quality of targeted biofuel is a function of feedstock and operating conditions. The quality of hydrochar influences its uses as a solid fuel while biocrude quality affects its use as a liquid fuel and feedstock for upgrading to drop-in replacement fuels, while HTG produces a syngas rich in either H2...

  20. Electric vehicles need biofuels; Elektroautos brauchen Biotreibstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Tomi

    2008-09-15

    The debate over electromobility is in full swing. The effects on the electric power grid and on the biofuels industry are quire different than expected, even paradox. (orig.) [German] Die Debatte um Elektromobilitaet ist in vollem Gang. Die Auswirkung auf das Stromnetz und auf die Biotreibstoffbranche sind ganz anders, als man denkt. Sie wirken fast schon paradox. (Orig.)

  1. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  2. SOLID BIOFUEL UTILIZATION IN VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slusarenko V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with questions of creating at JSC “Alimentarmash "in the last 20 years the technological equipment for the production of vegetable oils from oilseeds: from the press for the final spin to mini oilfactory, using as an energy source for heating the liquid coolant (Thermal oil "Arian" of solid biofuels - husk of sunflower seeds.

  3. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driven by the Energy and Independence Act of 2007 mandate to increase production of alternative fuels and to ensure that this increase causes minimal environmental impact, a project to design sustainable biofuel supply chains has been developed. This effort uses life cycle asses...

  4. Public policy and biofuels: The way forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Michael B.; Ryan, Rachel; Ryan, Neal; Oloruntoba, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been given much attention by governments around the world, especially in increasingly energy-hungry OECD nations. Proponents have argued that they offer various advantages over hydrocarbon-based fuels, especially with respect to reducing dependence on OPEC-controlled oil, minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensuring financial and lifestyle continuity to farmers and agriculturally dependent communities. This paper adds to the continuing technical debate by addressing the issue from a holistic public policy perspective. In particular, it looks at the proposed benefits of biofuels, yet also addresses the implications of increased demand on the global and regional environment, in addition to the economic welfare of developing nations. Furthermore, it posits that short-term reliance on biofuels vis-a-vis other alternative energy sources may potentially inhibit the development and maturation of longer-term technologies that have greater potential to correct the harmful effects of fossil-fuel dependence. In light of this, the manifold policy instruments currently employed or proposed by governments in developed nations to promote biofuels emerge as questionable

  5. Boundless Biofuels? Between Environmental Sustainability and Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels currently appear to be one of the major controversies in the agriculture/environment nexus, not unlike genetically modified organisms. While some countries (such as Brazil) have for quite some time supported successful large-scale programmes to improve the production and consumption of

  6. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  7. 76 FR 7935 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... payments. Application materials may be obtained by contacting one of Rural Development's Energy...) number, which can be obtained at no cost via a toll-free request line at 1-866-705-5711 or online at http... producer'' provisions for determining whether an advanced biofuel producer of biogas or solid advanced...

  8. Characterizing Emissions from the Combustion of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from two biofuels, a soy-based biodiesel and an animal-based biodiesel, were measured and compared to emissions from a distillate petroleum fuel oil. The three fuels were burned in a small fire tube boiler designed for use in institutional, commercial, and light industr...

  9. Panorama 2007: Biofuels and their Environmental Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur-Vernat, A.; His, St.; Bouvart, F.

    2007-01-01

    Today, the development of bio-fuel pathways is closely associated with targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transport sector. Well-to-wheel assessments indicate that the use of these automotive fuels of vegetable origin yield definite benefits in terms of GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption compared to petroleum-based automotive fuels. (author)

  10. Biowastes-to-biofuels routes via gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.; Sues Caula, A.; Jurascik, M.; Badeau, J.P.; Levi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, biomass has a well-known potential for producing energy calTiers, such as electricity, heat (steam) and transport biofuels. However, biomass availability is rather limited and stochastically distributed. This could be a major problem in demographically dense regions where land is scarce

  11. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  12. Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Alison; Raman, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The emergence of second generation (2G) biofuels is widely seen as a sustainable response to the increasing controversy surrounding the first generation (1G). Yet, sustainability credentials of 2G biofuels are also being questioned. Drawing on work in Science and Technology Studies, we argue that controversies help focus attention on key, often value-related questions that need to be posed to address broader societal concerns. This paper examines lessons drawn from the 1G controversy to assess implications for the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels. Scope: We present an overview of key 1G sustainability challenges, assess their relevance for 2G, and highlight the challenges for policy in managing the transition. We address limitations of existing sustainability assessments by exploring where challenges might emerge across the whole system of bioenergy and the wider context of the social system in which bioenergy research and policy are done. Conclusions: Key lessons arising from 1G are potentially relevant to the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels depending on the particular circumstances or conditions under which 2G is introduced. We conclude that sustainability challenges commonly categorised as either economic, environmental or social are, in reality, more complexly interconnected (so that an artificial separation of these categories is problematic). - Highlights: • Controversy surrounding 1G biofuels is relevant to sustainability appraisal of 2G. • Challenges for policy in managing the transition to 2G biofuels are highlighted. • A key lesson is that sustainability challenges are complexly interconnected

  13. A modelling approach to estimate the European biofuel production: from crops to biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clodic, Melissa [Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (IFP/INRA), Paris (France). Instituto Frances do Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Today, in the context of energy competition and climate change, biofuels are promoted as a renewable resource to diversify the energy supply. However, biofuel development remains controversial. Here, we will present a way to make an environmental and economic cost and benefit analysis of European biofuels, from the crops until the marketed products, by using a linear programming optimization modelling approach. To make this European biofuel production model, named AGRAF, possible, we decided to use different independent linear programming optimization models which represent the separate parts of the process: European agricultural production, production of transforming industries and refinery production. To model the agricultural and the refining sections, we have chosen to improve existing and experimented models by adding a biofuel production part. For the transforming industry, we will create a new partial equilibrium model which will represent stake holders such as Sofiproteol, Stereos, etc. Data will then be exchanged between the models to coordinate all the biofuel production steps. Here, we will also focus on spatialization in order to meet certain of our requirements, such as the exchange flux analysis or the determination of transport costs, usually important in an industrial optimization model. (author)

  14. Lignin plays a negative role in the biochemical process for producing lignocellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Yang, Shihui; Ding, Shi-You

    2014-06-01

    A biochemical platform holds the most promising route toward lignocellulosic biofuels, in which polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes into simple sugars and fermented to ethanol by microbes. However, these polysaccharides are cross-linked in the plant cell walls with the hydrophobic network of lignin that physically impedes enzymatic deconstruction. A thermochemical pretreatment process is often required to remove or delocalize lignin, which may also generate inhibitors that hamper enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Here we review recent advances in understanding lignin structure in the plant cell walls and the negative roles of lignin in the processes of converting biomass to biofuels. Perspectives and future directions to improve the biomass conversion process are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The production of biofuels in Germany. State of the art and optimization approaches; Die Biokraftstoffproduktion in Deutschland. Stand der Technik und Optimierungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Maria; Groengroeft, Arne [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Oehmichen, Katja; Zech, Konstantin

    2015-07-01

    Determining the status quo of existing biofuel plants in Germany, an extensive database of process configurations was received. This information was used to develop simulation models of virtual biofuel plants, which are now available for further investigations. The GHG emissions of biofuels can partly be improved by the studied optimization approaches. The studied optimization approaches can hence contribute to the increasing requirements for GHG reductions of biofuels. The integration of multiple optimization approaches in one concept would improve its GHG balance further. In addition to the investigated technical measures, emissions could also be reduced by adapting the energy supply. The use of biofuels for heat generation, for example, could have an additional reducing effect on total GHG emissions, because a fossil fuel-based heat and electricity supply is the main driver of the GHG balance. From the communication with contacts in the industry it can be said that the German biofuel industry operates production plants that have already reached a high level of efficiency. At many locations, additional measures and modifications are planned, not only driven by economic reasons but also to further improve the GHG balance. The overall results of the project will be published as DBFZ Report No. 22 ''Die Biokraftstoffproduktion in Deutschland - Stand der Technik und Optimierungsansaetze'' in 2015.

  16. [Model-based biofuels system analysis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhang, Xiliang; Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin

    2011-03-01

    Model-based system analysis is an important tool for evaluating the potential and impacts of biofuels, and for drafting biofuels technology roadmaps and targets. The broad reach of the biofuels supply chain requires that biofuels system analyses span a range of disciplines, including agriculture/forestry, energy, economics, and the environment. Here we reviewed various models developed for or applied to modeling biofuels, and presented a critical analysis of Agriculture/Forestry System Models, Energy System Models, Integrated Assessment Models, Micro-level Cost, Energy and Emission Calculation Models, and Specific Macro-level Biofuel Models. We focused on the models' strengths, weaknesses, and applicability, facilitating the selection of a suitable type of model for specific issues. Such an analysis was a prerequisite for future biofuels system modeling, and represented a valuable resource for researchers and policy makers.

  17. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueues, Meelis

    2000-01-01

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  18. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  19. Pathways to Carbon-Negative Liquid Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, D.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many climate change mitigation scenarios assume that atmospheric carbon dioxide removal will be delivered at scale using bioenergy power generation with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). However, other pathways to negative emission technologies (NETs) in the energy sector are possible, but have received relatively little attention. Given that the costs, benefits and life-cycle emissions of technologies vary widely, more comprehensive analyses of the policy options for NETs are critical. This study provides a comparative assessment of the potential pathways to carbon-negative liquid biofuels. It is often assumed that that decarbonisation of the transport sector will include use of liquid biofuels, particularly for applications that are difficult to electrify such as aviation and maritime transport. However, given that biomass and land on which to grow it sustainably are limiting factors in the scaling up of both biofuels and NETs, these two strategies compete for shared factors of production. One way to circumvent this competition is carbon-negative biofuels. Because capture of exhaust CO2 in the transport sector is impractical, this will likely require carbon capture during biofuel production. Potential pathways include, for example, capture of CO2 from fermentation, or sequestration of biochar from biomass pyrolysis in soils, in combination with thermochemical or bio-catalytic conversion of syngas to alcohols or alkanes. Here we show that optimal pathway selection depends on specific resource constraints. As land availability becomes increasingly limiting if bioenergy is scaled up—particularly in consideration that abandoned degraded land is widely considered to be an important resource that does not compete with food fiber or habitat—then systems which enhance land productivity by increasing soil fertility using soil carbon sequestration become increasingly preferable compared to bioenergy systems that deplete or degrade the land resource on which they

  20. Survey of the state-of-the-art in aging of electronics with application to nuclear-power-plant instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.T. Jr.; Thome, F.V.; Craft, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present results of a study to evaluate the state-of-the-art and outline needed research on aging of electronics in nuclear power plants. The emphasis is on aging of electronics (e.g., semiconductors, capacitors, resistors) used in safety-related Class 1E instrumentation, particularly those used in harsh environments. Some attention is also given to encapsulants, printed circuit boards and bonds (e.g., solder joints) since they are integral parts of circuits. Four major tasks were addressed in this study and are the subject of this report. These include (1) selecting candidate electronic components for study and review; (2) defining the aging environment and initiating an effort to determine the state-of-the-art in aging degradation; (3) recommending follow-on investigations and research; and (4) outlining the first steps in defining a program on accelerated aging