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Sample records for biofilms introducing natural

  1. Natural genetic transformation in Acinetobacter sp. BD413 Biofilms: introducing natural genetic transformation as a tool for bioenhancement of biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, L

    2002-07-01

    This study focussed on the localization and quantification of natural genetic transformation using neutral and disadvantageous genes in monoculture biofilms to investigate gene transfer and expression of the transferred genes in the absence of a selective advantage. Data obtained by this investigation were regarded as initial steps for evaluating the applicability of adding catabolic traits into the indigenous bacterial community of biofilm reactors by in situ natural genetic transformation. Because Acinetobacter spp. strains are readily found in waste water treatment plants and because Acinetobacter sp. BD413 possesses a high effective level of competence, natural genetic transformation was investigated in monoculture Acinetobacter sp. BD413 biofilms. The genes used for transformation encoded for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants. Monitoring of transformation events were performed with the use of automated confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and semi automated digital image processing and analysis. (orig.)

  2. Biofilms for Babies: Introducing Microbes and Biofilms to Preschool-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian M. Couto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are beneficial to life on our planet as they facilitate natural processes such as global nutrient cycling in our environment. This article details a 30-minute activity to introduce pre-school children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age to microbes and biofilms in the natural environment.

  3. Oral Biofilm Architecture on Natural Teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M. Barbara M.; Degener, John E.; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmuer, Rudolf; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and

  4. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  5. Marine and estuarine natural microbial biofilms: ecological and biogeochemical dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Roger Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine and estuarine microbial biofilms are ubiquitously distributed worldwide and are increasingly of interest in basic and applied sciences because of their unique structural and functional features that make them remarkably different from the biota in the plankton. This is a review of some current scientific knowledge of naturally occurring microbial marine and estuarine biofilms including prokaryotic and microeukaryotic biota, but excluding research specifically on engineering and applied aspects of biofilms such as biofouling. Because the microbial communities including bacteria and protists are integral to the fundamental ecological and biogeochemical processes that support biofilm communities, particular attention is given to the structural and ecological aspects of microbial biofilm formation, succession, and maturation, as well as the dynamics of the interactions of the microbiota in biofilms. The intent is to highlight current state of scientific knowledge and possible avenues of future productive research, especially focusing on the ecological and biogeochemical dimensions.

  6. Diffuse urban pollution increases metal tolerance of natural heterotrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, Lise C.; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Bourgeault, Adeline; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    This study is a first attempt to investigate the impact of urban contamination on metal tolerance of heterotrophic river biofilms using a short-term test based on β-glucosidase activity. Tolerance levels to Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni and Pb were evaluated for biofilms collected at three sites along an urban gradient in the Seine river (France). Metallic pollution increased along the river, but concentrations remained low compared to environmental quality standards. Biofilm metal tolerance increased downstream from the urban area. Multivariate analysis confirmed the correlation between tolerance and contamination and between multi-metallic and physico-chemical gradients. Therefore, tolerance levels have to be interpreted in relation to the whole chemical and physical characteristics and not solely metal exposure. We conclude that community tolerance is a sensitive biological response to urban pressure and that mixtures of contaminants at levels lower than quality standards might have a significant impact on periphytic communities. - Highlights: ► A new short-term test based on β-glucosidase activity to assess biofilm metal tolerance. ► Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn tolerance of natural biofilms collected along an urban gradient. ► Metal tolerance levels increase upstream to downstream the river. ► Community tolerance increases at environmental quality standard exposure concentrations. ► Biofilm tolerance is a sensitive biological response to diffuse urban pollution. - Metal concentrations below environmental quality standards increase tolerance levels of natural, hetetrophic biofilms downstream from an urban area.

  7. Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    The ability to form biofilms is a universal attribute of bacteria. Biofilms are multicellular communities held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that different bacteria employ to form biofilms vary, frequently depending on environmental conditions and specific strain attributes. In this review, we emphasize four well-studied model systems to give an overview of how several organisms form biofilms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Using these bacteria as examples, we discuss the key features of biofilms as well as mechanisms by which extracellular signals trigger biofilm formation.

  8. Investigation of lead and nickel contaminated natural biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroepfl, K.; Zaray, Gy.; Acs, E.

    2003-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method was developed for elemental analysis of lead and nickel contaminated natural biofilms grown on polycarbonate substrates. The biofilms were grown in the Lake of Velence for 4 weeks and then in the laboratory in contaminated lake water for other 2 weeks. It was established that the accumulation of these bivalent cations were practically the same and in their presence the accumulation of zinc decreased by approximately 20% while the other elements (Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ti, Rb) showed smaller changes within the statistical interval. From biological point of view, these two bivalent cations reduced the abundance of the algae, to a similar extent; however, the total biomass production was significantly hampered only by nickel (14%)

  9. Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The ability to form biofilms is a universal attribute of bacteria. Biofilms are multicellular communities held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that different bacteria employ to form biofilms vary, frequently depending on environmental conditions and specific strain attributes. In this review, we emphasize four well-studied model systems to give an overview of how several organisms form biofilms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and ...

  10. Main photoautotrophic components of biofilms in natural draft cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Tomáš; Čapek, Petr; Böhmová, Petra

    2016-05-01

    While photoautotrophic organisms are an important component of biofilms that live in certain regions of natural draft cooling towers, little is known about these communities. We therefore examined 18 towers at nine sites to identify the general patterns of community assembly in three distinct tower parts, and we examined how community structures differ depending on geography. We also compared the newly acquired data with previously published data. The bottom sections of draft cooling towers are mainly settled by large filamentous algae, primarily Cladophora glomerata. The central portions of towers host a small amount of planktic algae biomass originating in the cooling water. The upper fourths of towers are colonized by biofilms primarily dominated by cyanobacteria, e.g., members of the genera Gloeocapsa and Scytonema. A total of 41 taxa of phototrophic microorganisms were identified. Species composition of the upper fourth of all towers was significantly affected by cardinal position. There was different species composition at positions facing north compared to positions facing south. West- and east-facing positions were transitory and highly similar to each other in terms of species composition. Biofilms contribute to the degradation of paint coatings inside towers.

  11. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Lin, Mon-Chu; Chiu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Colin S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1–59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0–27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water. -- Highlights: •Natural river biofilms showed high ability to degrade methomyl and carbofuran. •The presence of other pesticides caused certain effects on pesticide degradation. •Carbamate pesticides caused adverse effects on communities of diatoms and bacteria. •The tolerant diatoms and bacteria were found as potential pesticide-degraders. -- Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by river biofilms

  12. Inhibitory effects of extracellular polymeric substances on ofloxacin sorption by natural biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Dong, Deming; Hua, Xiuyi; Guo, Zhiyong

    2018-06-01

    Natural biofilms have strong affinities for organic contaminants, and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have been thought to control the sorption process. However, the role of EPS in the sorption of antibiotics, an emerging concern, is poorly understood. Here, soluble (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) were extracted from intact biofilms incubated at different lengths of time to obtain SEPS- and BEPS-free biofilms. Batch sorption experiments and infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the role of EPS in the sorption of ofloxacin (OFL) by natural biofilms. The sorption capacities of OFL onto intact biofilms were lower than that those onto SEPS-free and BEPS-free biofilms. Partition and Langmuir adsorption contributed to the sorption of OFL onto these biofilms. SEPS and BEPS suppressed partitioning of OFL into biofilm organic matter. Meanwhile, the formation of hydrogen bonds could affect the Langmuir adsorption of OFL onto BEPS-free biofilms. These sorption mechanisms occurred simultaneously and enhanced the sorption capacities of biofilms after EPS removal. The information obtained in this study is beneficial for understanding the interaction mechanisms between antibiotics and natural biofilms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Introducing Natural Farming in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Muyang Tawie Sulok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of Natural Farming as an ecological farming method to produce organically grown food of safe and high quality and at the same time improve soil quality and soil health. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the effects of Natural Farming approach on black pepper farms particularly in Sarawak, Malaysia. Previous studies on other crops had indicated positive outcome using the Natural Farming method. Thus, this paper discusses the essential role of effective microorganisms in Natural Farming and their potential in pepper cultivation. Through the action of effective microorganisms, this approach should be able to transform a degraded soil ecosystem into one that is fertile and has high nutrients availability. The mixed culture of effective microorganisms applied must be mutually compatible and coexist with one another to ensure its favorable establishment and interaction in the soil. Therefore, it is anticipated that introducing Natural Farming in black pepper cultivation can enhance the predominance of effective microorganisms in the soil, which in turn could lead to promising growth and yield of the crop.

  14. Natural isothiocyanates express antimicrobial activity against developing and mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefan J; Mutters, Nico T; Blessing, Brigitte; Günther, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The antimicrobial properties of natural isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in plants such as nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), and the need of new chemotherapeutic options for treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and biofilm-forming Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), led us to evaluate the effects of three major ITCs, allylisothiocyanate (AITC), benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), and phenylethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC), and a mixture (ITCM) adapted to the ITC composition after release of active components out of natural sources. Out of 105Pa isolates 27 isolates with increased biofilm formation were selected for testing. The effects of ITCs on Pa were evaluated regarding (1) planktonic bacterial proliferation, (2) biofilm formation, (3) metabolic activity in mature biofilms, and (4) synergism of ITCs and antibiotics. (1) Each ITC had anti-Pa activity. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were (μg/ml, mean±standard deviation): AITC 103±6.9; BITC, 2145±249; PEITC 29,423±1652; and ITCM, 140±5. (2) Treating bacteria with PEITC and ITCM in concentrations below the MIC significantly inhibited biofilm formation. Particularly, ITCM reduced biofilm mass and bacterial proliferation. (3) ITCs significantly inhibited metabolic activity in mature biofilms. (4) Combining ITCs with meropenem synergistically increased antimicrobial efficacy on Pa biofilms. ITCs represent a promising group of natural anti-infective compounds with activity against Pa biofilms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mass transfer of therapeutics through natural human plaque biofilms: a model for therapeutic delivery to pathological bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Colin

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial biofilms in the mouth are prime mediators of the destruction of the dental and oral tissues. This brief review summarises recent work using a device for generating intact plaque in the mouth on natural enamel surfaces such that quantitative studies of mass transfer through natural plaque biofilms could be carried out in relation to plaque architecture. This data is discussed against the background of existing information. The device revealed complex plaque architecture with high a surface area to mass ratio decreasing from the exterior of the biofilm towards the tissue surface. Fluoride, a potent inhibitor of caries was concentrated in the outer regions of the biofilm. This implies some restriction of diffusion and possibly binding to the high surface area of the outer biofilm. Whilst all components examined conformed to this distribution pattern, some relatively uncharged materials penetrated the bacterial biomass whilst other, more highly charged materials tended to be restricted to the channels or biomass surface. Plaque architecture was robust but could be altered using detergent indicating that biomass architecture and chemistry could be manipulated as a possible means of facilitating mass transport of therapeutics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Bacterial biofilms as a natural form of existence of bacteria in the environment and host organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Iu M; Gintsburg, A L

    2011-01-01

    Advances in microscopic analysis and molecular genetics research methods promoted the acquisition of evidence that natural bacteria populations exist predominately as substrate attached biofilms. Bacteria in biofilms are able to exchange signals and display coordinated activity that is inherent to multicellular organisms. Formation of biofilm communities turned out to be one of the main survival strategies of bacteria in their ecological niche. Bacteria in attached condition in biofilm are protected from the environmental damaging factors and effects of antibacterial substances in the environment and host organism during infection. According to contemporary conception, biofilm is a continuous layer of bacterial cells that are attached to a surface and each other, and contained in a biopolymer matrix. Such bacterial communities may be composed of bacteria of one or several species, and composed of actively functioning cells as well as latent and uncultured forms. Particular attention has recently been paid to the role of biofilms in the environment and host organism. Microorganisms form biofilm on any biotic and abiotic surfaces which creates serious problems in medicine and various areas of economic activity. Currently, it is established that biofilms are one of the pathogenetic factors of chronic inflection process formation. The review presents data on ubiquity of bacteria existence as biofilms, contemporary methods of microbial community analysis, structural-functional features of bacterial biofilms. Particular attention is paid to the role of biofilm in chronic infection process formation, heightened resistance to antibiotics of bacteria in biofilms and possible mechanisms of resistance. Screening approaches for agents against biofilms in chronic infections are discussed.

  17. Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  18. Systematic Exploration of Natural and Synthetic Flavonoids for the Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manner, Suvi; Skogman, Malena; Goeres, Darla; Vuorela, Pia; Fallarero, Adyary

    2013-01-01

    When single-cell (or suspended) bacteria switch into the biofilm lifestyle, they become less susceptible to antimicrobials, imposing the need for anti-biofilms research. Flavonoids are among the most extensively studied natural compounds with an unprecedented amount of bioactivity claims. Most studies focus on the antibacterial effects against suspended cells; fewer reports have researched their anti-biofilm properties. Here, a high throughput phenotypic platform was utilized to screen for the inhibitory activity of 500 flavonoids, including natural and synthetic derivatives, against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Since discrepancies among results from earlier antibacterial studies on flavonoids had been noted, the current study aimed to minimize sources of variations. After the first screen, flavonoids were classified as inactive (443), moderately active (47) or highly active (10). Further, exclusion criteria combining bioactivity and selectivity identified two synthetic flavans as the most promising. The body of data reported here serves three main purposes. First, it offers an improved methodological workflow for anti-biofilm screens of chemical libraries taking into account the (many times ignored) connections between anti-biofilm and antibacterial properties. This is particularly relevant for the study of flavonoids and other natural products. Second, it provides a large and freely available anti-biofilm bioactivity dataset that expands the knowledge on flavonoids and paves the way for future structure-activity relationship studies and structural optimizations. Finally, it identifies two new flavans that can successfully act on biofilms, as well as on suspended bacteria and represent more feasible antibacterial candidates. PMID:24071942

  19. Characteristics of Alcian-blue Dye Adsorption of Natural Biofilm Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Sukandar; Guntur

    2018-01-01

    In this study, natural biofilm matrices formed on stones have been used for the adsorption of Alcian blue dye. Alcian blue is a member of polyvalent basic dyes that largely used from laboratory until industrial dying purposes. The adsorption of the dye onto the biofilm matrix has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption isotherm and kinetic of adsorption. The electric charge properties of biofilm matrix and its changes related to the adsorption of Alcian blue have been also investigated. Moreover, the results of Alcian blue adsorption to the biofilm were compared to those onto the acidic and neutral resin. The kinetics of adsorption result showed that the adsorption of the Alcian blue dye reached to a maximum adsorption amount within 60 minutes. The adsorption amount of Alcian blue to biofilm increased monotonously, and the maximum adsorption amount was greater compared to the resins. On the contrary, Alcian blue did not attach to the neutral resin having no electric charge. It seems that Alcian blue attached to the acidic resins due to electrostatic attractive force, and the same seems to be the case for adsorption of Alcian blue to biofilm. The adsorption of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins fitted to Langmuir type indicates that the binding of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins occurred in a monolayer like form. The maximum adsorption amount of Alcian blue on the biofilm (0.24 mmol/dry-g) was greater than those of acidic resin (0.025 mmol/dry-g). This indicates that the biofilm has many more sites for Alcian blue attachment than acidic resins. According to the result of this study, the biofilm matrix can be a good adsorbent for dye such as Alcian blue or other dyes that causing hazards in nature.

  20. Hybrid combinations containing natural products and antimicrobial drugs that interfere with bacterial and fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchino, Susana A; Butassi, Estefanía; Cordisco, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A

    2017-12-15

    Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many chronic and difficult-to eradicate infections whose treatment is complicated due to the intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. The combination therapy comprising an antimicrobial drug with a low molecular weight (MW) natural product and an antimicrobial drug (antifungal or antibacterial) appeared as a good alternative to eradicate biofilms. The aims of this review were to perform a literature search on the different natural products that have showed the ability of potentiating the antibiofilm capacity of antimicrobial drugs, to analyze which are the antimicrobial drugs most used in combination, and to have a look on the microbial species most used to prepare biofilms. Seventeen papers, nine on combinations against antifungal biofilms and eight against antibacterial biofilms were collected. Within the text, the following topics have been developed: breaf history of the discovery of biofilms; stages in the development of a biofilm; the most used methodologies to assess antibiofilm-activity; the natural products with capacity of eradicating biofilms when acting alone; the combinations of low MW natural products with antibiotics or antifungal drugs as a strategy for eradicating microbial biofilms and a list of the low MW natural products that potentiate the inhibition capacity of antifungal and antibacterial drugs against biofilms. Regarding combinations against antifungal biofilms, eight over the nine collected works were carried out with in vitro studies while only one was performed with in vivo assays by using Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. All studies use biofilms of the Candida genus. A 67% of the potentiators were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and six over the nine works used FCZ as the antifungal drug. The activity of AmpB and Caspo was enhanced in one and two

  1. Interactions of bacteria with diatoms: Influence on natural marine biofilms.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    therein). In fact, biofilms are considered a reservoir and source of dissemination for V. cholerae (Shikuma & Hadfield 2010). Nutrient concentrations in the surrounding waters also affect the progression of the biofilm community (Qian et al. 2007... to render diatom monocultures near axenic (Patil & Anil 2005c). The following diluents were used – Aged Sea Water (ASW; unenriched control), ASW+streptomycin (ASW+S), ASW+chloramphenicol (ASW+C), f/2 medium (Guillard and Ryther, 1962) prepared in ASW [f...

  2. Biofilm biomass disruption by natural substances with potential for endodontic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rodrigues Ferreira Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro effects of four natural substances on the biomass of bacterial biofilms to assess their potential use as root canal irrigants. The following substances and their combinations were tested: 0.2% farnesol; 5% xylitol; 20% xylitol; 0.2% farnesol and 5% xylitol; 0.2% farnesol, 5% xylitol, and 0.1% lactoferrin; 5% xylitol and 0.1% lactoferrin; and 20 mM salicylic acid. The crystal violet assay was used to evaluate the effects of these substances on the biomass of biofilms formed by Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. All substances except for 20 mM salicylic acid and 20% xylitol reduced biofilm mass when compared to controls. The combination of farnesol and xylitol was the most effective agent against E. faecalis ATCC 29212 (p < 0.05. Farnesol combined with xylitol and lactoferrin was the most effective against biofilms of the endodontic strain of E. faecalis MB35 (p < 0.05. Similarly, combinations involving farnesol, xylitol, and lactoferrin reduced the biomass of S. epidermidis biofilms. In general, farnesol, xylitol, and lactoferrin or farnesol and xylitol reduced biofilm biomass most effectively. Therefore, it was concluded that combinations of antibiofilm substances have potential use in endodontic treatment to combat biofilms.

  3. Sampling natural biofilms: a new route to build efficient microbial anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erable, Benjamin; Roncato, Marie-Anne; Achouak, Wafa; Bergel, Alain

    2009-05-01

    Electrochemically active biofilms were constructed on graphite anodes under constant polarization at -0.1V vs saturated calomel reference (SCE) with 10 mM acetate as substrate. The reactors were inoculated with three different microbial samples that were drawn from exactly the same place in a French Atlantic coastal port (i) by scraping the biofilm that had formed naturally on the surface of a floating bridge, (ii) by taking marine sediments just under the floating bridge, and (iii) by taking nearby beach sand. Current densities of 2.0 A/m2 were reached using the biofilm sample as inoculum while only 0.4 A/m2 and 0.8 A/m2 were obtained using the underlying sediments and the beach sand, respectively. The structure of bacterial communities forming biofilms was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, and revealed differences between samples with the increase in relative intensities of some bands and the appearance of others. Bacteria close related to Bacteroidetes, Halomonas, and Marinobacterium were retrieved only from the efficient EA-biofilms formed from natural biofilms, whereas, bacteria close related to Mesoflavibacter were predominant on biofilm formed from sediments. The marine biofilm was selected as the inoculum to further optimize the microbial anode. Epifluorescence microscopy and SEM confirmed that maintaining the electrode under constant polarization promoted rapid settlement of the electrode surface by a bacterial monolayer film. The microbial anode was progressively adapted to the consumption of acetate by three serial additions of substrate, thus improving the Coulombic efficiency of acetate consumption from 31 to 89%. The possible oxidation of sulfide played only a very small part in the current production and the biofilm was not able to oxidize hydrogen. Graphite proved to be more efficient than dimensionally stable anode (DSA) or stainless steel butthis result might be due to differences in the surface roughness

  4. Comparison of the Candida albicans and biofilm formation amount on natural tooth,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Polat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the retention of the Candidaalbicans and biofilm formation on natural teeth, porcelainand acrylic resin.Materials and methods: Samples are taken with thesterile ecuvion sticks from the buccal embrasures of thenatural tooth, porcelain and acrylic. The biofilm productionof candida reproducing strains was determined withmicroplate method. Samples are settled in 0.5 ml sterilephosphate buffered saline. Reproduction detected coloniesdefined to species in accordance with their macroscopicand microscopic features and germ tube test inmicrobiology laboratory.Results: There was significant differences for retention ofCandida albicans and biofilm formation on the surface oftooth, porcelain and acrylic (p<0.05.Conclusion: Adherence of Candida albicans and biofilmformation on the porcelain significantly less than naturaltooth and acrylic, and retention and biofilm formation onthe tooth less than acrylic.

  5. Naturalization of introduced plants: ecological drivers of biogeographic patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-396 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * naturalization * macroecological patterns Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.736, year: 2012

  6. Introducing the fluorine doped natural hydroxyapatite-titania nanobiocomposite ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, Ebrahim [Advanced Materials Research Center, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdellahi, Majid, E-mail: M.Abdellahi@Pa.iut.ac.ir [Advanced Materials Research Center, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khandan, Amirsalar [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdellah, Sana [Advanced Materials Research Center, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In the present research, natural hydroxyapatite (NHA) was synthesized from bovine bones and then fluorine was doped into the NHA matrix to produce fluorine doped NHA (FNHA; natural fluor-hydroxyapatite) in optimum conditions. At the end an FNHA-TiO{sub 2} nanobiocomposite ceramic with excellent biocompatibility and good chemical stability was synthesized through a mechanochemical route and a subsequent two step sintering (TSS) process. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductive coupled plasma (ICP), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used as the means for gathering and analysis of the results. According to the obtained results, TiO{sub 2} can prevent early decomposition of FNHA by the formation of the CaTiO{sub 3} phases and hence strengthen the interactions between the apatite particles which results in the increase of the mechanical properties. Besides, TiO{sub 2} provides more Si−OH nucleation sites for the formation of the apatite layers and hence more bioactivity. - Highlights: • This work begins with preparing natural hydroxyapatite from bovine bones via a simple method. • With increasing the TiO{sub 2} content reinforced in FNHA matrix, the compaction increases. • TiO{sub 2} can prevent early decomposition of FNHA by the formation of CaTiO{sub 3} phase. • TiO{sub 2} can strengthen the interactions between the apatite particles and increase of compaction. • With increasing TiO{sub 2} content, the Si−OH nucleation sites increases lead to more bioactivity.

  7. Biofilm Inhibition by Novel Natural Product- and Biocide-Containing Coatings Using High-Throughput Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products (NPs as possible alternative biocidal compounds for use in antifouling coatings has been the focus of research over the past decades. Despite the importance of this field, the efficacy of a given NP against biofilm (mainly bacteria and diatoms formation is tested with the NP being in solution, while almost no studies test the effect of an NP once incorporated into a coating system. The development of a novel bioassay to assess the activity of NP-containing and biocide-containing coatings against marine biofilm formation has been achieved using a high-throughput microplate reader and highly sensitive confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, as well as nucleic acid staining. Juglone, an isolated NP that has previously shown efficacy against bacterial attachment, was incorporated into a simple coating matrix. Biofilm formation over 48 h was assessed and compared against coatings containing the NP and the commonly used booster biocide, cuprous oxide. Leaching of the NP from the coating was quantified at two time points, 24 h and 48 h, showing evidence of both juglone and cuprous oxide being released. Results from the microplate reader showed that the NP coatings exhibited antifouling efficacy, significantly inhibiting biofilm formation when compared to the control coatings, while NP coatings and the cuprous oxide coatings performed equally well. CLSM results and COMSTAT analysis on biofilm 3D morphology showed comparable results when the NP coatings were tested against the controls, with higher biofilm biovolume and maximum thickness being found on the controls. This new method proved to be repeatable and insightful and we believe it is applicable in antifouling and other numerous applications where interactions between biofilm formation and surfaces is of interest.

  8. Natural antigenic differences in the functionally equivalent extracellular DNABII proteins of bacterial biofilms provide a means for targeted biofilm therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Christopher J.; Davey, Mary Ellen; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria that persist in the oral cavity exist within complex biofilm communities. A hallmark of biofilms is the presence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), which consists of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA (eDNA), and proteins, including the DNABII family of proteins. The removal of DNABII proteins from a biofilm results in the loss of structural integrity of the eDNA and the collapse of the biofilm structure. We examined the role of DNABII proteins in the biofilm structure of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. Co-aggregation with oral streptococci is thought to facilitate the establishment of P. gingivalis within the biofilm community. We demonstrate that DNABII proteins are present in the EPS of both S. gordonii and P. gingivalis biofilms, and that these biofilms can be disrupted through the addition of antisera derived against their respective DNABII proteins. We provide evidence that both eDNA and DNABII proteins are limiting in S. gordonii but not in P. gingivalis biofilms. In addition, these proteins are capable of complementing one another functionally. We also found that while antisera derived against most DNABII proteins are capable of binding a wide variety of DNABII proteins, the P. gingivalis DNABII proteins are antigenically distinct. The presence of DNABII proteins in the EPS of these biofilms and the antigenic uniqueness of the P. gingivalis proteins provide an opportunity to develop therapies that are targeted to remove P. gingivalis and biofilms that contain P. gingivalis from the oral cavity. PMID:26988714

  9. Cell immobilization for production of lactic acid biofilms do it naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Suzanne F; Ragout, Alicia L; Siñeriz, Faustino; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2010-01-01

    Interest in natural cell immobilization or biofilms for lactic acid fermentation has developed considerably over the last few decades. Many studies report the benefits associated with biofilms as industrial methods for food production and for wastewater treatment, since the formation represents a protective means of microbial growth offering survival advantages to cells in toxic environments. The formation of biofilms is a natural process in which microbial cells adsorb to a support without chemicals or polymers that entrap the cells and is dependent on the reactor environment, microorganism, and characteristics of the support. These unique characteristics enable biofilms to cause chronic infections, disease, food spoilage, and devastating effects as in microbial corrosion. Their distinct resistance to toxicity, high biomass potential, and improved stability over cells in suspension make biofilms a good tool for improving the industrial economics of biological lactic acid production. Lactic acid bacteria and specific filamentous fungi are the main sources of biological lactic acid. Over the past two decades, studies have focused on improving the lactic acid volumetric productivity through reactor design development, new support materials, and improvements in microbial production strains. To illustrate the operational designs applied to the natural immobilization of lactic acid producing microorganisms, this chapter presents the results of a search for optimum parameters and how they are affected by the physical, chemical, and biological variables of the process. We will place particular emphasis upon the relationship between lactic acid productivity attained by various types of reactors, supports, media formulations, and lactic acid producing microorganisms. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural Pathogen Control Chemistry to Replace Toxic Treatment of Microbes and Biofilm in Cooling Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Lon; Brouse, Richard; Brouse, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Application of toxic antibacterial agents is considered necessary to control prevalent fresh water microorganisms that grow in evaporative cooling water systems, but can adversely affect the environment and human health. However, natural antibacterial water chemistry has been applied in industrial cooling water systems for over 10 years to inhibit microorganisms with excellent results. The water chemistry method concentrates natural minerals in highly-softened water to produce elevated pH and dissolved solids, while maintaining low calcium and magnesium content. The method provides further benefits in water conservation, and generates a small volume of non-toxic natural salt concentrate for cost efficient separation and disposal if required. This report describes the antimicrobial effects of these chemistry modifications in the cooling water environment and the resultant collective inhibition of microbes, biofilm, and pathogen growth. This article also presents a novel perspective of parasitic microbiome functional relationships, including “Trojan Protozoans” and biofilms, and the function of polyvalent metal ions in the formation and inhibition of biofilms. Reducing global dependence on toxic antibacterial agents discharged to the environment is an emerging concern due to their impact on the natural microbiome, plants, animals and humans. Concurrently, scientists have concluded that discharge of antibacterial agents plays a key role in development of pathogen resistance to antimicrobials as well as antibiotics. Use of natural antibacterial chemistry can play a key role in managing the cooling water environment in a more ecologically sustainable manner. PMID:28420074

  11. Combining polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) with toxicity testing to evaluate pesticide mixture effects on natural phototrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesce, Stephane; Morin, Soizic; Lissalde, Sophie; Montuelle, Bernard; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are valuable tools in passive sampling methods for monitoring polar organic pesticides in freshwaters. Pesticides extracted from the environment using such methods can be used to toxicity tests. This study evaluated the acute effects of POCIS extracts on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. Our results demonstrate an effect of POCIS pesticide mixtures on chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. Nevertheless, the range of biofilm responses differs according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing spatial variations in the sensitivity of natural communities in the studied stream. Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Research highlights: → Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used for monitoring polar organic pesticides in a contaminated river. → The acute effects of POCIS extracts were tested on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. → POCIS pesticide mixtures affected chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. → Biofilm responses differed according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing variations in the sensitivity of natural communities. → Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Pesticide mixtures extracted from POCIS can affect chl a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure of natural biofilms.

  12. Culturing Toxic Benthic Blooms: The Fate of Natural Biofilms in a Microcosm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Pippo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A microcosm designed for culturing aquatic phototrophic biofilms on artificial substrata was used to perform experiments with microphytobenthos sampled during summer toxic outbreaks of Ostreopsis cf. ovata along the Middle Tyrrhenian coast. This dynamic approach aimed at exploring the unique and complex nature of O. cf. ovata bloom development in the benthic system. Epibenthic assemblages were used as inocula for co-cultures of bloom organisms on polycarbonate slides at controlled environmental conditions. Biofilm surface adhesion, growth, and spatial structure were evaluated along with shifts in composition and matrix production in a low disturbance regime, simulating source habitat. Initial adhesion and substratum colonisation appeared as stochastic processes, then community structure and physiognomy markedly changed with time. Dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms, and dense clusters of Amphidinium cf. carterae at the mature biofilm phases, were recorded by light and confocal microscopy, whilst O. cf. ovata growth was visibly limited in the late culture phases. Life-form strategies, competitiveness for resources, and possibly allelopathic interactions shaped biofilm structure during culture growth. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis of exopolysaccharidic matrix revealed variations in sugar total amounts and composition. No toxic compounds were detected in the final communities tested by LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time OF Flight Mass Spectroscopy techniques.

  13. Determination of carbon in natural freshwater biofilms with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovari, M.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zaray, Gy.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in determination of low Z elements, i.e., carbon to phosphorus, in biological samples. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been already established as suitable trace element analytical method with low sample demand and quite good quantification limits. Recently, the determinable element range was extended towards Z = 6 (carbon). Biofilms can be used for biomonioring purposes in the aquatic environment. Besides the trace metals, especially the determination of the carbon content is important for the better understanding of the early stage of biofilm formation. For this, an ATI low Z spectrometer equipped with Cr-anode X-ray tube, multilayer monochromator, vacuum chamber, and a Si(Li) detector with ultra thin window was used. Biofilms were grown on two different artificial supports (granite and plexiglass), freeze dried, suspended in high purity water and analyzed. As an internal standard the natural titanium content of the biofilms was used. The accuracy of the method was checked by total carbon measurement using a combusting carbon analyzer.

  14. Determination of carbon in natural freshwater biofilms with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovari, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany Peter stny. 1/a. (Hungary)], E-mail: ovari@chem.elte.hu; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, TU-Wien, Stadionallee 2, A-1020, Wien (Austria); Zaray, Gy. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany Peter stny. 1/a. (Hungary); Cooperative Research Centre of Environmental Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany Peter stny. 1/a. (Hungary)

    2009-08-15

    There is a growing interest in determination of low Z elements, i.e., carbon to phosphorus, in biological samples. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been already established as suitable trace element analytical method with low sample demand and quite good quantification limits. Recently, the determinable element range was extended towards Z = 6 (carbon). Biofilms can be used for biomonioring purposes in the aquatic environment. Besides the trace metals, especially the determination of the carbon content is important for the better understanding of the early stage of biofilm formation. For this, an ATI low Z spectrometer equipped with Cr-anode X-ray tube, multilayer monochromator, vacuum chamber, and a Si(Li) detector with ultra thin window was used. Biofilms were grown on two different artificial supports (granite and plexiglass), freeze dried, suspended in high purity water and analyzed. As an internal standard the natural titanium content of the biofilms was used. The accuracy of the method was checked by total carbon measurement using a combusting carbon analyzer.

  15. Removal of naturally grown human biofilm with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, Lukasz; Fricke, Katja; Matthes, Rutger; Holtfreter, Birte; Schlüter, Rabea; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Kocher, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    The removal of biofilm is a prerequisite for a successful treatment of biofilm-associated diseases. In this study, we compared the feasibility of an atmospheric pressure plasma device with a sonic powered brush to remove naturally grown supragingival biofilm from extracted teeth. Twenty-four periodontally hopeless teeth were extracted. Argon jet plasma with an oxygen admixture of 1 vol% and a sonically driven brush were used to remove biofilm with application times of 60 s, 180 s and 300 s. The treatment efficiency was assessed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The highest biofilm removal rate was observed after an application time of 180 s/300 s with the sonic brush (80.4%/86.2%), plasma (75.5%/89.0%). These observations were confirmed by SEM. According to XPS analysis, plasma treatment decreased the amount of carbon and nitrogen, indicative of an extensive removal of proteins. Plasma treatment of naturally grown biofilm resulted in an effective cleaning of the tooth surface and was comparable to mechanical treatment. Treatment time had a significant influence on plaque reduction. These results showed that plasma could be a useful adjuvant treatment modality in cases where biofilm removal or reduction plays a decisive role, such as periodontitis and peri-implantitis. Plasma-treated biofilm on an extracted tooth. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic foot ulcer biofilm infections determined using bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot E Dowd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic extremity ulcers are associated with chronic infections. Such ulcer infections are too often followed by amputation because there is little or no understanding of the ecology of such infections or how to control or eliminate this type of chronic infection. A primary impediment to the healing of chronic wounds is biofilm phenotype infections. Diabetic foot ulcers are the most common, disabling, and costly complications of diabetes. Here we seek to derive a better understanding of the polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic extremity ulcer infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a new bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP approach we have evaluated the bacterial diversity of 40 chronic diabetic foot ulcers from different patients. The most prevalent bacterial genus associated with diabetic chronic wounds was Corynebacterium spp. Findings also show that obligate anaerobes including Bacteroides, Peptoniphilus, Fingoldia, Anaerococcus, and Peptostreptococcus spp. are ubiquitous in diabetic ulcers, comprising a significant portion of the wound biofilm communities. Other major components of the bacterial communities included commonly cultured genera such as Streptococcus, Serratia, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we highlight the patterns of population diversity observed in the samples and introduce preliminary evidence to support the concept of functional equivalent pathogroups (FEP. Here we introduce FEP as consortia of genotypically distinct bacteria that symbiotically produce a pathogenic community. According to this hypothesis, individual members of these communities when they occur alone may not cause disease but when they coaggregate or consort together into a FEP the synergistic effect provides the functional equivalence of well-known pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, giving the biofilm community the factors necessary to maintain chronic biofilm infections

  17. Bacterial biofilm supported on granular activated carbon and on natural zeolites- an application to wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lameiras, Sandra Raquel de Vasconcelos; Quintelas, C.; Tavares, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of many heavy metals from industrial wastewater is one of the most important environmental problems to be solved today. The retention of this contaminants by a biofilm supported on granular activated carbon or on natural zeolites is one of the promising technologies for the reduction of this problem, because it is cheap and it removes a broad range of substances, heavy metals and organic compounds. This study aims the development of a system of two mini-columns in series ...

  18. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    -OTU level. Therefore, biofilm communities growing in sunlight exposed substrates are capable of coping with increased mutation rates and appear pre-adapted to levels of ionizing radiation in Chernobyl due to their natural adaptation to periodical desiccation and ambient UV radiation.

  19. The effects of natural biofilms on the reattachment of young adult zebra mussels to artificial substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Jerry H; Maki, James S

    2003-08-01

    This laboratory study examined the effects of natural biofilms on the reattachment of young adult zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, in Petri dishes. Natural biofilms were developed in glass and polystyrene Petri dishes using water samples collected at various times of the year. Biofilms were developed over 1, 3, 8, and 14 d. Controls were clean glass and polystyrene Petri dishes. Zebra mussels collected from the field (Zebra mussels reattached to the dish surface or the shells of other mussels in the dish, or remained unattached. The data indicate that reattachment to clean glass was greater than to clean polystyrene (p Zebra mussels in control and filmed glass dishes reattached in higher percentages to the dish surface compared to the shells of other mussels (p mussel of reattachment between the dish surface and the shells of other mussels in most control polystyrene dishes (p > 0.05, ANOVA), whereas in filmed polystyrene the percentage of reattachment to the dish surface was greater than to the shells of other mussels (p zebra mussels.

  20. Enzymatic effect of a bio-film on corrosion of stainless steels immersed in natural seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hostis, V.

    2002-09-01

    Immersion of stainless steels in natural seawater leads to an ennoblement of their free corrosion potential (Ecor) with time. This evolution is linked to colonization of surface by bacteria, forming a bio-film. Literature synthesis has showed common points between proposed mechanisms, like a modification of cathodic reactions, and importance of hydrogen peroxide, but also differences, as acidity inside bio-films, or chemical composition of the passive layer, or enzymes present inside bio-films. The aim of the study was to precise these hypothesis, and finally mechanisms which leads to increase of Ecor. Experiments with addition of enzymes (glucose oxidase) have been performed and have lead to reproduce the electrochemical behaviour of stainless steels in natural seawater, including the cathodic behaviour. Study of composition of passive film and its semi-conducting properties, analysed respectively by XPS and Mott-Schottky plots, has lead to precise roles of hydrogen peroxide and oxidases. Moreover, study of donor densities of passive film has pointed out the effect of gluconic acid for evolution of cathodic reaction. This enzymatic mechanism has been applied and verified on crevice corrosion, and has been extended to other metallic materials, and other enzymes. (author)

  1. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C.; Skaltsounis, Alexios L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three Eng...

  2. Volatile organic compounds in natural biofilm in polyethylene pipes supplied with lake water and treated water from the distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, Ingun; Lund, Vidar; Ormerod, Kari; Herikstad, Hallgeir

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this work was investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in natural biofilm inside polyethylene (HDPE) pipelines at continuously flowing water. VOC in biofilm may contribute to off-flavour episodes in drinking water. The pipelines were supplied with raw lake water and treated water from the distribution network. Biofilm was established at test sites located at two different drinking water distribution networks and their raw water sources. A whole range of volatile compounds were identified in the biofilm, including compounds frequently associated with cyanobacteria and algae, such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In addition, volatile amines, dimethyldisulphide and 2-nonanone, presumably originating from microorganisms growing in the biofilm, were identified. C8-compounds such as 1-octen-3-one and 3-octanone were believed to be products from microfungi in the biofilm. Degradation products from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 used in HDPE pipes, corresponding to 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone, were present in the biofilm.

  3. A comparison of the recruitment success of introduced and native species under natural conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habacuc Flores-Moreno

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that introduced species have recruitment advantages over native species. However, this idea has not been widely tested, and those studies that have compared survival of introduced and native species have produced mixed results. We compiled data from the literature on survival through germination (seed to seedling survival, early seedling survival (survival through one week from seedling emergence and survival to adulthood (survival from germination to first reproduction under natural conditions for 285 native and 63 introduced species. Contrary to expectations, we found that introduced and native species do not significantly differ in survival through germination, early seedling survival, or survival from germination to first reproduction. These comparisons remained non-significant after accounting for seed mass, longevity and when including a random effect for site. Results remained consistent after excluding naturalized species from the introduced species data set, after performing phylogenetic independent contrasts, and after accounting for the effect of life form (woody/non-woody. Although introduced species sometimes do have advantages over native species (for example, through enemy release, or greater phenotypic plasticity, our findings suggest that the overall advantage conferred by these factors is either counterbalanced by advantages of native species (such as superior adaptation to local conditions or is simply too small to be detected at a broad scale.

  4. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ragon

    terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single-OTU level. Therefore, biofilm communities growing in sunlight exposed substrates are capable of coping with increased mutation rates and appear pre-adapted to levels of ionizing radiation in Chernobyl due to their natural adaptation to periodical desiccation and ambient UV radiation.

  5. Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single-OTU level. Therefore, biofilm communities growing in sunlight exposed substrates are capable of coping with increased mutation rates and appear pre-adapted to levels of ionizing radiation in Chernobyl due to their natural adaptation to periodical desiccation and ambient UV radiation. PMID:21765911

  6. Solar Radiation Stress in Natural Acidophilic Biofilms of Euglena mutabilis Revealed by Metatranscriptomics and PAM Fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Olsson, Sanna; Gómez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Altamirano-Jeschke, Maria; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Victor; Aguilera, Angeles

    2016-02-01

    The daily photosynthetic performance of a natural biofilm of the extreme acidophilic Euglena mutabilis from Río Tinto (SW, Spain) under full solar radiation was analyzed by means of pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence measurements and metatrascriptomic analysis. Natural E. mutabilis biofilms undergo large-scale transcriptomic reprogramming during midday due to a dynamic photoinhibition and solar radiation stress. Photoinhibition is due to UV radiation and not to light intensity, as revealed by PAM fluorometry analysis. In order to minimize the negative effects of solar radiation, our data supports the presence of a circadian rhythm in this euglenophyte that increases their opportunity to survive. Differential gene expression throughout the day (at 12:00, 20:00 and night) was monitored by massive Illumina parallel sequencing of metatranscriptomic libraries. The transcription pattern was altered in genes involved in Photosystem II stability and repair, UV damaged DNA repair, non-photochemical quenching and oxidative stress, supporting the photoinhibition detected by PAM fluorometry at midday. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Poly-P storage by natural biofilms in streams with varying biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have increased in many watersheds throughout the world; these inputs have been linked to the eutrophication of inland and coastal waters worldwide. We selected and surveyed 20, third-order streams that supported a range of water column biogeochemical conditions (conductivity, nutrient concentrations) located in the mid-Atlantic region, USA. Biofilm biomass, algal taxonomic composition, and nutrient stoichiometry (C, N, P, and poly-P) were measured at all stream sites. Pulse-amplitude modulation fluorometry (PAM) was used to estimate photosynthetic parameters for stream biofilms (e.g., alpha, Pmax), while microbiology techniques were used to verify poly-P storage by pro- and eukaryotic components of the biofilm (e.g., epi-fluorescent staining). As anticipated, chlorophyll ranged over 2 orders of magnitude among the streams (range 10-1,000 mg/m2). Biofilm chlorophyll and algal biovolume levels increased with water column nutrient contents, while the C:P ratio within the biofilm decreased. Both pro and eukaryotic organisms were present in resident biofilms and actively stored intracellular poly-P. Finally, the rate of photosynthetic within the biofilms appeared to be driven the nutritional condition of the biofilms; pmax and alpha values increased with significantly with stream biofilm poly-P content (r2 = 0.35 and 0.44, respectively). These results indicated that where nutrients are plentiful, biofilms P storage is favored, and this is likely a key regulator of stream biofilm biomass and productivity.

  8. NATURAL ANTIBIOFOULING AGENTS AS NEW CONTROL METHOD FOR PHOTOTROPHIC BIOFILMS DWELLING ON MONUMENTAL STONE SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Adriana CUZMAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Five natural antibiofoulants with terrestrial (capsaicine - CS, cinnamaldehyde - CI and marine origin (zosteric acid - ZA, poly-alkylpyridinium salts - pAPS and Ceramium botryocarpum extract - CBE have been selected and tested against phototrophic biofilm formation on the stone surfaces for their inhibitory properties. The antibiofouling agents (ABAs were incorporated into two commercial silicone based coatings (Silres BS OH 100 - S and Silres BS 290 - W. In this work, phototrophic growth was evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative image analysis. The results showed an inhibitory efficiency for almost all tested ABAs. However, this efficiency has been found for short time or when the incorporating agent were incompletely cured. Among the ABAs tested, the poly-alkylpyridinium salts and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into Silres BS 290 showed the best inhibitory efficiency.

  9. The effects of introducing natural gas in the Canary Islands for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Piquero, Juan Carlos; Ramos-Henriquez, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the economic effects of introducing natural gas in the Canary Islands to generate electricity in combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants. To this end we will evaluate how this measure contributes to achieving the objectives of the islands' energy policy and we calculate the cost of generating a kWh from this technology. For this calculation we obtain the net present value (NPV) of the total production costs during the economic lifetime of the plant so as to subsequently find the unitary cost per kWh generated. The result obtained indicates that the kWh cost is some 25% lower than the cost of using petroleum derivatives. Additionally, if we consider the positive effect of CO 2 emissions reductions, the cost is 41% lower. The introduction of natural gas will also be a decisive factor in complying with Kyoto requirements and in diversifying supply sources in the Canaries

  10. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C; Skaltsounis, Alexios L

    2015-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase) and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms "(plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb) AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease)." The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). Initially, 1848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases.

  11. Natural antimicrobials and oral microorganisms: A systematic review on herbal interventions for the eradication of multispecies oral biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini eKarygianni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms (plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease. The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Initially, 1,848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases.

  12. Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in the Interstitial Water of Natural Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Kiriyama, Chiho; Asada, Tomoya; Morisaki, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    In biofilms, the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) retains water in the interstitial region of the EPS. This interstitial water is the ambient environment for microorganisms in the biofilms. The nutrient condition in the interstitial water may affect microbial activity in the biofilms. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients, i.e., saccharides and proteins, contained in the interstitial water of biofilms formed on the stones. We also analyzed the molecular weight distribution, chemical species, and availability to bacteria of some saccharides in the interstitial water. Colorimetric assays showed that the concentrations of saccharides and proteins in the biofilm interstitial water were significantly higher (ca. 750 times) than those in the surrounding lake waters (p Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that the saccharides in the interstitial waters were mainly of low molecular-weight saccharides such as glucose and maltose, while proteins in the interstitial water were high molecular-weight proteins (over 7000 Da). Bacterial growth and production of EPS occurred simultaneously with the decrease in the low molecular-weight saccharide concentrations when a small portion of biofilm suspension was inoculated to the collected interstitial water, suggesting that the dissolved saccharides in the interstitial water support bacterial growth and formation of biofilms.

  13. Evolution of oxygen reduction current and biofilm on stainless steels cathodically polarised in natural aerated seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faimali, Marco [ISMAR-CNR, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genoa (Italy)], E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it; Chelossi, Elisabetta; Garaventa, Francesca; Corra, Christian; Greco, Giuliano; Mollica, Alfonso [ISMAR-CNR, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genoa (Italy)

    2008-12-01

    The aim of a series of works recently performed at ISMAR was to provide new useful information for a better understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria settlement causes corrosion on Stainless Steels (SS) and similar active-passive alloys exposed to seawater. In this work, the evolutions of cathodic current, bacteria population, and electronic structure of the passive layer were investigated on SS samples polarised at fixed potentials during their exposure to natural seawater. It was found that, during the first phase of biofilm growth, cathodic current increase is proportional to the number of settled bacteria at each fixed potential. However, the proportionality factor between settled bacteria and cathodic current depends on imposed potential. In particular, the proportionality factor strongly decreases when the potential is increased above a critical value close to -150 mV Ag/AgCl. This effect seems to be correlated with the electronic structure of the passive layer. Indeed, the outer part of the passive layer on tested SS was found to behave like a conductor at potentials more active than -150 mV Ag/AgCl, and like an n-type semiconductor at more noble potentials.

  14. Evolution of oxygen reduction current and biofilm on stainless steels cathodically polarised in natural aerated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faimali, Marco; Chelossi, Elisabetta; Garaventa, Francesca; Corra, Christian; Greco, Giuliano; Mollica, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of a series of works recently performed at ISMAR was to provide new useful information for a better understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria settlement causes corrosion on Stainless Steels (SS) and similar active-passive alloys exposed to seawater. In this work, the evolutions of cathodic current, bacteria population, and electronic structure of the passive layer were investigated on SS samples polarised at fixed potentials during their exposure to natural seawater. It was found that, during the first phase of biofilm growth, cathodic current increase is proportional to the number of settled bacteria at each fixed potential. However, the proportionality factor between settled bacteria and cathodic current depends on imposed potential. In particular, the proportionality factor strongly decreases when the potential is increased above a critical value close to -150 mV Ag/AgCl. This effect seems to be correlated with the electronic structure of the passive layer. Indeed, the outer part of the passive layer on tested SS was found to behave like a conductor at potentials more active than -150 mV Ag/AgCl, and like an n-type semiconductor at more noble potentials

  15. Natural antimicrobial peptide complexes in the fighting of antibiotic resistant biofilms: Calliphora vicina medicinal maggots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gordya

    Full Text Available Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms' resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable.

  16. Natural antimicrobial peptide complexes in the fighting of antibiotic resistant biofilms: Calliphora vicina medicinal maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordya, Natalia; Yakovlev, Andrey; Kruglikova, Anastasia; Tulin, Dmitry; Potolitsina, Evdokia; Suborova, Tatyana; Bordo, Domenico; Rosano, Camillo; Chernysh, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms' resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio) provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable.

  17. Conjugation of Inulin Improves Anti-Biofilm Activity of Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiang; Liu, Jing; Li, Ruilian; Jiao, Siming; Feng, Cui; Wang, Zhuo A; Du, Yuguang

    2018-05-04

    Bacteria biofilm helps bacteria prevent phagocytosis during infection and increase resistance to antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium and is tightly associated with biofilm-related infections, which have led to great threat to human health. Chitosan, the only cationic polysaccharide in nature, has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities, which, however, require a relative high dosage of chitosan. Moreover, poor water solubility further restricts its applications on anti-infection therapy. Inulins are a group of polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, and are widely used in processed foods. Compared to chitosan, inulin is very soluble in water and possesses a mild antibacterial activity against certain pathogenic bacteria. In order to develop an effective strategy to treat biofilm-related infections, we introduce a method by covalent conjugation of inulin to chitosan. The physicochemical characterization of the inulin⁻chitosan conjugate was assayed, and the anti-biofilm activity was evaluated against S. aureus biofilm. The results indicated that, as compared to chitosan, this novel polysaccharide⁻polysaccharide conjugate significantly enhanced activities against S. aureus either in a biofilm or planktonic state. Of note, the conjugate also showed a broad spectrum anti-biofilm activity on different bacteria strains and low cellular toxicity to mammalian cells. These results suggested that chitosan conjugation of inulin was a viable strategy for treatment against biofilm-related infections. This finding may further spread the application of natural polysaccharides on treatments of infectious disease.

  18. Element determination in natural biofilms of mine drainage water by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mages, Margarete; Tuempling, Wolf von Jr.; Veen, Andrea van der; Baborowski, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Human impacts like mining activities lead to higher element concentration in surface waters. For different pollution levels, the consequences for aquatic organisms are not yet investigated in detail. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to determine the influence of mining affected surface waters on biofilms. Elements like heavy metals can be absorbed on cell walls and on polymeric substances or enter the cytoplasm of the cells. Thus, they are important for the optimization of industrial biotechnological processes and the environmental biotechnology. Beyond this, biofilms can also play an important role in wastewater treatment processes and serve as bioindicators in the aquatic environment. The presented total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic investigation was performed to compare the element accumulation behavior of biofilms grown on natural or on artificial materials of drainage water affected by former copper mining activities. A high salt and heavy metal pollution is characteristic for the drainage water. For an assessment of these results, samples from stream Schlenze upstream the confluence with the drainage water, a small tributary of the Saale River in central Germany, were analyzed, too

  19. Pb and Cd binding to natural freshwater biofilms developed at different pH: the important role of culture pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiuyi; Dong, Deming; Ding, Xiaoou; Yang, Fan; Jiang, Xu; Guo, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    The effects of solution pH on adsorption of trace metals to different types of natural aquatic solid materials have been studied extensively, but few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of pH at which the solid materials were formed on the adsorption. The purpose of present study is to examine this effect of culture pH on metal adsorption to natural freshwater biofilms. The adsorption of Pb and Cd to biofilms which were developed at different culture pH values (ranging from 6.5 to 9.0) was measured at the same adsorption pH value (6.5). The culture pH had considerable effects on both composition and metal adsorption ability of the biofilms. Higher culture pH usually promoted the accumulation of organic material and Fe oxides in the biofilms. The culture pH also affected the quantity and species of algae in the biofilms. The adsorption of Pb and Cd to the biofilms generally increased with the increase of culture pH. This increase was minor at lower pH range and significant at higher pH range and was more remarkable for Cd adsorption than for Pb adsorption. The notable contribution of organic material to the adsorption at higher culture pH values was also observed. The profound impacts of culture pH on adsorption behavior of biofilms mainly resulted from the variation of total contents of the biofilm components and were also affected by the alteration of composition and properties of the components.

  20. The Natural Evolutionary Potential of Tree Populations to Cope with Newly Introduced Pests and Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budde, Katharina Birgit; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Ravn, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Emerging diseases often originate from host shifts of introduced pests or pathogens. Genetic resistance of the host to such diseases might be limited or absent due to the lack of coevolutionary history. We review six examples of major disease outbreaks on native tree species caused by different...

  1. Microbiota formed on attached stainless steel coupons correlates with the natural biofilm of the sink surface in domestic kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Birgitte; Røssvoll, Elin; Måge, Ingrid; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2016-02-01

    Stainless steel coupons are frequently used in biofilm studies in the laboratory, as this material is commonly used in the food industry. The coupons are attached to different surfaces to create a "natural" biofilm to be studied further in laboratory trials. However, little has been done to investigate how well the microbiota on such coupons represents the surrounding environment. The microbiota on sink wall surfaces and on new stainless steel coupons attached to the sink wall for 3 months in 8 domestic kitchen sinks was investigated by next-generation sequencing (MiSeq) of the 16S rRNA gene derived from DNA and RNA (cDNA), and by plating and identification of colonies. The mean number of colony-forming units was about 10-fold higher for coupons than sink surfaces, and more variation in bacterial counts between kitchens was seen on sink surfaces than coupons. The microbiota in the majority of biofilms was dominated by Moraxellaceae (genus Moraxella/Enhydrobacter) and Micrococcaceae (genus Kocuria). The results demonstrated that the variation in the microbiota was mainly due to differences between kitchens (38.2%), followed by the different nucleic acid template (DNA vs RNA) (10.8%), and that only 5.1% of the variation was a result of differences between coupons and sink surfaces. The microbiota variation between sink surfaces and coupons was smaller for samples based on their RNA than on their DNA. Overall, our results suggest that new stainless steel coupons are suited to model the dominating part of the natural microbiota of the surrounding environment and, furthermore, are suitable for different downstream studies.

  2. Introducing Taiwanese Undergraduate Students to the Nature of Science through Nobel Prize Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS). The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel…

  3. Biofilms in lab and nature: a molecular geneticist's voyage to microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the latest findings on how extracellular signaling controls cell fate determination during the process of biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis in the artificial setting of the laboratory. To complement molecular genetic approaches, surface-associated communities in settings as diverse as the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea and the human lung were investigated. The study of the pitcher plant revealed that the presence or absence of a mosquito larva in the pitcher plant controlled bacterial diversity in the ecosystem inside the pitcher plant. Through the analysis of the respiratory tract microbiota of humans suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) a correlation between lung function and bacterial community diversity was found. Those that had lungs in good condition had also more diverse communities, whereas patients harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa-the predominant CF pathogen-in their lungs had less diverse communities. Further studies focused on interspecies and intraspecies relationships at the molecular level in search for signaling molecules that would promote biofilm formation. Two molecules were found that induced biofilm formation in B. subtilis: nystatin-released by other species-and surfactin-released by B. subtilis itself. This is a role not previously known for two molecules that were known for other activities-nystatin as an antifungal and surfactin as a surfactant. In addition, surfactin was found to also trigger cannibalism under starvation. This could be a strategy to maintain the population because the cells destroyed serve as nutrients for the rest. The path that led the author to the study of microbial biofilms is also described.

  4. Evaluation of single and joint toxic effects of diuron and its main metabolites on natural phototrophic biofilms using a pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Stéphane; Lissalde, Sophie; Lavieille, Delphine; Margoum, Christelle; Mazzella, Nicolas; Roubeix, Vincent; Montuelle, Bernard

    2010-09-15

    This study assessed the single and joint acute toxicity of diuron and two of its metabolites (DCPMU and 3,4-DCA) on natural phototrophic biofilms using a PICT approach with photosynthesis bioassays. River biofilm communities were collected at three sampling stations exhibiting increasing concentrations of diuron, DCPMU and 3,4-DCA from upstream to downstream. Applied individually, the parent compound was more toxic than its metabolites, with DCPMU being more toxic than 3,4-DCA which only inhibited photosynthesis at very high concentrations (EC25 at about 5 mg/l). Sensitivity of biofilm communities to diuron and DCPMU decreased from upstream to downstream, revealing tolerance induction in contaminated sections of the river, as expected from the PICT concept. Nevertheless, PICT was not applicable for 3,4-DCA, which similarly affected upstream, intermediate and downstream biofilm communities. Chemical mixtures of diuron and DCPMU demonstrated additive effects whereas combinations with 3,4-DCA enhanced the observed effects. Our results reveal that the individual and combined presence of diuron and DCPMU in lotic ecosystems can have both short-term effects (as shown with bioassays) and long-term effects (as shown through the PICT approach) on phototrophic biofilms, whereas environmental concentrations of 3,4-DCA may not affect biofilm photosynthetic activity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. How do the high school biology textbooks introduce the nature of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young H.

    2007-05-01

    Although helping students to achieve an adequate understanding of the nature of science has been a consistent goal for science education for over half a century, current research reveals that the majority of students and teachers have naive views of the nature of science (Abd-El-khalick & Akerson, 2004; Bianchini & Colburn, 2000). This problem could be attributed not only to the complex nature of science, but also to the way the nature of science is presented to students during instruction. Thus, research must be conducted to examine how the science is taught, especially in science textbooks, which are a major instructional resource for teaching science. The aim of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the first chapter of four high school biology textbooks, which typically discusses "What is science?" and "What is biology?" This research used a content analysis technique to analyze the four high school biology textbooks, using a conceptual framework that has been used often for science textbook analysis. This conceptual framework consists of four themes of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of thinking, (c) science as a way of investigating, and (d) the interaction of science, technology, and society. For this study, the four-theme-framework was modified to incorporate descriptors from national-level documents, such as Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), as well as science education research reports. A scoring procedure was used that resulted in good to excellent intercoder agreement with Cohen's kappa (k) ranging from .63 to .96. The findings show that the patterns of presentation of the four themes of the nature of science in the four high school biology textbooks are similar across the different locations of data, text, figures, and assessments. On the other hand, the pattern of presentation of the four

  6. Introducing Taiwanese undergraduate students to the nature of science through Nobel Prize stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim Eshach

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS. The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel Prize stories as a vehicle for teaching NOS. For this purpose, a 36-hour course, “Albert Einstein’s Nobel Prize and the Nature of Science,” was developed and conducted in Taiwan Normal University. Ten undergraduate physics students participated in the course. Analysis of the Views of Nature of Science questionnaires completed by the students before and after the course, as well as the students’ own presentations of Nobel Prize stories (with an emphasis on how NOS characteristics are reflected in the story, showed that the students who participated in the course enriched their views concerning all aspects of NOS. The paper concludes with some suggestions for applying the novel idea of using Nobel Prize stories in physics classrooms.

  7. Prelude to practice: Introducing a practice based approach to forest and nature governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, B.J.M.; Behagel, J.H.; Bommel, van S.; Koning, de J.; Turnhout, E.

    2013-01-01

    ‘Forest and nature governance’ is a field that has recently emerged from forestry sciences. It analyses the governance of a diverse set of issues, including deforestation, biodiversity loss and illegal logging, producing insights useful for science and policy. Its main theoretical base consists of

  8. The natural antimicrobial carvacrol inhibits quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum and reduces bacterial biofilm formation at sub-lethal concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Ojo-Fakunle, Victoria T A; Woertman, Jenifer; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/19545264X

    2014-01-01

    The formation of biofilm by bacteria confers resistance to biocides and presents problems in medical and veterinary clinical settings. Here we report the effect of carvacrol, one of the major antimicrobial components of oregano oil, on the formation of biofilms and its activity on existing biofilms.

  9. The role of naturally occurring biofilm in the treatment of mine water in abandoned uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielnicki, S.; Sklodowska, A.; Michalska, B.

    2014-01-01

    The uranium mine in Kowary (SW Poland) was active from 1948 to 1967. After exploitation ceased the mine was abandoned and from the beginning of 21"s"t century it is a touristic attraction of this region of Poland. The largest uranium mining fields, Kowary and Kowary-Podgorze, were located in southern part of the metamorphic cover of the Karkonosze Granite. In the mine dumps at Kowary- Podgorze ore fragments containing up to 0.15% of uranium can still be found. Several dumps have been left in the Kowary Podgorze vicinity as the post mining uranium waste. The dump of adits Nos. 19 and 19a at Kowary Podgorze is located in the Jedlica River valley. Water from adit No. 19a is still discharged by the pipe directly to the Jedlica River. In the end of this pipe a small dam was built to regulate the level of water in adit and small reservoir of mine water was created in this place. The level of uranium observed in water before dam is between 10 μg/dm"3 and 670 μg/dm"3. The bottom of reservoir is covered by strongly mineralized biofilm containing up to 60 mg U/kg (dry weight), 1 500 mg As/kg, 10 000 mg Al/kg and about 1700 mg Mn/kg. Water in Jedlica River contains 6- 7 μg U/dm"3, 16 μg As/dm"3 and about 10 μg Mn/dm"3 and these values are within the limits for non contaminated surface water. The water from the reservoir together with the biofilm is discharged minimum twice a year immediately to Jedlica River causing a temporary increase of contaminants (beyond the limits) and dispersion of uranium and arsenic up to 20 km from the main source of pollution. It seems that biofilm from reservoir acts as an active filter that removes main contaminants from mine water mainly through biosorption. Laboratory studies show that sorption complexes are relatively stable. Maximum 10% of absorbed uranium was eluted by EDTA buffer or acetic acid (soluble and carbonate fraction). Arsenic was eluted in 25% by phosphate buffer (ion exchange) and almost all iron and cadmium (occurring in

  10. Assessing demand when introducing a new fuel: natural gas on Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenendaal, W.J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The Indonesian government is investing in a gas transmission system on Java. For the evaluation of this investment a forecast of the demand for natural gas by the manufacturing sector is needed. To obtain this forecast the manufacturing sector is divided into subsectors according to energy use in production processes. On the level of production processes the opportunities for natural gas are based on net present value evaluations of its future benefits in production. This results in the desired fuel mix for manufacturing subsectors, from which the gas intensity ratios per subsector for existing production and new investments are calculated. Gas demand can then be forecast by combining the gas intensity ratios with subsectoral (growth in) gross value-added. This approach leads to a flexible forecasting tool that can readily account for changes in economic structure and energy prices, as encountered by rapidly developing economies. (author)

  11. Introducing 'The Diverse Nature of Defence Healthcare' university module for DMS personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Chris; Blake, L

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 10 years the UK Defence Medical Services has deployed healthcare personnel to a variety of operational areas in support of UK Operations. The unique nature of every operational deployment, in conjunction with the wide variety of roles which healthcare staff undertake, necessitates bespoke educational preparation of the military healthcare force. This paper explores the creation and development of one of the four modules which comprise the BSc (Hons) in Defence Health Care studies, entitled 'The Diverse Nature of Defence Healthcare'. It demonstrates the unique contribution that the Defence School of Healthcare Education makes towards Generation and Preparation of the Force for deployment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Continuum and discrete approach in modeling biofilm development and structure: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, M R; Frunzo, L; D'Acunto, B; Pechaud, Y; Pirozzi, F; Esposito, G

    2018-03-01

    The scientific community has recognized that almost 99% of the microbial life on earth is represented by biofilms. Considering the impacts of their sessile lifestyle on both natural and human activities, extensive experimental activity has been carried out to understand how biofilms grow and interact with the environment. Many mathematical models have also been developed to simulate and elucidate the main processes characterizing the biofilm growth. Two main mathematical approaches for biomass representation can be distinguished: continuum and discrete. This review is aimed at exploring the main characteristics of each approach. Continuum models can simulate the biofilm processes in a quantitative and deterministic way. However, they require a multidimensional formulation to take into account the biofilm spatial heterogeneity, which makes the models quite complicated, requiring significant computational effort. Discrete models are more recent and can represent the typical multidimensional structural heterogeneity of biofilm reflecting the experimental expectations, but they generate computational results including elements of randomness and introduce stochastic effects into the solutions.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  14. Molecular Techniques Revealed Highly Diverse Microbial Communities in Natural Marine Biofilms on Polystyrene Dishes for Invertebrate Larval Settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, On On

    2014-01-09

    Biofilm microbial communities play an important role in the larval settlement response of marine invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be resolved, mainly because of the uncertainties in characterizing members in the communities using traditional 16S rRNA gene-based molecular methods and in identifying the chemical signals involved. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to characterize the bacterial communities in intertidal and subtidal marine biofilms developed during two seasons. We revealed highly diverse biofilm bacterial communities that varied with season and tidal level. Over 3,000 operational taxonomic units with estimates of up to 8,000 species were recovered in a biofilm sample, which is by far the highest number recorded in subtropical marine biofilms. Nineteen phyla were found, of which Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant one in the intertidal and subtidal biofilms, respectively. Apart from these, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes were the major groups recovered in both intertidal and subtidal biofilms, although their relative abundance varied among samples. Full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed for the four biofilm samples and showed similar bacterial compositions at the phylum level to those revealed by pyrosequencing. Laboratory assays confirmed that cyrids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite preferred to settle on the intertidal rather than subtidal biofilms. This preference was independent of the biofilm bacterial density or biomass but was probably related to the biofilm community structure, particularly, the Proteobacterial and Cyanobacterial groups. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  15. Science Camps for Introducing Nature of Scientific Inquiry Through Student Inquiries in Nature: Two Applications with Retention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, G.; Abik, N. M.; Capkinoglu, E.; Metin, D.; Dogan, E. Eroglu; Cetin, P. S.; Schwartz, R.

    2017-08-01

    Scientific inquiry is widely accepted as a method of science teaching. Understanding its characteristics, called Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI), is also necessary for a whole conception of scientific inquiry. In this study NOSI aspects were taught explicitly through student inquiries in nature in two summer science camps. Students conducted four inquiries through their questions about surrounding soil, water, plants, and animals under the guidance of university science educators. At the end of each investigation, students presented their inquiry. NOSI aspects were made explicit by one of the science educators in the context of the investigations. Effectiveness of the science camp program and its retention were determined by applying Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI-S) (Schwartz et al. 2008) questionnaire as pre-, post-, and retention test after two months. The patterns in the data were similar. The science camp program was effective in developing three of six NOSI aspects which were questions guide scientific research, multiple methods of research, and difference between data and evidence. Students' learning of these aspects was retained. Discussion about these and the other three aspects is included in the paper. Implications of differences between school and out-of-school science experiences are also discussed.

  16. Combating biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are complex microbial communities consisting of microcolonies embedded in a matrix of self-produced polymer substances. Biofilm cells show much greater resistance to environmental challenges including antimicrobial agents than their free-living counterparts. The biofilm mode of life...... is believed to significantly contribute to successful microbial survival in hostile environments. Conventional treatment, disinfection and cleaning strategies do not proficiently deal with biofilm-related problems, such as persistent infections and contamination of food production facilities. In this review......, strategies to control biofilms are discussed, including those of inhibition of microbial attachment, interference of biofilm structure development and differentiation, killing of biofilm cells and induction of biofilm dispersion....

  17. Improvement of interfacial interactions using natural polyphenol-inspired tannic acid-coated nanoclay enhancement of soy protein isolate biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong; Kang, Haijiao; Zhang, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zhang, Shifeng, E-mail: shifeng.zhang@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Li, Jianzhang, E-mail: lijzh@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A novel interface of MMT was fabricated by natural polyphenol (TA)-inspired chemistry. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibited good interface and surface compatibility. • TA can act as a bridge between MMT and SPI to enhance the interfacial interaction. • Surface-modified MMT gets the potential to be used in the modification of SPI biofilms for improving the mechanical properties and water resistance apparently. - Abstract: In this study, a novel and economic surface modification technique for montmorillonite (MMT) nanosheets, a biocompatible coupling cross-linking agent, was developed on an attempt at improving the interfacial adhesion with soy protein isolate (SPI) matrix. Inspired by natural polyphenol, the “green dip-coating” method using tannic acid (TA) to surface-modify MMT (TA@MMT). SPI nanocomposite films modified with MMT or TA@MMT, as well as the control ones, were prepared via the casting method. The TA layer was successfully coated on the MMT surface through the (Fe{sup III}) ions coordination chemistry and the synthetic samples were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The compatibility and interfacial interactions between modified MMT and SPI matrix were greatly enhanced by the TA-Fe{sup III} coating on the MMT surface. The mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of the resultant biofilm were increased accordingly. Compared with that of the unmodified SPI film, the tensile strength of the nanocomposite films modified by the green dip-coating was increased by 113.3%. These SPI-based nanocomposite films showed the favorable potential in terms of food packing applications due to their efficient barriers to water vapor and UV and/or visible light.

  18. Introducing a new bond reactivity index: Philicities for natural bond orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Márquez, Jesús; Zorrilla, David; García, Víctor; Fernández, Manuel

    2017-12-22

    In the present work, a new methodology defined for obtaining reactivity indices (philicities) is proposed. This is based on reactivity functions such as the Fukui function or the dual descriptor, and makes it possible to project the information from reactivity functions onto molecular orbitals, instead of onto the atoms of the molecule (atomic reactivity indices). The methodology focuses on the molecules' natural bond orbitals (bond reactivity indices) because these orbitals have the advantage of being localized, allowing the reaction site of an electrophile or nucleophile to be determined within a very precise molecular region. This methodology provides a "philicity" index for every NBO, and a representative set of molecules has been used to test the new definition. A new methodology has also been developed to compare the "finite difference" and the "frontier molecular orbital" approximations. To facilitate their use, the proposed methodology as well as the possibility of calculating the new indices have been implemented in a new version of UCA-FUKUI software. In addition, condensation schemes based on atomic populations of the "atoms in molecules" theory, the Hirshfeld population analysis, the approximation of Mulliken (with a minimal basis set) and electrostatic potential-derived charges have also been implemented, including the calculation of "bond reactivity indices" defined in previous studies. Graphical abstract A new methodology defined for obtaining bond reactivity indices (philicities) is proposed and makes it possible to project the information from reactivity functions onto molecular orbitals. The proposed methodology as well as the possibility of calculating the new indices have been implemented in a new version of UCA-FUKUI software. In addition, this version can use new atomic condensation schemes and new "utilities" have also been included in this second version.

  19. Co-operation - the way out (introducing the Natural Materials Radiation Control Initiative)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, I.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Materials Radiation Control Initiative (NMRCI), a forum of regulators, advisory bodies and operators in NORM industries from Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, Netherlands, Poland, South Africa and USA, reported on its activities that were aimed at addressing NORM regulatory issues through industry/regulatory co-operation. The objective was to generate comprehensive information on quantifying exposures to both workers and the general public, through the consolidation of existing data and the collection of data from new studies. In its interactions with the IAEA to date, the NMRCI had proposed that it assist in drafting a Safety Report identifying exposure sources and providing information on suggested methods for national regulatory bodies, advisory bodies and NORM industries to make quantitative assessments and to identify how best to meet the requirements of the BSS. It was envisaged that the Safety Report should reflect the principles contained in ICRP recommendations and IAEA Safety Standards, should make maximum use of measured data, and should deal separately with different industries such as phosphates, coal and niobium, taking account of the differences in chemical, physical and radiological properties of the materials as well as differences in work practices. It had been decided that occupational exposure issues should be addressed as a first priority, before moving on to the public exposure arena where waste management issues such as waste disposal and remediation of contaminated sites would be addressed. The NMRCI also aimed to promote co-operation between NORM industries and regulatory authorities on the matter of regulations and their impact on international trade in commodities containing NORM

  20. Environmental transcriptome analysis reveals physiological differences between biofilm and planktonic modes of life of the iron oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. in their natural microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parro Víctor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme acidic environments are characterized by their high metal content and lack of nutrients (oligotrophy. Macroscopic biofilms and filaments usually grow on the water-air interface or under the stream attached to solid substrates (streamers. In the Río Tinto (Spain, brown filaments develop under the water stream where the Gram-negative iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. (L. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are abundant. These microorganisms play a critical role in bioleaching processes for industrial (biominery and environmental applications (acid mine drainage, bioremediation. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological differences between the free living (planktonic and the sessile (biofilm associated lifestyles of Leptospirillum spp. as part of its natural extremely acidophilic community. Results Total RNA extracted from environmental samples was used to determine the composition of the metabolically active members of the microbial community and then to compare the biofilm and planktonic environmental transcriptomes by hybridizing to a genomic microarray of L. ferrooxidans. Genes up-regulated in the filamentous biofilm are involved in cellular functions related to biofilm formation and maintenance, such as: motility and quorum sensing (mqsR, cheAY, fliA, motAB, synthesis of cell wall structures (lnt, murA, murB, specific proteases (clpX/clpP, stress response chaperons (clpB, clpC, grpE-dnaKJ, groESL, etc. Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation (poxB, ackA were up-regulated in the biofilm. This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively in the acidic (pH 1.8 water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. Conclusions Our results indicate that the

  1. Environmental transcriptome analysis reveals physiological differences between biofilm and planktonic modes of life of the iron oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. in their natural microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Gómez, Manuel J; Arcas, Aida; Parro, Víctor

    2010-06-24

    Extreme acidic environments are characterized by their high metal content and lack of nutrients (oligotrophy). Macroscopic biofilms and filaments usually grow on the water-air interface or under the stream attached to solid substrates (streamers). In the Río Tinto (Spain), brown filaments develop under the water stream where the Gram-negative iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. (L. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are abundant. These microorganisms play a critical role in bioleaching processes for industrial (biominery) and environmental applications (acid mine drainage, bioremediation). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological differences between the free living (planktonic) and the sessile (biofilm associated) lifestyles of Leptospirillum spp. as part of its natural extremely acidophilic community. Total RNA extracted from environmental samples was used to determine the composition of the metabolically active members of the microbial community and then to compare the biofilm and planktonic environmental transcriptomes by hybridizing to a genomic microarray of L. ferrooxidans. Genes up-regulated in the filamentous biofilm are involved in cellular functions related to biofilm formation and maintenance, such as: motility and quorum sensing (mqsR, cheAY, fliA, motAB), synthesis of cell wall structures (lnt, murA, murB), specific proteases (clpX/clpP), stress response chaperons (clpB, clpC, grpE-dnaKJ, groESL), etc. Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation (poxB, ackA) were up-regulated in the biofilm. This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively) in the acidic (pH 1.8) water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. Our results indicate that the acidophilic filaments are dynamic structures

  2. Biofilms in wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, R A; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, M

    2014-01-01

    Following confirmation of the presence of biofilms in chronic wounds, the term biofilm became a buzzword within the wound healing community. For more than a century pathogens have been successfully isolated and identified from wound specimens using techniques that were devised in the nineteenth...... extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Cells within such aggregations (or biofilms) display varying physiological and metabolic properties that are distinct from those of planktonic cells, and which contribute to their persistence. There are many factors that influence healing in wounds and the discovery...... of biofilms in chronic wounds has provided new insight into the reasons why. Increased tolerance of biofilms to antimicrobial agents explains the limited efficacy of antimicrobial agents in chronic wounds and illustrates the need to develop new management strategies. This review aims to explain the nature...

  3. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eSchubotz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streamer biofilm communities (SBC are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae, Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and ‘Bison Pool’, using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate and glucose to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10 to 30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at ‘Bison Pool’ and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20 and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at ‘Bison Pool’ and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being

  4. Light history modulates antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to both natural (light) and chemical (herbicides) stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Sague, Irene Gallardo; Urrea, Gemma; Guasch, Helena

    2012-05-01

    In multiple stress situations, the co-occurrence of environmental and chemical factors can influence organisms' ability to cope with toxicity. In this context, the influence of light adaptation on the response of freshwater biofilms to sudden light changes or to herbicides exposure was investigated by determining various parameters: diatom community composition, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll a content, antioxidant enzyme activities. Biofilms were grown in microcosms under sub-optimal, saturating, and high light intensities and showed already described characteristics of shade/light adaptation (community structure, photosynthetic adaptation, etc.). Light history modulated antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to the stress caused by short-term exposure to sudden light changes or to herbicides. First biofilms adapted to sub-optimal light intensity (shade-adapted) were found to be more sensitive to an increase in light intensity than high-light adapted ones to a reduction in light intensity. Second, while light history influenced biofilms' response to glyphosate, it had little influence on biofilms' response to copper and none on its response to oxyfluorfen. Indeed glyphosate exposure led to a stronger decrease in photosynthetic efficiency of shade-adapted biofilms (EC(50) = 11.7 mg L(-1)) than of high-light adapted communities (EC(50) = 35.6 mg L(-1)). Copper exposure led to an activation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in biofilms adapted to sub-optimal and saturating light intensity while the protein content decreased in all biofilms exposed to copper. Oxyfluorfen toxicity was independent of light history provoking an increase in APX activity. In conclusion this study showed that both previous exposure to contaminants and physical habitat characteristics might influence community tolerance to disturbances strongly.

  5. Oral mouth rinses from Costa Rican natural substances with antibacterial properties applied to biofilm control in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Vargas, Silvia; Garita Herrera, Andrea; Porras Monge, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of three natural substances were analyzed for the control of the dental biofilm in Costa Rica in 2013. The studied plants are the cypress, the star anise flower and the guava leaves which were chosen after being studied, demonstrating antimicrobial properties. An extract of each sample by distillation process by steam drag in the Centro de Investigaciones de Productos Naturales of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Chlorhexidine in vitro tests were performed on the three plants in different concentrations, pure, 50% and 25%, against a population of streptococcus mutans. The flower of anis lacked activity against S. mutans in the microbiological tests, the cypress showed effectiveness against S. mutans, using the pure extract and at 50% concentration. The guava leaves, an inhibitory halo was obtained. 10 mm, when using the extract in its pure form and a 7 mm halo when using it at 50% concentration, so they are effective against S. mutans. Comparing the antimicrobial activity of the three plants with that of chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine showed a greater activity, being more effective against S. mutans. The essential oil of the cypress and guava leaves showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, however, more tests are needed to prove its effectiveness as a mouthwash. The star anise in a steam extract did not show antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. (author) [es

  6. Current and future trends for biofilm reactors for fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Duygu; Demirci, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Biofilms in the environment can both cause detrimental and beneficial effects. However, their use in bioreactors provides many advantages including lesser tendencies to develop membrane fouling and lower required capital costs, their higher biomass density and operation stability, contribution to resistance of microorganisms, etc. Biofilm formation occurs naturally by the attachment of microbial cells to the support without use of any chemicals agent in biofilm reactors. Biofilm reactors have been studied and commercially used for waste water treatment and bench and pilot-scale production of value-added products in the past decades. It is important to understand the fundamentals of biofilm formation, physical and chemical properties of a biofilm matrix to run the biofilm reactor at optimum conditions. This review includes the principles of biofilm formation; properties of a biofilm matrix and their roles in the biofilm formation; factors that improve the biofilm formation, such as support materials; advantages and disadvantages of biofilm reactors; and industrial applications of biofilm reactors.

  7. Molecular Techniques Revealed Highly Diverse Microbial Communities in Natural Marine Biofilms on Polystyrene Dishes for Invertebrate Larval Settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, On On; Chung, Hong Chun; Yang, Jiangke; Wang, Yong; Dash, Swagatika; Wang, Hao; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm microbial communities play an important role in the larval settlement response of marine invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be resolved, mainly because of the uncertainties in characterizing members

  8. Design of Self-Healing Supramolecular Rubbers by Introducing Ionic Cross-Links into Natural Rubber via a Controlled Vulcanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Liming; Lin, Baofeng; Liang, Xingquan; Chen, Yukun

    2016-07-13

    Introducing ionic associations is one of the most effective approaches to realize a self-healing behavior for rubbers. However, most of commercial rubbers are nonpolar rubbers without now available functional groups to be converted into ionic groups. In this paper, our strategy was based on a controlled peroxide-induced vulcanization to generate massive ionic cross-links via polymerization of zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) in natural rubber (NR) and exploited it as a potential self-healable material. We controlled vulcanization process to retard the formation of covalent cross-link network, and successfully generated a reversible supramolecular network mainly constructed by ionic cross-links. Without the restriction of covalent cross-linkings, the NR chains in ionic supramolecular network had good flexibility and mobility. The nature that the ionic cross-links was easily reconstructed and rearranged facilitating the self-healing behavior, thereby enabling a fully cut sample to rejoin and retain to its original properties after a suitable self-healing process at ambient temperature. This study thus demonstrates a feasible approach to impart an ionic association induced self-healing function to commercial rubbers without ionic functional groups.

  9. Biofilm Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirtanen, Gun Linnea; Salo, Satu

    2016-01-01

    This chapter on biofilm risks deals with biofilm formation of pathogenic microbes, sampling and detection methods, biofilm removal, and prevention of biofilm formation. Several common pathogens produce sticky and/or slimy structures in which the cells are embedded, that is, biofilms, on various...... surfaces in food processing. Biofilms of common foodborne pathogens are reviewed. The issue of persistent and nonpersistent microbial contamination in food processing is also discussed. It has been shown that biofilms can be difficult to remove and can thus cause severe disinfection and cleaning problems...... in food factories. In the prevention of biofilm formation microbial control in process lines should both limit the number of microbes on surfaces and reduce microbial activity in the process. Thus the hygienic design of process equipment and process lines is important in improving the process hygiene...

  10. Bacterial biofilm and associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Jamal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living. Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. The process of biofilm formation consists of many steps, starting with attachment to a living or non-living surface that will lead to formation of micro-colony, giving rise to three-dimensional structures and ending up, after maturation, with detachment. During formation of biofilm several species of bacteria communicate with one another, employing quorum sensing. In general, bacterial biofilms show resistance against human immune system, as well as against antibiotics. Health related concerns speak loud due to the biofilm potential to cause diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections. In summary, the understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases. The current review is, therefore, an effort to encompass the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease.

  11. Biofilm formation on Conservolea natural black olives during single and combined inoculation with a functional Lactobacillus pentosus starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-06-01

    The potential of biofilm formation of multifunctional starters Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Pichia membranifaciens M3A during inoculated fermentation of Conservolea natural black olives according to Greek-style processing was investigated. Olives were directly brined in 8% (w/v) NaCl following three fermentation procedures namely, i) spontaneous fermentation, ii) inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281, and iii) co-inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281 and P. membranifaciens M3A. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were monitored on olives by plate counting for a period of 153 days, whereas the survival of the inoculated strains was confirmed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281 with/without the presence of the yeast resulted in higher acidification of the brine compared to the spontaneous process where no indigenous LAB could be enumerated. The population of LAB on olives ranged between 5.5 and 6.5 log CFU/g and it was maintained at higher levels compared to yeasts (3.5-4.5 log CFU/g) throughout the process. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 could successfully colonize the surface of black olives presenting high recovery rate (100%) at the end of fermentation in contrast to P. membranifaciens M3A that was successfully recovered (42%) only after 72 days of the process. The obtained results provide interesting perspectives for the production of natural black olives with functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salmonella biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm

  13. A Comparative Study on Recently-Introduced Nature-Based Global Optimization Methods in Complex Mechanical System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbaset El Hadi Saad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced global optimization algorithms have been continuously introduced and improved to solve various complex design optimization problems for which the objective and constraint functions can only be evaluated through computation intensive numerical analyses or simulations with a large number of design variables. The often implicit, multimodal, and ill-shaped objective and constraint functions in high-dimensional and “black-box” forms demand the search to be carried out using low number of function evaluations with high search efficiency and good robustness. This work investigates the performance of six recently introduced, nature-inspired global optimization methods: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC, Firefly Algorithm (FFA, Cuckoo Search (CS, Bat Algorithm (BA, Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO. These approaches are compared in terms of search efficiency and robustness in solving a set of representative benchmark problems in smooth-unimodal, non-smooth unimodal, smooth multimodal, and non-smooth multimodal function forms. In addition, four classic engineering optimization examples and a real-life complex mechanical system design optimization problem, floating offshore wind turbines design optimization, are used as additional test cases representing computationally-expensive black-box global optimization problems. Results from this comparative study show that the ability of these global optimization methods to obtain a good solution diminishes as the dimension of the problem, or number of design variables increases. Although none of these methods is universally capable, the study finds that GWO and ABC are more efficient on average than the other four in obtaining high quality solutions efficiently and consistently, solving 86% and 80% of the tested benchmark problems, respectively. The research contributes to future improvements of global optimization methods.

  14. Inhibition of biofilm formation, quorum sensing and infection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by natural products-inspired organosulfur compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel C Cady

    Full Text Available Using a microplate-based screening assay, the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation of several S-substituted cysteine sulfoxides and their corresponding disulfide derivatives were evaluated. From our library of compounds, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and its breakdown product, diphenyl disulfide, significantly reduced the amount of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at levels equivalent to the active concentration of 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (NPO (1 mM. Unlike NPO, which is an established inhibitor of bacterial biofilms, our active compounds did not reduce planktonic cell growth and only affected biofilm formation. When used in a Drosophila-based infection model, both S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and diphenyl disulfide significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa recovered 18 h post infection (relative to the control, and were non-lethal to the fly hosts. The possibility that the observed biofilm inhibitory effects were related to quorum sensing inhibition (QSI was investigated using Escherichia coli-based reporters expressing P. aeruginosa lasR or rhIR response proteins, as well as an endogenous P. aeruginosa reporter from the lasI/lasR QS system. Inhibition of quorum sensing by S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was observed in all of the reporter systems tested, whereas diphenyl disulfide did not exhibit QSI in either of the E. coli reporters, and showed very limited inhibition in the P. aeruginosa reporter. Since both compounds inhibit biofilm formation but do not show similar QSI activity, it is concluded that they may be functioning by different pathways. The hypothesis that biofilm inhibition by the two active compounds discovered in this work occurs through QSI is discussed.

  15. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction on stainless steel materials in natural seawater. Influence of the bio-film on corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bozec, N.

    2000-01-01

    Bio-film development on stainless steels immersed in natural seawater can have prejudicial consequences on the resistance of these materials to corrosion. The goal of the present study was to get more precise information on the corrosion processes, and especially on the oxygen reduction reaction. As the reaction is linked to the stainless steel surface state, the characterisation of the oxides films (composition, structure, thickness...) is essential to understand the mechanisms and the oxygen reduction kinetic. The first aim of the study has been to correlate the oxygen reduction processes with the characteristics of the oxides layer as a function of the alloy surface treatment (mechanical polishing, electrochemical passivation and pre-reduction, chemical treatment with some acids or with hydrogen peroxide). The second stage has consisted in following the evolution of the oxygen reduction processes and of the characteristics of the oxides layer with the aging of stainless steels in natural and artificial sea-waters. One major bio-film effect appears to be the production of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration level which induces modifications of the oxides layers and, consequently, of the evolution of the oxygen reduction kinetics as well as of the open circuit potential. Electrochemical techniques (voltammetric analysis at rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes, coulometry) combined with a surface analytical method by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used. The characterisation of the bio-film required the use of microscopy (scanning electronic microscopy, epi-fluorescence microscopy) and microbiological methods (cultures). The in-situ detection of hydrogen peroxide formed inside the bio-film has been performed with a micro-electrode and the results were confirmed with enzymatic methods. (author)

  16. Bacteriophages and Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Harper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are an extremely common adaptation, allowing bacteria to colonize hostile environments. They present unique problems for antibiotics and biocides, both due to the nature of the extracellular matrix and to the presence within the biofilm of metabolically inactive persister cells. Such chemicals can be highly effective against planktonic bacterial cells, while being essentially ineffective against biofilms. By contrast, bacteriophages seem to have a greater ability to target this common form of bacterial growth. The high numbers of bacteria present within biofilms actually facilitate the action of bacteriophages by allowing rapid and efficient infection of the host and consequent amplification of the bacteriophage. Bacteriophages also have a number of properties that make biofilms susceptible to their action. They are known to produce (or to be able to induce enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix. They are also able to infect persister cells, remaining dormant within them, but re-activating when they become metabolically active. Some cultured biofilms also seem better able to support the replication of bacteriophages than comparable planktonic systems. It is perhaps unsurprising that bacteriophages, as the natural predators of bacteria, have the ability to target this common form of bacterial life.

  17. Current understanding of multi-species biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    every year worldwide to deal with damage to equipment, contaminations of products, energy losses, and infections in human beings resulted from microbial biofilms. Microorganisms compete, cooperate, and communicate with each other in multi-species biofilms. Understanding the mechanisms of multi......Direct observation of a wide range of natural microorganisms has revealed the fact that the majority of microbes persist as surface-attached communities surrounded by matrix materials, called biofilms. Biofilms can be formed by a single bacterial strain. However, most natural biofilms are actually......-species biofilm formation will facilitate the development of methods for combating bacterial biofilms in clinical, environmental, industrial, and agricultural areas. The most recent advances in the understanding of multi-species biofilms are summarized and discussed in the review....

  18. New Technologies for Studying Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANKLIN, MICHAEL J.; CHANG, CONNIE; AKIYAMA, TATSUYA; BOTHNER, BRIAN

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have traditionally been studied as single-cell organisms. In laboratory settings, aerobic bacteria are usually cultured in aerated flasks, where the cells are considered essentially homogenous. However, in many natural environments, bacteria and other microorganisms grow in mixed communities, often associated with surfaces. Biofilms are comprised of surface-associated microorganisms, their extracellular matrix material, and environmental chemicals that have adsorbed to the bacteria or their matrix material. While this definition of a biofilm is fairly simple, biofilms are complex and dynamic. Our understanding of the activities of individual biofilm cells and whole biofilm systems has developed rapidly, due in part to advances in molecular, analytical, and imaging tools and the miniaturization of tools designed to characterize biofilms at the enzyme level, cellular level, and systems level. PMID:26350329

  19. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  20. Discovering Biofilms: Inquiry-Based Activities for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelman, Carly V.; Marrs, Kathleen; Anderson, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    In nature, bacteria exist in and adapt to different environments by forming microbial communities called "biofilms." We propose simple, inquiry-based laboratory exercises utilizing a biofilm formation assay, which allows controlled biofilm growth. Students will be able to qualitatively assess biofilm growth via staining. Recently, we developed a…

  1. [Formation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms in the presence of hydrogen peroxide; the effect of the AiiA gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliuta, V A; Andreenko, Iu V; Kuznetsov, A E; Khmel', I A

    2013-01-01

    In the natural ecosystems, most bacteria exist as specifically organized biofilms attached to various surfaces; the biofilms have a complex architecture and are surrounded by an exopolymeric matrix. The bacteria in the biofilms are extremely resistant to antibacterial agents. The ability of the pathogenic bacteria to produce biofilms causes serious problems in medicine. Therefore, the study of the action of different compounds with antibacterial activity is of great interest. In this work, we studied the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the formation of biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. It was shown that H2O2 in concentrations that do not suppress bacterial growth (or suppress it only weakly) stimulates the formation of the biofilms. At higher concentrations, H2O2 inhibits the formation of the biofilms. In order to determine if the stimulation of the biofilm formation depends on Quorum Sensing (QS) regulation, the plasmid pME6863 containing the heterologous gene aiiA encoding the N-acyl-homoserine lactonase AiiA was introduced into P. aeruginosa PAO1. The synthesis by cells of this enzyme degrading N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL), signaling molecules of the QS systems, led to the absence of the stimulation of the biofilm formation by the action of H2O2. This fact indicates that the stimulation of the biofilm formation in the presence of H2O2 depends on the functioning of the QS systems of the gene expression regulation of P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  2. Blast a Biofilm: A Hands-On Activity for School Children and Members of the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Marlow

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms are very common in nature and have both detrimental and beneficial effects on everyday life. Practical and hands-on activities have been shown to achieve greater learning and engagement with science by young people (1, 4, 5. We describe an interactive activity, developed to introduce microbes and biofilms to school age children and members of the public. Biofilms are common in nature and, as the favored mode of growth for microbes, biofilms affect many parts ofeveryday life. This hands-on activity highlights the key  concepts of biofilms by allowing participants to first build, then attempt to ‘blast,’ a biofilm, thus enabling the robust nature of biofilms to become apparent. We developed the blast-a-biofilm activity as part of our two-day Magnificent Microbes event, which took place at the Dundee Science Centre-Sensation in May 2010 (6. This public engagement event was run by scientists from the Division of Molecular Microbiology at the University of Dundee. The purpose of the event was to use fun and interesting activities to make both children and adults think about how fascinating microbes are. Additionally, we aimed to develop interactive resources that could be used in future events and learning environments, of which the blast-a-biofilm activity is one such resource. Scientists and policy makers in the UK believe engaging the public with research ensures that the work of universities and research institutes is relevant to society and wider social concerns and can also help scientists actively contribute to positive social change (2. The activity is aimed at junior school age children (9–11 years and adults with little or no knowledge of microbiology. The activity is suitable for use at science festivals, science clubs, and also in the classroom, where it can serve as a tool to enrich and enhance the school curriculum.

  3. Bacterial adhesion on direct and indirect dental restorative composite resins: An in vitro study on a natural biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derchi, Giacomo; Vano, Michele; Barone, Antonio; Covani, Ugo; Diaspro, Alberto; Salerno, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Both direct and indirect techniques are used for dental restorations. Which technique should be preferred or whether they are equivalent with respect to bacterial adhesion is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the affinity of bacterial biofilm to dental restorative composite resins placed directly and indirectly. Five direct composite resins for restorations (Venus Diamond, Adonis, Optifil, Enamel Plus HRi, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic) and 3 indirect composite resins (Gradia, Estenia, Signum) were selected. The materials were incubated in unstimulated whole saliva for 1 day. The biofilms grown were collected and their bacterial cells counted. In parallel, the composite resin surface morphology was analyzed with atomic force microscopy. Both bacterial cell count and surface topography parameters were subjected to statistical analysis (α=.05). Indirect composite resins showed significantly lower levels than direct composite resins for bacterial cell adhesion, (Pcomposite resins (P>.05). However, within the indirect composite resins a significantly lower level was found for Gradia than Estenia or Signum (Pcomposite resin roughness and bacterial adhesion when the second and particularly the third-order statistical moments of the composite resin height distributions were considered. Indirect dental restorative composite resins were found to be less prone to biofilm adhesion than direct composite resins. A correlation of bacterial adhesion to surface morphology exists that is described by kurtosis; thus, advanced data analysis is required to discover possible insights into the biologic effects of morphology. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Short Course to Introduce Recently Graduated Engineers to the Global Nature of Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Pam; Malone, Molly; Gardner, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001, the International Institute of Women in Engineering (IIWE) at EPF, Ecole d'ingenieurs generaliste, Sceaux, France, has conducted a 3 week short course for culturally and discipline diverse, recently graduated and final year engineering students. The aim of this course is to introduce young engineers to broad global concepts and issues…

  5. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis) in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Ballal, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ), Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl), Group B (MCJ), Group C (Aloe vera), Group D (Propolis) and Group E (Saline). These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5), coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis).

  6. Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade we have gained much knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in initiation and termination of biofilm formation. In many bacteria, these processes appear to occur in response to specific environmental cues and result in, respectively, induction or terminat......During the past decade we have gained much knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in initiation and termination of biofilm formation. In many bacteria, these processes appear to occur in response to specific environmental cues and result in, respectively, induction...... or termination of biofilm matrix production via the second messenger molecule c-di-GMP. In between initiation and termination of biofilm formation we have defined specific biofilm stages, but the currently available evidence suggests that these transitions are mainly governed by adaptive responses......, and not by specific genetic programs. It appears that biofilm formation can occur through multiple pathways and that the spatial structure of the biofilms is species dependent as well as dependent on environmental conditions. Bacterial subpopulations, e.g., motile and nonmotile subpopulations, can develop...

  7. Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success: unintentional introductions as a threat to natural areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2011), e24890 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * pathways * naturalization and invasion Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  8. REACTION OF INTRODUCED BEAN (PHASEOLUS ACCESSIONS TO THE INFESTATION BY THIELAVIOPSIS BASICOLA (BERKELEY & BROOME UNDER NATURAL EPIPHYTOTIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Georgieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A periodic phytopathology field monitoring was conducted on 35 introduced common bean (Phaseolus accessions at Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute in 2014. The epiphytotic disease black root rot on the bean crops (over 75 % reduction of the stand was recorded for the first time for the area of Bulgaria. The causal agent isolated from the plant tissue was identified as the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola (Berkeley Ferraris. A strong relationship between disease severity variation and environmental and soil conditions was established. Black root rot was most severe when cool and wet weather occurred from seedling time to about three weeks after planting, combined with increased soil compaction. Field resistance was recorded in Bulgarian var. “Plovdivski zult”, var. “Starozagorski tzer” and line № 564 (3,66%, 5.33% and 6,50 % dumping-off of bean seedlings, respectively. Bean accession introduced from dry climate areas were highly susceptible to black root rot pathogen (over 76.0 % dumping-off of bean seedlings. Indirect relationship was found between bean tolerance to Th. basicola and presence of the anthocyanin in the hypocotyl and seed coat color. Install the average negative correlation between seed color signs (and hypocotyl and the resistance of plants to Th. basicola. Samples with resistance to black root rot belong to the group with beige, red, brown or black color of seeds. The presence of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins in the seed coat and hypocotyls beans can serve as an indirect indication of the selection of resistant to black rot breeding materials.

  9. Introducing the RadBioStat Educational Software: Computer-Assisted Teaching of the Random Nature of Cell Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of radiation with cells and tissues has a random nature. Therefore, understanding the random nature of cell killing that is determined by Poisson distribution statistics is an essential point in education of radiation biology. RadBioStat is a newly developed educational MATLAB-based software designed for computer-assisted learning of the target theory in radiation biology. Although its potential applications is developing rapidly, currently RadBioStat software can be a useful tool in computerassisted education of radiobiological models such as single target single hit, multiple target single hit and multiple target multiple hit. Scholars’ feedback is valuable to the producers of this software and help them continuously improve this product, add new features and increase its desirability and functionality.

  10. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relati...

  11. The clinical impact of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria survive in nature by forming biofilms on surfaces and probably most, if not all, bacteria (and fungi) are capable of forming biofilms. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and extracellular DNA....... Bacterial biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectant chemicals and to phagocytosis and other components of the innate and adaptive inflammatory defense system of the body. It is known, for example, that persistence of staphylococcal infections related to foreign bodies is due to biofilm formation....... Likewise, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients are caused by biofilm growing mucoid strains. Gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and the bacterial cells located in nutrient poor areas have decreased metabolic activity...

  12. Artificial biofilms establish the role of matrix interactions in staphylococcal biofilm assembly and disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth J.; Ganesan, Mahesh; Younger, John G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the microstructural and mechanical properties of bacterial biofilms can be created through colloidal self-assembly of cells and polymers, and thereby link the complex material properties of biofilms to well understood colloidal and polymeric behaviors. This finding is applied to soften and disassemble staphylococcal biofilms through pH changes. Bacterial biofilms are viscoelastic, structured communities of cells encapsulated in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) comprised of polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA. Although the identity and abundance of EPS macromolecules are known, how these matrix materials interact with themselves and bacterial cells to generate biofilm morphology and mechanics is not understood. Here, we find that the colloidal self-assembly of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A cells and polysaccharides into viscoelastic biofilms is driven by thermodynamic phase instability of EPS. pH conditions that induce phase instability of chitosan produce artificial S. epidermidis biofilms whose mechanics match natural S. epidermidis biofilms. Furthermore, pH-induced solubilization of the matrix triggers disassembly in both artificial and natural S. epidermidis biofilms. This pH-induced disassembly occurs in biofilms formed by five additional staphylococcal strains, including three clinical isolates. Our findings suggest that colloidal self-assembly of cells and matrix polymers produces biofilm viscoelasticity and that biofilm control strategies can exploit this mechanism. PMID:26272750

  13. Bacterial biofilms and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Caldas-Arias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms give to bacteria micro-environmental benefits; confers protection against antimicrobials. Bacteria have antibiotic resistance by conventional and unusual mechanisms leading to delayed wound healing, to increase recurrent chronic infections and nosocomial contamination of medical devices. Objective: This narrative review aims to introduce the characteristics of Bacteria-biofilms, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and potential alternatives for prevention and control of its formation. Methods: Search strategy was performed on records: PubMed / Medline, Lilacs, Redalyc; with suppliers such as EBSCO and thesaurus MeSH and DeCS. Conclusions: Knowledge and research performance of biofilm bacteria are relevant in the search of technology for detection and measuring sensitivity to antibiotics. The identification of Bacterial-biofilms needs no-traditional microbiological diagnosis.

  14. Introducing a gender-neutral pronoun in a natural gender language: The influence of time on attitudes and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eGustafsson Sendén

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of gender fair language is often associated with negative reactions and hostile attack on people who propose a change. This was also the case in Sweden in 2012 when a third gender-neutral pronoun hen was proposed as an addition to the already existing Swedish pronouns for she and he. The pronoun hen can be used both generically, when gender is unknown or irrelevant, and as a transgender pronoun for people who categorize themselves outside the gender dichotomy. In this article we review the process from 2012 to 2015 when hen has been introduced in the Swedish Dictionary. No other language has so far added a third gender-neutral pronoun that actually has reached the broader population of language users, which makes the situation in Sweden unique. We present data on attitudes toward hen during the recent four years and study how time is associated with the attitudes. In 2012 the majority of the Swedish population was negative to the word, but already in 2014 there was a significant shift to more positive attitudes. Time was one of the strongest predictors for attitudes also when other relevant factors were controlled for. Even though to a lesser extent than the attitudes, the actual use of the word has also increased. We conclude that new words challenging the binary gender system evoke hostile and negative reactions, but also that attitudes can normalize rather quickly. This is very positive because it should motivate language amendments and initiatives for gender-fair language although the first responses are negative.

  15. Introducing a gender-neutral pronoun in a natural gender language: the influence of time on attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Bäck, Emma A; Lindqvist, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of gender fair language is often associated with negative reactions and hostile attacks on people who propose a change. This was also the case in Sweden in 2012 when a third gender-neutral pronoun hen was proposed as an addition to the already existing Swedish pronouns for she (hon) and he (han). The pronoun hen can be used both generically, when gender is unknown or irrelevant, and as a transgender pronoun for people who categorize themselves outside the gender dichotomy. In this article we review the process from 2012 to 2015. No other language has so far added a third gender-neutral pronoun, existing parallel with two gendered pronouns, that actually have reached the broader population of language users. This makes the situation in Sweden unique. We present data on attitudes toward hen during the past 4 years and analyze how time is associated with the attitudes in the process of introducing hen to the Swedish language. In 2012 the majority of the Swedish population was negative to the word, but already in 2014 there was a significant shift to more positive attitudes. Time was one of the strongest predictors for attitudes also when other relevant factors were controlled for. The actual use of the word also increased, although to a lesser extent than the attitudes shifted. We conclude that new words challenging the binary gender system evoke hostile and negative reactions, but also that attitudes can normalize rather quickly. We see this finding very positive and hope it could motivate language amendments and initiatives for gender-fair language, although the first responses may be negative.

  16. Biofilms in chronic infections - a matter of opportunity - monospecies biofilms in multispecies infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Fazli, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    It has become evident that aggregation or biofilm formation is an important survival mechanism for bacteria in almost any environment. In this review, we summarize recent visualizations of bacterial aggregates in several chronic infections (chronic otitis media, cystic fibrosis, infection due...... to permanent tissue fillers and chronic wounds) both as to distribution (such as where in the wound bed) and organization (monospecies or multispecies microcolonies). We correlate these biofilm observations to observations of commensal biofilms (dental and intestine) and biofilms in natural ecosystems (soil......). The observations of the chronic biofilm infections point toward a trend of low bacterial diversity and sovereign monospecies biofilm aggregates even though the infection in which they reside are multispecies. In contrast to this, commensal and natural biofilm aggregates contain multiple species that are believed...

  17. Critical review on biofilm methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Joana; F. Azevedo, Nuno; Briandet, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research in...... and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms....

  18. Material modeling of biofilm mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspidou, C S; Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N; Rittmann, B E

    2014-05-01

    A biofilm material model and a procedure for numerical integration are developed in this article. They enable calculation of a composite Young's modulus that varies in the biofilm and evolves with deformation. The biofilm-material model makes it possible to introduce a modeling example, produced by the Unified Multi-Component Cellular Automaton model, into the general-purpose finite-element code ABAQUS. Compressive, tensile, and shear loads are imposed, and the way the biofilm mechanical properties evolve is assessed. Results show that the local values of Young's modulus increase under compressive loading, since compression results in the voids "closing," thus making the material stiffer. For the opposite reason, biofilm stiffness decreases when tensile loads are imposed. Furthermore, the biofilm is more compliant in shear than in compression or tension due to the how the elastic shear modulus relates to Young's modulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Biofilms in otolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Viveros, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    According to the National Institute of Health of the USA, «more than 60% of all microbial infections are caused by biofilms».'This can surprise us, but it is enough to consider that common infections like those of the genito-urinary tract, infections produced by catheters, middle ear infections in children, the formation of dental plaque and gingivitis are caused by biofilms, for this statement to seem more realistic. At present this is one of the subjects of great interest within medicine, particularly in otolaryngology. Bacteria have traditionally been considered to be in a free state without evident organization, partly perhaps by the ease of studying them in this form. Nevertheless, the reality is that, in nature, the great majority of these germs form complex colonies adhered to surfaces, colonies that have received the name of biofilms. These biofilms are more common than previously thought and almost all of the people have been in contact with them in the form of infections in the teeth or humid, slippery areas. New treatments that can eradicate them are currently being investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Physics of biofilms: the initial stages of biofilm formation and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Bergman, Andrew; Zhang, Qiucen; Bortz, David; Austin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    One of the physiological responses of bacteria to external stress is to assemble into a biofilm. The formation of a biofilm greatly increases a bacterial population's resistance to a hostile environment by shielding cells, for example, from antibiotics. In this paper, we describe the conditions necessary for the emergence of biofilms in natural environments and relate them to the emergence of biofilm formation inside microfluidic devices. We show that competing species of Escherichia coli bacteria form biofilms to spatially segregate themselves in response to starvation stress, and use in situ methods to characterize the physical properties of the biofilms. Finally, we develop a microfluidic platform to study the inter-species interactions and show how biofilm-mediated genetic interactions can improve a species’ resistance to external stress. (paper)

  1. Influence of Streptococcus mutans on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Dong Mei; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Exterkate, Rob A. M.; Jiang, Lei Meng; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; Crielaard, Wim

    Introduction: An important virulence factor of Enterococcus faecalis is its ability to form biofilms. Most studies on biofilm formation have been carried out by using E. faecalis monocultures. Given the polymicrobial nature of root canal infections, it is important to understand biofilm formation of

  2. Extracellular DNA as matrix component in microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria in nature primarily live in surface-associated communities commonly known as biofilms. Because bacteria in biofilms, in many cases, display tolerance to host immune systems, antibiotics, and biocides, they are often difficult or impossible to eradicate. Biofilm formation, therefore, leads...

  3. Shaping the growth behaviour of biofilms initiated from bacterial aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melaugh, Gavin; Hutchison, Jaime; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell ag...

  4. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Kruithof, Joop C.; Flemming, Hans Curt

    2013-01-01

    resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric

  5. Introducing Mudbox

    CERN Document Server

    Kermanikian, Ara

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books on Autodesk's new Mudbox 3D modeling and sculpting tool!. Autodesk's Mudbox was used to create photorealistic creatures for The Dark Knight , The Mist , and others films. Now you can join the crowd interested in learning this exciting new digital modeling and sculpting tool with this complete guide. Get up to speed on all of Mudbox's features and functions, learn how sculpt and paint, and master the art of using effective workflows to make it all go easier.: Introduces Autodesk's Mudbox, an exciting 3D modeling and sculpting tool that enables you to create photorealistic

  6. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  7. Fluid-Structure Interaction in Continuum Models of Bacterial Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jared A.

    stress and strain in the biofilm, which couples the growth and deformation processes. Furthermore, I show that the introduction of a vorticity allows the accommodation velocity to be described by a system of Poisson equations, and that this vorticity arises naturally from Morphoelasticity theory and is related to the velocity solvability condition. I apply the modeling approach to a one-dimensional biofilm, and show that (a) the coupled growth process affects the evolution of the biofilm shape as expected, and (b) a non-coupled approach to biofilm strain introduces an error that grows over time. Numerical analysis of the one-dimensional strain evolution equation leads to several insights that inform the development of numerical methods for the two-dimensional case, including a split-step approach that reduces the fifth-order PDE to an advection equation for strain and a biharmonic equation for stress. Finally, I discuss some useful numerical methods for the simulation of elastic biofilm growth, particularly the discretization of the strain evolution equation(s). My overall approach is to track the evolving biofilm surface using a combination of the level-set method coupled with the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM). The major result is a novel mixed-XFEM discretization of the clamped-plate biharmonic equation, which I show to be first-order accurate for the trace of the solution on the interface.

  8. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction on stainless steel materials in natural seawater. Influence of the bio-film on corrosion processes; Reaction de reduction de l'oxygene sur les aciers inoxydables en eau de mer naturelle. Influence du biofilm sur les processus de corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bozec, N

    2000-01-15

    Bio-film development on stainless steels immersed in natural seawater can have prejudicial consequences on the resistance of these materials to corrosion. The goal of the present study was to get more precise information on the corrosion processes, and especially on the oxygen reduction reaction. As the reaction is linked to the stainless steel surface state, the characterisation of the oxides films (composition, structure, thickness...) is essential to understand the mechanisms and the oxygen reduction kinetic. The first aim of the study has been to correlate the oxygen reduction processes with the characteristics of the oxides layer as a function of the alloy surface treatment (mechanical polishing, electrochemical passivation and pre-reduction, chemical treatment with some acids or with hydrogen peroxide). The second stage has consisted in following the evolution of the oxygen reduction processes and of the characteristics of the oxides layer with the aging of stainless steels in natural and artificial sea-waters. One major bio-film effect appears to be the production of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration level which induces modifications of the oxides layers and, consequently, of the evolution of the oxygen reduction kinetics as well as of the open circuit potential. Electrochemical techniques (voltammetric analysis at rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes, coulometry) combined with a surface analytical method by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used. The characterisation of the bio-film required the use of microscopy (scanning electronic microscopy, epi-fluorescence microscopy) and microbiological methods (cultures). The in-situ detection of hydrogen peroxide formed inside the bio-film has been performed with a micro-electrode and the results were confirmed with enzymatic methods. (author)

  9. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction on stainless steel materials in natural seawater. Influence of the bio-film on corrosion processes; Reaction de reduction de l'oxygene sur les aciers inoxydables en eau de mer naturelle. Influence du biofilm sur les processus de corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bozec, N

    2000-01-15

    Bio-film development on stainless steels immersed in natural seawater can have prejudicial consequences on the resistance of these materials to corrosion. The goal of the present study was to get more precise information on the corrosion processes, and especially on the oxygen reduction reaction. As the reaction is linked to the stainless steel surface state, the characterisation of the oxides films (composition, structure, thickness...) is essential to understand the mechanisms and the oxygen reduction kinetic. The first aim of the study has been to correlate the oxygen reduction processes with the characteristics of the oxides layer as a function of the alloy surface treatment (mechanical polishing, electrochemical passivation and pre-reduction, chemical treatment with some acids or with hydrogen peroxide). The second stage has consisted in following the evolution of the oxygen reduction processes and of the characteristics of the oxides layer with the aging of stainless steels in natural and artificial sea-waters. One major bio-film effect appears to be the production of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration level which induces modifications of the oxides layers and, consequently, of the evolution of the oxygen reduction kinetics as well as of the open circuit potential. Electrochemical techniques (voltammetric analysis at rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes, coulometry) combined with a surface analytical method by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used. The characterisation of the bio-film required the use of microscopy (scanning electronic microscopy, epi-fluorescence microscopy) and microbiological methods (cultures). The in-situ detection of hydrogen peroxide formed inside the bio-film has been performed with a micro-electrode and the results were confirmed with enzymatic methods. (author)

  10. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  11. Distinct roles of extracellular polymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Hu, Yifan; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria form surface attached biofilm communities as one of the most important survival strategies in nature. Biofilms consist of water, bacterial cells and a wide range of self‐generated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilm formation is a dynamic self‐assembly process and several d...... polysaccharide is more important than Pel polysaccharide in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Our study thus suggests that different EPS materials play distinct roles during bacterial biofilm formation.......Bacteria form surface attached biofilm communities as one of the most important survival strategies in nature. Biofilms consist of water, bacterial cells and a wide range of self‐generated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilm formation is a dynamic self‐assembly process and several...... distinguishable stages are observed during bacterial biofilm development. Biofilm formation is shown to be coordinated by EPS production, cell migration, subpopulation differentiation and interactions. However, the ways these different factors affect each other and contribute to community structural...

  12. The in vivo biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Maria; Alhede, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria can grow and proliferate either as single, independent cells or organized in aggregates commonly referred to as biofilms. When bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often becomes very resistant to treatment and can develop into a chronic state. Biofilms...... have been studied for decades using various in vitro models, but it remains debatable whether such in vitro biofilms actually resemble in vivo biofilms in chronic infections. In vivo biofilms share several structural characteristics that differ from most in vitro biofilms. Additionally, the in vivo...... experimental time span and presence of host defenses differ from chronic infections and the chemical microenvironment of both in vivo and in vitro biofilms is seldom taken into account. In this review, we discuss why the current in vitro models of biofilms might be limited for describing infectious biofilms...

  13. THE EFFECT OF INTRODUCED FORAGE LEGUMES ON IMPROVEMENT OF SOIL FERTILITY IN NATURAL PASTURES OF SEMI-ARID RANGELANDS OF KAJIADO DISTRICT, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Macharia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine, Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro, Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos, Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36, organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57% , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22% and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me% probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials. The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues. Â

  14. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, and a number of studies have revealed that this process is regulated by several integrated pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms that control B. subtilis biofilm assembly, and then briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding biofilm disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of B. subtilis biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium.

  15. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing the Cytotoxicity of Lipid Nanoparticles Associated with a Fusogenic Cationic Lipid in a Natural Killer Cell Line by Introducing a Polycation-Based siRNA Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Koharu; Fujiwara, Yuki; Sato, Yusuke; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2018-06-04

    Introducing siRNA into human immune cells by an artificial delivery system continues to be a challenging issue. We previously developed a multifunctional envelope-type nanodevice (MEND) containing the YSK12-C4, a fusogenic cationic lipid, (YSK12-MEND) and succeeded in the efficient delivery of siRNA into human immune cell lines. Significant cytotoxicity, however, was observed at siRNA doses needed for gene silencing in NK-92 cells. NK-92 cells, a unique natural killer (NK) cell line, would be applicable for use in clinical NK therapy. Thus, reducing the cytotoxicity of the YSK12-MEND in NK-92 cells would strengthen the efficacy of NK-92 cell-based therapy. The amount of the YSK12-C4 in the MEND needed to be reduced to reduce the cytotoxicity, because the cytotoxicity was directly associated with the YSK12-C4. In the present study, we decreased the total amount of lipid, including the YSK12-C4, by introducing a core formed by electrostatic interactions of siRNA with a polycation (protamine) (siRNA core), which led to a decrease in cytotoxicity in NK-92 cells. We prepared a YSK12-MEND containing an siRNA core (YSK12-MEND/core) at charge ratios (CR: YSK12-C4/siRNA) of 10, 5, 3, and 2.5 and compared the YSK12-MEND/core with that for a YSK12-MEND (CR16.9). Cell viability was increased by more than 2 times at a CR5 or less. On the other hand, the YSK12-MEND/core (CR5) maintained the same gene silencing efficiency (60%) as the YSK12-MEND. Interestingly, the cellular uptake efficiency and hemolytic activity of the YSK12-MEND/core (CR5) was reduced compared to that for the YSK12-MEND. In calculating the silencing activity per cellular uptake efficiency and hemolytic activity, the value for the YSK12-MEND/core (CR5) was more than 2 times as high as that of the YSK12-MEND. The fact indicates that after endosomal escape, the process can be enhanced by using a YSK12-MEND/core (CR5). Thus, introducing an siRNA core into lipid nanoparticles can be a potent strategy for decreasing

  17. Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei

    The coexistence of hugely diverse microbes in most environments highlights the intricate interactions in microbial communities, which are central to their properties, such as productivity, stability and the resilience to disturbance. Biofilm, in environmental habitats, is such a spatially...... multispecies biofilm models, oral microbial community, also known as “dental plaque” is thoroughly investigated as a focal point to describe the interspecies interactions [1]. However, owing to the lack of a reliable high throughput and quantitative approach for exploring the interplay between multiple...... bacterial species, the study to elucidate the impact of interaction networks on the multispecies biofilms in natural ecosystems, especially in soil, is still at an early stage. The diverse patterns of interactions within the mixed communities as well as the predatorprey relationship between protozoa...

  18. Genetic drift outweighs natural selection at toll-like receptor (TLR) immunity loci in a re-introduced population of a threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueber, Catherine E; Wallis, Graham P; Jamieson, Ian G

    2013-09-01

    During population establishment, genetic drift can be the key driver of changes in genetic diversity, particularly while the population is small. However, natural selection can also play a role in shaping diversity at functionally important loci. We used a well-studied, re-introduced population of the threatened Stewart Island robin (N = 722 pedigreed individuals) to determine whether selection shaped genetic diversity at innate immunity toll-like receptor (TLR) genes, over a 9-year period of population growth following establishment with 12 genetic founders. We found no evidence for selection operating with respect to TLR diversity on first-year overwinter survival for the majority of loci, genotypes and alleles studied. However, survival of individuals with TLR4BE genotype was significantly improved: these birds were less than half as likely to die prior to maturity compared with all other TLR4 genotypes. Furthermore, the population frequency of this genotype, at a two-fold excess over Hardy-Weinberg expectation, was increased by nonrandom mating. Near-complete sampling and full pedigree and reproductive data enabled us to eliminate other potential causes of these patterns including inbreeding, year effects, density dependence, selection on animals at earlier life history stages or genome-level association of the TLR4E allele with 'good genes'. However, comparison of observed levels of gene diversity to predictions under simulated genetic drift revealed results consistent with neutral expectations for all loci, including TLR4. Although selection favoured TLR4BE heterozygotes in this population, these effects were insufficient to outweigh genetic drift. This is the first empirical study to show that genetic drift can overwhelm natural selection in a wild population immediately following establishment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor. PMID:24086697

  20. Invasive plants and their escape from root herbivory: a worldwide comparison of the root-feeding nematode communities of the dune grass Ammophila arenaria in natural and introduced ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Yeates, G.W.; Duyts, H.; Schreck Reis, C.; Karssen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive plants generally have fewer aboveground pathogens and viruses in their introduced range than in their natural range, and they also have fewer pathogens than do similar plant species native to the introduced range. However, although plant abundance is strongly controlled by root herbivores

  1. Prevention of biofilm formation and removal of existing biofilms by extracellular DNases of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Hanman, Kate; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-01-01

    The fastidious nature of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contrasts with its ability to survive in the food chain. The formation of biofilms, or the integration into existing biofilms by C. jejuni, is thought to contribute to food chain survival. As extracellular DNA (eDNA) has previously been proposed to play a role in C. jejuni biofilms, we have investigated the role of extracellular DNases (eDNases) produced by C. jejuni in biofilm formation. A search of 2791 C. jejuni genomes highlighted that almost half of C. jejuni genomes contains at least one eDNase gene, but only a minority of isolates contains two or three of these eDNase genes, such as C. jejuni strain RM1221 which contains the cje0256, cje0566 and cje1441 eDNase genes. Strain RM1221 did not form biofilms, whereas the eDNase-negative strains NCTC 11168 and 81116 did. Incubation of pre-formed biofilms of NCTC 11168 with live C. jejuni RM1221 or with spent medium from a RM1221 culture resulted in removal of the biofilm. Inactivation of the cje1441 eDNase gene in strain RM1221 restored biofilm formation, and made the mutant unable to degrade biofilms of strain NCTC 11168. Finally, C. jejuni strain RM1221 was able to degrade genomic DNA from C. jejuni NCTC 11168, 81116 and RM1221, whereas strain NCTC 11168 and the RM1221 cje1441 mutant were unable to do so. This was mirrored by an absence of eDNA in overnight cultures of C. jejuni RM1221. This suggests that the activity of eDNases in C. jejuni affects biofilm formation and is not conducive to a biofilm lifestyle. These eDNases do however have a potential role in controlling biofilm formation by C. jejuni strains in food chain relevant environments.

  2. Biofilm Fixed Film Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Das

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The work reviewed here was published between 2008 and 2010 and describes research that involved aerobic and anoxic biofilm treatment of water pollutants. Biofilm denitrification systems are covered when appropriate. References catalogued here are divided on the basis of fundamental research area or reactor types. Fundamental research into biofilms is presented in two sections, Biofilm Measurement and Characterization and Growth and Modeling. The reactor types covered are: trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, fluidized bed bioreactors, submerged bed biofilm reactors, biological granular activated carbon, membrane bioreactors, and immobilized cell reactors. Innovative reactors, not easily classified, are then presented, followed by a section on biofilms on sand, soil and sediment.

  3. Extracellular DNA as matrix component in microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria in nature primarily live in surface-associated communities commonly known as biofilms. Because bacteria in biofilms, in many cases, display tolerance to host immune systems, antibiotics, and biocides, they are often difficult or impossible to eradicate. Biofilm formation, therefore, leads...... to various persistent infections in humans and animals, and to a variety of complications in industry, where solid–water interfaces occur. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation is necessary for creating strategies to control biofilms. Recent studies have shown...... that extracellular DNA is an important component of the extracellular matrix of microbial biofilms. The present chapter is focussed on extracellular DNA as matrix component in biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an example from the Gram-negative bacteria, and Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as examples...

  4. Chemoinformatics-assisted development of new anti-biofilm compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dürig, Anna; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Here, we use a novel cross-disciplinary approach combining microbiology and chemoinformatics...... to identify new and efficient anti-biofilm drugs. We found that ellagic acid (present in green tea) significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Based on ellagic acid, we performed in silico screening of the Chinese Natural Product Database to predict a 2nd-generation list...... of compounds with similar characteristics. One of these, esculetin, proved to be more efficient in preventing biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. From esculetin a 3rd-generation list of compounds was predicted. One of them, fisetin, was even better to abolish biofilm formation than the two parent...

  5. Bacterial signaling ecology and potential applications during aquatic biofilm construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Leticia M; Alvarez, Pedro J; McLean, Robert J C

    2014-07-01

    In their natural environment, bacteria and other microorganisms typically grow as surface-adherent biofilm communities. Cell signal processes, including quorum signaling, are now recognized as being intimately involved in the development and function of biofilms. In contrast to their planktonic (unattached) counterparts, bacteria within biofilms are notoriously resistant to many traditional antimicrobial agents and so represent a major challenge in industry and medicine. Although biofilms impact many human activities, they actually represent an ancient mode of bacterial growth as shown in the fossil record. Consequently, many aquatic organisms have evolved strategies involving signal manipulation to control or co-exist with biofilms. Here, we review the chemical ecology of biofilms and propose mechanisms whereby signal manipulation can be used to promote or control biofilms.

  6. Enhanced Biofilm Formation and Increased Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents and Bacterial Invasion Are Caused by Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Webb, J.S.; Rao, D.

    2006-01-01

    from the surface of the marine alga Ulva australis, were screened for synergistic interactions within biofilms when present together in different combinations. Four isolates, Microbacterium phyllosphaerae, Shewanella japonica, Dokdonia donghaensis, and Acinetobacter lwoffii, were found to interact......Most biofilms in their natural environments are likely to consist of consortia of species that influence each other in synergistic and antagonistic manners. However, few reports specifically address interactions within multispecies biofilms. In this study, 17 epiphytic bacterial strains, isolated...... synergistically in biofilms formed in 96-well microtiter plates: biofilm biomass was observed to increase by >167% in biofilms formed by the four strains compared to biofilms composed of single strains. When exposed to the antibacterial agent hydrogen peroxide or tetracycline, the relative activity (exposed...

  7. Development of photosynthetic biofilms affected by dissolved and sorbed copper in a eutrophic river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barranguet, C.; Plans, M.; Van der Grinten, E.; Sinke, J.J.; Admiraal, W.

    2002-01-01

    Photosynthetic biofilms are capable of immobilizing important concentrations of metals, therefore reducing bioavailability to organisms. But also metal pollution is believed to produce changes in the microalgal species composition of biofilms. We investigated the changes undergone by natural

  8. Significance of biofilm proteins in modulating cyprid metamorphosis of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; KrishnaKumar, S.

    and artificial biofilms of Aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida and Bacillus brevis and their culture supernatants and exopolysaccharides obtained under different nutritional conditions was evaluated. Natural biofilm facilitated cyprid metamorphosis in Balanus...

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  10. Implications of Biofilm Formation on Urological Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Peter A.; Wignall, Geoffrey R.; Carriveau, Rupp; Denstedt, John D.

    2008-09-01

    Despite millions of dollars and several decades of research targeted at their prevention and eradication, biofilm-associated infections remain the major cause of urological device failure. Numerous strategies have been aimed at improving device design, biomaterial composition, surface properties and drug delivery, but have been largely circumvented by microbes and their plethora of attachment, host evasion, antimicrobial resistance, and dissemination strategies. This is not entirely surprising since natural biofilm formation has been going on for millions of years and remains a major part of microorganism survival and evolution. Thus, the fact that biofilms develop on and in the biomaterials and tissues of humans is really an extension of this natural tendency and greatly explains why they are so difficult for us to combat. Firstly, biofilm structure and composition inherently provide a protective environment for microorganisms, shielding them from the shear stress of urine flow, immune cell attack and some antimicrobials. Secondly, many biofilm organisms enter a metabolically dormant state that renders them tolerant to those antibiotics and host factors able to penetrate the biofilm matrix. Lastly, the majority of organisms that cause biofilm-associated urinary tract infections originate from our own oral cavity, skin, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts and therefore have already adapted to many of our host defenses. Ultimately, while biofilms continue to hold an advantage with respect to recurrent infections and biomaterial usage within the urinary tract, significant progress has been made in understanding these dynamic microbial communities and novel approaches offer promise for their prevention and eradication. These include novel device designs, antimicrobials, anti-adhesive coatings, biodegradable polymers and biofilm-disrupting compounds and therapies.

  11. The Biofilm Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Maria; Alhede, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The concept of biofilms has emerged in the clinical setting during the last decade. Infections involving biofilms have been documented in all parts of the human body, and it is currently believed that the presence of biofilm-forming bacteria is equivalent to chronic infection. A quick Pubmed search...

  12. Crenarchaeal biofilm formation under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koerdt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. CONCLUSION: The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

  13. A survey of culturable aerobic and anaerobic marine bacteria in de novo biofilm formation on natural substrates in St. Andrews Bay, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Lucy; Garcia-Melgares, Manuel; Gmerek, Tomasz; Huddleston, W Ryan; Palmer, Alexander; Robertson, Andrew; Shapiro, Sarah; Unkles, Shiela E

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a novel study of marine biofilm formation comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Samples of quartz and feldspar, minerals commonly found on the earth, were suspended 5 m deep in the North Sea off the east coast of St. Andrews, Scotland for 5 weeks. The assemblage of organisms attached to these stones was cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the laboratory. Bacteria isolated on Marine Agar 2216 were all Gram-negative and identified to genus level by sequencing the gene encoding 16S rRNA. Colwellia, Maribacter, Pseudoaltermonas and Shewanella were observed in aerobically-grown cultures while Vibrio was found to be present in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Psychrilyobacter atlanticus, a recently defined genus, was identified as a close relative of isolates grown anaerobically. The results provide valuable information as to the main players that attach and form de novo biofilms on common minerals in sea water.

  14. Conjugation of Inulin Improves Anti-Biofilm Activity of Chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Guiqiang Zhang; Jing Liu; Ruilian Li; Siming Jiao; Cui Feng; Zhuo A. Wang; Yuguang Du

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria biofilm helps bacteria prevent phagocytosis during infection and increase resistance to antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium and is tightly associated with biofilm-related infections, which have led to great threat to human health. Chitosan, the only cationic polysaccharide in nature, has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities, which, however, require a relative high dosage of chitosan. Moreover, poor water solubility...

  15. Quantitative exploration of the contribution of settlement, growth, dispersal and grazing to the accumulation of natural marine biofilms on antifouling and fouling-release coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Hmelo, Laura R.; Fredricks, Helen F.; Ossolinski, Justin E.; Pedler, Byron E.; Bogorff, Daniel J.; Smith, Peter J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of microbial biofilms on ships' hulls negatively affects ships' performance and efficiency while also moderating the establishment of even more detrimental hard-fouling communities. However, there is little quantitative information on how the accumulation rate of microbial biofilms is impacted by the balance of the rates of cell settlement, in situ production (ie growth), dispersal to surrounding waters and mortality induced by grazers. These rates were quantified on test panels coated with copper-based antifouling or polymer-based fouling-release coatings by using phospholipids as molecular proxies for microbial biomass. The results confirmed the accepted modes of efficacy of these two types of coatings. In a more extensive set of experiments with only the fouling-release coatings, it was found that seasonally averaged cellular production rates were 1.5 ± 0.5 times greater than settlement and the dispersal rates were 2.7 ± 0.8 greater than grazing. The results of this study quantitatively describe the dynamic balance of processes leading to microbial biofilm accumulation on coatings designed for ships' hulls. PMID:24417212

  16. Rotating disk electrodes to assess river biofilm thickness and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulêtreau, Stéphanie; Charcosset, Jean-Yves; Gamby, Jean; Lyautey, Emilie; Mastrorillo, Sylvain; Azémar, Frédéric; Moulin, Frédéric; Tribollet, Bernard; Garabetian, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of an electrochemical method based on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) to assess river biofilm thickness and elasticity. An in situ colonisation experiment in the River Garonne (France) in August 2009 sought to obtain natural river biofilms exhibiting differentiated architecture. A constricted pipe providing two contrasted flow conditions (about 0.1 and 0.45 m s(-1) in inflow and constricted sections respectively) and containing 24 RDE was immersed in the river for 21 days. Biofilm thickness and elasticity were quantified using an electrochemical assay on 7 and 21 days old RDE-grown biofilms (t(7) and t(21), respectively). Biofilm thickness was affected by colonisation length and flow conditions and ranged from 36 ± 15 μm (mean ± standard deviation, n = 6) in the fast flow section at t(7) to 340 ± 140 μm (n = 3) in the slow flow section at t(21). Comparing the electrochemical signal to stereomicroscopic estimates of biofilms thickness indicated that the method consistently allowed (i) to detect early biofilm colonisation in the river and (ii) to measure biofilm thickness of up to a few hundred μm. Biofilm elasticity, i.e. biofilm squeeze by hydrodynamic constraint, was significantly higher in the slow (1300 ± 480 μm rpm(1/2), n = 8) than in the fast flow sections (790 ± 350 μm rpm(1/2), n = 11). Diatom and bacterial density, and biofilm-covered RDE surface analyses (i) confirmed that microbial accrual resulted in biofilm formation on the RDE surface, and (ii) indicated that thickness and elasticity represent useful integrative parameters of biofilm architecture that could be measured on natural river assemblages using the proposed electrochemical method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biofilm formation in attached microalgal reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Zhu, W; Chen, C; Nie, Y; Lin, X

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the fundamental question of biofilm formation. First, a drum biofilm reactor was introduced. The drums were coated with three porous substrates (cotton rope, canvas, and spandex), respectively. The relationships among the substrate, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and adhesion ratio were analyzed. Second, a plate biofilm reactor (PBR) was applied by replacing the drum with multiple parallel vertical plates to increase the surface area. The plates were coated with porous substrates on each side, and the nutrients were delivered to the cells by diffusion. The influence of nitrogen source and concentration on compositions of EPS and biofilm formation was analyzed using PBR under sunlight. The results indicated that both substrate and nitrogen were critical on the EPS compositions and biofilm formation. Under the optimal condition (glycine with concentration of 1 g l(-1) and substrate of canvas), the maximum biofilm productivity of 54.46 g m(-2) d(-1) with adhesion ratio of 84.4 % was achieved.

  18. New approaches to combat Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In nature, bacteria predominantly reside in structured, surface-attached communities embedded in a self-produced, extracellular matrix. These so-called biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many infections, as they are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms. This review focusses on the biofilm-forming periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Current knowledge on the virulence mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis biofilm formation is presented. In addition, oral infectious diseases in which P. gingivalis plays a key role are described, and an overview of conventional and new therapies for combating P. gingivalis biofilms is given. More insight into this intriguing pathogen might direct the development of better strategies to combat oral infections. PMID:28473880

  19. Biofilm Formation As a Response to Ecological Competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno M Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria form dense surface-associated communities known as biofilms that are central to their persistence and how they affect us. Biofilm formation is commonly viewed as a cooperative enterprise, where strains and species work together for a common goal. Here we explore an alternative model: biofilm formation is a response to ecological competition. We co-cultured a diverse collection of natural isolates of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and studied the effect on biofilm formation. We show that strain mixing reliably increases biofilm formation compared to unmixed conditions. Importantly, strain mixing leads to strong competition: one strain dominates and largely excludes the other from the biofilm. Furthermore, we show that pyocins, narrow-spectrum antibiotics made by other P. aeruginosa strains, can stimulate biofilm formation by increasing the attachment of cells. Side-by-side comparisons using microfluidic assays suggest that the increase in biofilm occurs due to a general response to cellular damage: a comparable biofilm response occurs for pyocins that disrupt membranes as for commercial antibiotics that damage DNA, inhibit protein synthesis or transcription. Our data show that bacteria increase biofilm formation in response to ecological competition that is detected by antibiotic stress. This is inconsistent with the idea that sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics are cooperative signals that coordinate microbial communities, as is often concluded. Instead, our work is consistent with competition sensing where low-levels of antibiotics are used to detect and respond to the competing genotypes that produce them.

  20. Anti-Biofilm Compounds Derived from Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Melander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms are surface-attached communities of microorganisms that are protected by an extracellular matrix of biomolecules. In the biofilm state, bacteria are significantly more resistant to external assault, including attack by antibiotics. In their native environment, bacterial biofilms underpin costly biofouling that wreaks havoc on shipping, utilities, and offshore industry. Within a host environment, they are insensitive to antiseptics and basic host immune responses. It is estimated that up to 80% of all microbial infections are biofilm-based. Biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, since once the device is colonized, infection is almost impossible to eliminate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there is a notable effort towards developing small, synthetically available molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. Here, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms specifically through non-microbicidal mechanisms. Importantly, we discuss several sets of compounds derived from marine sponges that we are developing in our labs to address the persistent biofilm problem. We will discuss: discovery/synthesis of natural products and their analogues—including our marine sponge-derived compounds and initial adjuvant activity and toxicological screening of our novel anti-biofilm compounds.

  1. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  2. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Preface Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long-served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and a number of studies have revealed that this process is subject to a number of integrated regulatory pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms controlling biofilm assembly and briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium. PMID:23353768

  3. Microbial Biofilms: Persisters, Tolerance and Dosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, N. G.

    2005-03-01

    Almost all moist surfaces are colonized by microbial biofilms. Biofilms are implicated in cross-contamination of food products, biofouling, medical implants and various human infections such as dental cavities, ulcerative colitis and chronic respiratory infections. Much of current research is focused on the recalcitrance of biofilms to typical antibiotic and antimicrobial treatments. Although the polymer component of biofilms impedes the penetration of antimicrobials through reaction-diffusion limitation, this does not explain the observed tolerance, it merely delays the action of the agent. Heterogeneities in growth-rate also slow the eradication of the bacteria since most antimicrobials are far less effective for non-growing, or slowly growing bacteria. This also does not fully describe biofilm tolerance, since heterogeneities arr primairly a result of nutrient consumption. In this investigation, we describe the formation of `persister' cells which neither grow nor die in the presence of antibiotics. We propose that the cells are of a different phenotype than typical bacterial cells and the expression of the phenotype is regulated by the growth rate and the antibiotic concentration. We describe several experiments which describe the dynamics of persister cells and which motivate a dosing protocol that calls for periodic dosing of the population. We then introduce a mathematical model, which describes the effect of such a dosing regiment and indicates that the relative dose/withdrawal times are important in determining the effectiveness of such a treatment. A reduced model is introduced and the similar behavior is demonstrated analytically.

  4. Density of founder cells affects spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovacs, Akos T.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, most bacteria live in surface-attached sedentary communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are often studied with respect to bacterial interactions. Many cells inhabiting biofilms are assumed to express 'cooperative traits', like the secretion of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These

  5. A personal history of research on microbial biofilms and biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiby, Niels

    2014-04-01

    The observation of aggregated microorganisms surrounded by a self-produced matrix adhering to surfaces or located in tissues or secretions is as old as microbiology, with both Leeuwenhoek and Pasteur describing the phenomenon. In environmental and technical microbiology, biofilms were already shown 80-90 years ago to be important for biofouling on submerged surfaces, e.g. ships. The concept of biofilm infections and their importance in medicine is, however, biofilm was introduced into medicine in 1985 by Costerton. In the following decades, it became obvious that biofilm infections are widespread in medicine, and their importance is now generally accepted. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of physical properties in soil profiles under selected introduced trees in the Nature Reserve Arboretum Mlyňany, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polláková Nora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between introduced trees roots and soils in which they grow is the most important factor influencing the adaptation, growth and health of these trees. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which physical soil properties enhance or limit the vitality of the studied introduced trees in the Arboretum Mlyňany. Soil properties were studied in seven soil profiles under dense monocultures of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Juniperus Chinensis, Thuja orientalis, Thuja plicata, Picea orientalis and Pinus nigra. The results showed that all stagnic horizons had exceeded the limit values of total porosity and bulk density, hence these horizons were compacted. Based on the soil and climatic requirements of the examined trees we conclude that the soil properties of their sites in arboretum are suitable for: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Thuja orientalis and Pinus nigra. Nevertheless, physical properties in profiles under Picea orientalis and Juniperus Chinensis do not permit rapid drainage of water, what is unfavourable for healthy development of these two species; while Thuja plicata demanding high moisture supply is grown on soil with high coarse porosity, a prerequisite of fast rainwater drainage. However, since none of the studied introduced trees had suffered from physiological disorders or diseases, they may be declared acclimatized well in the soil-climate conditions described in this study.

  7. Recolonization of laser-ablated bacterial biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Obika, Hideki; Utsumi, Akihiro; Toshihiko, Ooie; Yano, Tetsuo

    2004-01-20

    The recolonization of laser-ablated bacterial monoculture biofilm was studied in the laboratory by using a flow-cytometer system. The marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora was used to develop biofilms on titanium coupons. Upon exposure to a low-power pulsed irradiation from an Nd:YAG laser, the coupons with biofilm were significantly reduced both in terms of total viable count (TVC) and area cover. The energy density used for a pulse of 5 ns was 0.1 J/cm(2) and the durations of irradiation exposure were 5 and 10 min. When placed in a flow of dilute ZoBell marine broth medium (10%) the laser-destructed bacterial film in a flow-cytometer showed significant recovery over a period of time. The flow of medium was regulated at 3.2 ml/min. The increase in area cover and TVC, however, was significantly less than that observed for nonirradiated control (t-test, Precolonization compared to control was thought be due to the lethal and sublethal impacts of laser irradiation on bacteria. This observation thus provided data on the online recolonization speed of biofilm, which is important when considering pulsed laser irradiation as an ablating technique of biofilm formation and removal in natural systems. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Microbial pathogenesis and biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Høiby, N.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2004-01-01

    been termed 'maturation', which is thought to be mediated by a differentiation process. Maturation into late stages of biofilm development resulting in stable and robust structures may require the formation of a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are most often assumed to consist...... a highly significant role in connection with chronic infections [1]. Bacterial growth on surfaces depends on several factors [2]. In nature, surfaces are probably often conditioned with a thin film of organic molecules, which may serve as attractants for bacterial chemotactic systems and which subsequently...... permit bacterial growth to occur. In laboratory model systems the growth of the surface-associated bacteria is supported by the nutrient supply in the moving or standing liquid. A benchmark of biofilm formation by several organisms in vitro is the development of three-dimensional structures that have...

  9. Role of Multicellular Aggregates in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper N. Kragh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In traditional models of in vitro biofilm development, individual bacterial cells seed a surface, multiply, and mature into multicellular, three-dimensional structures. Much research has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms governing the initial attachment of single cells to surfaces. However, in natural environments and during infection, bacterial cells tend to clump as multicellular aggregates, and biofilms can also slough off aggregates as a part of the dispersal process. This makes it likely that biofilms are often seeded by aggregates and single cells, yet how these aggregates impact biofilm initiation and development is not known. Here we use a combination of experimental and computational approaches to determine the relative fitness of single cells and preformed aggregates during early development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We find that the relative fitness of aggregates depends markedly on the density of surrounding single cells, i.e., the level of competition for growth resources. When competition between aggregates and single cells is low, an aggregate has a growth disadvantage because the aggregate interior has poor access to growth resources. However, if competition is high, aggregates exhibit higher fitness, because extending vertically above the surface gives cells at the top of aggregates better access to growth resources. Other advantages of seeding by aggregates, such as earlier switching to a biofilm-like phenotype and enhanced resilience toward antibiotics and immune response, may add to this ecological benefit. Our findings suggest that current models of biofilm formation should be reconsidered to incorporate the role of aggregates in biofilm initiation.

  10. Are Africans, Europeans, and Asians Different "Races"? A Guided-Inquiry Lab for Introducing Undergraduate Students to Genetic Diversity and Preparing Them to Study Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa M.; Leonard, Mary J.; Snodgrass, Meagan

    2012-01-01

    Many students do not recognize that individual organisms within populations vary, and this may make it difficult for them to recognize the essential role variation plays in natural selection. Also, many students have weak scientific reasoning skills, and this makes it difficult for them to recognize misconceptions they might have. This paper…

  11. Electro-active bio-films: formation, characterization and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parot, Sandrine

    2007-01-01

    Some bacteria, which are able to exchange electrons with a conductive material without mediator form on conductive surfaces electro-active bio-films. This bacterial property has been recently discovered (2001). Objectives of this work are to develop electro-active bio-films in various natural environments from indigenous flora, then through complementary electrochemical techniques (chrono-amperometry and cyclic voltammetry), to evaluate electro-activity of isolates coming from so-formed bio-films and to characterize mechanisms of electron transfer between bacteria and materials. First, electro-active bio-films have been developed under chrono-amperometry in garden compost and in water coming from Guyana mangrove. These bio-films were respectively able to use an electrode as electron acceptor (oxidation) or as electron donor (reduction). In compost, results obtained in chrono-amperometry and cyclic voltammetry suggest a two-step electron transfer: slow substrate consumption, then rapid electron transfer between bacteria and the electrode. Thereafter, the ability to reduce oxygen was demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry for facultative aerobic isolates from compost bio-films (Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and for aerobic isolates obtained from marine electro-active bio-films (Roseobacter spp. in majority). Finally, bio-films inducing current increase in chrono-amperometry were developed in bioreactor with synthetic medium from a pure culture of isolates. Hence, for the first time, electro-activity of several anaerobic strains of Geobacter bremensis isolated from compost bio-films was highlighted. (author) [fr

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo. In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of pneumococcal biofilm

  13. Dependence of toxicity of silver nanoparticles on Pseudomonas putida biofilm structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuptimdang, Pumis; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-12-01

    Susceptibility of biofilms with different physical structures to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied. Biofilms of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were formed in batch conditions under different carbon sources (glucose, glutamic acid, and citrate), glucose concentrations (5 and 50 mM), and incubation temperatures (25 and 30 °C). The biofilms were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy for their physical characteristics (biomass amount, thickness, biomass volume, surface to volume ratio, and roughness coefficient). The biofilms forming under different growth conditions exhibited different physical structures. The biofilm thickness and the roughness coefficient were found negatively and positively correlated with the biofilm susceptibility to AgNPs, respectively. The effect of AgNPs on biofilms was low (1-log reduction of cell number) when the biofilms had high biomass amount, high thickness, high biomass volume, low surface to volume ratio, and low roughness coefficient. Furthermore, the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) stripping process was applied to confirm the dependence of susceptibility to AgNPs on the structure of biofilm. After the EPS stripping process, the biofilms forming under different conditions showed reduction in thickness and biomass volume, and increases in surface to volume ratio and roughness coefficient, which led to more biofilm susceptibility to AgNPs. The results of this study suggest that controlling the growth conditions to alter the biofilm physical structure is a possible approach to reduce the impact of AgNPs on biofilms in engineered and natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Histophilus somni biofilm formation in cardiopulmonary tissue of the bovine host following respiratory challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Indra; Shao, Jian Q.; Annadata, Satish

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms form in a variety of host sites following infection with many bacterial species. However, the study of biofilms in a host is hindered due to the lack of protocols for the proper experimental investigation of biofilms in vivo. Histophilus somni is an agent of respiratory and systemic...... diseases in bovines, and readily forms biofilms in vitro. In the present study the capability of H. somni to form biofilms in cardiopulmonary tissue following experimental respiratory infection in the bovine host was examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy...... haemagglutinin (FHA), predicted to be involved in attachment. Thus, this investigation demonstrated that H. somni is capable of forming a biofilm in its natural host, that such a biofilm may be capable of harboring other bovine respiratory disease pathogens, and that the genes responsible for biofilm formation...

  15. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  16. Computational approaches to standard-compliant biofilm data for reliable analysis and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Ferreira, Andreia; Azevedo, Nuno F; Pereira, Maria Olivia; Lourenço, Anália

    2012-12-01

    The study of microorganism consortia, also known as biofilms, is associated to a number of applications in biotechnology, ecotechnology and clinical domains. Nowadays, biofilm studies are heterogeneous and data-intensive, encompassing different levels of analysis. Computational modelling of biofilm studies has become thus a requirement to make sense of these vast and ever-expanding biofilm data volumes. The rationale of the present work is a machine-readable format for representing biofilm studies and supporting biofilm data interchange and data integration. This format is supported by the Biofilm Science Ontology (BSO), the first ontology on biofilms information. The ontology is decomposed into a number of areas of interest, namely: the Experimental Procedure Ontology (EPO) which describes biofilm experimental procedures; the Colony Morphology Ontology (CMO) which characterises morphologically microorganism colonies; and other modules concerning biofilm phenotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence traits. The overall objective behind BSO is to develop semantic resources to capture, represent and share data on biofilms and related experiments in a regularized fashion manner. Furthermore, the present work also introduces a framework in assistance of biofilm data interchange and analysis - BiofOmics (http://biofomics.org) - and a public repository on colony morphology signatures - MorphoCol (http://stardust.deb.uminho.pt/morphocol).

  17. In situ rheology of yeast biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoni, Lorena I; Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the in situ rheological behavior of yeast biofilms growing on stainless steel under static and turbulent flow. The species used (Rhodototula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from a clarified apple juice industry. The flow conditions impacted biofilm composition over time, with a predominance of C. krusei under static and turbulent flow. Likewise, structural variations occurred, with a tighter appearance under dynamic flow. Under turbulent flow there was an increase of 112 μm in biofilm thickness at 11 weeks (p < 0.001) and cell morphology was governed by hyphal structures and rounded cells. Using the in situ growth method introduced here, yeast biofilms were determined to be viscoelastic materials with a predominantly solid-like behavior, and neither this nor the G'0 values were significantly affected by the flow conditions or the growth time, and at large deformations their weak structure collapsed beyond a critical strain of about 1.5-5%. The present work could represent a starting point for developing in situ measurements of yeast rheology and contribute to a thin body of knowledge about fungal biofilm formation.

  18. Synergistic Interactions within a Multispecies Biofilm Enhance Individual Species Protection against Grazing by a Pelagic Protozoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem K. Raghupathi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation has been shown to confer protection against grazing, but little information is available on the effect of grazing on biofilm formation and protection in multispecies consortia. With most biofilms in nature being composed of multiple bacterial species, the interactions and dynamics of a multispecies bacterial biofilm subject to grazing by a pelagic protozoan predator were investigated. To this end, a mono and multispecies biofilms of four bacterial soil isolates, namely Xanthomonas retroflexus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, were constructed and subjected to grazing by the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. In monocultures, grazing strongly reduced planktonic cell numbers in P. amylolyticus and S. rhizophila and also X. retroflexus. At the same time, cell numbers in the underlying biofilms increased in S. rhizophila and X. retroflexus, but not in P. amylolyticus. This may be due to the fact that while grazing enhanced biofilm formation in the former two species, no biofilm was formed by P. amylolyticus in monoculture, either with or without grazing. In four-species biofilms, biofilm formation was higher than in the best monoculture, a strong biodiversity effect that was even more pronounced in the presence of grazing. While cell numbers of X. retroflexus, S. rhizophila, and P. amylolyticus in the planktonic fraction were greatly reduced in the presence of grazers, cell numbers of all three species strongly increased in the biofilm. Our results show that synergistic interactions between the four-species were important to induce biofilm formation, and suggest that bacterial members that produce more biofilm when exposed to the grazer not only protect themselves but also supported other members which are sensitive to grazing, thereby providing a “shared grazing protection” within the four-species biofilm model. Hence, complex interactions shape the dynamics of the biofilm and

  19. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  20. A new dry-surface biofilm model: An essential tool for efficacy testing of hospital surface decontamination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatroudi, Ahmad; Hu, Honghua; Deva, Anand; Gosbell, Iain B; Jacombs, Anita; Jensen, Slade O; Whiteley, Greg; Glasbey, Trevor; Vickery, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The environment has been shown to be a source of pathogens causing infections in hospitalised patients. Incorporation of pathogens into biofilms, contaminating dry hospital surfaces, prolongs their survival and renders them tolerant to normal hospital cleaning and disinfection procedures. Currently there is no standard method for testing efficacy of detergents and disinfectants against biofilm formed on dry surfaces. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible method of producing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm with properties similar to those of biofilm obtained from dry hospital clinical surfaces, for use in efficacy testing of decontamination products. The properties (composition, architecture) of model biofilm and biofilm obtained from clinical dry surfaces within an intensive care unit were compared. The CDC Biofilm Reactor was adapted to create a dry surface biofilm model. S. aureus ATCC 25923 was grown on polycarbonate coupons. Alternating cycles of dehydration and hydration in tryptone soy broth (TSB) were performed over 12 days. Number of biofilm bacteria attached to individual coupons was determined by plate culture and the coefficient of variation (CV%) calculated. The DNA, glycoconjugates and protein content of the biofilm were determined by analysing biofilm stained with SYTO 60, Alexa-488-labelled Aleuria aurantia lectin and SyproOrange respectively using Image J and Imaris software. Biofilm architecture was analysed using live/dead staining and confocal microscopy (CM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Model biofilm was compared to naturally formed biofilm containing S. aureus on dry clinical surfaces. The CDC Biofilm reactor reproducibly formed a multi-layered, biofilm containing about 10(7) CFU/coupon embedded in thick extracellular polymeric substances. Within run CV was 9.5% and the between run CV was 10.1%. Protein was the principal component of both the in vitro model biofilm and the biofilms found on clinical surfaces. Continued

  1. Electrochemical roles of extracellular polymeric substances in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Most microbial cells in nature are surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are fundamental components and determine the physiochemical properties of a biofilm. This review highlights the EPS properties of conductivity and redox ability from an electrochemical perspective, em...

  2. The catabolite repression control protein Crc plays a role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lianbo; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Gao, Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria form complex surface-attached biofilm communities in nature. Biofilm cells differentiate into subpopulations which display tolerance towards antimicrobial agents. However, the signal transduction pathways regulating subpopulation differentiation in biofilms are largely unelucidated. In t....... In the present study, we show that the catabolite repression control protein Crc regulates the metabolic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in biofilms, and plays an important role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in P. aeruginosa biofilms....

  3. DNase I and Proteinase K eliminate DNA from injured or dead bacteria but not from living bacteria in microbial reference systems and natural drinking water biofilms for subsequent molecular biology analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Jessica Varela; Jungfer, Christina; Obst, Ursula; Schwartz, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR), are very sensitive, but may detect total DNA present in a sample, including extracellular DNA (eDNA) and DNA coming from live and dead cells. DNase I is an endonuclease that non-specifically cleaves single- and double-stranded DNA. This enzyme was tested in this study to analyze its capacity of digesting DNA coming from dead cells with damaged cell membranes, leaving DNA from living cells with intact cell membranes available for DNA-based methods. For this purpose, an optimized DNase I/Proteinase K (DNase/PK) protocol was developed. Intact Staphylococcus aureus cells, heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells, free genomic DNA of Salmonella enterica, and a mixture of these targets were treated according to the developed DNase/PK protocol. In parallel, these samples were treated with propidium monoazide (PMA) as an already described assay for live-dead discrimination. Quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE of the eubacterial 16S rDNA fragment were used to test the ability of the DNase/PK and PMA treatments to distinguish DNA coming from cells with intact cell membranes in the presence of DNA from dead cells and free genomic DNA. The methods were applied to three months old autochthonous drinking water biofilms from a pilot facility built at a German waterworks. Shifts in the DNA patterns observed after DGGE analysis demonstrated the applicability of DNase/PK as well as of the PMA treatment for natural biofilm investigation. However, the DNase/PK treatment demonstrated some practical advantages in comparison with the PMA treatment for live/dead discrimination of bacterial targets in drinking water systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A closer look: the complexities of dental biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Costerton, J.W.; Stoodley, P.

    2003-01-01

    Biofilms are the collections of bacteria and other microorganisms that assemble on surfaces. They are widespread in nature and can colonize natural, nonliving hard surfaces such as river rocks, man-made surfaces like the concrete found in industrial pipelines, and even plant and animal surfaces and, of course, the teeth and gums.Within this broad definition, dental plaque falls into one of many types of different biofilms. Loosely adherent plaque and the denser, more firmly attached plaque ma...

  5. Evaluación en ambiente natural, del uso de biopelículas marinas en el asentamiento larval de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 Evaluation in natural environment of use of marine biofilms, in the larval settlement of Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillánez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En una granja marina ubicada colindante con el área de reserva marina “La Rinconada” (Antofagasta, Chile, se evaluó el asentamiento larval del pectínido Argopecten purpuratus sobre colectores impregnados con películas multi-específicas, de las diatomeas Navicula sp. y Amphora sp., y de la cepa bacteriana NC1, aisladas desde colectores utilizados en captaciones comerciales de esta especie que presentaron altos índices de fijación, y que bajo condiciones controladas de criadero y laboratorio, han mostrando altos niveles de asentamiento larval. Los resultados obtenidos con el uso de estas biopelículas, sobre colectores instalados en forma paralela a los utilizados por la empresa para la captación de semilla con fines comerciales, no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes tratamientos probados y el control, respecto a las fijaciones ocurridas en un lapso de 30 días de inmersión. Se discute, debido a los tiempos que demandaron las larvas de la primera cohorte en asentarse sobre los colectores tratados, un posible reemplazo de las biopelículas utilizadas, por otra común en todos ellos y atractiva para el asentamiento de las larvas, como causa de la ausencia de efectos significativos de los tratamientos probados en el medio natural. Se recomienda la necesidad de establecer el tiempo de permanencia, en el ambiente natural, de las biopelículas impregnadas a los colectores en laboratorio.In a commercial farm located near the Marine Reserve “La Rinconada” (Antofagasta, Chile the larval settlement of Argopecten purpuratus on artificial collectors impregnated with multiespecific films of marine diatoms Navicula sp. and Amphora sp. and, bacterial strain NC1 were evaluated, These biofilms were isolates from artificial collector used in commercial activities with highest index of settlement in hatchery and laboratory conditions. The results to use this biofilms in collectors installed in same condition of commercial

  6. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    of these emergent properties which are relevant to as diverse areas as clinical settings and natural systems. In this thesis, I have attempted to contribute to our knowledge on the multispecies interactions with a special focus on biofilm communities. I was especially interested in how co-existing species affect...... each other and in understanding the key mechanisms and interactions involved. In the introduction of this thesis the most important concepts of multi-species interactions and biofilm development are explained. After this the topic changes to the various ways of examining community interactions...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...

  7. A biofilm microreactor system for simultaneous electrochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Majors, Paul D.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Ewing, R. James; Ewing, Thomas; Mueller, Karl T.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    In order to fully understand electrochemically active biofilms and the limitations to their scale-up in industrial biofilm reactors, a complete picture of the microenvironments inside the biofilm is needed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are ideally suited for the study of biofilms and for probing their microenvironments because these techniques allow for non-invasive interrogation and in situ monitoring with high resolution. By combining NMR with simultaneous electrochemical techniques, it is possible to sustain and study live electrochemically active biofilms. Here, we introduce a novel biofilm microreactor system that allows for simultaneous electrochemical and NMR techniques (EC-NMR) at the microscale. Microreactors were designed with custom radiofrequency resonator coils, which allowed for NMR measurements of biofilms growing on polarized gold electrodes. For an example application of this system, we grew Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. NMR was used to investigate growth media flow velocities, which were compared to simulated laminar flow, and electron donor concentrations inside the biofilms. We use Monte Carlo error analysis to estimate standard deviations of the electron donor concentration measurements within the biofilm. The EC-NMR biofilm microreactor system can ultimately be used to correlate extracellular electron transfer rates with metabolic reactions and explore extracellular electron transfer mechanisms

  8. Biofilms in Endodontics—Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Prasanna; Romero, Monica; Vera, Jorge; Daood, Umer; Khan, Asad U.; Yan, Aixin; Cheung, Gary Shun Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota are found in highly organized and complex entities, known as biofilms, the characteristics of which are fundamentally different from microbes in planktonic suspensions. Root canal infections are biofilm mediated. The complexity and variability of the root canal system, together with the multi-species nature of biofilms, make disinfection of this system extremely challenging. Microbial persistence appears to be the most important factor for failure of root canal treatment and this could further have an impact on pain and quality of life. Biofilm removal is accomplished by a chemo-mechanical process, using specific instruments and disinfecting chemicals in the form of irrigants and/or intracanal medicaments. Endodontic research has focused on the characterization of root canal biofilms and the clinical methods to disrupt the biofilms in addition to achieving microbial killing. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of microbial biofilms in endodontics and review the literature on the role of root canal disinfectants and disinfectant-activating methods on biofilm removal. PMID:28800075

  9. Biofilms in Endodontics-Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Prasanna; Romero, Monica; Vera, Jorge; Daood, Umer; Khan, Asad U; Yan, Aixin; Cheung, Gary Shun Pan

    2017-08-11

    Microbiota are found in highly organized and complex entities, known as biofilms, the characteristics of which are fundamentally different from microbes in planktonic suspensions. Root canal infections are biofilm mediated. The complexity and variability of the root canal system, together with the multi-species nature of biofilms, make disinfection of this system extremely challenging. Microbial persistence appears to be the most important factor for failure of root canal treatment and this could further have an impact on pain and quality of life. Biofilm removal is accomplished by a chemo-mechanical process, using specific instruments and disinfecting chemicals in the form of irrigants and/or intracanal medicaments. Endodontic research has focused on the characterization of root canal biofilms and the clinical methods to disrupt the biofilms in addition to achieving microbial killing. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of microbial biofilms in endodontics and review the literature on the role of root canal disinfectants and disinfectant-activating methods on biofilm removal.

  10. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...... the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits...... and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions. Recent technological advances have enabled total diversity analysis of highly complex and diverse microbial communities...

  11. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  12. Interactions in multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Ren, Dawei; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The recent focus on complex bacterial communities has led to the recognition of interactions across species boundaries. This is particularly pronounced in multispecies biofilms, where synergistic interactions impact the bacterial distribution and overall biomass produced. Importantly, in a number...... of settings, the interactions in a multispecies biofilm affect its overall function, physiology, or surroundings, by resulting in enhanced resistance, virulence, or degradation of pollutants, which is of significant importance to human health and activities. The underlying mechanisms causing these synergistic...

  13. Extracellular DNA facilitates the formation of functional amyloids in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly; Ganesan, Mahesh; Payne, David E; Solomon, Michael J; Boles, Blaise R

    2016-01-01

    Persistent staphylococcal infections often involve surface-associated communities called biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development is mediated by the co-ordinated production of the biofilm matrix, which can be composed of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins including amyloid fibers. The nature of the interactions between matrix components, and how these interactions contribute to the formation of matrix, remain unclear. Here we show that the presence of eDNA in S. aureus biofilms promotes the formation of amyloid fibers. Conditions or mutants that do not generate eDNA result in lack of amyloids during biofilm growth despite the amyloidogeneic subunits, phenol soluble modulin peptides, being produced. In vitro studies revealed that the presence of DNA promotes amyloid formation by PSM peptides. Thus, this work exposes a previously unacknowledged interaction between biofilm matrix components that furthers our understanding of functional amyloid formation and S. aureus biofilm biology. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Microbiology of dental plaque biofilms and their role in oral health and caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Philip D

    2010-07-01

    Dental plaque is the biofilm found naturally on teeth. Dental plaque is also implicated in dental caries, which is associated with shifts in the microbial balance of the biofilm resulting in increased proportions of acid producing and acid tolerating bacteria, especially (but not exclusively) mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The regular intake of fermentable dietary sugars, or impaired saliva flow, produces persistent conditions of low pH within the biofilm, which selects for these cariogenic bacteria. Clinicians should prevent this disruption to the natural microbial balance of the biofilm (relevant approaches are described) rather than merely treating its consequences by restoring cavities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%. Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8% and Mycenas rosea (44.8% presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4% and Russula delica (53.1%. Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract. This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other

  16. Optimized candidal biofilm microtiter assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, Bastiaan P.; Cohen, Jesse B.; Feser, Gail E. McElhaney; Cihlar, Ronald L.

    Microtiter based candidal biofilm formation is commonly being used. Here we describe the analysis of factors influencing the development of candidal biofilms such as the coating with serum, growth medium and pH. The data reported here show that optimal candidal biofilm formation is obtained when

  17. Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria can attach to any surface in contact with water and proliferate into complex communities enclosed in an adhesive matrix, these communities are called biofilms. The matrix makes the biofilm difficult to remove by physical means, and bacteria in biofilm can survive treatment with many...

  18. Diffusion of organic pollutants within a biofilm in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Kao, Chen-Fei; Liu, You-Hsi

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of aquatic pollution is an inevitable environmental impact resulting from human civilization and societal advancement. Either from the natural or anthropogenic sources, the aqueous contaminants enter the natural environment and aggravate its quality. To assure the aquatic environment quality, the attached-growth biological degradation is often applied to removing organic contaminants by introducing contaminated water into a porous media which is covered by microorganism. Additionally, many natural aquatic systems also form such similar mechanism to increase their self-purification capability. To better understand this transport phenomenon and degradation mechanism in the biofilm for future application, the mathematic characterization of organic contaminant diffusion within the biofilm requires further exploration. The present study aimed to formulate a mathematic representation to quantify the diffusion of the organic contaminant in the biofilm. The BOD was selected as the target contaminant. A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the BOD diffusion in the biofilm under the conditions of influent BOD variation from 50 to 300 mg/L, COD:N:P ratios of 100:5:1 and 100:15:3, with or without auxiliary aeration. For diffusion coefficient calculation, the boundary condition of zero diffusion at the interface between microbial phase and contact media was assumed. With the principle of conservation of mass, the removed contaminants equal those that diffuse into the biofilm, and eq 1 results, and the diffusion coefficient (i.e., eq 2) can be solved through calculus with equations from table of integral. ∂2Sf- Df ∂z2 = Rf (1) --(QSin--QSout)2Y--- Df = 2μmaxxf(Sb + Ks ln-Ks-) Sb+Ks (2) Using the obtained experimental data, the diffusion coefficient was calculated to be 2.02*10-6 m2/d with influent COD of 50 mg/L at COD:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 with aeration, and this coefficient increased to 6.02*10-6 m2/d as the influent concentration increased to

  19. Molecular mechanisms involved in Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielich-Süss, Benjamin; Lopez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Biofilms are the predominant lifestyle of bacteria in natural environments, and they severely impact our societies in many different fashions. Therefore, biofilm formation is a topic of growing interest in microbiology, and different bacterial models are currently studied to better understand the molecular strategies that bacteria undergo to build biofilms. Among those, biofilms of the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis are commonly used for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis biofilms show remarkable architectural features that are a consequence of sophisticated programs of cellular specialization and cell-cell communication within the community. Many laboratories are trying to unravel the biological role of the morphological features of biofilms, as well as exploring the molecular basis underlying cellular differentiation. In this review, we present a general perspective of the current state of knowledge of biofilm formation in B. subtilis. In particular, a special emphasis is placed on summarizing the most recent discoveries in the field and integrating them into the general view of these truly sophisticated microbial communities. PMID:24909922

  20. Investigating electrochemical removal of bacterial biofilms from stainless steel substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, Mahdi; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Omanovic, Sasha

    2014-05-01

    Electrochemical removal of biofilms deserves attention because of its ease of use and environmentally friendly nature. We investigated the influence of electrode potential and treatment time on the removal of a 10-day old Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formed on stainless steel 316 L substrates. At electrode potentials more positive than -1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, lower removal rates were observed and only partial removal of the biofilm was achieved during a 1-min time interval. Electrostatic repulsion between the film and electrode surface is believed to drive biofilm detachment under these conditions. However, when the biofilm-coated substrates were treated at potentials negative of -1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, complete removal of a biofilm was achieved within seconds. Under these conditions, vigorous evolution of hydrogen gas is believed to be responsible for the film removal, mechanically detaching the bacteria and extracellular polymeric matrix from the substrate. Stainless steel substrates were also subjected to repeated cycles of biofilm formation and electrochemical removal. High removal efficiencies were maintained throughout this process suggesting the potential of the proposed technology for application on conductive surfaces in various industrial settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses type III secretion system to kill biofilm-associated amoebae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Moreno, Ana Maria; Alhede, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria and protozoa coexist in a wide range of biofilm communities of natural, technical and medical importance. Generally, this interaction is characterized by the extensive grazing activity of protozoa on bacterial prey populations. We hypothesized that the close spatial coexistence in biofilms...... suggest that conserved virulence pathways and specifically the T3SS play a central role in bacteria- protozoa interactions in biofilms and may be instrumental for the environmental persistence and evolution of opportunistic bacterial pathogens....

  2. Characterization of the internal ion environment of biofilms based on charge density and shape of ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Andi; Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Morisaki, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm polymers contain both electrically positively and negatively charged sites. These charged sites enable the biofilm to trap and retain ions leading to an important role of biofilm such as nutrient recycling and pollutant purification. Much work has focused on the ion-exchange capacity of biofilms, and they are known to adsorb ions through an exchange mechanism between the ions in solution and the ions adsorbed to the charged sites on the biofilm polymer. However, recent studies suggest that the adsorption/desorption behavior of ions in a biofilm cannot be explained solely by this ion exchange mechanism. To examine the possibility that a substantial amount of ions are held in the interstitial region of the biofilm polymer by an electrostatic interaction, intact biofilms formed in a natural environment were immersed in distilled water and ion desorption was investigated. All of the detected ion species were released from the biofilms over a short period of time, and very few ions were subsequently released over more time, indicating that the interstitial region of biofilm polymers is another ion reserve. The extent of ion retention in the interstitial region of biofilms for each ion can be determined largely by charge density, |Z|/r, where |Z| is the ion valence as absolute value and r is the ion radius. The higher |Z|/r value an ion has, the stronger it is retained in the interstitial region of biofilms. Ion shape is also a key determinant of ion retention. Spherical and non-spherical ions have different correlations between the condensation ratio and |Z|/r. The generality of these findings were assured by various biofilm samples. Thus, the internal regions of biofilms exchange ions dynamically with the outside environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A new method to measure and model dynamic oxygen microdistributions in moving biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Chen, You-Peng; Dong, Yang; Wang, Xi-Xi; Guo, Jin-Song; Shen, Yu; Yan, Peng; Ma, Teng-Fei; Sun, Xiu-Qian; Fang, Fang; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Biofilms in natural environments offer a superior solution to mitigate water pollution. Artificially intensified biofilm reactors represented by rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are widely applied and studied. Understanding the oxygen transfer process in biofilms is an important aspect of these studies, and describing this process in moving biofilms (such as biofilms in RBCs) is a particular challenge. Oxygen transfer in RBCs behaves differently than in other biological reactors due to the special oxygen supply mode that results from alternate exposure of the biofilm to wastewater and air. The study of oxygen transfer in biofilms is indispensable for understanding biodegradation in RBCs. However, the mechanisms are still not well known due to a lack of effective tools to dynamically analyze oxygen diffusion, reaction, and microdistribution in biofilms. A new experimental device, the Oxygen Transfer Modeling Device (OTMD), was designed and manufactured for this purpose, and a mathematical model was developed to model oxygen transfer in biofilm produced by an RBC. This device allowed the simulation of the local environment around the biofilm during normal RBC operation, and oxygen concentrations varying with time and depth in biofilm were measured using an oxygen microelectrode. The experimental data conformed well to the model description, indicating that the OTMD and the model were stable and reliable. Moreover, the OTMD offered a flexible approach to study the impact of a single-factor on oxygen transfer in moving biofilms. In situ environment of biofilm in an RBC was simulated, and dynamic oxygen microdistributions in the biofilm were measured and well fitted to the built model description. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The danger signal extracellular ATP is an inducer of Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinfeng Ding

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plaque biofilm is the primary etiological agent of periodontal disease. Biofilm formation progresses through multiple developmental stages beginning with bacterial attachment to a surface, followed by development of microcolonies and finally detachment and dispersal from a mature biofilm as free planktonic bacteria. Tissue damage arising from inflammatory response to biofilm is one of the hallmark features of periodontal disease. A consequence of tissue damage is the release of ATP from within the cell into the extracellular space. Extracellular ATP (eATP is an example of a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP employed by mammalian cells to elicit inflammatory and damage healing responses. Although the roles of eATP as a signaling molecule in multi-cellular organisms have been relatively well studied, exogenous ATP also influences bacteria biofilm formation. Since plaque biofilms are continuously exposed to various stresses including exposure to the host damage factors eATP, we hypothesized that eATP, in addition to eliciting inflammation could potentially influence the biofilm lifecycle of periodontal associated bacteria. We found that eATP rather than nutritional factors or oxidative stress induced dispersal of Fusobacterium nucleatum, an organism associated with periodontal disease. eATP induced biofilm dispersal through chelating metal ions present in biofilm. Dispersed F. nucleatum biofilm, regardless of natural or induced dispersal by exogenous ATP, were significantly more adhesive and invasive compared to planktonic or biofilm counterparts, and correspondingly activated significantly more pro-inflammatory cytokine production in infected periodontal fibroblasts. Dispersed F. nucleatum also exhibited significantly higher expression of fadA, a virulence factor implicated in adhesion and invasion, compared to planktonic or biofilm bacteria. This study revealed for the first time that periodontal bacterium is capable of co-opting eATP, a

  5. Alginate production affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development and architecture, but is not essential for biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapper, A.P.; Narasimhan, G.; Oman, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    of their biofilm formation using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biofilm Image Processing (BIP) and Community Statistics (COMSTAT) software programs were used to provide quantitative measurements of the two-dimensional biofilm images. All three strains formed distinguishable biofilm architectures, indicating...

  6. Dental biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    and cause gingival inflammation and breakdown of supporting periodontal fibers and bone and ultimately tooth loss, i.e., gingivitis, chronic or aggressive periodontitis, and around dental implants, peri-implantitis. Furthermore, bacteria from the dental biofilm may spread to other parts of the body......-fermenting bacteria causing demineralization of teeth, dental caries, which may further lead to inflammation and necrosis in the pulp and periapical region, i.e., pulpitis and periapical periodontitis. In supra- and subgingival biofilms, predominantly gram-negative, anaerobic proteolytic bacteria will colonize...

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    biofilms, which protect the aggregated, biopolymer-embedded bacteria from the detrimental actions of antibiotic treatments and host immunity. A key component in the protection against innate immunity is rhamnolipid, which is a quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factor. QS is a cell-to-cell signaling...... mechanism used to coordinate expression of virulence and protection of aggregated biofilm cells. Rhamnolipids are known for their ability to cause hemolysis and have been shown to cause lysis of several cellular components of the human immune system, for example, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes...

  8. Manipulatiaon of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Palmer, R.J.; Smith, C.A.; Whitaker, K.W.; White, D.C.; Zinn, M.; kirkegaard, R.

    1998-08-09

    The Biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms by generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desquamation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in the distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  9. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  10. Investigating Microbial Biofilm Formations on Crustal Rock Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, M.; D'Angelo, T.; Carr, S. A.; Orcutt, B.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean crust hosts microbial life that, in some cases, alter the component rocks as a means of obtaining energy. Variations in crust lithology, included trace metal and mineral content, as well as the chemistry of the fluids circulating through them, provide substrates for some microbes to metabolize, leading to formation of biofilm community structures. Microbes have different parameters for the situations in which they will form biofilms, but they must have some source of energy in excess at the site of biofilm formation for them to become stationary and form the carbohydrate-rich structures connecting the cells to one another and the substrate. Generally, the requirements for microbes to form biofilms on crustal minerals are unclear. We designed two experiments to test (1) mineral preference and biofilm formation rates by natural seawater microbial communities, and (2) biofilm development as a function of phosphate availability for an organism isolated from subseafloor ocean crust. In Experiment 1, we observed that phyric basalt groundmass is preferentially colonized over aphyric basalt or metal sulfides in a shallow water and oxic seawater environment. In experiment 2, tests of the anaerobic heterotroph Thalassospira bacteria isolated from oceanic crustal fluids showed that they preferentially form biofilms, lose motility, and increase exponentially in number over time in higher-PO4 treatments (50 micromolar), including with phosphate-doped basalts, than in treatments with low phosphate concentrations (0.5 micromolar) often found in crustal fluids. These observations suggest phosphate as a main driver of biofilm formation in subsurface crust. Overall, these data suggest that the drivers of microbial biofilm formation on crustal substrates are selective to the substrate conditions, which has important implications for estimating the global biomass of life harbored in oceanic crust.

  11. Interaction between local hydrodynamics and algal community in epilithic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graba, Myriam; Sauvage, Sabine; Moulin, Frédéric Y; Urrea, Gemma; Sabater, Sergi; Sanchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Interactions between epilithic biofilm and local hydrodynamics were investigated in an experimental flume. Epilithic biofilm from a natural river was grown over a 41-day period in three sections with different flow velocities (0.10, 0.25 and 0.40 m s(-1) noted LV, IV and HV respectively). Friction velocities u* and boundary layer parameters were inferred from PIV measurement in the three sections and related to the biofilm structure. The results show that there were no significant differences in Dry Mass and Ash-Free Dry Mass (g m(-2)) at the end of experiment, but velocity is a selective factor in algal composition and the biofilms' morphology differed according to differences in water velocity. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis distances) and an Indicator Species Analysis (IndVal) showed that the indicator taxa were Fragilaria capucina var. mesolepta in the low-velocity (u*. = 0.010-0.012 m s(-1)), Navicula atomus, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia frustulum in the intermediate-velocity (u*. = 0.023-0.030 m s(-1)) and Amphora pediculus, Cymbella proxima, Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae and Surirella angusta in the high-velocity (u*. = 0.033-0.050 m s(-1)) sections. A sloughing test was performed on 40-day-old biofilms in order to study the resistance of epilithic biofilms to higher hydrodynamic regimes. The results showed an inverse relationship between the proportion of detached biomass and the average value of friction velocity during growth. Therefore, water velocity during epilithic biofilm growth conditioned the structure and algal composition of biofilm, as well as its response (ability to resist) to higher shear stresses. This result should be considered in modelling epilithic biofilm dynamics in streams subject to a variable hydrodynamics regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surprisingly high substrate specificities observed in complex biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Kragelund, Caroline

    The behavior of microorganisms in natural ecosystems (e.g. biofilms) differs significantly from laboratory studies. In nature microorganisms experience alternating periods of surplus nutrients, nutrient-limitation, and starvation. Literature data suggests that to survive and compete successfully......, microorganisms can regulate their metabolism expressing wide range of uptake and catabolic systems. However, ecophysiological studies of natural biofilms indicate that bacteria are very specialized in their choice of substrate, so even minor changes in substrate composition can affect the community composition...... by selection for different specialized species. We hypothesized that bacteria growing in natural environment express strongly conserved substrate specificity which is independent on short-term (few hours) variations in growth conditions. In this study, biofilm from Aalborg wastewater treatment plant was used...

  13. Biofilm in endodontics: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Parolia, Abhishek; Shetty, K Vikram; Mehta, Lata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms’ formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to

  14. A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strømme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h−1, compared to 1.09 h−1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces.

  15. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data...

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Flow Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Sternberg, Claus; Molin, Søren

    2011-01-01

    well-defined conditions(2,3). The system consists of a flow cell that serves as growth chamber for the biofilm. The flow cell is supplied with nutrients and oxygen from a medium flask via a peristaltic pump and spent medium is collected in a waste container. This construction of the flow system allows......Many microbial cells have the ability to form sessile microbial communities defined as biofilms that have altered physiological and pathological properties compared to free living microorganisms. Biofilms in nature are often difficult to investigate and reside under poorly defined conditions(1...... a continuous supply of nutrients and administration of e.g. antibiotics with minimal disturbance of the cells grown in the flow chamber. Moreover, the flow conditions within the flow cell allow studies of biofilm exposed to shear stress. A bubble trapping device confines air bubbles from the tubing which...

  17. Periphytic biofilms: A promising nutrient utilization regulator in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Junzhuo; Rene, Eldon R

    2018-01-01

    Low nutrient utilization efficiency in agricultural ecosystems is the main cause of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Therefore, novel approaches should be explored to improve nutrient utilization in these ecosystems. Periphytic biofilms composed of microalgae, bacteria and other microbial organisms are ubiquitous and form a 'third phase' in artificial wetlands such as paddy fields. Periphytic biofilms play critical roles in nutrient transformation between the overlying water and soil/sediment, however, their contributions to nutrient utilization improvement and NPS pollution control have been largely underestimated. This mini review summarizes the contributions of periphytic biofilms to nutrient transformation processes, including assimilating and storing bioavailable nitrogen and phosphorus, fixing nitrogen, and activating occluded phosphorus. Future research should focus on augmenting the nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing and phosphatase producing microorganisms in periphytic biofilms to improve nutrient utilization and thereby reduce NPS pollution production in artificial and natural wetland ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biofilm Implication in Oral Diseases of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Zambori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of biofilm in disease processes in humans and animals is now widely recognized. In animal species,the risk of infection is probably greater than the risk in humans. This is due to the difference in animal housing andliving environments – animals naturally live in environments with a large and much more diverse microbialcommunity. Most oral bacteria live symbiotically in biofilm. This symbiotic association gives the bacteria differentcommunal properties than individual planktonic bacteria.Bacteria that form biofilm live and develop in communities which are an important property for dental plaqueformation that leads to dental calculus formation, periodontal diseases, dental caries and systemic diseases.The objective of this study is to reveal the role of dental plaque (oral biofilm in pathogenesis of dental calculus,periodontal disease and dental caries in dogs and cats.

  19. Biofilm roughness determines Cryptosporidium parvum retention in environmental biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCesare, E A Wolyniak; Hargreaves, B R; Jellison, K L

    2012-06-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

  20. Interspecific bacterial interactions are reflected in multispecies biofilm spatial organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interspecies interactions are essential for the persistence and development of any kind of complex community, and microbial biofilms are no exception. Multispecies biofilms are structured and spatially defined communities that have received much attention due to their omnipresence in natural environments. Species residing in these complex bacterial communities usually interact both intra- and interspecifically. Such interactions are considered to not only be fundamental in shaping overall biomass and the spatial distribution of cells residing in multispecies biofilms, but also to result in coordinated regulation of gene expression in the different species present. These communal interactions often lead to emergent properties in biofilms, such as enhanced tolerance against antibiotics, host immune responses and other stresses, which have been shown to provide benefits to all biofilm members not only the enabling sub-populations. However, the specific molecular mechanisms of cellular processes affecting spatial organization, and vice versa, are poorly understood and very complex to unravel. Therefore, detailed description of the spatial organization of individual bacterial cells in multispecies communities can be an alternative strategy to reveal the nature of interspecies interactions of constituent species. Closing the gap between visual observation and biological processes may become crucial for resolving biofilm related problems, which is of utmost importance to environmental, industrial, and clinical implications. This review briefly presents the state of the art of studying interspecies interactions and spatial organization of multispecies communities, aiming to support theoretical and practical arguments for further advancement of this field.

  1. Effects of resource supplements on mature ciliate biofilms: an empirical test using a new type of flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norf, Helge; Arndt, Hartmut; Weitere, Markus

    2009-11-01

    Biofilm-dwelling consumer communities play an important role in the matter flux of many aquatic ecosystems. Due to their poor accessibility, little is as yet known about the regulation of natural biofilms. Here, a new type of flow cell is presented which facilitates both experimental manipulation and live observation of natural, pre-grown biofilms. These flow cells were used to study the dynamics of mature ciliate biofilms in response to supplementation of planktonic bacteria. The results suggest that enhanced ciliate productivity could be quickly transferred to micrometazoans (ciliate grazers), making the effects on the standing stock of the ciliates detectable only for a short time. Likewise, no effect on ciliates appeared when micrometazoan consumers were ab initio abundant. This indicates the importance of 'top-down' control of natural ciliate biofilms. The flow cells used here offer great potential for experimentally testing such control mechanisms within naturally cultivated biofilms.

  2. PATHOGENICITY OF BIOFILM BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a paucity of information concerning any link between the microorganisms commonly found in biofilms of drinking water systems and their impacts on human health. For bacteria, culture-based techniques detect only a limited number of the total microorganisms associated wit...

  3. Biofilm formation in geometries with different surface curvature and oxygen availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ya-Wen; Fragkopoulos, Alexandros A; Kim, Harold D; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto; Marquez, Samantha M; Angelini, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria in the natural environment exist as interface-associated colonies known as biofilms . Complex mechanisms are often involved in biofilm formation and development. Despite the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, it remains unclear how physical effects in standing cultures influence biofilm development. The topology of the solid interface has been suggested as one of the physical cues influencing bacteria-surface interactions and biofilm development. Using the model organism Bacillus subtilis, we study the transformation of swimming bacteria in liquid culture into robust biofilms in a range of confinement geometries (planar, spherical and toroidal) and interfaces (air/water, silicone/water, and silicone elastomer/water). We find that B. subtilis form submerged biofilms at both solid and liquid interfaces in addition to air-water pellicles. When confined, bacteria grow on curved surfaces of both positive and negative Gaussian curvature. However, the confinement geometry does affect the resulting biofilm roughness and relative coverage. We also find that the biofilm location is governed by oxygen availability as well as by gravitational effects; these compete with each other in some situations. Overall, our results demonstrate that confinement geometry is an effective way to control oxygen availability and subsequently biofilm growth. (paper)

  4. Time to "go large" on biofilm research: advantages of an omics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Nuno F; Lopes, Susana P; Keevil, Charles W; Pereira, Maria O; Vieira, Maria J

    2009-04-01

    In nature, the biofilm mode of life is of great importance in the cell cycle for many microorganisms. Perhaps because of biofilm complexity and variability, the characterization of a given microbial system, in terms of biofilm formation potential, structure and associated physiological activity, in a large-scale, standardized and systematic manner has been hindered by the absence of high-throughput methods. This outlook is now starting to change as new methods involving the utilization of microtiter-plates and automated spectrophotometry and microscopy systems are being developed to perform large-scale testing of microbial biofilms. Here, we evaluate if the time is ripe to start an integrated omics approach, i.e., the generation and interrogation of large datasets, to biofilms--"biofomics". This omics approach would bring much needed insight into how biofilm formation ability is affected by a number of environmental, physiological and mutational factors and how these factors interplay between themselves in a standardized manner. This could then lead to the creation of a database where biofilm signatures are identified and interrogated. Nevertheless, and before embarking on such an enterprise, the selection of a versatile, robust, high-throughput biofilm growing device and of appropriate methods for biofilm analysis will have to be performed. Whether such device and analytical methods are already available, particularly for complex heterotrophic biofilms is, however, very debatable.

  5. Impact of Chloramination on the Development of Laboratory-Grown Biofilms Fed with Filter-Pretreated Groundwater

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Fangqiong

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the continuous impact of monochloramine disinfection on laboratory-grown biofilms through the characterization of biofilm architecture and microbial community structure. Biofilm development and disinfection were achieved using CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) biofilm reactor systems with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coupons as the substratum and sand filter-pretreated groundwater as the source of microbial seeding and growth nutrient. After 2 weeks of growth, the biofilms were subjected to chloramination for 8 more weeks at concentrations of 7.5±1.4 to 9.1±0.4 mg Cl2 L-1. Control reactors received no disinfection during the development of biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis indicated that chloramination could lead to 81.4-83.5% and 86.3-95.6% reduction in biofilm biomass and thickness, respectively, but could not eliminate biofilm growth. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that microbial community structures between chloraminated and non-chloraminated biofilms exhibited different successional trends. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis further revealed that chloramination could select members of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria as the dominant populations, whereas natural development leads to the selection of members of Nitrospira and Bacteroidetes as dominant biofilm populations. Overall, chloramination treatment could alter the growth of multi-species biofilms on the PVC surface, shape the biofilm architecture, and select a certain microbial community that can survive or proliferate under chloramination.

  6. Enhancing the thermal stability of natural rubber/recycled ethylene–propylene–diene rubber blends by means of introducing pre-vulcanised ethylene–propylene–diene rubber and electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabil, H.; Ismail, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New route of processing was introduced to optimise the thermal stability of NR/R-EPDM blends. • Pre-vulcanised EPDM and EB irradiation were introduced into NR/R-EPDM blends. • Thermal stability is obviously enhanced by applying these two techniques. • Applying new route of processing methods is clearly successful to NR/R-EPDM blends. - Abstract: Most rubber materials are subjected to oxidation. The rate of oxidation depends on the type of rubber, processing method, and end-use conditions. The oxidation of rubber can result in the loss of physical properties, such as tensile strength, elongation, and flexibility. Hence, the service life is determined by oxidation stability. Thermal properties are relevant to the potential use of polymeric materials in many consumer oriented applications. Thermo-oxidative ageing and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) have been proven to be successful techniques in determining the thermal stability of polymers and polymer blends. In this article, preparation of a series of natural rubber/recycled ethylene–propylene–diene rubber (NR/R-EPDM) blends is described. Processing of the blends, by means of introducing pre-vulcanised EPDM and electron beam (EB) irradiation, was carried out. Two thermal analysis methods, namely thermo-oxidative ageing and thermogravimetric analysis, were conducted. The results indicated that pre-vulcanising EPDM for 1.45 min (ts − 2) is sufficient to gain the optimum retained tensile and elongation at break. It was simultaneously observed that the introduction of pre-vulcanised EPDM increased decomposition temperature and activation energy by showing optimum values at a pre-vulcanising time of 3.45 min (ts). In the latter study, the retained properties increased after EB irradiation. The results can be verified by the thermal decomposition temperature and their activation energy. The obtained TG profiles and the calculated kinetic parameters indicated that introducing EB irradiation

  7. Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 induces increased complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 colony biofilms via hypoxanthine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kankel, Stefanie; Götze, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    to identify soil bacteria, which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with B. subtilis. We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as inducer of wrinkle-formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated......O, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression, but rather caused by the excess of hypoxanthine...... within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death. Importance Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be favorable, for instance in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities...

  8. Inhibition strategies of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms-current knowledge and future outlooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloketuyi, Sandra F; Khan, Fazlurrahman

    2017-09-01

    There is an increasing trend in the food industry on the Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation and inhibition. This is attributed to its easy survival on contact surfaces, resistance to disinfectants or antibiotics and growth under the stringent condition used for food processing and preservation thereby leading to food contamination products by direct or indirect exposure. Though, there is a lack of conclusive evidences about the mechanism of biofilm formation, in this review, the concept of biofilm formation and various chemical, physical, and green technology approaches to prevent or control the biofilm formed is discussed. State-of-the-art approaches ranging from the application of natural to synthetic molecules with high effectiveness and non-toxicity targeted at the different steps of biofilm formation could positively influence the biofilm inhibition in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Escherichia coli biofilms have an organized and complex extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Crowley, Jan R; Heuser, John; Chapman, Matthew R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-09-10

    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, and their resilience is derived in part from a complex extracellular matrix that can be tailored to meet environmental demands. Although common developmental stages leading to biofilm formation have been described, how the extracellular components are organized to allow three-dimensional biofilm development is not well understood. Here we show that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains produce a biofilm with a highly ordered and complex extracellular matrix (ECM). We used electron microscopy (EM) techniques to image floating biofilms (pellicles) formed by UPEC. EM revealed intricately constructed substructures within the ECM that encase individual, spatially segregated bacteria with a distinctive morphology. Mutational and biochemical analyses of these biofilms confirmed curli as a major matrix component and revealed important roles for cellulose, flagella, and type 1 pili in pellicle integrity and ECM infrastructure. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated that UPEC pellicles have a highly organized ultrastructure that varies spatially across the multicellular community. Bacteria can form biofilms in diverse niches, including abiotic surfaces, living cells, and at the air-liquid interface of liquid media. Encasing these cellular communities is a self-produced extracellular matrix (ECM) that can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. The ECM protects biofilm bacteria from environmental insults and also makes the dissolution of biofilms very challenging. As a result, formation of biofilms within humans (during infection) or on industrial material (such as water pipes) has detrimental and costly effects. In order to combat bacterial biofilms, a better understanding of components required for biofilm formation and the ECM is required. This study defined the ECM composition and architecture of floating pellicle biofilms formed by Escherichia coli.

  10. Long alkyl-chain imidazolium ionic liquids: Antibiofilm activity against phototrophic biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G Kiran Kumar; Nancharaiah, Y V; Venugopalan, V P

    2017-07-01

    Biofilm formation is problematic and hence undesirable in medical and industrial settings. In addition to bacteria, phototrophic organisms are an integral component of biofilms that develop on surfaces immersed in natural waters. 1-Alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium ionic liquids (IL) with varying alkyl chain length were evaluated for their influence on the formation of monospecies (Navicula sp.) and multispecies biofilms under phototrophic conditions. An IL with a long alkyl side chain, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidaazolium chloride ([C 16 (MIM)][Cl]) retarded growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of Navicula sp. at concentrations as low as 5μM. Interestingly, [C 16 (MIM)][Cl] was very effective in preventing multispecies phototrophic biofilms on fibre reinforced plastic surfaces immersed in natural waters (fresh and seawater). SYTOX ® Green staining and chlorophyll leakage assay confirmed that the biocidal activity of the IL was exerted through cell membrane disruption. The data show that [C 16 (MIM)][Cl] is a potent inhibitor of phototrophic biofilms at micromolar concentrations and a promising agent for biofilm control in re-circulating cooling water systems. This is the first report that ionic liquids inhibit biofilm formation by phototrophic organisms which are important members of biofilms in streams and cooling towers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2015-01-01

    of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation...

  12. Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila and Hartmannella vermiformis in fresh water environments and their interactions in biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, is widespread in natural fresh water environments and is also frequently found in man-made water systems. Microbial biofilms and protozoa are known to play a major role in the proliferation of L. pneumophila. Biofilms provide

  13. Biofilm formation and design features of indwelling silicone rubber tracheoesophageal voice prostheses - An electron microscopical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunisse, C; van Weissenbruch, R; Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC; Dijk, F; Albers, FWJ

    2001-01-01

    After total laryngectomy, voice can be restored with a silicone rubber tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis. However, biofilm formation and subsequent deterioration of the silicone material of the prosthesis will limit device life by impairing valve function. To simulate the natural process of biofilm

  14. Introducing ZBrush 4

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Introducing ZBrush 4 launches readers head-on into fulfilling their artistic potential for sculpting realistic creature, cartoon, and hard surface models in ZBrush. ZBrush's innovative technology and interface can be intimidating to both digital-art beginners as well as veterans who are used to a more conventional modeling environment. This book dispels myths about the difficulty of ZBrush with a thorough tour and exploration of the program's interface. Engaging projects also allow the reader to become comfortable with digital sculpting in with a relaxed and fun book atmosphere. Introducing ZB

  15. Silver against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, K.; Kristiansen, S.

    2007-01-01

    bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa......, but that the silver concentration is important. A concentration of 5-10 ig/mL silver sulfadiazine eradicated the biofilm whereas a lower concentration (1 ig/mL) had no effect. The bactericidal concentration of silver required to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was 10-100 times higher than that used to eradicate...... planktonic bacteria. These observations strongly indicate that the concentration of silver in currently available wound dressings is much too low for treatment of chronic biofilm wounds. It is suggested that clinicians and manufacturers of the said wound dressings consider whether they are treating wounds...

  16. Introducing Business English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate

  17. Extracellular DNA Contributes to Dental Biofilm Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Dige, Irene

    2017-01-01

    dental biofilms. This study aimed to determine whether eDNA was part of the matrix in biofilms grown in situ in the absence of sucrose and whether treatment with DNase dispersed biofilms grown for 2.5, 5, 7.5, 16.5, or 24 h. Three hundred biofilms from 10 study participants were collected and treated...... the amount of biofilm in very early stages of growth (up to 7.5 h), but the treatment effect decreased with increasing biofilm age. This study proves the involvement of eDNA in dental biofilm formation and its importance for biofilm stability in the earliest stages. Further research is required to uncover...

  18. Biofilm Effect on Flow Structure over a Permeable Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemifar, F.; Blois, G.; Aybar, M.; Perez-Calleja, P.; Nerenberg, R.; Sinha, S.; Hardy, R. J.; Best, J.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Christensen, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    Biofilms constitute an important form of bacterial life in aquatic environments and are present at the fluid-solid interfaces in natural and industrial settings, such as water distribution systems and riverbeds among others. The permeable, heterogeneous, and deformable structure of biofilms can influence mass and momentum transport between the subsurface and freestream. However, this interaction is not fully understood, in part due to technical obstacles impeding quantitative experimental investigations. In this work, the effect of biofilm on flow structure over a permeable bed is studied. Experiments are conducted in a closed water channel equipped with an idealized two-dimensional permeable bed. Prior to conducting flow experiments, the models are placed within an independent recirculating reactor for biofilm growth. Once a targeted biofilm growth stage is achieved, the models are transferred to the water channel and subjected to transitional and turbulent flows. Long-distance microscopic particle image velocimetry measurements are performed to quantify the effect of biofilm on the turbulence structure of the free flow as well as the freestream-subsurface flow interaction.

  19. Biofilm on artificial pacemaker: fiction or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Paula Azevedo; Watanabe, Evandro; Andrade, Denise de

    2011-11-01

    Cardiac pacing through cardiac pacemaker is one of the most promising alternatives in the treatment of arrhythmias, but it can cause reactions natural or complex reactions, either early or late. This study aimed to describe the scientific evidence on the risk of infection and biofilm formation associated with cardiac pacemaker. This is a study of integrative literature review. It included 14 publications classified into three thematic categories: diagnosis (microbiological and/or clinical), complications and therapy of infections. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were the microorganisms most frequently isolated. It was not possible to determine the incidence of infection associated with pacemakers, since the studies were generally of prevalence. In terms of therapy, the complete removal of pacemakers stood out, especially in cases of suspected biofilm. Still controversial is the use of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of infection associated with implantation of a pacemaker.

  20. Biofilm and Dental Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Øilo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All treatment involving the use of biomaterials in the body can affect the host in positive or negative ways. The microbiological environment in the oral cavity is affected by the composition and shape of the biomaterials used for oral restorations. This may impair the patients’ oral health and sometimes their general health as well. Many factors determine the composition of the microbiota and the formation of biofilm in relation to biomaterials such as, surface roughness, surface energy and chemical composition, This paper aims to give an overview of the scientific literature regarding the association between the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of dental biomaterials and oral biofilm formation, with emphasis on current research and future perspectives.

  1. The role of hydrodynamics in shaping the composition and architecture of epilithic biofilms in fluvial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Anlanger, Christine; Kalla, Katalin; Neu, Thomas R; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas; Weitere, Markus

    2017-12-15

    Previous laboratory and on-site experiments have highlighted the importance of hydrodynamics in shaping biofilm composition and architecture. In how far responses to hydrodynamics can be found in natural flows under the complex interplay of environmental factors is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of near streambed turbulence in terms of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) on the composition and architecture of biofilms matured in two mountainous streams differing in dissolved nutrient concentrations. Over both streams, TKE significantly explained 7% and 8% of the variability in biofilm composition and architecture, respectively. However, effects were more pronounced in the nutrient richer stream, where TKE significantly explained 12% and 3% of the variability in biofilm composition and architecture, respectively. While at lower nutrient concentrations seasonally varying factors such as stoichiometry of dissolved nutrients (N/P ratio) and light were more important and explained 41% and 6% of the variability in biofilm composition and architecture, respectively. Specific biofilm features such as elongated ripples and streamers, which were observed in response to the uniform and unidirectional flow in experimental settings, were not observed. Microbial biovolume and surface area covered by the biofilm canopy increased with TKE, while biofilm thickness and porosity where not affected or decreased. These findings indicate that under natural flows where near bed flow velocities and turbulence intensities fluctuate with time and space, biofilms became more compact. They spread uniformly on the mineral surface as a film of densely packed coccoid cells appearing like cobblestone pavement. The compact growth of biofilms seemed to be advantageous for resisting hydrodynamic shear forces in order to avoid displacement. Thus, near streambed turbulence can be considered as important factor shaping the composition and architecture of biofilms grown under natural

  2. Biofilms promote altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Jan-Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    The origin of altruism is a fundamental problem in evolution, and the maintenance of biodiversity is a fundamental problem in ecology. These two problems combine with the fundamental microbiological question of whether it is always advantageous for a unicellular organism to grow as fast as possible. The common basis for these three themes is a trade-off between growth rate and growth yield, which in turn is based on irreversible thermodynamics. The trade-off creates an evolutionary alternative between two strategies: high growth yield at low growth rate versus high growth rate at low growth yield. High growth yield at low growth rate is a case of an altruistic strategy because it increases the fitness of the group by using resources economically at the cost of decreased fitness, or growth rate, of the individual. The group-beneficial behaviour is advantageous in the long term, whereas the high growth rate strategy is advantageous in the short term. Coexistence of species requires differences between their niches, and niche space is typically divided into four 'axes' (time, space, resources, predators). This neglects survival strategies based on cooperation, which extend the possibilities of coexistence, arguing for the inclusion of cooperation as the fifth 'axis'. Here, individual-based model simulations show that spatial structure, as in, for example, biofilms, is necessary for the origin and maintenance of this 'primitive' altruistic strategy and that the common belief that growth rate but not yield decides the outcome of competition is based on chemostat models and experiments. This evolutionary perspective on life in biofilms can explain long-known biofilm characteristics, such as the structural organization into microcolonies, the often-observed lack of mixing among microcolonies, and the shedding of single cells, as promoting the origin and maintenance of the altruistic strategy. Whereas biofilms enrich altruists, enrichment cultures, microbiology's paradigm

  3. Introducing English grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Borjars, Kersti

    2013-01-01

    Answering key questions such as 'Why study grammar?' and 'What is standard English?', Introducing English Grammar guides readers through the practical analysis of the syntax of English sentences. With all special terms carefully explained as they are introduced, the book is written for readers with no previous experience of grammatical analysis. It is ideal for all those beginning their study of linguistics, English language or speech pathology, as well as students with primarily literary interests who need to cover the basics of linguistic analysis. The approach taken is in line with current research in grammar, a particular advantage for students who may go on to study syntax in more depth. All the examples and exercises use real language taken from newspaper articles, non-standard dialects and include excerpts from studies of patients with language difficulties. Students are encouraged to think about the terminology as a tool kit for studying language and to test what can and cannot be described using thes...

  4. Modeling sediment transport with an integrated view of the biofilm effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. W.; Lai, H. J.; Cheng, W.; Huang, L.; He, G. J.

    2017-09-01

    Most natural sediment is invariably covered by biofilms in reservoirs and lakes, which have significant influence on bed form dynamics and sediment transport, and also play a crucial role in natural river evolution, pollutant transport, and habitat changes. However, most models for sediment transport are based on experiments using clean sediments without biological materials. In this study, a three-dimensional mathematical model of hydrodynamics and sediment transport is presented with a comprehensive consideration of the biofilm effects. The changes of the bed resistance mainly due to the different bed form dynamics of the biofilm-coated sediment (biosediment), which affect the hydrodynamic characteristics, are considered. Moreover, the variations of parameters related to sediment transport after the biofilm growth are integrated, including the significant changes of the incipient velocity, settling velocity, reference concentration, and equilibrium bed load transport rate. The proposed model is applied to evaluate the effects of biofilms on the hydrodynamic characteristics and sediment transport in laboratory experiments. Results indicate that the mean velocity increases after the biofilm growth, and the turbulence intensity near the river bed decreases under the same flow condition. Meanwhile, biofilm inhibits sediment from moving independently. Thus, the moderate erosion is observed for biosediment resulting in smaller suspended sediment concentrations. The proposed model can reasonably reflect these sediment transport characteristics with biofilms, and the approach to integration of the biological impact could also be used in other modeling of sediment transport, which can be further applied to provide references for the integrated management of natural aqueous systems.

  5. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  6. Anti-Biofilm Activity of a Long-Chain Fatty Aldehyde from Antarctic Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 against Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillo, Angela; Papa, Rosanna; Ricciardelli, Annarita; Sannino, Filomena; Ziaco, Marcello; Tilotta, Marco; Selan, Laura; Marino, Gennaro; Corsaro, Maria M; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco; Parrilli, Ermenegilda

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a harmless human skin colonizer responsible for ~20% of orthopedic device-related infections due to its capability to form biofilm. Nowadays there is an interest in the development of anti-biofilm molecules. Marine bacteria represent a still underexploited source of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. Previous results have demonstrated that the culture supernatant of Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 impairs the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm. Further, evidence supports the hydrophobic nature of the active molecule, which has been suggested to act as a signal molecule. In this paper we describe an efficient activity-guided purification protocol which allowed us to purify this anti-biofilm molecule and structurally characterize it by NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. Our results demonstrate that the anti-biofilm molecule is pentadecanal, a long-chain fatty aldehyde, whose anti- S. epidermidis biofilm activity has been assessed using both static and dynamic biofilm assays. The specificity of its action on S. epidermidis biofilm has been demonstrated by testing chemical analogs of pentadecanal differing either in the length of the aliphatic chain or in their functional group properties. Further, indications of the mode of action of pentadecanal have been collected by studying the bioluminescence of a Vibrio harveyi reporter strain for the detection of autoinducer AI-2 like activities. The data collected suggest that pentadecanal acts as an AI-2 signal. Moreover, the aldehyde metabolic role and synthesis in the Antarctic source strain has been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of an anti-biofilm molecule form from cold-adapted bacteria and on the action of a long-chain fatty aldehyde acting as an anti-biofilm molecule against S. epidermidis .

  7. Biofilm architecture in a novel pressurized biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Xia, Siqing; Duan, Liang; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2015-01-01

    A novel pure-oxygen pressurized biofilm reactor was operated at different organic loading, mechanical shear and hydrodynamic conditions to understand the relationships between biofilm architecture and its operation. The ultimate goal was to improve the performance of the biofilm reactor. The biofilm was labeled with seven stains and observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Unusual biofilm architecture of a ribbon embedded between two surfaces with very few points of attachment was observed. As organic loading increased, the biofilm morphology changed from a moderately rough layer into a locally smoother biomass with significant bulging protuberances, although the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency remained unchanged at about 75%. At higher organic loadings, biofilms contained a larger fraction of active cells distributed uniformly within a proteinaceous matrix with decreasing polysaccharide content. Higher hydrodynamic shear in combination with high organic loading resulted in the collapse of biofilm structure and a substantial decrease in reactor performance (a COD removal of 16%). Moreover, the important role of proteins for the spatial distribution of active cells was demonstrated quantitatively.

  8. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1332: kinetics of formation and matrix characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccese Terraf, María Cecilia; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Rault, Lucie; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion and biofilm formation are strain properties that reportedly contribute to the permanence of lactobacilli in the human vagina. The kinetics of biofilm formation and the chemical nature of the biofilm matrix formed by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection) 1324 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1332, vaginal beneficial strains, were evaluated in this work. Crystal violet-stained microplate assay and techniques of epifluorescence, electron and confocal microscopy were applied. The highest density and complexity of biofilms of both vaginal lactobacilli were observed at 72 h of incubation. Protease, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin treatments efficiently detached L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm that was also partially affected by α-amylase. However, L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 biofilm was slightly affected by protease, proteinase K and α-amylase. Confocal microscopy revealed greater amount of polysaccharides in L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 biofilm matrix than in L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm matrix. The results indicate that proteins are one of the main components of the L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm, while the biofilm matrix of L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 is composed of carbohydrates and proteins. The results obtained support the knowledge, understanding and characterization of two biofilm-forming vaginal Lactobacillus strains.

  9. Biofilm growth on polyvinylchloride surface incubated in suboptimal microbial warm water and effect of sanitizers on biofilm removal post biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to understand the nature of biofilm growth on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface when exposed to sub optimal quality microbial water (> 4 log10 cfu/ml) obtained from poultry drinking water source mimicking water in waterlines during the first week of poultry broodi...

  10. Dynamic energy budget approach to evaluate antibiotic effects on biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnir, Bjorn; Carpio, Ana; Cebrián, Elena; Vidal, Perfecto

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the action of antibiotics on biofilms is essential to devise therapies against chronic infections. Biofilms are bacterial communities attached to moist surfaces, sheltered from external aggressions by a polymeric matrix. Coupling a dynamic energy budget based description of cell metabolism to surrounding concentration fields, we are able to approximate survival curves measured for different antibiotics. We reproduce numerically stratified distributions of cell types within the biofilm and introduce ways to incorporate different resistance mechanisms. Qualitative predictions follow that are in agreement with experimental observations, such as higher survival rates of cells close to the substratum when employing antibiotics targeting active cells or enhanced polymer production when antibiotics are administered. The current computational model enables validation and hypothesis testing when developing therapies.

  11. Anti-biofilm efficacy of low temperature processed AgCl–TiO2 nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, Kshipra; Kowshik, Meenal

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a major concern in the medical settings and food industries due to their high tolerance to antibiotics, biocides and mechanical stress. Currently, the development of novel methods to control biofilm formation is being actively pursued. In the present study, sol–gel coatings of AgCl–TiO 2 nanoparticles are presented as potential anti-biofilm agents, wherein TiO 2 acts as a good supporting matrix to prevent aggregation of silver and facilitates its controlled release. Low-temperature processed AgCl–TiO 2 nanocomposite coatings inhibit biofilm formation by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro biofilm assay experiments demonstrated that AgCl–TiO 2 nanocomposite coated surfaces, inhibited the development of biofilms over a period of 10 days as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The silver release kinetics exhibited an initial high release, followed by a slow and sustained release. The anti-biofilm efficacy of the coatings could be attributed to the release of silver, which prevents the initial bacterial adhesion required for biofilm formation. - Highlights: • Potential of AgCl–TiO 2 nanocomposite coating to inhibit biofilm formation is exhibited. • Initial rapid release followed by later slow and sustained release of silver obtained. • TiO 2 being porous and inorganic in nature acts as a good supporting matrix

  12. Environmental scanning electron microscopy analysis of Proteus mirabilis biofilms grown on chitin and stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Duque, Zoilabet; Rojas, Héctor; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, María A; Alciaturi, Carlos

    Proteus mirabilis is a human pathogen able to form biofilms on the surface of urinary catheters. Little is known about P. mirabilis biofilms on natural or industrial surfaces and the potential consequences for these settings. The main aim of this work was to assess and compare the adhesion and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains from different origins on chitin and stainless steel surfaces within 4 to 96 h. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the biofilms of a clinical strain grown on chitin at 4 h showed greater adhesion, aggregation, thickness, and extracellular matrix production than those grown on stainless steel, whereas biofilms of an environmental strain had less aggregation on both surfaces. Biofilms of both P. mirabilis strains developed different structures on chitin, such as pillars, mushrooms, channels, and crystalline-like precipitates between 24 and 96 h, in contrast with flat-layer biofilms produced on stainless steel. Significant differences ( p  biofilm formation. This represents the first study of P. mirabilis showing adhesion, biofilm formation, and development of different structures on surfaces found outside the human host.

  13. Enhanced biofilm formation in dual-species culture of Listeria monocytogenes and Ralstonia insidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the natural environments microorganisms coexist in communities as biofilms. Since foodborne pathogens have varying abilities to form biofilms, investigation of bacterial interactions in biofilm formation may enhance our understanding of the persistence of these foodborne pathogens in the environment. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate the interactions between Listeria monocytogenes and Ralstonia insidiosa in dual species biofilms. Biofilm development after 24 h was measured using crystal violet in 96-well microtiter plate. Scanning electron microscopy and cell enumeration were employed after growth on stainless steel coupons. When compared with their single species counterparts, the dual species biofilms exhibited a significant increase in biofilm biomass. The number of L. monocytogenes in co-culture biofilms on stainless steel also increased significantly. However, there was no effect on the biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes when cultured with R. insidiosa separated by a semi-permeable membrane-linked compartment or cultured in R. insidiosa cell-free supernatant, indicating that direct cell-cell contact is critical for this interaction.

  14. Density of founder cells affects spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kovács, Akos T

    2014-10-01

    In nature, most bacteria live in surface-attached sedentary communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are often studied with respect to bacterial interactions. Many cells inhabiting biofilms are assumed to express 'cooperative traits', like the secretion of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These traits can enhance biofilm-related properties, such as stress resilience or colony expansion, while being costly to the cells that express them. In well-mixed populations cooperation is difficult to achieve, because non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs. The physical process of biofilm growth can, however, result in the spatial segregation of cooperative from non-cooperative individuals. This segregation can prevent non-cooperative cells from exploiting cooperative neighbors. Here we examine the interaction between spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. We show, experimentally and by mathematical modeling, that the density of cells at the onset of biofilm growth affects pattern formation during biofilm growth. At low initial cell densities, co-cultured strains strongly segregate in space, whereas spatial segregation does not occur at high initial cell densities. As a consequence, EPS-producing cells have a competitive advantage over non-cooperative mutants when biofilms are initiated at a low density of founder cells, whereas EPS-deficient cells have an advantage at high cell densities. These results underline the importance of spatial pattern formation for competition among bacterial strains and the evolution of microbial cooperation.

  15. Biofilms as bio-indicator for polluted waters? Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of biofilms of the Tisza river (Hungary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mages, Margarete; Ovari, Mihaly; Tuempling, Wolf v. [Department of Inland Water Research Magdeburg, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114, Magdeburg (Germany); Kroepfl, Krisztina [Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A, 1117, Budapest (Hungary)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the heavy metal accumulation by natural biofilms living in the catchment area of the Tisza river in Hungary, as well as in biofilms cultivated in vitro. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that metals can be adsorbed on biofilms, depending on their concentration and on the availability of free sorptive places. Biofilms were cultivated in vitro in natural freshwater from the Saale river, Germany. After reaching the plateau phase, Cu was added to reach a concentration of 100 {mu}g/L. An increase of its mass fraction in the biofilm was observed, which caused the decrease of the concentration in the water phase. Unfortunately, the reactor wall was also found to act as adsorbent for Cu. More detailed results of our in vitro experiments will be published in a forthcoming paper. Naturally grown biofilm samples from exposed as well as background places at the Hungarian rivers Szamos and Tisza were collected in 2000 and 2002 after the cyanide spill, and analysed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Metal mass fraction differences as high as two orders of magnitude were found between polluted and unpolluted (background) sampling points. Extremely high concentration values, e.g. 5600 {mu}g/g Zn in biofilm, were found at highly polluted sampling points. This means an enrichment factor of ca. 10,000 compared to the water phase. (orig.)

  16. Chitosan-propolis nanoparticle formulation demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teik Hwa Ong

    Full Text Available Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin. This study investigated the role of propolis developed into nanoparticles with chitosan for its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis. Bacteria that grow in a slimy layer of biofilm are resistant to penetration by antibacterial agents. The use of nanoparticles in medicine has received attention recently due to better bioavailability, enhanced penetrative capacity and improved efficacy. A chitosan-propolis nanoformulation was chosen based on ideal physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency and the rate of release of the active ingredients. This formulation inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and reduced the number of bacteria in the biofilm by ~90% at 200 μg/ml concentration. When tested on pre-formed biofilms, the formulation reduced bacterial number in the biofilm by ~40% and ~75% at 200 and 300 μg/ml, respectively. The formulation not only reduced bacterial numbers, but also physically disrupted the biofilm structure as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment of biofilms with chitosan-propolis nanoparticles altered the expression of biofilm-associated genes in E. faecalis. The results of this study revealed that chitosan-propolis nanoformulation can be deemed as a potential anti-biofilm agent in resisting infections involving biofilm formation like chronic wounds and surgical site infections.

  17. Anti-biofilm activities from marine cold adapted bacteria against staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna ePapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules.The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules.The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules

  18. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  19. Experimental study of cadmium interaction with periphytic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, O.S.; Feurtet-Mazel, A.; Martinez, R.E.; Morin, S.; Baudrimont, M.; Duong, T.; Coste, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the interaction of Cd with natural biofilms of periphytic diatoms grown during different seasons in metal-contaminated and metal-non-contaminated streams, along a tributary of the Lot River, France. Specifically, it aims to test whether the biofilms from contaminated sites have developed a protective mechanism due to high Cd exposure. Towards this goal, reversible adsorption experiments on untreated biofilms were performed in 0.01 M NaNO 3 with a pH ranging from 2 to 8, Cd concentration from 0.5 to 10,000 μg/L and exposure time from 1 to 24 h. Two types of experiments, pH-dependent adsorption edge and constant-pH 'Langmuirian'-type isotherms were conducted. Results were adequately modeled using a Linear Programming Model. It was found that the adsorption capacities of natural biofilm consortia with respect to Cd do not depend on season and are not directly linked to the growth environment. The biofilms grown in non-contaminated (4.6 ppb Cd in solid) and contaminated (570 ppb Cd in solid) settings exhibit similar adsorption capacities in the Cd concentration range in solution of 100-10,000 μg/L but quite different capacities at low Cd concentration (0.5-100 μg/L); unexpectedly, the non-contaminated biofilm adsorbs approximately 10 times more Cd than the contaminated one. It is therefore possible that the strong low-abundant ligands (for example, phosphoryl or sulfhydryls) are already metal-saturated on surfaces of biofilm grown in the contaminated site whereas these sites are still available for metal adsorption in samples grown in non-contaminated sites.

  20. Experimental study of cadmium interaction with periphytic biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, O.S., E-mail: oleg@lmtg.obs-mip.fr [Geochimie et Biogeochimie Experimentale, UMR 5563, CNRS-OMP-Universite Toulouse, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Feurtet-Mazel, A. [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Martinez, R.E. [Center for Applied Geosciences, Universitat Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Morin, S. [Unite de Recherche Reseaux, Epuration et Qualite des Eaux REQE, Cemagref, 50 Avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas Cedex (France); Baudrimont, M. [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Duong, T. [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)] [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Coste, M. [Unite de Recherche Reseaux, Epuration et Qualite des Eaux REQE, Cemagref, 50 Avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas Cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    This study addresses the interaction of Cd with natural biofilms of periphytic diatoms grown during different seasons in metal-contaminated and metal-non-contaminated streams, along a tributary of the Lot River, France. Specifically, it aims to test whether the biofilms from contaminated sites have developed a protective mechanism due to high Cd exposure. Towards this goal, reversible adsorption experiments on untreated biofilms were performed in 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3} with a pH ranging from 2 to 8, Cd concentration from 0.5 to 10,000 {mu}g/L and exposure time from 1 to 24 h. Two types of experiments, pH-dependent adsorption edge and constant-pH 'Langmuirian'-type isotherms were conducted. Results were adequately modeled using a Linear Programming Model. It was found that the adsorption capacities of natural biofilm consortia with respect to Cd do not depend on season and are not directly linked to the growth environment. The biofilms grown in non-contaminated (4.6 ppb Cd in solid) and contaminated (570 ppb Cd in solid) settings exhibit similar adsorption capacities in the Cd concentration range in solution of 100-10,000 {mu}g/L but quite different capacities at low Cd concentration (0.5-100 {mu}g/L); unexpectedly, the non-contaminated biofilm adsorbs approximately 10 times more Cd than the contaminated one. It is therefore possible that the strong low-abundant ligands (for example, phosphoryl or sulfhydryls) are already metal-saturated on surfaces of biofilm grown in the contaminated site whereas these sites are still available for metal adsorption in samples grown in non-contaminated sites.

  1. In-situ assessment of biofilm formation in submerged membrane system using optical coherence tomography and computational fluid dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Fortunato, Luca

    2016-09-09

    This paper introduces a novel approach to study the biofouling development on gravity driven submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR). The on-line monitoring of biofilm formation on a flat sheet membrane was conducted non-destructively using optical coherence tomography (OCT), allowing the in-situ investigation of the biofilm structure for 43 d. The OCT enabled to obtain a time-lapse of biofilm development on the membrane under the continuous operation. Acquired real-time information on the biofilm structure related to the change in the flux profile confirming the successful monitoring of the dynamic evolution of the biofouling layer. Four different phases were observed linking the permeate flux with the change of biofilm morphology. In particular, a stable flux of 2.1±0.1 L/m2 h was achieved with the achievement of steady biofilm morphology after 30 d of operation. Biofilm descriptors, such as thickness, biofilm area, macro-porosity and roughness (absolute and relative), were calculated for each OCT acquired scans. Interestingly, relative roughness was correlated with the flux decrease. Furthermore, the precise biofilm morphology obtained from the OCT scans was used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to better understand the role of biofilm structure on the filtration mechanism. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Introducing Program Evaluation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GÂRBOAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs and project evaluation models can be extremely useful in project planning and management. The aim is to set the right questions as soon as possible in order to see in time and deal with the unwanted program effects, as well as to encourage the positive elements of the project impact. In short, different evaluation models are used in order to minimize losses and maximize the benefits of the interventions upon small or large social groups. This article introduces some of the most recently used evaluation models.

  3. Antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due ...

  4. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  5. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  6. Microbial ecology of phototrophic biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are layered structures of microbial cells and an extracellular matrix of polymeric substances, associated with surfaces and interfaces. Biofilms trap nutrients for growth of the enclosed microbial community and help prevent detachment of cells from surfaces in flowing systems. Phototrophic

  7. Bacterial Biofilms in Jones Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eric S; Hauck, Matthew J; Kirk Harris, Jonathan; Robertson, Charles E; Dailey, Roger A

    To investigate the presence and microbiology of bacterial biofilms on Jones tubes (JTs) by direct visualization with scanning electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of representative JTs, and to correlate these findings with inflammation and/or infection related to the JT. In this study, prospective case series were performed. JTs were recovered from consecutive patients presenting to clinic for routine cleaning or recurrent irritation/infection. Four tubes were processed for scanning electron microscopy alone to visualize evidence of biofilms. Two tubes underwent PCR alone for bacterial quantification. One tube was divided in half and sent for scanning electron microscopy and PCR. Symptoms related to the JTs were recorded at the time of recovery. Seven tubes were obtained. Five underwent SEM, and 3 out of 5 showed evidence of biofilms (60%). Two of the 3 biofilms demonstrated cocci and the third revealed rods. Three tubes underwent PCR. The predominant bacteria identified were Pseudomonadales (39%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Staphylococcus (14%). Three of the 7 patients (43%) reported irritation and discharge at presentation. Two symptomatic patients, whose tubes were imaged only, revealed biofilms. The third symptomatic patient's tube underwent PCR only, showing predominantly Staphylococcus (56%) and Haemophilus (36%) species. Two of the 4 asymptomatic patients also showed biofilms. All symptomatic patients improved rapidly after tube exchange and steroid antibiotic drops. Bacterial biofilms were variably present on JTs, and did not always correlate with patients' symptoms. Nevertheless, routine JT cleaning is recommended to treat and possibly prevent inflammation caused by biofilms.

  8. Interaction of Nanoparticles with Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work we have studied the interaction and adsorption of engineered nanoparticles such as TiO2, ZnO, CeO2 , and carbon nanotubes with biofilms. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric substance coating comprised of living material and it is an aggregation of bacteria, algae, ...

  9. Biofilm models of polymicrobial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between microbes are complex and play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections. These interactions can range from fierce competition for nutrients and niches to highly evolved cooperative mechanisms between different species that support their mutual growth. An increasing appreciation for these interactions, and desire to uncover the mechanisms that govern them, has resulted in a shift from monomicrobial to polymicrobial biofilm studies in different disease models. Here we provide an overview of biofilm models used to study select polymicrobial infections and highlight the impact that the interactions between microbes within these biofilms have on disease progression. Notable recent advances in the development of polymicrobial biofilm-associated infection models and challenges facing the study of polymicrobial biofilms are addressed.

  10. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... and other components of the body's defence system. The persistence of, for example, staphylococcal infections related to foreign bodies is due to biofilm formation. Likewise, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains....... Characteristically, gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and these gradients are associated with decreased bacterial metabolic activity and increased doubling times of the bacterial cells; it is these more or less dormant cells that are responsible for some of the tolerance...

  11. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  12. The formation of green rust induced by tropical river biofilm components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorand, F.; Zegeye, A.; Ghanbaja, J.; Abdelmoula, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Sinnamary Estuary (French Guiana), a dense red biofilm grows on flooded surfaces. In order to characterize the iron oxides in this biofilm and to establish the nature of secondary minerals formed after anaerobic incubation, we conducted solid analysis and performed batch incubations. Elemental analysis indicated a major amount of iron as inorganic compartment along with organic matter. Solid analysis showed the presence of two ferric oxides ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. Bacteria were abundant and represented more than 10 11 cells g -1 of dry weight among which iron reducers were revealed. Optical and electronic microscopy analysis revealed than the bacteria were in close vicinity of the iron oxides. After anaerobic incubations with exogenous electron donors, the biofilm's ferric material was reduced into green rust, a Fe II -Fe III layered double hydroxide. This green rust remained stable for several years. From this study and previous reports, we suggest that ferruginous biofilms should be considered as a favorable location for GR biomineralization when redox conditions and electron donors availability are gathered. - Research highlights: → Characterization of ferruginous biofilm components by solid analysis methods. → Lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite were the main iron oxides. → Anaerobic incubation of biofilm with electron donors produced green rust. → Biofilm components promote the formation of the green rust. → Ferruginous biofilm could contribute to the natural mercury attenuation.

  13. The formation of green rust induced by tropical river biofilm components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorand, F., E-mail: jorand@pharma.uhp-nancy.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France); Zegeye, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France); Ghanbaja, J. [Service Commun de Microscopies Electroniques et Microanalyses X (SCMEM), Nancy-Universite, Bvd des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Abdelmoula, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France)

    2011-06-01

    In the Sinnamary Estuary (French Guiana), a dense red biofilm grows on flooded surfaces. In order to characterize the iron oxides in this biofilm and to establish the nature of secondary minerals formed after anaerobic incubation, we conducted solid analysis and performed batch incubations. Elemental analysis indicated a major amount of iron as inorganic compartment along with organic matter. Solid analysis showed the presence of two ferric oxides ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. Bacteria were abundant and represented more than 10{sup 11} cells g{sup -1} of dry weight among which iron reducers were revealed. Optical and electronic microscopy analysis revealed than the bacteria were in close vicinity of the iron oxides. After anaerobic incubations with exogenous electron donors, the biofilm's ferric material was reduced into green rust, a Fe{sup II}-Fe{sup III} layered double hydroxide. This green rust remained stable for several years. From this study and previous reports, we suggest that ferruginous biofilms should be considered as a favorable location for GR biomineralization when redox conditions and electron donors availability are gathered. - Research highlights: {yields} Characterization of ferruginous biofilm components by solid analysis methods. {yields} Lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite were the main iron oxides. {yields} Anaerobic incubation of biofilm with electron donors produced green rust. {yields} Biofilm components promote the formation of the green rust. {yields} Ferruginous biofilm could contribute to the natural mercury attenuation.

  14. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of

  15. Confocal microscopy imaging of the biofilm matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Meyer, Rikke L

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is an integral part of microbial biofilms and an important field of research. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a valuable tool for the study of biofilms, and in particular of the biofilm matrix, as it allows real-time visualization of fully hydrated, living specimens...... the concentration of solutes and the diffusive properties of the biofilm matrix....

  16. Bacterial biofilms: prokaryotic adventures in multicellularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J.S.; Givskov, Michael Christian; Kjelleberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of bacterial biofilms includes both the initial social behavior of undifferentiated cells, as well as cell death and differentiation in the mature biofilm, and displays several striking similarities with higher organisms. Recent advances in the field provide new insight...... into differentiation and cell death events in bacterial biofilm development and propose that biofilms have an unexpected level of multicellularity....

  17. Physical abrasion method using submerged spike balls to remove algal biofilm from photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawar, Azra; Khoja, Asif Hussain; Akbar, Naveed; Ansari, Abeera Ayaz; Qayyum, Muneeb; Ali, Ehsan

    2017-12-02

    A major factor in practical application of photobioreactors (PBR) is the adhesion of algal cells onto their inner walls. Optimized algal growth requires an adequate sunlight for the photosynthesis and cell growth. Limitation in light exposure adversely affects the algal biomass yield. The removal of the biofilm from PBR is a challenging and expansive task. This study was designed to develop an inexpensive technique to prevent adhesion of algal biofilm on tubular PBR to ensure high efficiency of light utilization. Rubber balls with surface projections were introduced into the reactor, to remove the adherent biofilm by physical abrasion technique. The floatation of spike balls created a turbulent flow, thereby inhibiting further biofilm formation. The parameters such as, specific growth rate and doubling time of the algae before introducing the balls were 0.451 day -1 and 1.5 days respectively. Visible biofilm impeding light transmission was formed by 15-20 days. The removal of the biofilm commenced immediately after the introduction of the spike balls with visibly reduced deposits in 3 days. This was also validated by enhance cell count (6.95 × 106 cells mL -1 ) in the medium. The employment of spike balls in PBR is an environmental friendly and economical method for the removal of biofilm.

  18. A meta-proteomics approach to study the interspecies interactions affecting microbial biofilm development in a model community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herschend, Jakob; Damholt, Zacharias Brimnes Visby; Marquard, Andrea Marion

    2017-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are omnipresent in nature and relevant to a broad spectrum of industries ranging from bioremediation and food production to biomedical applications. To date little is understood about how multi-species biofilm communities develop and function on a molecular level, due...... of fermentation and nitrogen pathways in Paenibacillus amylolyticus and Xanthomonas retroflexus may, however, indicate that competition for limited resources also affects community development. Overall our results demonstrate the multitude of pathways involved in biofilm formation in mixed communities....

  19. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  20. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSL polysaccharide is a social but noncheatable trait in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled E.L.; Kragh, Kasper N.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been sug...

  1. Relevant Role of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm-Associated Foreign-Body Infections▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Valle, Jaione; Merino, Nekane; Latasa, Cristina; García, Begoña; Ruiz de los Mozos, Igor; Solano, Cristina; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Penadés, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can establish chronic infections on implanted medical devices due to its capacity to form biofilms. Analysis of the factors that assemble cells into a biofilm has revealed the occurrence of strains that produce either a polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PIA/PNAG) exopolysaccharide- or a protein-dependent biofilm. Examination of the influence of matrix nature on the biofilm capacities of embedded bacteria has remained elusive, because a natural strain that readily converts between a polysaccharide- and a protein-based biofilm has not been studied. Here, we have investigated the clinical methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain 132, which is able to alternate between a proteinaceous and an exopolysaccharidic biofilm matrix, depending on environmental conditions. Systematic disruption of each member of the LPXTG surface protein family identified fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) as components of a proteinaceous biofilm formed in Trypticase soy broth-glucose, whereas a PIA/PNAG-dependent biofilm was produced under osmotic stress conditions. The induction of FnBP levels due to a spontaneous agr deficiency present in strain 132 and the activation of a LexA-dependent SOS response or FnBP overexpression from a multicopy plasmid enhanced biofilm development, suggesting a direct relationship between the FnBP levels and the strength of the multicellular phenotype. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cells growing in the FnBP-mediated biofilm formed highly dense aggregates without any detectable extracellular matrix, whereas cells in a PIA/PNAG-dependent biofilm were embedded in an abundant extracellular material. Finally, studies of the contribution of each type of biofilm matrix to subcutaneous catheter colonization revealed that an FnBP mutant displayed a significantly lower capacity to develop biofilm on implanted catheters than the isogenic PIA/PNAG-deficient mutant. PMID:19581398

  2. Extracellular polymeric substances affect the responses of multi-species biofilms in the presence of sulfamethizole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longfei; Li, Yi; Wang, Li; Zhang, Huanjun; Zhu, Mengjie; Zhang, Peisheng; Zhu, Xiaoxiao

    2018-04-01

    The occurrence and transportation of antibiotics in biofilms from natural and engineered sources have attracted increasing interests. Nevertheless, the effects of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the responses of biofilms to the exposure to antibiotics are not clear. In this study, the effects of EPS on the sorption and biological responses to one representative antibiotic, sulfamethizole (STZ), in model biofilms were investigated. Proteins dominated the interactions between the EPS and the STZ and the EPS from a moving bed biofilm reactor exhibited the strongest interaction with the STZ. The EPS served as important reservoirs for the STZ and the tested biofilms all showed reduced sorption capacities for the STZ after the EPS were extracted. The respiratory rates and typical enzymatic activities were reduced after the EPS were extracted. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing results confirmed that the bacterial community in the biofilm without the EPS was more vulnerable to antibiotic shock as indicated by the community diversity and richness indices. A greater increase in the abundance of susceptible species was observed in the natural biofilm. The results comprehensively suggested that the EPS played important role in biosorption of STZ and alleviated the direct damage of the antibiotic to the cells; in addition the extent of the bacterial community response was associated with the origins of the biofilms. Our study provided details on the responses of multi-species biofilms to the exposure to an antibiotic and highlighted the role of the EPS in interacting with the antibiotic, thereby providing a deeper understanding of the bioremediation of antibiotics in real-life natural and engineered biofilm systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growing and analyzing biofilms in flow chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic......, and disassembly and cleaning of the system. In addition, embedding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of flow chamber-grown biofilms are addressed....

  4. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  5. STABILITY AND CHANGE IN ESTUARINE BIOFILM BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofilms develop on all surfaces in aquatic environments and are defined as matrix-enclosed microbial populations adherent to each other and/or surfaces (1, 31). A substantial part of the microbial activity in nature is associated with surfaces (12). Surface association (biofou...

  6. Novel Targets for Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infection in all parts of the human body. The bacterium is naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. In addition to resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps, the ability to form aggregates, known as biofilm, further reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  7. Performance comparison of plant root biofilm, gravel attached ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biofilm and planktonic microbial populations, in phenol removal within a ... This study was performed in order to understand the relative contribution of a constructed wetland (CW) system's various ... and natural physico-chemical processes are responsible for ..... rhizospheric bacterial activity: precluded by antibiotic supple-.

  8. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  9. Introducing the new EDMS

    CERN Multimedia

    The EDMS Team

    2014-01-01

    We are very pleased to announce the arrival of a brand new EDMS: EDMS 6. The CERN Engineering and Equipment Data Management Service just got better than ever! EDMS is the de facto interface for all engineering related data and more. Currently there are more than 1.2 million documents and nearly 2 million files stored in EDMS.   What’s new? The first thing you will notice is the look and feel of EDMS 6; the new design not only makes it more modern but also more intuitive, so that the system is easier to use, regardless of your experience with EDMS. Whilst we have kept the key concepts, we have introduced more functionality and improved navigation within the interface, allowing for better performance to help you in your daily work. We have also added a personal slant to EDMS 6 so that you can now customise your list of favourite objects. Modifying data in EDMS is much simpler, allowing you to view all object data in a single window.  More functionality will be added in the ...

  10. Conductive properties of methanogenic biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Extracellular electron transfer between syntrophic partners needs to be efficiently maintained in methanogenic environments. Direct extracellular electron transfer via electrical current is an alternative to indirect hydrogen transfer but requires construction of conductive extracellular structures. Conductive mechanisms and relationship between conductivity and the community composition in mixed-species methanogenic biofilms are not well understood. The present study investigated conductive behaviors of methanogenic biofilms and examined the correlation between biofilm conductivity and community composition between different anaerobic biofilms enriched from the same inoculum. Highest conductivity observed in methanogenic biofilms was 71.8±4.0μS/cm. Peak-manner response of conductivity upon changes over a range of electrochemical potentials suggests that electron transfer in methanogenic biofilms occurs through redox driven super-exchange. The strong correlation observed between biofilm conductivity and Geobacter spp. in the metabolically diverse anaerobic communities suggests that the efficiency of DEET may provide pressure for microbial communities to select for species that can produce electrical conduits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biofilms and their role in deterioration of heat exchanger performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Nair, K.V.K.

    1996-01-01

    Natural sources of water, whether fresh, brackish or marine, contain a host of microorganisms like bacterial, fungi, protozoa, algae and larvae of invertebrates. When such a body of water is used as a source of cooling water, it is likely that these organisms colonize and thrive on the cooling system components. Microbial film (slime) formation is primarily caused by adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Within a water distribution system, the biofilm may act as an innoculum for colonization of the rest of the piping circuit, and provide a protective environment for the microbes enmeshed in the exopolymers. Biofilms role in deterioration of heat exchanger performance is given. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I.; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  13. Metabolic differentiation in biofilms as indicated by carbon dioxide production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Elanna; Kroukamp, Otini; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Boonzaaier, Leandro; Liss, Steven N

    2010-02-01

    The measurement of carbon dioxide production rates as an indication of metabolic activity was applied to study biofilm development and response of Pseudomonas sp. biofilms to an environmental disturbance in the form of a moving air-liquid interface (i.e., shear). A differential response in biofilm cohesiveness was observed after bubble perturbation, and the biofilm layers were operationally defined as either shear-susceptible or non-shear-susceptible. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis showed a significant reduction in biofilm thickness and biomass after the removal of the shear-susceptible biofilm layer, as well as notable changes in the roughness coefficient and surface-to-biovolume ratio. These changes were accompanied by a 72% reduction of whole-biofilm CO2 production; however, the non-shear-susceptible region of the biofilm responded rapidly after the removal of the overlying cells and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) along with the associated changes in nutrient and O2 flux, with CO2 production rates returning to preperturbation levels within 24 h. The adaptable nature and the ability of bacteria to respond to environmental conditions were further demonstrated by the outer shear-susceptible region of the biofilm; the average CO2 production rate of cells from this region increased within 0.25 h from 9.45 +/- 5.40 fmol of CO2 x cell(-1) x h(-1) to 22.6 +/- 7.58 fmol of CO2 x cell(-1) x h(-1) when cells were removed from the biofilm and maintained in suspension without an additional nutrient supply. These results also demonstrate the need for sufficient monitoring of biofilm recovery at the solid substratum if mechanical methods are used for biofouling control.

  14. Hydroxychalcone inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans glucosyl transferases and biofilms as potential anticaries agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Casals, Luke; Zheng, Ruowen; Wu, Hui; Velu, Sadanandan E

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major etiological agent in the initiation and the development of dental caries due to its robust capacity to form tenacious biofilms. Ideal therapeutics for this disease will aim to selectively inhibit the biofilm formation process while preserving the natural bacterial flora of the mouth. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacies of flavonols on S. mutans biofilms and have suggested the mechanism of action through their effect on S. mutans glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). These enzymes metabolize sucrose into water insoluble and soluble glucans, which are an integral measure of the dental caries pathogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that flavonols and polyphenols can inhibit Gtf and biofilm formation at millimolar concentrations. We have screened a group of 14 hydroxychalcones, synthetic precursors of flavonols, in an S. mutans biofilm assay. Several of these compounds emerged to be biofilm inhibitors at low micro-molar concentrations. Chalcones that contained a 3-OH group on ring A exhibited selectivity for biofilm inhibition. Moreover, we synthesized 6 additional analogs of the lead compound and evaluated their potential activity and selectivity against S. mutans biofilms. The most active compound identified from these studies had an IC50 value of 44μM against biofilm and MIC50 value of 468μM against growth displaying >10-fold selectivity inhibition towards biofilm. The lead compound displayed a dose dependent inhibition of S. mutans Gtfs. The lead compound also did not affect the growth of two commensal species (Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii) at least up to 200μM, indicating that it can selectively inhibit cariogenic biofilms, while leaving commensal and/or beneficial microbes intact. Thus non-toxic compounds have the potential utility in public oral health regimes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Biofilm matrix composition affects the susceptibility of food associated staphylococci to cleaning and disinfection agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eFagerlund

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition or benzalkonium chloride efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2, and S. saprophyticus (2. The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of benzalkonium chloride both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five benzalkonium chloride susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding benzalkonium chloride efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of benzalkonium chloride than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or

  16. Response of Muddy Sediments and Benthic Diatom-based Biofilms to Repeated Erosion Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, K.; Mariotti, G.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-02-01

    Benthic biofilms, microbes aggregated within a matrix of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), are commonly found in shallow coastal areas and intertidal environments. Biofilms have the potential to stabilize sediments, hence reducing erosion and possibly mitigating land loss. The purpose of this study is to determine how repeated flow events that rework the bed affect biofilm growth and its ability to stabilize cohesive sediments. Natural mud devoid of grazers was used to create placed beds in four annular flumes; biofilms were allowed to grow on the sediment surface. Each flume was eroded at different time intervals (1 or 12 days) to allow for varied levels of biofilm growth and adjustment following erosion. In addition, experiments with abiotic mud were performed by adding bleach to the tank. Each erosion test consisted of step-wise increases in flow that were used to measured erodibility. In the experiments where the bed was eroded every day both the abiotic and biotic flumes exhibited a decrease in erodibility with time, likely due to consolidation, but the decrease in erodibility was greater in the flume with a biofilm. Specifically the presence of biofilm reduced bed erosion at low shear stresses ( 0.1 Pa). We attribute this progressive decrease in erodibility to the accumulation of EPS over time: even though the biofilm was eroded during each erosion event, the EPS was retained within the flume, mixed with the eroded sediment and eventually settled. Less frequent erosion allowed the growth of a stronger biofilm that decreased bed erosion at higher shear stresses ( 0.4 Pa). We conclude that the time between destructive flow events influences the ability of biofilms to stabilize sediments. This influence will likely be affected by biofilm growth conditions such as light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and the microbial community.

  17. Novel microfluidic system for online monitoring of biofilm dynamics by electrical impedance spectroscopy and amperometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmann, Julia; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Schwartz, Thomas; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2016-03-01

    Biofilm formation is ubiquitous in nature where microorganisms attach to surfaces and form highly adapted and protected communities. In technical and industrial systems like drinking water supply, food production or shipping industry biofilms are a major cause of product contamination, biofouling, and biocorrosion. Therefore, understanding of biofilm formation and means of preventing biofilm formation is important to develop novel biofilm treatment strategies. A system allowing directly online detection and monitoring biofilm formation is necessary. However, until today, there are little to none technical systems featuring a non-destructive real-time characterization of biofilm formation in a highthroughput manner. This paper presents such a microfluidic system based on electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperomertic current measurement. The sensor consists of four modules, each housing 24 independent electrodes within 12 microfluidic channels. Attached biomass on the electrodes is monitored as increased inhibition in charge transfer by EIS and a change in metabolic activity is measured as change in produced electric current by amperometry. This modular sensor system is highly adaptable and suitable for a broad range of microbiological applications. Among others, biofilm formation processes can be characterized online, biofilm manipulation like inactivation or destabilization can be monitored in real-time and gene expression can be analyzed in parallel. The use of different electrode designs allows effective biofilm studies during all biofilm phases. The whole system was recently extended by an integrated pneumatic microfluidic pump which enables easy handling procedures. Further developments of this pumping module will allow a fully- automated computer-controlled valving and pumping.

  18. Determining productivity of transferred benthic biofilms within wetlands differing in anthropogenic stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, K.; Foote, L.; Ciborowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Algal biofilms are a fundamental contributor to wetland productivity. The films maintain high turnover rates, nutrient uptake and storage capacities are prevalent in shallow water as well as over large littoral zones. This study investigated biofilm transfer techniques as a means of accelerating carbon capture, plant production, and colonization in reclaimed oil sand wetlands affected by process water. The study examined the productivity of transferred biofilms and their ability to accelerate succession; methods of transferring biofilms; and the community composition of algae in relation to other substrates. Microcosms with 4 types of substrates were submersed in experimental trenches containing either process water or natural water. Dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and biomass standing crop sampling was conducted at intervals throughout a 1-year period. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the substrate types. Results of the study will be used to assess the impacts of oil sands process affected materials (OSPM) on benthic biofilm productivity and the initial carbon accumulation process.

  19. Determining productivity of transferred benthic biofilms within wetlands differing in anthropogenic stressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, K.; Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Ciborowski, J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Algal biofilms are a fundamental contributor to wetland productivity. The films maintain high turnover rates, nutrient uptake and storage capacities are prevalent in shallow water as well as over large littoral zones. This study investigated biofilm transfer techniques as a means of accelerating carbon capture, plant production, and colonization in reclaimed oil sand wetlands affected by process water. The study examined the productivity of transferred biofilms and their ability to accelerate succession; methods of transferring biofilms; and the community composition of algae in relation to other substrates. Microcosms with 4 types of substrates were submersed in experimental trenches containing either process water or natural water. Dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and biomass standing crop sampling was conducted at intervals throughout a 1-year period. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the substrate types. Results of the study will be used to assess the impacts of oil sands process affected materials (OSPM) on benthic biofilm productivity and the initial carbon accumulation process.

  20. Biofilm models for the practitioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Wanner, O.

    2000-01-01

    Even though mathematical biofilm models are extensively used in biofilm research, there has been very little application of these models in the engineering practice so far. However, practitioners would be interested in models that can be used as tools to control plant operation under dynamic...... conditions or to help them handle complex interactions between particle removal, carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal. But even though there is a whole range of biofilm models available, it is difficult for the practitioner to select the appropriate modeling...

  1. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  2. Modern techniques for studying biofilm-influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, I.B.

    1998-01-01

    In natural and made-made environments the presence of biofilms on surfaces of metals and their alloys influences electrochemistry at the biofilm/substratum interface, enhancing or inhibiting corrosion reactions. Due to the complexity of the biocorrosion phenomenon a range of techniques is commonly employed to study mechanisms involved. In addition to traditional methods of corrosion investigation such as electrochemical measurements and light and scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Modern techniques of surface science proved to be very useful in elucidating biofilm/metal interactions. Recent applications of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to biocorrosion studies allowed better understanding of the biologically influenced metal deterioration process. The scope and promise of these latter techniques will be discussed and their use illustrated on practical examples. (Author)

  3. Mini-review: Biofilm responses to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Michela; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms constitute the predominant microbial style of life in natural and engineered ecosystems. Facing harsh environmental conditions, microorganisms accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially encountering a dangerous condition called oxidative stress. While high levels of oxidative stress are toxic, low levels act as a cue, triggering bacteria to activate effective scavenging mechanisms or to shift metabolic pathways. Although a complex and fragmentary picture results from current knowledge of the pathways activated in response to oxidative stress, three main responses are shown to be central: the existence of common regulators, the production of extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm heterogeneity. An investigation into the mechanisms activated by biofilms in response to different oxidative stress levels could have important consequences from ecological and economic points of view, and could be exploited to propose alternative strategies to control microbial virulence and deterioration.

  4. A feasibility study on the application of microwaves for online biofilm monitoring in the pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Nasser; Ju, Yang; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of microwave technique for online monitoring and evaluation of biofilms in the pipelines. A microwave vector network analyser and an in-house built transmitting and receiving coaxial-line transducer were employed to transmit microwave signals in the pipe. The brass pipe specimen was tested by adhering different volumes of polymeric tape layers onto its internal surface simulating the biofilm build-up. By taking the pipe as a circular waveguide of microwave, the frequency domain measurements were conducted in the 45–47 GHz range with TM 01 dominant wave mode. The permittivity of the biofilm-contained area has been expressed as a function of the resonance frequency after establishing the resonance condition in the waveguide. It was realized that the resonance frequencies experience systematic shifts with the growth of biofilm layer length and thickness. The effects of dielectric material properties and the volume of the added biofilm layer on the resonance frequency records were then explained using the cavity perturbation theory which confirmed the experimental findings. Measurement results indicated a high degree of sensitivity to the small amounts of introduced biofilm which proves the potential of the microwave technique for online biofilm monitoring in both closed-end and open-end terminal conditions. -- Highlights: • An online biofilm monitoring method in pipelines using microwaves is reported. • Time and frequency domain measurements conducted in the pipe as a waveguide. • Resonance frequencies show systematic shifts with the growth of biofilm layer. • Relationship of the biofilm volume and the resonance frequency changes is expressed. • Perturbation theory is used to explain the results

  5. Short and long term biosorption of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in heterotrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrling, Maria P.; Lackner, Susanne; Tatti, Oleg; Guthausen, Gisela; Delay, Markus; Franzreb, Matthias; Horn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The increased application of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in industrial processes and consumer products has raised concerns about their impact on health and environmental safety. When ENP enter the global water cycle by e.g. wastewater streams, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent potential sinks for ENP. During biological WWT, the attachment of ENP to biofilms is responsible for the desired removal of ENP from the water phase avoiding their release into the aquatic environment. However, the fundamental mechanisms guiding the interactions between ENP and biofilms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study investigates the behavior and biosorption of inorganic ENP, here magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with silica (scFe_3O_4-NP), with heterotrophic biofilms at different time scales. Their magnetic properties enable to follow scFe_3O_4-NP in the biofilm system by a magnetic susceptibility balance and magnetic resonance imaging. Biofilms were exposed to scFe_3O_4-NP at short contact times (5 min) in flow cells and complementary, scFe_3O_4-NP were introduced into a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) to be observed for 27 d. Mass balances revealed that scFe_3O_4-NP sorbed to the biofilm within a few minutes, but that the total biosorption was rather low (3.2 μg Fe/mg TSS). scFe_3O_4-NP mainly sorbed to the biofilm surface inducing the detachment of outer biofilm parts starting after an exposure time of 3 h in the MBBR. The biosorption depended on the exposure concentration of scFe_3O_4-NP, but less on the contact time. Most scFe_3O_4-NP exited the flow cell (up to 65%) and the MBBR (57%) via the effluent. This effect was favored by the stabilization of scFe_3O_4-NP in the bulk liquid by organic matter leading to a low retention capacity of the MBBR system. The results contribute to improve our understanding about the fate of ENP in environmental and in technical biofilm systems and give indications for future investigations needed

  6. An In Vitro Model for Candida albicans–Streptococcus gordonii Biofilms on Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Montelongo-Jauregui

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity serves as a nutrient-rich haven for over 600 species of microorganisms. Although many are essential to maintaining the oral microbiota, some can cause oral infections such as caries, periodontitis, mucositis, and endodontic infections, and this is further exacerbated with dental implants. Most of these infections are mixed species in nature and associated with a biofilm mode of growth. Here, after optimization of different parameters including cell density, growth media, and incubation conditions, we have developed an in vitro model of C. albicans–S. gordonii mixed-species biofilms on titanium discs that is relevant to infections of peri-implant diseases. Our results indicate a synergistic effect for the development of biofilms when both microorganisms were seeded together, confirming the existence of beneficial, mutualistic cross-kingdom interactions for biofilm formation. The morphological and architectural features of these dual-species biofilms formed on titanium were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Mixed biofilms formed on titanium discs showed a high level of resistance to combination therapy with antifungal and antibacterial drugs. This model can serve as a platform for further analyses of complex fungal/bacterial biofilms and can also be applied to screening of new drug candidates against mixed-species biofilms.

  7. Haemophilus parainfluenzae Strain ATCC 33392 Forms Biofilms In Vitro and during Experimental Otitis Media Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bing; Swords, W Edward

    2017-09-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a nutritionally fastidious, Gram-negative bacterium with an oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal carriage niche that is associated with a range of opportunistic infections, including infectious endocarditis and otitis media (OM). These infections are often chronic/recurrent in nature and typically involve bacterial persistence within biofilm communities that are highly resistant to host clearance. This study addresses the primary hypothesis that H. parainfluenzae forms biofilm communities that are important determinants of persistence in vivo The results from in vitro biofilm studies confirmed that H. parainfluenzae formed biofilm communities within which the polymeric matrix was mainly composed of extracellular DNA and proteins. Using a chinchilla OM infection model, we demonstrated that H. parainfluenzae formed surface-associated biofilm communities containing bacterial and host components that included neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) structures and that the bacteria mainly persisted in these biofilm communities. We also used this model to examine the possible interaction between H. parainfluenzae and its close relative Haemophilus influenzae , which is also commonly carried within the same host environments and can cause OM. The results showed that coinfection with H. influenzae promoted clearance of H. parainfluenzae from biofilm communities during OM infection. The underlying mechanisms for bacterial persistence and biofilm formation by H. parainfluenzae and knowledge about the survival defects of H. parainfluenzae during coinfection with H. influenzae are topics for future work. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. An ecological perspective of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms in food processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Cutter, Catherine N

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can enter the food chain at virtually any point. However, food processing environments seem to be of particular importance. From an ecological point of view, food processing facilities are microbial habitats that are constantly disturbed by cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Although L. monocytogenes is considered ubiquitous in nature, it is important to recognize that not all L. monocytogenes strains appear to be equally distributed; the distribution of the organism seems to be related to certain habitats. Currently, no direct evidence exists that L. monocytogenes-associated biofilms have played a role in food contamination or foodborne outbreaks, likely because biofilm isolation and identification are not part of an outbreak investigation, or the definition of biofilm is unclear. Because L. monocytogenes is known to colonize surfaces, we suggest that contamination patterns may be studied in the context of how biofilm formation is influenced by the environment within food processing facilities. In this review, direct and indirect epidemiological and phenotypic evidence of lineage-related biofilm formation capacity to specific ecological niches will be discussed. A critical view on the development of the biofilm concept, focused on the practical implications, strengths, and weaknesses of the current definitions also is discussed. The idea that biofilm formation may be an alternative surrogate for microbial fitness is proposed. Furthermore, current research on the influence of environmental factors on biofilm formation is discussed.

  9. Biofilm removal technique using sands as a research tool for accessing microbial attachment on surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms have profound impacts on improved survival of the constituent microorganisms in nature. Biofilms were believed to protect constituent microorganisms from sanitizer treatment, provide a more suitable habitat for microorganisms, and become a site for genetic material exchanges between microorganisms. As we realize more about the significance of biofilm, methods used for biofilm study should be consistently developed and evaluated. To determine microbial attachment on surfaces, usually biofilms are grown on substratum surfaces and removed by vortexing with glass beads or scraping. However, scraping is not as effective as vortexing with glass beads. Another approach is direct-agar overlaying which cannot be used with high density biofilm. In this experiment, we compared effectiveness of glass beads (298±28 μm in diameter and sands (width: 221±55 μm and length: 329±118 μm in removing biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by vortexing method. The results suggested that acid-washed sands, which are significantly less inexpensive than glass beads, were as effective as (P>0.05 analytical grade glass beads in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm removal without inhibiting growth of the organism.

  10. Giving structure to the biofilm matrix: an overview of individual strategies and emerging common themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Laura; Harkins, Catriona; MacPhee, Cait E; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are communities of microbial cells that underpin diverse processes including sewage bioremediation, plant growth promotion, chronic infections and industrial biofouling. The cells resident in the biofilm are encased within a self-produced exopolymeric matrix that commonly comprises lipids, proteins that frequently exhibit amyloid-like properties, eDNA and exopolysaccharides. This matrix fulfils a variety of functions for the community, from providing structural rigidity and protection from the external environment to controlling gene regulation and nutrient adsorption. Critical to the development of novel strategies to control biofilm infections, or the capability to capitalize on the power of biofilm formation for industrial and biotechnological uses, is an in-depth knowledge of the biofilm matrix. This is with respect to the structure of the individual components, the nature of the interactions between the molecules and the three-dimensional spatial organization. We highlight recent advances in the understanding of the structural and functional role that carbohydrates and proteins play within the biofilm matrix to provide three-dimensional architectural integrity and functionality to the biofilm community. We highlight, where relevant, experimental techniques that are allowing the boundaries of our understanding of the biofilm matrix to be extended using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Bacillus subtilis as exemplars. © FEMS 2015.

  11. Screening of biofilm formation by beneficial vaginal lactobacilli and influence of culture media components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraf, M C Leccese; Juárez Tomás, M S; Nader-Macías, M E F; Silva, C

    2012-12-01

    To assess the ability of vaginal lactobacilli to form biofilm under different culture conditions and to determine the relationship between their growth and the capability of biofilm formation by selected strains. Fifteen Lactobacillus strains from human vagina were tested for biofilm formation by crystal violet staining. Only Lactobacillus rhamnosus Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection (CRL) 1332, Lact. reuteri CRL 1324 and Lact. delbrueckii CRL 1510 were able to grow and form biofilm in culture media without Tween 80. However, Lact. gasseri CRL 1263 (a non-biofilm-forming strain) did not grow in these media. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Lact. rhamnosus CRL 1332 and Lact. reuteri CRL 1324 formed a highly structured biofilm, but only Lact. reuteri CRL 1324 showed a high amount of extracellular material in medium without Tween. Biofilm formation was significantly influenced by the strain, culture medium, inoculum concentration, microbial growth and chemical nature of the support used for the assay. The results allow the selection of biofilm-forming vaginal Lactobacillus strains and the conditions and factors that affect this phenomenon. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Bacterial biofilm under flow: First a physical struggle to stay, then a matter of breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Thomen

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities attached to surfaces under fluid flow represent a widespread lifestyle of the microbial world. Through shear stress generation and molecular transport regulation, hydrodynamics conveys effects that are very different by nature but strongly coupled. To decipher the influence of these levers on bacterial biofilms immersed in moving fluids, we quantitatively and simultaneously investigated physicochemical and biological properties of the biofilm. We designed a millifluidic setup allowing to control hydrodynamic conditions and to monitor biofilm development in real time using microscope imaging. We also conducted a transcriptomic analysis to detect a potential physiological response to hydrodynamics. We discovered that a threshold value of shear stress determined biofilm settlement, with sub-piconewton forces sufficient to prevent biofilm initiation. As a consequence, distinct hydrodynamic conditions, which set spatial distribution of shear stress, promoted distinct colonization patterns with consequences on the growth mode. However, no direct impact of mechanical forces on biofilm growth rate was observed. Consistently, no mechanosensing gene emerged from our differential transcriptomic analysis comparing distinct hydrodynamic conditions. Instead, we found that hydrodynamic molecular transport crucially impacts biofilm growth by controlling oxygen availability. Our results shed light on biofilm response to hydrodynamics and open new avenues to achieve informed design of fluidic setups for investigating, engineering or fighting adherent communities.

  13. Surface-attached cells, biofilms and biocide susceptibility: implications for hospital cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; Vickery, K; Walker, J T; deLancey Pulcini, E; Stoodley, P; Goldenberg, S D; Salkeld, J A G; Chewins, J; Yezli, S; Edgeworth, J D

    2015-01-01

    Microbes tend to attach to available surfaces and readily form biofilms, which is problematic in healthcare settings. Biofilms are traditionally associated with wet or damp surfaces such as indwelling medical devices and tubing on medical equipment. However, microbes can survive for extended periods in a desiccated state on dry hospital surfaces, and biofilms have recently been discovered on dry hospital surfaces. Microbes attached to surfaces and in biofilms are less susceptible to biocides, antibiotics and physical stress. Thus, surface attachment and/or biofilm formation may explain how vegetative bacteria can survive on surfaces for weeks to months (or more), interfere with attempts to recover microbes through environmental sampling, and provide a mixed bacterial population for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes. The capacity of existing detergent formulations and disinfectants to disrupt biofilms may have an important and previously unrecognized role in determining their effectiveness in the field, which should be reflected in testing standards. There is a need for further research to elucidate the nature and physiology of microbes on dry hospital surfaces, specifically the prevalence and composition of biofilms. This will inform new approaches to hospital cleaning and disinfection, including novel surfaces that reduce microbial attachment and improve microbial detachment, and methods to augment the activity of biocides against surface-attached microbes such as bacteriophages and antimicrobial peptides. Future strategies to address environmental contamination on hospital surfaces should consider the presence of microbes attached to surfaces, including biofilms. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stratified growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...... synthesis was restricted to a narrow band in the part of the biofilm adjacent to the source of oxygen. The zone of active GFP expression was approximately 60 Am wide in colony biofilms and 30 Am wide in flow cell biofilms. The region of the biofilm in which cells were capable of elongation was mapped...... by treating colony biofilms with carbenicillin, which blocks cell division, and then measuring individual cell lengths by transmission electron microscopy. Cell elongation was localized at the air interface of the biofilm. The heterogeneous anabolic patterns measured inside these biofilms were likely a result...

  15. Novel method for quantitative estimation of biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syal, Kirtimaan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm protects bacteria from stress and hostile environment. Crystal violet (CV) assay is the most popular method for biofilm determination adopted by different laboratories so far. However, biofilm layer formed at the liquid-air interphase known as pellicle is extremely sensitive to its washing...... and staining steps. Early phase biofilms are also prone to damage by the latter steps. In bacteria like mycobacteria, biofilm formation occurs largely at the liquid-air interphase which is susceptible to loss. In the proposed protocol, loss of such biofilm layer was prevented. In place of inverting...... and discarding the media which can lead to the loss of the aerobic biofilm layer in CV assay, media was removed from the formed biofilm with the help of a syringe and biofilm layer was allowed to dry. The staining and washing steps were avoided, and an organic solvent-tetrahydrofuran (THF) was deployed...

  16. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.; Byrne, H.; Osborne, J.; Pitt-Francis, J.; Gavaghan, D.; Quintard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate

  17. Exploiting social evolution in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Kerry E; Heilmann, Silja; van Ditmarsch, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are highly social organisms that communicate via signaling molecules, move collectively over surfaces and make biofilm communities. Nonetheless, our main line of defense against pathogenic bacteria consists of antibiotics-drugs that target individual-level traits of bacterial cells...... and thus, regrettably, select for resistance against their own action. A possible solution lies in targeting the mechanisms by which bacteria interact with each other within biofilms. The emerging field of microbial social evolution combines molecular microbiology with evolutionary theory to dissect...... the molecular mechanisms and the evolutionary pressures underpinning bacterial sociality. This exciting new research can ultimately lead to new therapies against biofilm infections that exploit evolutionary cheating or the trade-off between biofilm formation and dispersal....

  18. Biofilms: Community Behavior by Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    United we stand, divided we fall. This is a ... controls biofilm development, swarming motility and the produc- ... thought that the absence of overt gut flora upsets the balance .... there are several risks of integration which makes this strategy.

  19. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.; Wexler, A. D.; Bucs, Szilard; Dreszer, C.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Flemming, H. C.; Kruithof, J. C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2015-01-01

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies

  20. Biofilm in endodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano de la Peña, Sonia; Salcedo-Moncada, Doris; Petkova- Gueorguieva, Marieta; Ventocilla Huasupoma, María

    2017-01-01

    It is demonstrated the efforts made endodontic microbiology and science to get to decipher the secrets of this unique structure although every day new questions arise. We need the treatments we use to combat biofilm achieve oxygenate the periapical ecosystem and basically scrape and loosen the tightly adhering bacteria Knowing the process of biofilm formation, microbial metabolism and strategies that they use to resist and remain hidden but active , we know why we observe refractory periapica...

  1. Plasticity of Candida albicans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karla J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Candida albicans, the most pervasive fungal pathogen that colonizes humans, forms biofilms that are architecturally complex. They consist of a basal yeast cell polylayer and an upper region of hyphae encapsulated in extracellular matrix. However, biofilms formed in vitro vary as a result of the different conditions employed in models, the methods used to assess biofilm formation, strain differences, and, in a most dramatic fashion, the configuration of the mating type locus (MTL). Therefore, integrating data from different studies can lead to problems of interpretation if such variability is not taken into account. Here we review the conditions and factors that cause biofilm variation, with the goal of engendering awareness that more attention must be paid to the strains employed, the methods used to assess biofilm development, every aspect of the model employed, and the configuration of the MTL locus. We end by posing a set of questions that may be asked in comparing the results of different studies and developing protocols for new ones. This review should engender the notion that not all biofilms are created equal. PMID:27250770

  2. Arsenate Retention by Epipsammic Biofilms Developed on Streambed Sediments: Influence of Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Prieto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural geological conditions together with the impact of human activities could produce environmental problems due to high As concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the role of epipsammic biofilm-sediment systems onto As (V sorption and to evaluate the effect of the presence of equimolar P concentrations on As retention. A natural biofilm was grown on sediment samples in the laboratory, using river water as nutrient supplier. Sorption experiments with initial As concentrations 0, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg L−1 were performed. The average percentage of As sorbed was 78.9±3.5 and 96.9±6.6% for the sediment and biofilm-sediment systems, respectively. Phosphate decreased by 25% the As sorption capactity in the sediment devoid of biofilm, whereas no significant effect was observed in the systems with biofilm. Freundlich, Sips, and Toth models were the best to describe experimental data. The maximum As sorption capacity of the sediment and biofilm-sediment systems was, respectively, 6.6 and 6.8 μg g−1 and 4.5 and 7.8 μg g−1 in the presence of P. In conclusion, epipsammic biofilms play an important role in the environmental quality of river systems, increasing As retention by the system, especially in environments where both As and P occur simultaneously.

  3. Catalytic biofilms on structured packing for the production of glycolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan Zhong; Hauer, Bernhard; Rosche, Bettina

    2013-02-01

    While structured packing modules are known to be efficient for surface wetting and gas-liquid exchange in abiotic surface catalysis, this model study explores structured packing as a growth surface for catalytic biofilms. Microbial biofilms have been proposed as self-immobilized and self-regenerating catalysts for the production of chemicals. A concern is that the complex and dynamic nature of biofilms may cause fluctuations in their catalytic performance over time or may affect process reproducibility. An aerated continuous trickle-bed biofilm reactor system was designed with a 3 L structured packing, liquid recycling and pH control. Pseudomonas diminuta established a biofilm on the stainless steel structured packing with a specific surface area of 500 m2 m-3 and catalyzed the oxidation of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid for over two months of continuous operation. A steady-state productivity of up to 1.6 gl-1h-1 was achieved at a dilution rate of 0.33 h-1. Process reproducibility between three independent runs was excellent, despite process interruptions and activity variations in cultures grown from biofilm effluent cells. The results demonstrate the robustness of a catalytic biofilm on structured packing, despite its dynamic nature. Implementation is recommended for whole-cell processes that require efficient gas-liquid exchange, catalyst retention for continuous operation, or improved catalyst stability.

  4. The dynamics of biofilm overgrowth of Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Synetar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature of microorganisms can exist in two physiological forms that allow microbes to preserve livelihoods and continue their life cycle. The first is the population of planktonic forms of microorganisms which live freely in the environment with the developed systems of active and passive mobility, contributing to the rapid spread of a liquid medium. The second forms are those expressing specific mechanisms of adhesion, and able to aggregate on biogenic and abiogenic surfaces. Even in the deep sea vast number of species of bacteria live in their inherent horizons. Thus, the study of biofilms tube life support systems, diagnostic, laparoscopic devices during prolonged catheterization of the urinary system is of great practical, theoretical and biological significance in medicine and biology. For almost 20% of catheter-associated infections antibiotic therapy is uneffective, particularly through the formation of microbial biofilms on the surface of urinary catheters. We characterized the dynamics of biofilm growth of Enterococcus faecalis on fragments ofsilicone catheter. The study was conducted using bacteriological and electron microscopic techniques. Study of the dynamics of biofilm formation was performed using E. faecalis strain 49, which is isolated from the urine of persons who are not the patients of the urological department of resuscitation and intensive therapy. Using scanning electron microscopy we have established dynamics and phase attachment ofE. faecalis bacteria and subsequent overgrowth of silicone catheter surface. Aftercalculations, index of adhesion on the turbulent wall amounted to 0,49 microbial cells. That is, every other cell of the monolayer adhered on the catheter. Area of biofilm growth of E. faecalis after 24 hour incubation was equal to 51.5 μm2, in 48 hours it increased to 231.5 μm2. After 72 hours of incubation we recorded the increase in biofilm growth of E. faecalisto 1922,8 μm2. The results were obtained

  5. Establishing bacterial communities by 'word of mouth': LuxS and autoinducer 2 in biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Kim Rachael; Heurlier, Karin

    2008-08-01

    Multicellular bacterial communities (biofilms) abound in nature, and their successful formation and survival is likely to require cell-cell communication--including quorum sensing--to co-ordinate appropriate gene expression. The only mode of quorum sensing that is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria involves the production of the signalling molecule autoinducer 2 by LuxS. A survey of the current literature reveals that luxS contributes to biofilm development in some bacteria. However, inconsistencies prevent biofilm development being attributed to the production of AI2 in all cases.

  6. Streptococcus mutans Protein Synthesis during Mixed-Species Biofilm Development by High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marlise I.; Xiao, Jin; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v) was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA) and glucan-binding (gbpB) during this transition (Pmutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism), and molecular chaperones (GroEL). Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms) demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm maintenance in the presence of other

  7. Thiopeptide antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Rachel; Watrous, Jeramie D; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Bowers, Albert A; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-10

    Bacteria have evolved the ability to produce a wide range of structurally complex natural products historically called "secondary" metabolites. Although some of these compounds have been identified as bacterial communication cues, more frequently natural products are scrutinized for antibiotic activities that are relevant to human health. However, there has been little regard for how these compounds might otherwise impact the physiology of neighboring microbes present in complex communities. Bacillus cereus secretes molecules that activate expression of biofilm genes in Bacillus subtilis. Here, we use imaging mass spectrometry to identify the thiocillins, a group of thiazolyl peptide antibiotics, as biofilm matrix-inducing compounds produced by B. cereus. We found that thiocillin increased the population of matrix-producing B. subtilis cells and that this activity could be abolished by multiple structural alterations. Importantly, a mutation that eliminated thiocillin's antibiotic activity did not affect its ability to induce biofilm gene expression in B. subtilis. We go on to show that biofilm induction appears to be a general phenomenon of multiple structurally diverse thiazolyl peptides and use this activity to confirm the presence of thiazolyl peptide gene clusters in other bacterial species. Our results indicate that the roles of secondary metabolites initially identified as antibiotics may have more complex effects--acting not only as killing agents, but also as specific modulators of microbial cellular phenotypes.

  8. Enhancing the formation and shear resistance of nitrifying biofilms on membranes by surface modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lackner, Susanne; Holmberg, Maria; Terada, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) membranes and polyethylene (PE) surfaces were modified to enhance formation and shear resistance of nitrifying biofilms for wastewater treatment applications. A combination of plasma polymerization and wet chemistry was employed to ultimately introduce poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG......) chains with two different functional groups (-PEG-NH2 and -PEG-CH3). Biofilm growth experiments using a mixed nitrifying bacterial culture revealed that the specific combination of PEG chains with amino groups resulted in most biofilm formation on both PP and PE samples. Detachment experiments showed...... structure might be possible explanations of the superiority of the -PEG-NH2 modification. The success of the-PEG-NH2 modification was independent of the original surface and might, therefore, be used in wastewater treatment bioreactors to improve reactor performance by making biofilm formation more stable...

  9. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele BARNABÉ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  10. Ciliates as engineers of phototrophic biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, Ellen J.; van der Geest, Harm G.; van der Meulen, Myra D.; Manders, Erik M. M.; van de Koppel, Johan; Herman, Peter M. J.; Admiraal, Wim

    1. Phototrophic biofilms consist of a matrix of phototrophs, non-photosynthetic bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which is spatially structured. Despite widespread exploitation of algae and bacteria within phototrophic biofilms, for example by protozoans, the 'engineering'

  11. Killing of Serratia marcescens biofilms with chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christopher; Shenoy, Anukul T; Orihuela, Carlos J; González-Juarbe, Norberto

    2017-03-29

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium with proven resistance to multiple antibiotics and causative of catheter-associated infections. Bacterial colonization of catheters mainly involves the formation of biofilm. The objectives of this study were to explore the susceptibility of S. marcescens biofilms to high doses of common antibiotics and non-antimicrobial agents. Biofilms formed by a clinical isolate of S. marcescens were treated with ceftriaxone, kanamycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol at doses corresponding to 10, 100 and 1000 times their planktonic minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, biofilms were also treated with chemical compounds such as polysorbate-80 and ursolic acid. S. marcescens demonstrated susceptibility to ceftriaxone, kanamycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol in its planktonic form, however, only chloramphenicol reduced both biofilm biomass and biofilm viability. Polysorbate-80 and ursolic acid had minimal to no effect on either planktonic and biofilm grown S. marcescens. Our results suggest that supratherapeutic doses of chloramphenicol can be used effectively against established S. marcescens biofilms.

  12. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  13. A meta-proteomics approach to study the interspecies interactions affecting microbial biofilm development in a model community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herschend, Jakob; Damholt, Zacharias Brimnes Visby; Marquard, Andrea Marion

    2017-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are omnipresent in nature and relevant to a broad spectrum of industries ranging from bioremediation and food production to biomedical applications. To date little is understood about how multi-species biofilm communities develop and function on a molecular level, due to the co......Microbial biofilms are omnipresent in nature and relevant to a broad spectrum of industries ranging from bioremediation and food production to biomedical applications. To date little is understood about how multi-species biofilm communities develop and function on a molecular level, due...... to the complexity of these biological systems. Here we apply a meta-proteomics approach to investigate the mechanisms influencing biofilm formation in a model consortium of four bacterial soil isolates; Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Xanthomonas retroflexus, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus...

  14. Anti-biofilm efficacy of low temperature processed AgCl–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Kshipra, E-mail: kshipra_naik21@yahoo.co.in; Kowshik, Meenal, E-mail: meenal@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a major concern in the medical settings and food industries due to their high tolerance to antibiotics, biocides and mechanical stress. Currently, the development of novel methods to control biofilm formation is being actively pursued. In the present study, sol–gel coatings of AgCl–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are presented as potential anti-biofilm agents, wherein TiO{sub 2} acts as a good supporting matrix to prevent aggregation of silver and facilitates its controlled release. Low-temperature processed AgCl–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings inhibit biofilm formation by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro biofilm assay experiments demonstrated that AgCl–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coated surfaces, inhibited the development of biofilms over a period of 10 days as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The silver release kinetics exhibited an initial high release, followed by a slow and sustained release. The anti-biofilm efficacy of the coatings could be attributed to the release of silver, which prevents the initial bacterial adhesion required for biofilm formation. - Highlights: • Potential of AgCl–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coating to inhibit biofilm formation is exhibited. • Initial rapid release followed by later slow and sustained release of silver obtained. • TiO{sub 2} being porous and inorganic in nature acts as a good supporting matrix.

  15. Cleaning and Disinfection of Bacillus cereus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Amanda; Klein, Dan; Lopolito, Paul; Schwarz, John Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to disassociated B. cereus spores and biofilm from a non-spore-forming species. Further, we assessed the impact that pre-cleaning has on increasing that susceptibility. Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to

  16. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  17. Combination of Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Vitamin C Effectively Disrupts Bacterial Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandit, Santosh; Mokkapati, Venkata R. S. S.; Helgadóttir, Saga Huld

    2017-01-01

    limitation is the susceptibility of the surrounding healthy tissues to higher doses. We have recently demonstrated that vitamin C, a natural food supplement, can be used to destabilize bacterial biofilms and render them more susceptible to the CAP killing treatment. Here we discuss the possible impact...... that a pre-treatment with vitamin C could have on CAP applications in medicine. Specifically, we argue that vitamin C could enhance the effectiveness of CAP treatments against both the bacterial biofilms and some selected tumors....

  18. Biofilm in water pipelines; a potential source for off-flavours in the drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, I; Lund, V; Ormerod, K; Due, A; Herikstad, H

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are identified in natural biofilm established in plastic pipes used at the drinking water supply. Odour potent VOCs such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, menthol and menthone were prominent compounds in biofilm in the distribution network and at raw water test sites, and are associated with algae and cyanobacteria present in the raw water source.

  19. Microbiële biofilms in tandheelkunde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Aangehechte gemeenschappen van micro-organismen, ook wel biofilms genoemd, zijn altijd en overal aanwezig. Hoewel biofilms een slechte naam hebben, zijn ze meestal natuurlijk, gezond en zelfs gewenst. In de tandartspraktijk komen zowel gezonde (orale biofilms) als ongezonde (bijv. in de waterleiding

  20. Microbiële biofilms in tandheelkunde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Aangehechte gemeenschappen van micro-organismen, ook wel biofilms genoemd, zijn altijd en overal aanwezig. Hoewel biofilms een slechte naam hebben, zijn ze meestal natuurlijk, gezond en zelfs gewenst. In de mondzorgpraktijk komen zowel gezonde (orale biofilms) als ongezonde (bijv. in de waterleiding

  1. Differential growth of wrinkled biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeso, D. R.; Carpio, A.; Einarsson, B.

    2015-02-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant bacterial aggregates that grow on moist surfaces and can trigger hospital-acquired infections. They provide a classical example in biology where the dynamics of cellular communities may be observed and studied. Gene expression regulates cell division and differentiation, which affect the biofilm architecture. Mechanical and chemical processes shape the resulting structure. We gain insight into the interplay between cellular and mechanical processes during biofilm development on air-agar interfaces by means of a hybrid model. Cellular behavior is governed by stochastic rules informed by a cascade of concentration fields for nutrients, waste, and autoinducers. Cellular differentiation and death alter the structure and the mechanical properties of the biofilm, which is deformed according to Föppl-Von Kármán equations informed by cellular processes and the interaction with the substratum. Stiffness gradients due to growth and swelling produce wrinkle branching. We are able to reproduce wrinkled structures often formed by biofilms on air-agar interfaces, as well as spatial distributions of differentiated cells commonly observed with B. subtilis.

  2. Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

    2014-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  3. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karcher Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, packed bed reactor (PBR, fluidized bed reactor (FBR, airlift reactor (ALR, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  4. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes. PMID:16122390

  5. Resistance of bacterial biofilms formed on stainless steel surface to disinfecting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królasik, Joanna; Zakowska, Zofia; Krepska, Milena; Klimek, Leszek

    2010-01-01

    The natural ability of microorganisms for adhesion and biofilm formation on various surfaces is one of the factors causing the inefficiency of a disinfection agent, despite its proven activity in vitro. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of disinfecting substances on bacterial biofilms formed on stainless steel surface. A universally applied disinfecting agent was used in the tests. Bacterial strains: Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus hominis strains, were isolated from food contact surfaces, after a cleaning and disinfection process. The disinfecting agent was a commercially available acid specimen based on hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid, the substance that was designed for food industry usage. Model tests were carried out on biofilm formed on stainless steel (type 304, no 4 finish). Biofilms were recorded by electron scanning microscope. The disinfecting agent in usable concentration, 0.5% and during 10 minutes was ineffective for biofilms. The reduction of cells in biofilms was only 1-2 logarithmic cycles. The use of the agent in higher concentration--1% for 30 minutes caused reduction of cell number by around 5 logarithmic cycles only in the case of one microorganism, M. luteus. For other types: L. innocua, P. putida, S. hominis, the requirements placed on disinfecting agents were not fulfilled. The results of experiments proved that bacterial biofilms are resistant to the disinfectant applied in its operational parameters. Disinfecting effectiveness was achieved after twofold increase of the agent's concentration.

  6. Metabolomics-Based Screening of Biofilm-Inhibitory Compounds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Burdock Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixiang Lou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Screening of anti-biofilm compounds from the burdock leaf based on metabolomics is reported here. The crystal violet assay indicated 34% ethanol elution fraction of burdock leaf could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 mg·mL−1. Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS and 11 active compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ursolic acid, rutin, cynarin, luteolin, crocin, benzoic acid, and Tenacissoside I were identified. Lastly, UPLC-MS analysis was employed to obtain the metabolic fingerprints of burdock leaf fractions before and after inhibiting the biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic fingerprints were transformed to data, analyzed with PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis and the peaks whose area was significantly changed were found out. Thus, 81 compounds were screened as potential anti-biofilm ingredients. Among them, rutin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were identified and confirmed as the main anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaf. The study provided basic anti-biofilm profile data for the compounds in burdock leaf, as well as provided a convenient method for fast screening of anti-biofilm compounds from natural plants.

  7. The chemical cue tetrabromopyrrole from a biofilm bacterium induces settlement of multiple Caribbean corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Jennifer M; Sharp, Koty H; Ritchie, Kimberly B; Paul, Valerie J

    2014-07-07

    Microbial biofilms induce larval settlement for some invertebrates, including corals; however, the chemical cues involved have rarely been identified. Here, we demonstrate the role of microbial biofilms in inducing larval settlement with the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides and report the first instance of a chemical cue isolated from a marine biofilm bacterium that induces complete settlement (attachment and metamorphosis) of Caribbean coral larvae. Larvae settled in response to natural biofilms, and the response was eliminated when biofilms were treated with antibiotics. A similar settlement response was elicited by monospecific biofilms of a single bacterial strain, Pseudoalteromonas sp. PS5, isolated from the surface biofilm of a crustose coralline alga. The activity of Pseudoalteromonas sp. PS5 was attributed to the production of a single compound, tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), which has been shown previously to induce metamorphosis without attachment in Pacific acroporid corals. In addition to inducing settlement of brooded larvae (P. astreoides), TBP also induced larval settlement for two broadcast-spawning species, Orbicella (formerly Montastraea) franksi and Acropora palmata, indicating that this compound may have widespread importance among Caribbean coral species. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial distributions of Pseudomonas fluorescens colony variants in mixed-culture biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workentine, Matthew L; Wang, Siyuan; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2013-07-28

    The emergence of colony morphology variants in structured environments is being recognized as important to both niche specialization and stress tolerance. Pseudomonas fluorescens demonstrates diversity in both its natural environment, the rhizosphere, and in laboratory grown biofilms. Sub-populations of these variants within a biofilm have been suggested as important contributors to antimicrobial stress tolerance given their altered susceptibility to various agents. As such it is of interest to determine how these variants might be distributed in the biofilm environment. Here we present an analysis of the spatial distribution of Pseudomonas fluorescens colony morphology variants in mixed-culture biofilms with the wildtype phenotype. These findings reveal that two variant colony morphotypes demonstrate a significant growth advantage over the wildtype morphotype in the biofilm environment. The two variant morphotypes out-grew the wildtype across the entire biofilm and this occurred within 24 h and was maintained through to 96 h. This competitive advantage was not observed in homogeneous broth culture. The significant advantage that the variants demonstrate in biofilm colonization over the wildtype denotes the importance of this phenotype in structured environments.

  9. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S

    2005-08-25

    This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL(-1) can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  10. Pitting corrosion inhibition of aluminum 2024 by Bacillus biofilms secreting polyaspartate or gamma-polyglutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, D; Jayaraman, A; Syrett, B C; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2002-04-01

    Pitting corrosion of aluminum 2024 in Luria Bertani medium was reduced by the secretion of anionic peptides by engineered and natural Bacillus biofilms and was studied in continuous reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Compared to sterile controls, pitting was reduced dramatically by the presence of the biofilms. The secretion of a 20 amino acid polyaspartate peptide by an engineered Bacillus subtilis WB600/pBE92-Asp biofilm slightly reduced the corrosion rate of the passive aluminum alloy at pH 6.5; however, the secretion of gamma-polyglutamate by a Bacillus licheniformis biofilm reduced the corrosion rate by 90% (compared to the B. subtilis WB600/pBE92 biofilm which did not secrete polyaspartate or gamma-polyglutamate). The corrosion potential ( E(corr)) of aluminum 2024 was increased by about 0.15-0.44 V due to the formation of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis biofilms as compared to sterile controls. The increase of E(corr) and the observed prevention of pitting indicate that the pitting potential ( E(pit)) had increased. This result and the further decrease of corrosion rates for the passive aluminum alloy suggest that the rate of the anodic metal dissolution reaction was reduced by an inhibitor produced by the biofilms. Purified gamma-polyglutamate also decreased the corrosion rates of aluminum 2024.

  11. From Nanowires to Biofilms: An Exploration of Novel Mechanisms of Uranium Transformation Mediated by Geobacter Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REGUERA, GEMMA [Michigan State University

    2014-01-16

    One promising strategy for the in situ bioremediation of radioactive groundwater contaminants that has been identified by the SBR Program is to stimulate the activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms to reductively precipitate uranium and other soluble toxic metals. The reduction of U(VI) and other soluble contaminants by Geobacteraceae is directly dependent on the reduction of Fe(III) oxides, their natural electron acceptor, a process that requires the expression of Geobacter’s conductive pili (pilus nanowires). Expression of conductive pili by Geobacter cells leads to biofilm development on surfaces and to the formation of suspended biogranules, which may be physiological closer to biofilms than to planktonic cells. Biofilm development is often assumed in the subsurface, particularly at the matrix-well screen interface, but evidence of biofilms in the bulk aquifer matrix is scarce. Our preliminary results suggest, however, that biofilms develop in the subsurface and contribute to uranium transformations via sorption and reductive mechanisms. In this project we elucidated the mechanism(s) for uranium immobilization mediated by Geobacter biofilms and identified molecular markers to investigate if biofilm development is happening in the contaminated subsurface. The results provided novel insights needed in order to understand the metabolic potential and physiology of microorganisms with a known role in contaminant transformation in situ, thus having a significant positive impact in the SBR Program and providing novel concept to monitor, model, and predict biological behavior during in situ treatments.

  12. Medical biofilms--nanotechnology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Clond, Morgan A; Vogt, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are colonies of bacteria or fungi that adhere to a surface, protected by an extracellular polymer matrix composed of polysaccharides and extracellular DNA. They are highly complex and dynamic multicellular structures that resist traditional means of killing planktonic bacteria. Recent developments in nanotechnology provide novel approaches to preventing and dispersing biofilm infections, which are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Medical device infections are responsible for approximately 60% of hospital acquired infections. In the United States, the estimated cost of caring for healthcare-associated infections is approximately between $28 billion and $45 billion per year. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of biofilm formation and degradation, its relevance to challenges in clinical practice, and new technological developments in nanotechnology that are designed to address these challenges.

  13. Focusing on Environmental Biofilms With Variable-Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, L.; Wolfaardt, G. M.; Du Plessis, K.

    2006-12-01

    Since the term biofilm has been coined almost 30 years ago, visualization has formed an integral part of investigations on microbial attachment. Electron microscopic (EM) biofilm studies, however, have been limited by the hydrated extracellular matrix which loses structural integrity with conventional preparative techniques, and under required high-vacuum conditions, resulting in a loss of information on spatial relationships and distribution of biofilm microbes. Recent advances in EM technology enable the application of Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP SEM) to biofilms, allowing low vacuum and hydrated chamber atmosphere during visualization. Environmental biofilm samples can be viewed in situ, unfixed and fully hydrated, with application of gold-sputter-coating only, to increase image resolution. As the impact of microbial biofilms can be both hazardous and beneficial to man and his environment, recognition of biofilms as a natural form of microbial existence is needed to fully assess the potential role of microbial communities on technology. The integration of multiple techniques to elucidate biofilm processes has become imperative for unraveling complex phenotypic adaptations of this microbial lifestyle. We applied VP SEM as integrative technique with traditional and novel analytical techniques to (1)localize lignocellulosic microbial consortia applied for producing alternative bio-energy sources in the mining wastewater industry, (2) characterize and visualize wetland microbial communities in the treatment of winery wastewater, and (3)determine the impact of recombinant technology on yeast biofilm behavior. Visualization of microbial attachment to a lignocellulose substrate, and degradation of exposed plant tissue, gave insight into fiber degradation and volatile fatty acid production for biological sulphate removal from mining wastewater. Also, the 3D-architecture of complex biofilms developing in constructed wetlands was correlated with

  14. Growing and Analyzing Biofilms in Flow Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic......, and disassembly and cleaning of the system. In addition, embedding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of flow chamber–grown biofilms are addressed. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 21:1B.2.1-1B.2.17. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  15. Pattern formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsek, Matthew R.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria are capable of forming elaborate multicellular communities called biofilms. Pattern formation in biofilms depends on cell proliferation and cellular migration in response to the available nutrients and other external cues, as well as on self-generated intercellular signal molecules...... and the production of an extracellular matrix that serves as a structural 'scaffolding' for the biofilm cells. Pattern formation in biofilms allows cells to position themselves favorably within nutrient gradients and enables buildup and maintenance of physiologically distinct subpopulations, which facilitates...... survival of one or more subpopulations upon environmental insult, and therefore plays an important role in the innate tolerance displayed by biofilms toward adverse conditions....

  16. Biofilm reactors for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-07-01

    Whole cell immobilization has been studied in the laboratory during the last few years as a method to improve the performance and economics of most fermentation processes. Among the various techniques available for cell immobilization, methods that provide generation of a biofilm offer reduced diffusional resistance, high productivities, and simple operation. This paper reviews some of the important aspects of biofilm reactors for ethanol production, including reactor start-up, steady state behavior, process stability, and mathematical modeling. Special emphasis is placed on covalently bonded Saccharomyces cerevisiae in packed bed reactors.

  17. Measurement of biofilm thickness. An effective Legionella risk assessment tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foret, Christophe [BKG France, Arnage (France); Martemianov, Serguei [Poitiers Univ. (FR). Lab. of Thermal Study (LET); Moscow Univ. (Russian Federation). Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Hater, Wolfgang [BK Giulini GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Merlet, Nicole; Chaussec, Guenole; Tribollet, Bernard

    2010-02-15

    The best way to prevent the risk of bacterial growth in water systems is to monitor and control the microorganisms (biofilm) attached to pipe walls. Three years of laboratory research led two Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (French National Center for Scientific Research) teams (UMR 6008 and UPR 15) to develop a tool designed to determine the average biofilm thickness. The average biofilm thickness measurements carried out on pilot plants fed with natural water were sufficiently accurate and sensitive to monitor the formation and development of biofilm in a water system and to determine the efficiency of the applied treatments. The implementation of appropriate treatments (type and dose of the treatment product) leads to a significant reduction in or even complete removal of the porous layer on the material surface. A reduction of the attached biomass, measured by the sensor, is connected to a decrease in the density of the bacterial attached to the material (viable flora in the plate count agar environment). (orig.)

  18. Novel approaches to mitigating bacterial biofilm formation and intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Stephen H.

    Long thought of as solitary single-cell organisms, it is now widely accepted that bacteria can act and cooperate as social organisms. Phenomena such as biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS) are two intimately intertwined cooperative behaviors that significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria. Biofilms are surface associated communities of bacteria encased in a secreted extracellular matrix, which provides several advantages over an individualized lifestyle, such as increased protection from antimicrobial agents as well as enhanced opportunity for the exchange of genetic material. Bacterial QS is a system of population-based communication through the production, sensing, and response to chemical signals, often controlling the expression of diverse virulence factors (e.g. toxins, proteases). Biofilm formation and QS are cooperative processes that are often leveraged as bacteria coordinate infection processes, and can therefore be novel targets for anti-infective treatments that differ from conventional antibiotic treatment. Our lab has previously identified a novel class of small molecules that inhibit biofilm formation and disrupt QS by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These organosulfur-based compounds are either natural products or related derivatives of the tropical plant Petiveria alliacea. Because oral biofilm (e.g. dental plaque) is a major conduit of oral and systemic disease, and is also a site for horizontal transfer for genes encoding antibiotic resistance, there exists a need for novel strategies for inhibiting oral biofilm development. Therefore, a small library (˜50 compounds) of structural derivatives was developed and screened for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation by multiple orally associated bacteria. The screening effort uncovered several related compounds that inhibited oral biofilm development. To determine how natural product-based organosulfur compounds could be inducing QS inhibitory effects, an

  19. Introducing particle physics a graphic guide

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071677

    2013-01-01

    What really happens at the most fundamental levels of nature? Introducing Particle Physics explores the very frontiers of our knowledge, even showing how particle physicists are now using theory and experiment to probe our very concept of what is real. From the earliest history of the atomic theory through to supersymmetry, micro-black holes, dark matter, the Higgs boson, and the possibly mythical graviton, practising physicist and CERN contributor Tom Whyntie gives us a mind-expanding tour of cutting-edge science. Featuring brilliant illustrations from Oliver Pugh, Introducing Particle Physics is a unique tour through the most astonishing and challenging science being undertaken today.

  20. A short history of microbial biofilms and biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The observation of aggregated microbes surrounded by a self-produced matrix adhering to surfaces or located in tissues or secretions is old since both Leeuwenhoek and Pasteur have described the phenomenon. In environmental and technical microbiology, biofilms, 80–90 years ago, were already shown ...

  1. Biofilm Induced Tolerance Towards Antimicrobial Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Zampaloni, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. We established Escherichia coli biofilms with differential structural organization due...... to the presence of IncF plasmids expressing altered forms of the transfer pili in two different biofilm model systems. The mature biofilms were subsequently treated with two antibiotics with different molecular targets, the peptide antibiotic colistin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. The dynamics...... of microbial killing were monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Strains forming structurally organized biofilms show an increased bacterial survival when challenged with colistin, compared to strains forming unstructured biofilms. The increased survival is due to genetically...

  2. Molecular Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz

    In this study, I sought to identify genes regulating the global molecular program for development of sessile multicellular communities, also known as biofilm, of the eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Yeast biofilm has a clinical interest, as biofilms can cause chronic...... infections in humans. Biofilm is also interesting from an evolutionary standpoint, as an example of primitive multicellularity. By using a genome-wide screen of yeast deletion mutants, I show that 71 genes are essential for biofilm formation. Two-thirds of these genes are required for transcription of FLO11......, but only a small subset is previously described as regulators of FLO11. These results reveal that the regulation of biofilm formation and FLO11 is even more complex than what has previously been described. I find that the molecular program for biofilm formation shares many essential components with two...

  3. Cell death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J.S.; Thompson, L.S.; James, S.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids....... However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death...... occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development...

  4. Modelling the growth of a methanotrophic biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcangeli, J.-P.; Arvin, E.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the growth of methanotrophic biofilms. Several independent biofilm growths scenarios involving different inocula were examined. Biofilm growth, substrate removal and product formation were monitored throughout the experiments. Based on the oxygen consumption it was concluded...... that heterotrophs and nitrifiers co-existed with methanotrophs in the biofilm. Heterotrophic biomass grew on soluble polymers formed by the hydrolysis of dead biomass entrapped in the biofilm. Nitrifier populations developed because of the presence of ammonia in the mineral medium. Based on these experimental...... was performed on this model. It indicated that the most influential parameters were those related to the biofilm (i.e. density; solid-volume fraction; thickness). This suggests that in order to improve the model, further research regarding the biofilm structure and composition is needed....

  5. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus in vitro test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Bing-Bing; Liao, Qin-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on biofilms of Lactobacillus spp. - a type of normal flora isolated from healthy human vaginas of women of childbearing age; thereupon, it broadens the research scope of investigation of vaginal normal flora. The static slide culture method was adopted to foster biofilms, marked by specific fluorescence staining. Laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the microstructure of the biofilms. Photographs taken from the microstructure were analysed to calculate the density of the biofilms. The body of Lactobacillus spp., though red, turned yellow when interacting with the green extracellular polysaccharides. The structure of the biofilm and aquaporin within the biofilm were imaged. Lactobacillus density increases over time. This study provides convincing evidence that Lactobacillus can form biofilms and grow over time in vitro. This finding establishes an important and necessary condition for selecting proper strains for the pharmaceutics of vaginal ecology.

  6. Mycoalgae biofilm: development of a novel platform technology using algae and fungal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Aravindan; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae is considered a promising source for biofuel and bioenergy production, bio-remediation and production of high-value bioactive compounds, but harvesting microalgae is a major bottleneck in the algae based processes. The objective of this research is to mimic the growth of natural lichen and develop a novel biofilm platform technology using filamentous fungi and microalgae to form a lichen type of biofilm "mycoalgae" in a supporting polymer matrix. The possibility of co-existence of Chlorella vulgaris with various fungal cultures was tested to identify the best strain combination for high algae harvest efficiency. The effect of different matrices for cell attachment and biofilm formation, cell surface characterization of mycoalgae biofilm, kinetics of the process with respect to the algae-fungi cell distribution and total biomass production was studied. Mycoalgae biofilm with algae attachment efficiency of 99.0 % and above was achieved in a polymer-cotton composite matrix with glucose concentration of 2 g/L in the growth medium and agitation intensity of 150 rpm at 27 °C. The total biomass in the co-culture with the selected strain combination (Mucor sp. and Chlorella sp.) was higher than the axenic cultures of fungi and algae at the conditions tested. The results show that algae can be grown with complete attachment to a bio-augmenting fungal surface and can be harvested readily as a biofilm for product extraction from biomass. Even though, interaction between heterotrophic fungi and phototrophic algae was investigated in solid media after prolonged contact in a report, this research is the first of its kind in developing an artificial lichen type biofilm called "mycoalgae" biofilm completely attached on a matrix in liquid cultures. The mycoalgae biofilm based processes, propounds the scope for exploring new avenues in the bio-production industry and bioremediation.

  7. Magnesium limitation is an environmental trigger of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mulcahy

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is a conserved strategy for long-term bacterial survival in nature and during infections. Biofilms are multicellular aggregates of cells enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. The RetS, GacS and LadS sensors control the switch from a planktonic to a biofilm mode of growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we detail our approach to identify environmental triggers of biofilm formation by investigating environmental conditions that repress expression of the biofilm repressor RetS. Mg(2+ limitation repressed the expression of retS leading to increased aggregation, exopolysaccharide (EPS production and biofilm formation. Repression of retS expression under Mg(2+ limitation corresponded with induced expression of the GacA-controlled small regulatory RNAs rsmZ and rsmY and the EPS biosynthesis operons pel and psl. We recently demonstrated that extracellular DNA sequesters Mg(2+ cations and activates the cation-sensing PhoPQ two-component system, which leads to increased antimicrobial peptide resistance in biofilms. Here we show that exogenous DNA and EDTA, through their ability to chelate Mg(2+, promoted biofilm formation. The repression of retS in low Mg(2+ was directly controlled by PhoPQ. PhoP also directly controlled expression of rsmZ but not rsmY suggesting that PhoPQ controls the equilibrium of the small regulatory RNAs and thus fine-tunes the expression of genes in the RetS pathway. In summary, Mg(2+ limitation is a biologically relevant environmental condition and the first bonafide environmental signal identified that results in transcriptional repression of retS and promotes P. aeruginosa biofilm formation.

  8. The efficacy of sarang semut extract (Myrmecodia pendens Merr & Perry in inhibiting Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan M. Alibasyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is a pathogenic bacteria present in the oral cavity involved in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis and biofilm. This mass of microorganisms represents one of the virulent factors of P. gingivalis which plays an important role as an attachment initiator in host cells. Sarang semut is a natural material possessing the ability to inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis. Purpose: This study aims to analyze the effect of sarang semut extract on the formation of P. gingivalis biofilm. Methods: The study used methanol sarang semut extract and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and phosphomycin as a positive control. Treatment was initiated by means of culturing. Biofilm test and P. gingivalis biofilm formation observation were subsequently performed by means of a light microscope at a magnification of 400x. Results: The formation of P. gingivalis biofilms tended to increase at 3, 6, and 9 hours. Results of the violet crystal test showed that concentrations of 100% and 75% of the sarang semut extract successfully inhibited the formation of P. gingivalis biofilm according to the incubation time. Meanwhile, the sarang semut extracts at concentrations of 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.125% resulted in weak inhibition of the formation of P. gingivalis biofilm. The biofilm mass profile observed by a microscope tended to decrease as an indicator of the effects of the sarang semut extract. Conclusion: Sarang semut extract can inhibit the formation of P. gingivalis biofilm, especially at concentrations of 100% and 75%. Nevertheless, phosphomycin has stronger antibiofilm of P. gingivalis effects than those of the sarang semut extract at all of the concentrations listed above.

  9. It is all about location: how to pinpoint microorganisms and their functions in multispecies biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angela M; Mergulhão, Filipe J; Briandet, Romain; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2017-09-01

    Multispecies biofilms represent the dominant mode of life for the vast majority of microorganisms. Bacterial spatial localization in such biostructures governs ecological interactions between different populations and triggers the overall community functions. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of fluorescence-based techniques used to decipher bacterial species patterns in biofilms at single cell level, including fluorescence in situ hybridization and the use of genetically modified bacteria that express fluorescent proteins, reporting the significant improvements of those techniques. The development of tools for spatial and temporal study of multispecies biofilms will allow live imaging and spatial localization of cells in naturally occurring biofilms coupled with metabolic information, increasing insight of microbial community and the relation between its structure and functions.

  10. Biofilms as Biobarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, John; Ashe, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In a climate of increased concern for the environment and its protection, teachers in disciplines as diverse as biology, microbiology, environmental studies, and environmental engineering may be seeking teaching materials and laboratory exercises that will enable them to introduce these new concepts into their classrooms and laboratories. The…

  11. Effect of LongZhang Gargle on Biofilm Formation and Acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, with the ability of high-rate acid production and strong biofilm formation, is considered the predominant bacterial species in the pathogenesis of human dental caries. Natural products which may be bioactive against S. mutans have become a hot spot to researches to control dental caries. LongZhang Gargle, completely made from Chinese herbs, was investigated for its effects on acid production and biofilm formation by S. mutans in this study. The results showed an antimicrobial activity of LongZhang Gargle against S. mutans planktonic growth at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 16% and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of 32%. Acid production was significantly inhibited at sub-MIC concentrations. Biofilm formation was also significantly disrupted, and 8% was the minimum concentration that resulted in at least 50% inhibition of biofilm formation (MBIC50. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed an effective disruption of LongZhang Gargle on S. mutans biofilm integrity. In addition, a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM suggested that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS synthesis could be inhibited by LongZhang Gargle at a relatively low concentration. These findings suggest that LongZhang Gargle may be a promising natural anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses planktonic growth, acid production, and biofilm formation against S. mutans.

  12. Nano-cellulose biopolymer based nano-biofilm biomaterial using plant biomass: An innovative plant biomaterial dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nano-cellulose derived nano-biofilm keeps a magnificent role in medical, biomedical, bioengineering and pharmaceutical industries. Plant biomaterial is naturally organic and biodegradable. This study has been highlighted as one of the strategy introducing biomass based nano-bioplastic (nanobiofilm to solve dependency on petroleum and environment pollution because of non-degradable plastic. The data study was carried out to investigate the nano-biopolymer (nanocellulose based nano-biofilm data from corn leaf biomass coming after bioprocess technology without chemicals. Corn leaf biomass was used to produce biodegradable nano-bioplastic for medical and biomedical and other industrial uses. Data on water absorption, odor, pH, cellulose content, shape and firmness, color coating and tensile strength test have been exhibited under standardization of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials. Moreover, the chemical elements of nanobiofilm like K+, CO3−−, Cl−, Na+ showed standard data using the EN (166. Keywords: Nanocellulose, Nanobiofilm, Nanobioplastic, Biodegradable, Corn leaf

  13. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins.

  14. Biofilm in drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, Pietrangela

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth in drinking waters is today controlled adding small and non toxic quantities of sanitising products. An innovative electrochemical biofilm monitoring system, already successfully applied in industrial waters, could be confirmed as an effective diagnostic tool of water quality also for drinking distributions systems [it

  15. Competitive Interactions in Mixed-Species Biofilms Containing the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S.; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2005-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a biofilm-forming marine bacterium that is often found in association with the surface of eukaryotic organisms. It produces a range of extracellular inhibitory compounds, including an antibacterial protein (AlpP) thought to be beneficial for P. tunicata during competition for space and nutrients on surfaces. As part of our studies on the interactions between P. tunicata and the epiphytic bacterial community on the marine plant Ulva lactuca, we investigated the hypothesis that P. tunicata is a superior competitor compared with other bacteria isolated from the plant. A number of U. lactuca bacterial isolates were (i) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, (ii) characterized for the production of or sensitivity to extracellular antibacterial proteins, and (iii) labeled with a fluorescent color tag (either the red fluorescent protein DsRed or green fluorescent protein). We then grew single- and mixed-species bacterial biofilms containing P. tunicata in glass flow cell reactors. In pure culture, all the marine isolates formed biofilms containing microcolony structures within 72 h. However, in mixed-species biofilms, P. tunicata removed the competing strain unless its competitor was relatively insensitive to AlpP (Pseudoalteromonas gracilis) or produced strong inhibitory activity against P. tunicata (Roseobacter gallaeciensis). Moreover, biofilm studies conducted with an AlpP− mutant of P. tunicata indicated that the mutant was less competitive when it was introduced into preestablished biofilms, suggesting that AlpP has a role during competitive biofilm formation. When single-species biofilms were allowed to form microcolonies before the introduction of a competitor, these microcolonies coexisted with P. tunicata for extended periods of time before they were removed. Two marine bacteria (R. gallaeciensis and P. tunicata) were superior competitors in this study. Our data suggest that this dominance can be attributed to the ability of

  16. Biofilm formation and microbial community analysis of the simulated river bioreactor for contaminated source water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang-Yang; Feng, Li-Juan; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jing; Ding, Wei; Qi, Han-Ying

    2012-06-01

    The start-up pattern of biofilm remediation system affects the biofilm characteristics and operating performances. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performances of the contaminated source water remediation systems with different start-up patterns in view of the pollutants removal performances and microbial community succession. The operating performances of four lab-scale simulated river biofilm reactors were examined which employed different start-up methods (natural enrichment and artificial enhancement via discharging sediment with influent velocity gradient increase) and different bio-fillers (Elastic filler and AquaMats® ecobase). At the same time, the microbial communities of the bioreactors in different phases were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and sequencing. The pollutants removal performances became stable in the four reactors after 2 months' operation, with ammonia nitrogen and permanganate index (COD(Mn)) removal efficiencies of 84.41-94.21% and 69.66-76.60%, respectively. The biomass of mature biofilm was higher in the bioreactors by artificial enhancement than that by natural enrichment. Microbial community analysis indicated that elastic filler could enrich mature biofilm faster than AquaMats®. The heterotrophic bacteria diversity of biofilm decreased by artificial enhancement, which favored the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) developing on the bio-fillers. Furthermore, Nitrosomonas- and Nitrosospira-like AOB coexisted in the biofilm, and Pseudomonas sp., Sphaerotilus sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Corynebacterium aurimucosum were dominant in the oligotrophic niche. Artificial enhancement via the combination of sediment discharging and influent velocity gradient increasing could enhance the biofilm formation and autotrophic AOB enrichment in oligotrophic niche.

  17. Dynamic processes of the microbiota - from metagenomics to biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingreen, Ned

    The extent, origin, and impact of microbial diversity is a central question in biology. We expect that physical processes contribute to this diversity, but we are only beginning to explore the nature of these interactions. I will briefly discuss two approaches to this question, one based on metagenomics the other on observation of bacterial biofilms. First, I will address the challenge of identifying the constituents of microbial systems by presenting a new approach to analyzing community sequencing data that identifies microbial subpopulations while avoiding problematic clustering-based methods. Using data from a time-series study of human tongue microbiota, we were able to resolve within the standard definition of a ``species'' up to 20 ecologically distinct subpopulations with tag sequences differing by as little as one nucleotide (99.2% similarity). This fine resolution allowed us decouple sequence similarity from dynamical similarity, and to resolve dynamics on multiple time scales, including the slow appearance and disappearance of strains over months. Second, I will present recent results on the growth and competition of bacteria within biofilms. We imaged the growth ofliving biofilms of Vibrio choleraefrom single founder cells to ten thousand cells at single cell spatial resolution and with temporal resolution of one cell cycle. We discovered a transition from a branched 2D colony to a dense 3D cluster, in which cells at the biofilm center exhibit collective vertical alignment and local nematic packing. Our results suggest that biofilm cells exploit mechanics to simultaneously achieve strong surface adhesion, access to 3D space, resistance to invasion, and dominance over surface territory.

  18. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-01-23

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher\\'s equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels\\' network; (2) the solute\\'s diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. From Mouth to Model: Combining in vivo and in vitro oral biofilm growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Klug

    2016-09-01

    demonstrate the in vitro survival of native primary oral biofilm in its natural complexity over 48 hours. Our results offer a baseline for cultivation studies of native oral biofilms in (phyto- pharmacological and dental materials research. Further investigations and validation of culturing conditions could also facilitate the study of biofilm-induced diseases.

  20. Dynamic interactions of neutrophils and biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Hirschfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of microbial infections in humans are biofilm-associated and difficult to treat, as biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and protect themselves from external threats in various ways. Biofilms are tenaciously attached to surfaces and impede the ability of host defense molecules and cells to penetrate them. On the other hand, some biofilms are beneficial for the host and contain protective microorganisms. Microbes in biofilms express pathogen-associated molecular patterns and epitopes that can be recognized by innate immune cells and opsonins, leading to activation of neutrophils and other leukocytes. Neutrophils are part of the first line of defense and have multiple antimicrobial strategies allowing them to attack pathogenic biofilms. Objective/design: In this paper, interaction modes of neutrophils with biofilms are reviewed. Antimicrobial strategies of neutrophils and the counteractions of the biofilm communities, with special attention to oral biofilms, are presented. Moreover, possible adverse effects of neutrophil activity and their biofilm-promoting side effects are discussed. Results/conclusion: Biofilms are partially, but not entirely, protected against neutrophil assault, which include the processes of phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. However, virulence factors of microorganisms, microbial composition, and properties of the extracellular matrix determine whether a biofilm and subsequent microbial spread can be controlled by neutrophils and other host defense factors. Besides, neutrophils may inadvertently contribute to the physical and ecological stability of biofilms by promoting selection of more resistant strains. Moreover, neutrophil enzymes can degrade collagen and other proteins and, as a result, cause harm to the host tissues. These parameters could be crucial factors in the onset of periodontal inflammation and the subsequent tissue breakdown.

  1. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced fish in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP...

  2. Mycobacterium biofilms: factors involved in development, dispersal, and therapeutic strategies against biofilm-relevant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaohong; Deng, Wanyan; Liu, Minqiang; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria can develop biofilm (BF), a multicellular structure largely combining bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The formation of biofilm results in an alternative existence in which microbes ensure their survival in adverse environments. Biofilm-relevant infections are more persistent, resistant to most antibiotics, and more recalcitrant to host immunity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, can develop biofilm, though whether M. tuberculosis can form biofilm within tuberculosis patients has yet to be determined. Here, we summarize the factors involved in the development and dispersal of mycobacterial biofilms, as well as underlying regulatory factors and inhibitors against biofilm to deepen our understanding of their development and to elucidate potential novel modes of action for future antibiotics. Key factors in biofilm formation identified as drug targets represent a novel and promising avenue for developing better antibiotics.

  3. Biofilm imaging in porous media by laboratory X-Ray tomography: Combining a non-destructive contrast agent with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Maxence; Beltran, Mario A; Morales, Verónica L; Derlon, Nicolas; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaufmann, Rolf; Holzner, Markus

    2017-01-01

    X-ray tomography is a powerful tool giving access to the morphology of biofilms, in 3D porous media, at the mesoscale. Due to the high water content of biofilms, the attenuation coefficient of biofilms and water are very close, hindering the distinction between biofilms and water without the use of contrast agents. Until now, the use of contrast agents such as barium sulfate, silver-coated micro-particles or 1-chloronaphtalene added to the liquid phase allowed imaging the biofilm 3D morphology. However, these contrast agents are not passive and potentially interact with the biofilm when injected into the sample. Here, we use a natural inorganic compound, namely iron sulfate, as a contrast agent progressively bounded in dilute or colloidal form into the EPS matrix during biofilm growth. By combining a very long source-to-detector distance on a X-ray laboratory source with a Lorentzian filter implemented prior to tomographic reconstruction, we substantially increase the contrast between the biofilm and the surrounding liquid, which allows revealing the 3D biofilm morphology. A comparison of this new method with the method proposed by Davit et al (Davit et al., 2011), which uses barium sulfate as a contrast agent to mark the liquid phase was performed. Quantitative evaluations between the methods revealed substantial differences for the volumetric fractions obtained from both methods. Namely, contrast agent-biofilm interactions (e.g. biofilm detachment) occurring during barium sulfate injection caused a reduction of the biofilm volumetric fraction of more than 50% and displacement of biofilm patches elsewhere in the column. Two key advantages of the newly proposed method are that passive addition of iron sulfate maintains the integrity of the biofilm prior to imaging, and that the biofilm itself is marked by the contrast agent, rather than the liquid phase as in other available methods. The iron sulfate method presented can be applied to understand biofilm development

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm, a Programmed Bacterial Life for Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keehoon; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2017-06-28

    A biofilm is a community of microbes that typically inhabit on surfaces and are encased in an extracellular matrix. Biofilms display very dissimilar characteristics to their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are ubiquitous in the environment and influence our lives tremendously in both positive and negative ways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium known to produce robust biofilms. P. aeruginosa biofilms cause severe problems in immunocompromised patients, including those with cystic fibrosis or wound infection. Moreover, the unique biofilm properties further complicate the eradication of the biofilm infection, leading to the development of chronic infections. In this review, we discuss the history of biofilm research and general characteristics of bacterial biofilms. Then, distinct features pertaining to each stage of P. aeruginosa biofilm development are highlighted. Furthermore, infections caused by biofilms on their own or in association with other bacterial species ( i.e. , multispecies biofilms) are discussed in detail.

  5. Novel metabolic activity indicator in Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, D.M.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of micro-organisms in biofilms requires novel strategies to evaluate the efficacy of caries preventive agents in actual biofilms. Hence we investigated fluorescence intensity (FI) in Streptococcus mutans biofilms constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

  6. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm removal by targeting biofilm-associated extracellular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Methods: Biofilm assay was done in 96-well microtitre plate to evaluate the effect of proteinase K on biofilms of bovine mastitis S. Aureus isolates. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted and evaluated for their composition (protein, polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, before and after the proteinase K treatment. Results: Biofilm assay showed that 2 μg/ml proteinase K significantly inhibited biofilm development in bap-positive S. aureus V329 as well as other S. aureus isolates (SA7, SA10, SA33, SA352, but not in bap-mutant M556 and SA392 (a weak biofilm-producing strain. Proteinase K treatment on S. aureus planktonic cells showed that there was no inhibition of planktonic growth up to 32 μg/ml of proteinase K. Proteinase K treatment on 24 h old preformed biofilms showed an enhanced dispersion of bap-positive V329 and SA7, SA10, SA33 and SA352 biofilms; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-mutant S. aureus M556 and SA392 biofilms. Biofilm compositions study before and after proteinase K treatment indicated that Bap might also be involved in eDNA retention in the biofilm matrix that aids in biofilm stability. When proteinase K was used in combination with antibiotics, a synergistic effect in antibiotic efficacy was observed against all biofilm-forming S. aureus isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Proteinase K inhibited biofilms growth in S. aureus bovine mastitis isolates but did not affect their planktonic growth. An enhanced dispersion of preformed S. aureus biofilms was observed on proteinase K treatment. Proteinase K treatment with antibiotics showed a synergistic effect against S. aureus biofilms. The study suggests that dispersing S. aureus by protease can be of use while devising strategies againstS. aureus biofilms.

  7. Fremmedlegemeinfektioner--nyt om biofilm og quorum sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Ciofu, Oana

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are structured consortia of bacteria embedded in self-produced polymer matrix. Biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectives and phagocytosis. The persistence of foreign body infections is due to biofilms. Chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is a biofilm....... Bacteria in biofilms communicate by means of quorum sensing which activates genes for virulence factors. Biofilms can be prevented by antibiotic prophylaxis or early therapy or by quorum sensing inhibitors which make them susceptible to antibiotics and phagocytosis....

  8. Silver-Palladium Surfaces Inhibit Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Schroll, Casper; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition...... efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53[pMG101] strains were used as model organisms, and batch and flow chamber setups were used as model systems. In the case of the silver-sensitive strain, the silver......-palladium surfaces killed the bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low or high bacterial load. In the case of the silver-resistant strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed surface-associated bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low bacterial load, whereas under...

  9. Mucosal biofilm detection in chronic otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Marcus; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine middle ear biopsies from Greenlandic patients with chronic otitis media (COM) for the presence of mucosal biofilms and the bacteria within the biofilms. Thirty-five middle ear biopsies were obtained from 32 Greenlandic COM patients admitted to ear...... of the patients served as controls. PNA-FISH showed morphological signs of biofilms in 15 out of 35 (43 %) middle ear biopsies. In the control skin biopsies, there were signs of biofilms in eight out of 23 biopsies (30 %), probably representing skin flora. PCR and 16s sequencing detected bacteria in seven out...... of 20 (35 %) usable middle ear biopsies, and in two out of ten (20 %) usable control samples. There was no association between biofilm findings and PCR and 16s sequencing. Staphylococci were the most common bacteria in bacterial culture. We found evidence of bacterial biofilms in 43 % of middle ear...

  10. Microbial biofilms: biosurfactants as antibiofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, Ibrahim M; De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Quinn, Gerry A

    2014-12-01

    Current microbial inhibition strategies based on planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilm communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. All aspects of biofilm measurement, monitoring, dispersal, control, and inhibition are becoming issues of increasing importance. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms in addition to many other advantages. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival those of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial and yeast biofilms. This makes them suitable candidates for use in new generations of microbial dispersal agents and for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies. In this review, we explore aspects of biofilm characteristics and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (biosurfactants) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms.

  11. Biofilm inhibitors that target amyloid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego; Sanabria-Valentín, Edgardo; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-01-24

    Bacteria establish stable communities, known as biofilms, that are resistant to antimicrobials. Biofilm robustness is due to the presence of an extracellular matrix, which for several species-among them Bacillus subtilis-includes amyloid-like protein fibers. In this work, we show that B. subtilis biofilms can be a simple and reliable tool for screening of molecules with antiamyloid activity. We identified two molecules, AA-861 and parthenolide, which efficiently inhibited biofilms by preventing the formation of amyloid-like fibers. Parthenolide also disrupted pre-established biofilms. These molecules also impeded the formation of biofilms of other bacterial species that secrete amyloid proteins, such as Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the identified molecules decreased the conversion of the yeast protein New1 to the prion state in a heterologous host, indicating the broad range of activity of the molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Biofilms and their significance in medical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernohorská, L; Votava, M

    2002-11-01

    Microorganisms are able to adhere to various surfaces and to form there a three-dimensional structure known as biofilm. In biofilms, microbial cells show characteristics and behaviours different from those of plankton cells. Intercellular signalizations of the quorum-sensing type regulate interaction between members of the biofilm. Bacteria embedded in the biofilm can escape and form well known planktonic forms, that are obviously only a part of the bacterial life cycle. Bacteria adhere also to medically important surfaces such as catheters, either urinary or intravenous ones, artificial heart valves, orthopedic implants and so on and contribute to device-related infections like cystitis, catheter-related sepsis, endocarditis etc. Once a biofilm has been established on a surface, the bacteria harboured inside are less exposed to the host's immune response and less susceptible to antibiotics. As an important cause of nosocomial infections the biofilm must remain in the centre of the microbiologist's attention.

  13. Microbial biofilm growth on irradiated, spent nuclear fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, D.F.; Frank, S.M.; Roberto, F.F.; Pinhero, P.J.; Johnson, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental criticism regarding the potential for microbial influenced corrosion in spent nuclear fuel cladding or storage containers concerns whether the required microorganisms can, in fact, survive radiation fields inherent in these materials. This study was performed to unequivocally answer this critique by addressing the potential for biofilm formation, the precursor to microbial-influenced corrosion, in radiation fields representative of spent nuclear fuel storage environments. This study involved the formation of a microbial biofilm on irradiated spent nuclear fuel cladding within a hot cell environment. This was accomplished by introducing 22 species of bacteria, in nutrient-rich media, to test vessels containing irradiated cladding sections and that was then surrounded by radioactive source material. The overall dose rate exceeded 2 Gy/h gamma/beta radiation with the total dose received by some of the bacteria reaching 5 x 10 3 Gy. This study provides evidence for the formation of biofilms on spent-fuel materials, and the implication of microbial influenced corrosion in the storage and permanent deposition of spent nuclear fuel in repository environments

  14. Shape of the growing front of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Stone, Howard A.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The spatial organization of bacteria in dense biofilms is key to their collective behaviour, and understanding it will be important for medical and technological applications. Here we study the morphology of a compact biofilm that undergoes unidirectional growth, and determine the condition for the stability of the growing interface as a function of the nutrient concentration and mechanical tension. Our study suggests that transient behaviour may play an important role in shaping the structure of a biofilm.

  15. Strategies for combating bacterial biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Moser, Claus Ernst; Wang, Heng-Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Formation of biofilm is a survival strategy for bacteria and fungi to adapt to their living environment, especially in the hostile environment. Under the protection of biofilm, microbial cells in biofilm become tolerant and resistant to antibiotics and the immune responses, which increases the di.......International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication, 12 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ijos.2014.65....

  16. Effect of Lactoferrin on Oral Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    effect of Lf on the early stages of single-species and multi- species oral biofilm development. Streptococcus gordonii (Sg), Streptococcus mutans ...and biofilm development by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans have been demonstrated, limited studies have been conducted on its effect...the effect of Lf on the early stages of single- species and multi-species oral biofilm development. Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans

  17. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  18. Antibiotic tolerance and resistance in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important features of microbial biofilms is their tolerance to antimicrobial agents and components of the host immune system. The difficulty of treating biofilm infections with antibiotics is a major clinical problem. Although antibiotics may decrease the number of bacteria...... in biofilms, they will not completely eradicate the bacteria in vivo which may have important clinical consequences in form of relapses of the infection....

  19. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M C Volgenant

    Full Text Available Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation. Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  20. Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, A K; Hochbaum, A I; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J

    2011-01-01

    Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

  1. The influence of watershed perturbation on mercury loading in the littoral biofilms: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, M.; Planas, D. [Quebec Univ., GEOTOP, Montreal. PQ, (Canada); Mucci, A.; Guignard, C. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1999-05-01

    Methylmercury accumulation in littoral biofilms associated with anthropogenic watershed perturbation (harvesting) was evaluated and compared to natural perturbation (forest fires) and undisturbed lakes. Communities in littoral zones are the main food resources for many fish species. In the littoral zone, biofilms are at the base of the food chain and may prove to be an important source of mercury to fish. A total of 15 lakes were studied, equally distributed among the three types of disturbances. Methylmercury analysis was done in biofilms grown on Teflon substrates suspended in the littoral zone. The methylmercury was extracted with 25 per cent KOH in methanol and its concentration measured by cold-vapour atomic fluorescence following ethylation and gas chromatographic separation. Preliminary results show that methylmercury concentrations on the substrates are correlated with the biofilm algal biomass. In turn, the algal biomass is correlated to the degree of watershed perturbation associated with increased nutrient input, i.e. an increase in biofilm biomass may lead to greater availability of methylmercury for organisms that feed on the algae. Based on these observations, it was suggested that algae may play a significant role in the bioaccumulation of methylmercury by higher trophic organisms. Watershed perturbations appear to increase the bioavailability of methylmercury for aquatic organisms by way of increased production and consumption of littoral biofilms. 11 refs.

  2. Disassembly of Bacterial Biofilms by the Self-Assembled Glycolipids Derived from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Yadavali Siva; Miryala, Sandeep; Lalitha, Krishnamoorthy; Ranjitha, K; Barbhaiwala, Shehnaz; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Maheswari, C Uma; Srinandan, C S; Nagarajan, Subbiah

    2017-11-22

    More than 80% of chronic infections of bacteria are caused by biofilms. It is also a long-term survival strategy of the pathogens in a nonhost environment. Several amphiphilic molecules have been used in the past to potentially disrupt biofilms; however, the involvement of multistep synthesis, complicated purification and poor yield still remains a major problem. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of glycolipid based surfactant from renewable feedstocks in good yield. The nature of carbohydrate unit present in glycolipid influence the ring chain tautomerism, which resulted in the existence of either cyclic structure or both cyclic and acyclic structures. Interestingly, these glycolipids self-assemble into gel in highly hydrophobic solvents and vegetable oils, and displayed foam formation in water. The potential application of these self-assembled glycolipids to disrupt preformed biofilm was examined against various pathogens. It was observed that glycolipid 6a disrupts Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes biofilm, while the compound 6c was effective in disassembling uropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium biofilms. Altogether, the supramolecular self-assembled materials, either as gel or as surfactant solution could be potentially used for surface cleansing in hospital environments or the food processing industries to effectively reduce pathogenic biofilms.

  3. Modeling bacterial attachment to surfaces as an early stage of biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moustaid, Fadoua; Eladdadi, Amina; Uys, Lafras

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are present in all natural, medical and industrial surroundings where bacteria live. Biofilm formation is a key factor in the growth and transport of both beneficial and harmful bacteria. While much is known about the later stages of biofilm formation, less is known about its initiation which is an important first step in the biofilm formation. In this paper, we develop a non-linear system of partial differential equations of Keller-Segel type model in one-dimensional space, which couples the dynamics of bacterial movement to that of the sensing molecules. In this case, bacteria perform a biased random walk towards the sensing molecules. We derive the boundary conditions of the adhesion of bacteria to a surface using zero-Dirichlet boundary conditions, while the equation describing sensing molecules at the interface needed particular conditions to be set. The numerical results show the profile of bacteria within the space and the time evolution of the density within the free-space and on the surface. Testing different parameter values indicate that significant amount of sensing molecules present on the surface leads to a faster bacterial movement toward the surface which is the first step of biofilm initiation. Our work gives rise to results that agree with the biological description of the early stages of biofilm formation.

  4. Contribution of Cell Elongation to the Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Anaerobic Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO2 −) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process. PMID:21267455

  5. Exploring the secrets of the three-dimensional architecture of phototrophic biofilms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldàn Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Caves with dim natural light, and lighted hypogean environments, have been found to host phototrophic microorganisms from varioustaxonomic groups. These microorganisms group themselves into assemblies known as communities or biofilms, which are associated withrock surfaces. In this work, the phototrophic biofilms that colonise speleothems, walls and floors in three tourist caves (Spain were studied.Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to study these organisms and acquirethree-dimensional data on their biofilm structure. CLSM was used in a multi-channel mode whereby the different channels map individualbiofilm components. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, diatoms, mosses and lichens were found to be grouped as biofilms that differedaccording to the sampling sites. The biofilms were classified into six types regarding their environmental conditions. These types weredefined by their constituent organisms, the thickness of their photosynthetic layers and their structure. Light-related stress is associated with lower biofilm thickness and species diversity, as is low humidity, and, in the case of artificially illuminated areas, the duration of lightexposure.

  6. Effect of synthetic vernix biofilms on barrier recovery of damaged mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Marion H M; Rissmann, Robert; van der Coelen, Dennis; Hennink, Wim E; Ponec, Maria; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether topical application of synthetic biofilms supports and accelerates the recovery of the murine skin barrier, disrupted by sequential tape stripping. Therefore, various biofilms were applied topically on disrupted mouse skin to determine which formulation could improve barrier function, as was observed previously for the natural biofilm vernix caseosa (VC). The biofilms [i.e. particles (synthetic corneocytes) embedded in a synthetic lipid matrix] mimic closely the physicochemical properties and structure of VC. Various formulations were prepared using different particle:lipid ratios, particles with different initial water content and uncoated or lipid-coated particles. It was observed that application of all tested formulations improved the skin barrier recovery rate and reduced crust formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. However, only one of the biofilms [i.e. B1; composed of uncoated particles with 50% (w/w) initial water content and particle:lipid ratio of 2:1] mimicked the effects of native VC most closely. This indicates the importance of the presence of individual components, i.e. barrier lipids and water, as well as the ratio of these components. Consequently, these observations suggest the potential use of this biofilm treatment clinically.

  7. Going beyond the Control of Quorum-Sensing to Combat Biofilm Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Rainer Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most bacteria attach to surfaces where they form a biofilm, cells embedded in a complex matrix of polymers. Cells in biofilms are much better protected against noxious agents than free-living cells. As a consequence it is very difficult to control pathogens with antibiotics in biofilm infections and novel targets are urgently needed. One approach aims at the communication between cells to form and to maintain a biofilm, a process called quorum-sensing. Water soluble small-sized molecules mediate this process and a number of antagonists of these compounds have been found. In this review natural compounds and synthetic drugs which do not interfere with the classical quorum-sensing compounds are discussed. For some of these compounds the targets are still not known, but others interfere with the formation of exopolysaccharides, virulence factors, or cell wall synthesis or they start an internal program of biofilm dispersal. Some of their targets are more conserved among pathogens than the receptors for quorum sensing autoinducers mediating quorum-sensing, enabling a broader application of the drug. The broad spectrum of mechanisms, the diversity of bioactive compounds, their activity against several targets, and the conservation of some targets among bacterial pathogens are promising aspects for several clinical applications of this type of biofilm-controlling compound in the future.

  8. Psd1 Effects on Candida albicans Planktonic Cells and Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Gonçalves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP Psd1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Psd1 antifungal action. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was used to assess morphological and biomechanical changes on fungal cells. Surface alterations, with membrane disruption and leakage of cellular contents, were observed. Cytometry assays and confocal microscopy imaging showed that Psd1 causes cell death, in a time and concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate Psd1 pleiotropic action against a relevant fungal human pathogen, suggesting its use as natural antimycotic agent.

  9. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air and aqueous solution. Operating parameters were optimized to improve imaging of structural details for a mature biofilm in liquid. By using a soft cantilever (0.03 N/m) and slow scan rate (0.5 Hz), biofilm and individual bacterial cell’s structural topography were resolved and continuously imaged in liquid without loss of spatial resolution or sample damage. The developed methodology will allow future in situ investigations to temporally monitor mixed culture drinking water biofilm structural changes during disinfection treatments. Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air and aqueous solution. Operating parameters were optimized to improve imaging of structural details for a mature biofilm in liquid. By using a soft cantilever (0.03 N/m) and slow scan rate (0.5 Hz), biofilm and individual bacterial cell’s structural topography were resolved and continuously imaged in liquid without loss of spatial resolution or sample damage. The developed methodo

  10. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: → Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. → Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. → The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  11. Focus on the physics of biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Sigolene; Stocker, Roman; Rusconi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are the smallest and most abundant form of life. They have traditionally been considered as primarily planktonic organisms, swimming or floating in a liquid medium, and this view has shaped many of the approaches to microbial processes, including for example the design of most antibiotics. However, over the last few decades it has become clear that many bacteria often adopt a sessile, surface-associated lifestyle, forming complex multicellular communities called biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are found in a vast range of environments and have major consequences on human health and industrial processes, from biofouling of surfaces to the spread of diseases. Although the study of biofilms has been biologists’ territory for a long time, a multitude of phenomena in the formation and development of biofilms hinges on physical processes. We are pleased to present a collection of research papers that discuss some of the latest developments in many of the areas to which physicists can contribute a deeper understanding of biofilms, both experimentally and theoretically. The topics covered range from the influence of physical environmental parameters on cell attachment and subsequent biofilm growth, to the use of local probes and imaging techniques to investigate biofilm structure, to the development of biofilms in complex environments and the modeling of colony morphogenesis. The results presented contribute to addressing some of the major challenges in microbiology today, including the prevention of surface contamination, the optimization of biofilm disruption methods and the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments. (editorial)

  12. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina; Moura, Jose J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m -2 that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces

  13. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mechanisms of Candida biofilm drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Heather T; Mitchell, Kaitlin F; Edward, Jessica A; Andes, David R

    2013-01-01

    Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices, growing as a resilient biofilm capable of withstanding extraordinarily high antifungal concentrations. As currently available antifungals have minimal activity against biofilms, new drugs to treat these recalcitrant infections are urgently needed. Recent investigations have begun to shed light on the mechanisms behind the profound resistance associated with the biofilm mode of growth. This resistance appears to be multifactorial, involving both mechanisms similar to conventional, planktonic antifungal resistance, such as increased efflux pump activity, as well as mechanisms specific to the biofilm lifestyle. A unique biofilm property is the production of an extracellular matrix. Two components of this material, β-glucan and extracellular DNA, promote biofilm resistance to multiple antifungals. Biofilm formation also engages several stress response pathways that impair the activity of azole drugs. Resistance within a biofilm is often heterogeneous, with the development of a subpopulation of resistant persister cells. In this article we review the molecular mechanisms underlying Candida biofilm antifungal resistance and their relative contributions during various growth phases. PMID:24059922

  15. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  16. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos, E-mail: carsanz@um.es [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: > Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. > Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. > The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  17. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Moura, Jose J.G. [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: jose.moura@dq.fct.unl.pt

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m{sup -2} that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces.

  18. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  19. Targeting quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics combined with an increasing acknowledgement of the role of biofilms in chronic infections has led to a growing interest in new antimicrobial strategies that target the biofilm mode of growth. In the aggregated biofilm mode, cell-to-cell communication...... alternative antibacterial strategies. Here, we review state of the art research of quorum sensing inhibitors against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is found in a number of biofilm-associated infections and identified as the predominant organism infecting the lungs of cystic...

  20. The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Garlic is considered a rich source of many compounds, which shows antimicrobial effects. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and to form biofilm is responsible for a number of diseases of chronic nature, demonstrating extremely high resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of sessile microorganisms, embedded in an extracellular matrix and irreversibly attached to various surfaces. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against the biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms. The clinical isolates in this study had not been studied in any other studies, especially in regard to biofilm disruption and inhibition of biofilm cell metabolic activity. Antimicrobial activities of A. sativum L. extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) against planktonic forms of bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution technique. The anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. The results showed that the A. sativum L. extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, The MIC values of A. sativum L. extracts (0.078 - 2.5 mg/mL) confirmed the high ability of these extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. A. sativum L. extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and the concentration of each extract had a direct relation with the inhibitory effect. Finally, it can be suggested that the extracts of this plant be applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms.

  1. Effect of bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides isolated from probiotic on P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Harjai, Kusum; Shukla, Geeta

    2018-03-01

    Microorganisms develop biofilms on indwelling medical devices and are associated with biofilm-related infections, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Therefore, to prevent and control biofilm-associated infections, the present study was designed to assess the anti-biofilm potential of postbiotics derived from probiotic organisms against most prevalent biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Eighty lactic acid bacteria isolated from eight neonatal fecal samples possessed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Among these, only four lactic acid bacteria produced both bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides but only one isolate was found to maximally attenuate the P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. More specifically, the phenotypic and probiotic characterization showed that the isolated lactic acid bacteria were gram positive, non-motile, and catalase and oxidase negative; tolerated acidic and alkaline pH; has bile salt concentration; showed 53% hydrophobicity; and was found to be non-hemolytic. Phylogenetically, the organism was found to be probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum with accession no. KT998657. Interestingly, pre-coating of a microtiter plate either with bacteriocin or with exopolysaccharides as well as their combination significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of viable cells forming biofilms to 41.7% compared with simultaneous coating of postbiotics that had 72.4% biofilm-forming viable cells as observed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, it can be anticipated that postbiotics as the natural biointerventions can be employed as the prophylactic agents for medical devices used to treat gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections.

  2. 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy and its strain-dependent combined effect with antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Zhao Zhang

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is hard to be eradicated, not only due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains but also because of its ability to form biofilm. Antibiotics are the major approach to treating biofilm infections, but their effects are unsatisfactory. One of the potential alternative treatments for controlling biofilm infections is photodynamic therapy (PDT, which requires the administration of photosensitizer, followed by light activation. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural photosensitizer prodrug, presents favorable characteristics, such as easy penetration and rapid clearance. These advantages enable ALA-based PDT (ALA-PDT to be well-tolerated by patients and it can be repeatedly applied without cumulative toxicity or serious side effects. ALA-PDT has been proven to be an effective treatment for multidrug resistant pathogens; however, the study of its effect on S. aureus biofilm is limited. Here, we established our PDT system based on the utilization of ALA and a light-emitting diode, and we tested the effect of ALA-PDT on S. aureus biofilm as well as the combined effect of ALA-PDT and antibiotics on S. aureus biofilm. Our results showed that ALA-PDT has a strong antibacterial effect on S. aureus biofilm, which was confirmed by the confocal laser scanning microscope. We also found that lethal photosensitization occurred predominantly in the upper layer of the biofilm, while the residual live bacteria were located in the lower layer of the biofilm. In addition, the improved bactericidal effect was observed in the combined treatment group but in a strain-dependent manner. Our results suggest that ALA-PDT is a potential alternative approach for future clinical use to treat S. aureus biofilm-associated infections, and some patients may benefit from the combined treatment of ALA-PDT and antibiotics, but drug sensitivity testing should be performed in advance.

  3. In vitro biofilm formation by methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Lambiase

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens isolated from respiratory tracts of Cystic Fibrosis patients (CF. The infection by this pathogen starts in early infancy, often preceding chronic infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The infection and colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are, by then, events very frequent among CF patients and this bacterial isolation leads to complications in therapeutic management because of the limited treatment options. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus are able to produce biofilms on natural or synthetic surfaces. Biofilms are sophisticated communities of matrix-encased bacteria and infections by biofilm-producing bacteria are particularly problematic because sessile bacteria can often withstand host immune responses and are generally much more tolerant to antibiotics. The first aim of this work is to evaluate the ability of MRSA strains isolated from respiratory secretions of CF patients to develop biofilms in comparison with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA strains obtained from respiratory secretions of CF patients.Therefore, our second aim is to evaluate the environmental influence on this ability. To evaluate the development of biofilm on solid matrix and the possible environmental influence,we applied the method described by Christensen et al. We found that a significantly higher number of MRSA strains were biofilm positive compared with MSSA strains (p<0.05.The presence of glucose did not influence the ability to form biofilm in our MRSA strains (p=0.165. MSSA strains are not strong biofilm-producers, but, when grown in TSB added with 0.25% glucose, the number of biofilm-forming strains increases, as expected. These data suggest a possible association between methicillin-resistance and biofilm formation.

  4. Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 Induces Increased Complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 Colony Biofilms via Hypoxanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kankel, Stefanie; Götze, Sebastian; Barnett, Robert; Stallforth, Pierre; Kovács, Ákos T

    2017-11-15

    In recent years, biofilms have become a central subject of research in the fields of microbiology, medicine, agriculture, and systems biology, among others. The sociomicrobiology of multispecies biofilms, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we report a screening system that allowed us to identify soil bacteria which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with Bacillus subtilis We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as an inducer of wrinkle formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated by bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation. The elicitor was identified to be the purine hypoxanthine using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We show that the induction of wrinkle formation by hypoxanthine is not dependent on signal recognition by the histidine kinases KinA, KinB, KinC, and KinD, which are generally involved in phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A. Likewise, we show that hypoxanthine signaling does not induce the expression of biofilm matrix-related operons epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO and tasA-sipW-tapA Finally, we demonstrate that the purine permease PbuO, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression but rather is caused by the excess of hypoxanthine within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death. IMPORTANCE Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be beneficial, for instance, in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities displaying complex social behaviors and characteristics. The study of interspecies interactions will thus lead to a better understanding and use of biofilms as they

  5. Molecular methods for biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrera, Isabel; Balagué , Vanessa; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel; Bayer, Till; Abed, Raeid M.M.; Dobretsov, Sergey; Owens, Sarah M.; Wilkening, Jared; Fessler, Jennifer L.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    at the same time and to compare bacterial communities among different samples or in a single sample after certain treatments. DGGE, T-RFLP and ARISA share similar steps but require different materials and equipment. The three methods involve (i) sampling of the biofilms; (ii) DNA extraction and quantification; and (iii) PCR using specific primers. Metagenomics: This chapter focuses classical and next-generation metagenomics methods. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. The chapter discusses the special handling of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) needed to construct BAC and Fosmid libraries from marine water samples. It also briefly addresses the related topics of library archiving, databasing, and screening. The chapter provides a high-level overview of the special handling methods required to prepare DNA for BAC library construction. No special handling is needed for Fosmid library construction.

  6. Molecular methods for biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrera, Isabel

    2014-08-30

    at the same time and to compare bacterial communities among different samples or in a single sample after certain treatments. DGGE, T-RFLP and ARISA share similar steps but require different materials and equipment. The three methods involve (i) sampling of the biofilms; (ii) DNA extraction and quantification; and (iii) PCR using specific primers. Metagenomics: This chapter focuses classical and next-generation metagenomics methods. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. The chapter discusses the special handling of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) needed to construct BAC and Fosmid libraries from marine water samples. It also briefly addresses the related topics of library archiving, databasing, and screening. The chapter provides a high-level overview of the special handling methods required to prepare DNA for BAC library construction. No special handling is needed for Fosmid library construction.

  7. Game Design to Introduce Pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Febriyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of animals from an early age can make children to love animals, especially pets. Children are the easiest group to receive stimulation, such as for example the stimulation of introducing children to the pet. Various media are used by parents to introduce pet. For examplle, by the media of books, multimedia, etc. One of the interesting media to introduce pet is with game. Of these problems then need to know how to make concept and design game to introduced pets for children age 3-6 years. In this paper, author formulate how to make pet game design include game genre, user interface design, image model selection, game characters, and game engine. The expected design of this game can be formulation of learning through proper game as a learning tool children. Game design derived from this writing by using model 2-dimensional images are funny and interesting coloring. And combines several game genres into one, or use the mini games that children do not get bored quickly. Design of GUI (Graphical User Interface is made as simple as possible so that children easily understand in playing this game, but also must use an interesting image

  8. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  9. An Exercise to Introduce Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seier, Edith; Liu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    In introductory statistics courses, the concept of power is usually presented in the context of testing hypotheses about the population mean. We instead propose an exercise that uses a binomial probability table to introduce the idea of power in the context of testing a population proportion. (Contains 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  10. Introducing Group Theory through Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    The central ideas of postcalculus mathematics courses offered in college are difficult to introduce in middle and secondary schools, especially through the engineering and sciences examples traditionally used in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry textbooks. However, certain concepts in music theory can be used to expose students to interesting…

  11. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  12. Five Perspectives for Introducing Hemingway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillinghast, B. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that the works of Ernest Hemingway can introduce young readers to (1) an intense expression of the joy of life, (2) heroic models, (3) original use of language, (4) a sharp sense of time and place, and (5) literature that can be understood at many levels. (MM)

  13. Interfacial separation of a mature biofilm from a glass surface - A combined experimental and cohesive zone modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ashkan; Tukovic, Zeljko; Cardiff, Philip; Walter, Maik; Casey, Eoin; Ivankovic, Alojz

    2016-02-01

    A good understanding of the mechanical stability of biofilms is essential for biofouling management, particularly when mechanical forces are used. Previous biofilm studies lack a damage-based theoretical model to describe the biofilm separation from a surface. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interfacial separation of a mature biofilm from a rigid glass substrate using a combined experimental and numerical modelling approach. In the current work, the biofilm-glass interfacial separation process was investigated under tensile and shear stresses at the macroscale level, known as modes I and II failure mechanisms respectively. The numerical simulations were performed using a Finite Volume (FV)-based simulation package (OpenFOAM®) to predict the separation initiation using the cohesive zone model (CZM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based retraction curve was used to obtain the separation properties between the biofilm and glass colloid at microscale level, where the CZM parameters were estimated using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model. In this study CZM is introduced as a reliable method for the investigation of interfacial separation between a biofilm and rigid substrate, in which a high local stress at the interface edge acts as an ultimate stress at the crack tip.This study demonstrated that the total interfacial failure energy measured at the macroscale, was significantly higher than the pure interfacial separation energy obtained by AFM at the microscale, indicating a highly ductile deformation behaviour within the bulk biofilm matrix. The results of this study can significantly contribute to the understanding of biofilm detachments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of Haemophilus influenzae biofilm measurement via static method, and determinants of in vitro biofilm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Najla A; Tristram, Stephen; Narkowicz, Christian K; Jacobson, Glenn A

    2016-12-01

    Information is lacking regarding the precision of microtitre plate (MTP) assays used to measure biofilm. This study investigated the precision of an MTP assay to measure biofilm production by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and the effects of frozen storage and inoculation technique on biofilm production. The density of bacterial final growth was determined by absorbance after 18-20 h incubation, and biofilm production was then measured by absorbance after crystal violet staining. Biofilm formation was categorised as high and low for each strain. For the high biofilm producing strains of NTHi, interday reproducibility of NTHi biofilm formation measured using the MTP assay was excellent and met the acceptance criteria, but higher variability was observed in low biofilm producers. Method of inoculum preparation was a determinant of biofilm formation with inoculum prepared directly from solid media showing increased biofilm production for at least one of the high producing strains. In general, storage of NTHi cultures at -80 °C for up to 48 weeks did not have any major effect on their ability to produce biofilm.

  15. Biofilm formation and determination of minimum biofilm eradication concentration of antibiotics in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Dereje Damte; Mechesso, Abraham Fikru; Park, Na-Hye; Song, Ju-Beom; Shur, Joo-Woon; Park, Seung-Chun

    2017-10-20

    The study was aimed to investigate biofilm forming ability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations of antibiotics. Biofilm forming ability of six strains of M. hyopneumoniae was examined using crystal violet staining on coverslips. The results demonstrated an apparent line of biofilm growth in 3 of the strains isolated from swine with confirmed cases of enzootic pneumonia. BacLight bacterial viability assay revealed that the majority of the cells were viable after 336 hr of incubation. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae persists in the biofilm after being exposed to 10 fold higher concentration of antibiotics than the minimum inhibitory concentrations in planktonic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of biofilm formation in M. hyopneumoniae. However, comprehensive studies on the mechanisms of biofilm formation are needed to combat swine enzootic pneumonia caused by resistant M. hyopneumoniae.

  16. Comparing the Effectivities of Chitosan Citrate and Chitosan Acetate in Eradicating Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalavanna Witedja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adequate biomechanical preparations, antibacterial irrigants, and intracanal medications to promote the elimination of bacteria and their products are required to succeed root canal treatment. Enterococcus faecalis with its biofilm is known as an important etiological agent in endodontic treatment failures. Chitosan, as a natural product, has an antibacterial activity and is considered less toxic to the periapical tissue than other irrigants. However, the use of this natural product needs to be examined to determine its effectiveness as a root canal irrigant in endodontic treatment; this can be done by comparing it with the most common endodontic irrigant (NaOCl 5.25% as a positive control. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness between 1–3% chitosan acetate (CA and 1–3% chitosan citrate (CC against E. faecalis biofilm formation after treatment for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Methods: The study was conducted using 12 groups, including 1–3% CA, 1–3% CC, and control groups. E. faecalis biofilms in 96-well plates were exposed to each sample for 15, 30, or 60 minutes. Subsequently, the biofilms were stained with crystal violet solution, and the optical density value was measured using a microtiter plate reader at a wavelength of 600nm. Results: CA and CC were effective in eradicating E. faecalis biofilm. However, the levels of effectiveness of CC and CA depended on the concentration and application time. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA showed a significant difference between the irrigants (F = 5.92; p<0.05 and three application times (F = 6.50; p< 0.05. The CA was effective in eradicating biofilm after 15 minutes of application, whereas the CC was more effective after 30 and 60 minutes of application. Conclusion: CC and CA are both effective in eradicating E. faecalis biofilm.

  17. Flow environment and matrix structure interact to determine spatial competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Ricaurte, Deirdre; Yan, Jing; Drescher, Knut; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-01-13

    Bacteria often live in biofilms, which are microbial communities surrounded by a secreted extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic flow and matrix organization interact to shape competitive dynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Irrespective of initial frequency, in competition with matrix mutants, wild-type cells always increase in relative abundance in planar microfluidic devices under simple flow regimes. By contrast, in microenvironments with complex, irregular flow profiles - which are common in natural environments - wild-type matrix-producing and isogenic non-producing strains can coexist. This result stems from local obstruction of flow by wild-type matrix producers, which generates regions of near-zero shear that allow matrix mutants to locally accumulate. Our findings connect the evolutionary stability of matrix production with the hydrodynamics and spatial structure of the surrounding environment, providing a potential explanation for the variation in biofilm matrix secretion observed among bacteria in natural environments.

  18. Photodynamic therapy versus ultrasonic irrigation: interaction with endodontic microbial biofilm, an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Omid H; Chevalier, Marlene; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie; Medioni, Etienne

    2014-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy was introduced as an adjuvant to conventional chemo-mechanical debridement during endodontic treatment to overcome the persistence of biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to disrupt an experimental microbial biofilm inside the root canal in a clinically applicable working time. Thirty extracted teeth were prepared and then divided in three groups. All samples were infected with an artificially formed biofilm made of Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus salivarius, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia bacteria. First group was treated with Aseptim Plus® photo-activated (LED) disinfection system, second group by a 650 nm Diode Laser and Toluidine blue as photosensitizer, and the third group, as control group, by ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) using EDTA 17% and NaOCl 2.6% solutions. The working time for all three groups was fixed at 3 min. Presence or absence of biofilm was assessed by aerobic and anaerobic cultures. There was no statistically significant difference between results obtained from groups treated by Aseptim Plus® and Diode Laser (Pirrigation and NaOCl and EDTA solutions had the best results (Pendodontic artificial microbial biofilm and could not inhibit bacterial growth in a clinically favorable working time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enzymatic removal and disinfection of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Falholt, Per; Gram, Lone

    1997-01-01

    -coated hydroxyapatite. The activity of enzymes against bacterial cells in biofilm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and an indirect conductance test in which evolution of carbon dioxide was measured. Glucose oxidase combined with lactoperoxidase was bactericidal against biofilm bacteria but did not remove...

  20. Biofilm ved kronisk rhinosinuitis og cystisk fibrose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Jacob; Buchwald, Christian von; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are known to cause persistent foreign-body infections and have recently been acknowledged as involved in more than 65% of all human infections. Microbial biofilms have been detected in chronic rhinosinusitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis is mandatory in patients with cystic...

  1. Ciliates as engineers of phototrophic biofilms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, E.J.; van der Geest, H.G.; van der Meulen, M.D; Manders, E.M.M.; van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    1. Phototrophic biofilms consist of a matrix of phototrophs, non-photosynthetic bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which is spatially structured. Despite widespread exploitation of algae and bacteria within phototrophic biofilms, for example by protozoans, the ‘engineering’

  2. Ciliates as engineers of phototrophic biofilms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, E.J.; Geest, H.G.; Meulen, M.D.; Manders, E.M.M.; Van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    1.Phototrophic biofilms consist of a matrix of phototrophs, non-photosynthetic bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which is spatially structured. Despite widespread exploitation of algae and bacteria within phototrophic biofilms, for example by protozoans, the ‘engineering’ effects

  3. A spray based method for biofilm removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cense, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Biofilm growth on human teeth is the cause of oral diseases such as caries (tooth decay), gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and periodontitis (inflammation of the tooth bone). In this thesis, a water based cleaning method is designed for removal of oral biofilms, or dental plaque. The first part

  4. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  5. Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseong Kim

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight.

  6. Biofilm Surface Density Determines Biocide Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High resistance of biofilms for chemical challenges is a serious industrial and medical problem. In this work a gradient of surface covered with biofilm has been produced and correlated to the effectiveness of different commercially available oxidative biocides. The results for thin Escherichia coli biofilms grown in rich media supplemented with glucose or lactose on glass or poly methyl methacrylate surfaces indicate that the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide and quaternary ammonium compounds is inversely proportional to the fraction of the surface covered with the biofilm. In areas where biofilm covered more than 90% of the available surface the biocide treatment was inefficient after 60 min of incubation. The combined effect of oxidant and surfactant increased the effectiveness of the biocide. On the other hand, the increased biofilm viscoelasticity reduced biocide effectiveness. The results emphasize differential biocide effectiveness depending on the fraction of the attached bacterial cells. The results suggest that biofilm biocide resistance is an acquired property that increases with biofilm maturation. The more dense sessile structures present lower log reductions compared to less dense ones.

  7. Visco-elastic properties of biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Brandon Wade

    2013-01-01

    Microbiële biofilms aanpakken door ze te laten resoneren Naar schatting tachtig procent van alle bacteriële infecties die door dokters behandeld worden, wordt veroorzaakt door biofilms, dunne laagjes micro-organismen. Brandon Peterson stelt in preklinisch onderzoek de hypothese op dat de hechting

  8. Biofilms and their modifications by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Asta; Gonpot, Preethee; Smith, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Biofilms are grown on different materials with various surface morphology and are investigated by light and scanning force microscopy. The growth patterns, coverage and adherence of the biofilm are shown to depend on the type of the substrate and its roughness as well as on the type of micro-organisms. Here we present investigations of Eschericia coli bacterial biofilms grown on the polymer material polyetheretherketone and also on titanium films on glass substrates. A Monte Carlo simulation of the growth process is developed which takes into account the aspect ratio of the micro-organisms and the diffusion of nutrient over the surface to feed them. A pulsed nitrogen laser has been applied to the samples and the interaction of the laser beam with the biofilm and the underlying substrate has been studied. Because of the inhomogeneity of the biofilms the ablated areas are different. With increasing number of laser pulses more biofilm material is removed but there appears also damage of the substrate. The threshold energy fluence for the biofilm ablation is estimated and depends on the sticking power of the bacteria. Ablation rates for the removal of the biofilms are also obtained

  9. BIOFILMS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtually anywhere a surface comes into contact with the water in a distribution system, one can find biofilms. Biofilms are formed in distribution system pipelines when microbial cells attach to pipe surfaces and multiply to form a film or slime layer on the pipe. Probably withi...

  10. The Labyrinth of Time Introducing the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Modern physics has revealed the universe as a much stranger place than we could have imagined. The puzzle at the centre of our knowledge of the universe is time. Michael Lockwood takes the reader on a fascinating journey into the nature of things. He investigates philosophical questions about past, present, and future, our experience of time, and the possibility of time travel. And he provides the most careful, lively, and up-to-date introduction to the physics of time and thestructure of the universe. He guides us step by step through relativity theory and quantum physics, introducing and exp

  11. Division of Labor in Biofilms: the Ecology of Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The dense aggregation of cells on a surface, as seen in biofilms, inevitably results in both environmental and cellular heterogeneity. For example, nutrient gradients can trigger cells to differentiate into various phenotypic states. Not only do cells adapt physiologically to the local environmental conditions, but they also differentiate into cell types that interact with each other. This allows for task differentiation and, hence, the division of labor. In this article, we focus on cell differentiation and the division of labor in three bacterial species: Myxococcus xanthus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. During biofilm formation each of these species differentiates into distinct cell types, in some cases leading to cooperative interactions. The division of labor and the cooperative interactions between cell types are assumed to yield an emergent ecological benefit. Yet in most cases the ecological benefits have yet to be elucidated. A notable exception is M. xanthus, in which cell differentiation within fruiting bodies facilitates the dispersal of spores. We argue that the ecological benefits of the division of labor might best be understood when we consider the dynamic nature of both biofilm formation and degradation.

  12. Enzymes in therapy of biofilm-related oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian; Bachanek, Teresa; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2017-05-01

    Biofilm-related infections of the oral cavity, including dental caries and periodontitis, represent the most prevalent health problems. For years, the treatment thereof was largely based on antibacterial chemical agents. Recently, however, there has been growing interest in the application of more preventive and minimally invasive biotechnological methods. This review focuses on the potential applications of enzymes in the treatment and prevention of oral diseases. Dental plaque is a microbial community that develops on the tooth surface, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances of bacterial and host origin. Both cariogenic microorganisms and the key components of oral biofilm matrix may be the targets of the enzymes. Oxidative salivary enzymes inhibit or limit the growth of oral pathogens, thereby supporting the natural host defense system; polysaccharide hydrolases (mutanases and dextranases) degrade important carbohydrate components of the biofilm matrix, whereas proteases disrupt bacterial adhesion to oral surfaces or affect cell-cell interactions. The efficiency of the enzymes in in vitro and in vivo studies, advantages and limitations, as well as future perspectives for improving the enzymatic strategy are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. The immune system vs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ilya Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich were awarded the Nobel price in 1908. Since then, numerous studies have unraveled a multitude of mechanistically different immune responses to intruding microorganisms. However, in the vast majority of these studies, the underlying infectious agents have appeared...... in the planktonic state. Accordingly, much less is known about the immune responses to the presence of biofilm-based infections (which is probably also due to the relatively short period of time in which the immune response to biofilms has been studied). Nevertheless, more recent in vivo and in vitro studies have...... revealed both innate as well as adaptive immune responses to biofilms. On the other hand, measures launched by biofilm bacteria to achieve protection against the various immune responses have also been demonstrated. Whether particular immune responses to biofilm infections exist remains to be firmly...

  14. The ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina; Bengtsson, Mia M; Romani, Anna M; Packmann, Aaron I

    2016-04-01

    Streams and rivers form dense networks, shape the Earth's surface and, in their sediments, provide an immensely large surface area for microbial growth. Biofilms dominate microbial life in streams and rivers, drive crucial ecosystem processes and contribute substantially to global biogeochemical fluxes. In turn, water flow and related deliveries of nutrients and organic matter to biofilms constitute major constraints on microbial life. In this Review, we describe the ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms and highlight the influence of physical and ecological processes on their structure and function. Recent advances in the study of biofilm ecology may pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the effects of climate and environmental change on stream biofilms and the biogeochemistry of stream ecosystems.

  15. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms, often composed of multiple species and genetically distinct strains, develop under complex influences of cell-cell interactions. Although detailed knowledge about the mechanisms underlying formation of single-species laboratory biofilms has emerged, little is known about...... the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n = 56) exhibiting...

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is due to biofilm-growing mucoid (alginate-producing) strains. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria, embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein...... and DNA. In CF lungs, the polysaccharide alginate is the major part of the P. aeruginosa biofilm matrix. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and resist phagocytosis, as well as other components of the innate and the adaptive immune system....... As a consequence, a pronounced antibody response develops, leading to immune complex-mediated chronic inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The chronic inflammation is the major cause of the lung tissue damage in CF. Biofilm growth in CF lungs is associated with an increased frequency...

  17. Propolis-Sahara honeys preparation exhibits antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against bacterial biofims formed on urinary catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Aissat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of Sahara honeys (SHs against bacterial biofilms formed on urinary catheters in combination with propolis-Sahara honeys (P-SHs. Methods: Three clinical isolates were subjected to biofilm detection methods. The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity for SHs and P-SHs were determined using agar well diffusion and the percentage of biofilm inhibition (PBI methods. Results: The PBI for Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus] was in the range of 0%–20%, while PBI for Gram-negative bacteria [Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (E. coli] were in range of 17%–57% and 16%–65%, respectively. The highest PBI (65% was produced by SH2 only on E. coli. In agar well diffusion assay, zones of inhibition ranged from 11–20 mm (S. aureus, 9–19 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 11–19 mm (E. coli. The highest inhibition (20 mm was produced by SH1 only on S. aureus. In addition, the treatment of SHs and P-SHs catheters with a polymicrobial biofilms reduced biofilm formation after 48 h exposure period. Conclussions: SHs and P-SHs applied as a natural agent can be used as a prophylactic agent to prevent the formation of in vitro biofilm.

  18. Biofilms On Orbit and On Earth: Current Methods, Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms have played a significant role on the effectiveness of life support hardware on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). This presentation will discuss how biofilms impact flight hardware, how on orbit biofilms are analyzed from an engineering and research perspective, and future needs to analyze and utilize biofilms for long duration, deep space missions.

  19. In vitro phenotypic differentiation towards commensal and pathogenic oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, M.M.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bikker, F.J.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Crielaard, W.; Krom, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Commensal oral biofilms, defined by the absence of pathology-related phenotypes, are ubiquitously present. In contrast to pathological biofilms commensal biofilms are rarely studied. Here, the effect of the initial inoculum and subsequent growth conditions on in vitro oral biofilms was studied.

  20. Biofilm biodiversity presented by fluorescent in situ hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous microorganisms may be present in the water distribution system. This is associated with the imperfection of purification processes, or secondary water pollution. Not only it results in the deterioration of water quality parameters, but it also increases threat of epidemiological problems. The water that is biologically unstable creates ideal conditions for colonization of the microorganisms to the inner surface of pipelines which may form biofilm. The key issue, enabling prevention and control of the impact of the development of biofilms, is to assess the biodiversity of microbiocenosis. In order to obtain comprehensive characteristics of microorganisms communities on a particular substrate, it is necessary to combine several techniques. Further analysis using molecular biology methods are usually after traditional methods of assessing the microbiological quality of water. Standard methods do not reflect the actual species composition, because they are targeted at the bacteria that can be isolated and cultured in the laboratory. Conventional methods are capable of detecting less than 10% of the organisms in the sample. In order to study the biodiversity of organisms inhabiting a biofilm (apart from the conventional methods analyses of the diversity of nucleic acids should be used. The first method could be the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Another way may be fluorescence in situ hybridization, which allows to detect determined DNA sequence using specially labeled oligonucleotide probes. Visualization of the material is performed using a fluorescence microscope. The main purpose of this article is to present rapid and precise identification groups of microorganisms in their natural habitat in biofilm using fluorescent in situ hybridization method (FISH . FISH method can be successfully used to visualize these microorganisms, which show difficulties in culturing, as well as to provide

  1. Chlorophyll f distribution and dynamics in cyanobacterial beachrock biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Erik; Kühl, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) f, the most far-red (720-740 nm) absorbing Chl species, was discovered in cyanobacterial isolates from stromatolites and subsequently in other habitats as well. However, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of Chl f in a natural habitat have so far not been documented. Here, we report the presence of Chl f in cyanobacterial beachrock biofilms. Hyperspectral imaging on cross-sections of beachrock from Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia), showed a strong and widely distributed signature of Chl f absorption in an endolithic layer below the dense cyanobacterial surface biofilm that could be localized to aggregates of Chroococcidiopsis-like unicellular cyanobacteria packed within a thick common sheath. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based pigment analyses showed in situ ratios of Chl f to Chl a of 5% in brown-pigmented zones of the beachrock, with lower ratios of ~0.5% in the black- and pink-pigmented biofilm zones. Enrichment experiments with black beachrock biofilm showed stimulated synthesis of Chl f and Chl d when grown under near-infrared radiation (NIR; 740 nm), with a Chl f to Chl a ratio increasing 4-fold to 2%, whereas the Chl d to Chl a ratio went from 0% to 0.8%. Enrichments grown under white light (400-700 nm) produced no detectable amounts of either Chl d or Chl f. Beachrock cyanobacteria thus exhibited characteristics of far-red light photoacclimation, enabling Chl f -containing cyanobacteria to thrive in optical niches deprived of visible light when sufficient NIR is prevalent. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Biofilm formation and antibiotic production in Ruegeria mobilis are influenced by intracellular concentrations of cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Magdenoska, Olivera; Melchiorsen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    species Ruegeria mobilis are associated with intracellular concentrations of the signal compound cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate (c-di-GMP), which in bacteria regulates transitions between motile and sessile life stages. Genes for diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are involved in c-di-GMP...... signalling, were found in the genome of R. mobilis strain F1926. Ion pair chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed 20-fold higher c-di-GMP concentrations per cell in biofilm-containing cultures than in planktonic cells. An introduced diguanylate cyclase gene increased c-di-GMP and enhanced biofilm...... formation and production of the potent antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA). An introduced phosphodiesterase gene decreased c-di-GMP and reduced biofilm formation and TDA production. tdaC, a key gene for TDA biosynthesis, was expressed only in attached or biofilm-forming cells, and expression was induced...

  3. CRP-Mediated Carbon Catabolite Regulation of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation Is Enhanced by the Carbon Storage Regulator Protein, CsrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P Willias

    Full Text Available The natural transmission of Yersinia pestis is reliant upon biofilm blockage of the flea vector. However, the environmentally-responsive adaptive regulators which facilitate Y. pestis biofilm production in accordance with the flea midgut milieu are not well understood. We seek to establish the impact of available carbon source metabolism and storage upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Our findings demonstrate that Y. pestis biofilm production is subject to carbon catabolite regulation in which the presence of glucose impairs biofilm production; whereas, the sole metabolism of alternate carbon sources promotes robust biofilm formation. This observation is facilitated by the cAMP receptor protein, CRP. In accordance with a stark growth defect, deletion of crp in both CO92 and KIM6+ Y. pestis strains significantly impaired biofilm production when solely utilizing alternate carbon sources. Media supplementation with cAMP, a small-molecule activator of CRP, did not significantly alter Y. pestis biofilm production. Furthermore, CRP did not alter mRNA abundance of previously-characterized hms biofilm synthesis and regulation factors. Therefore, our findings indicate CRP does not confer a direct stimulatory effect, but may indirectly promote Y. pestis biofilm production by facilitating the alternate carbon source expression profile. Additionally, we assessed the impact of the carbon storage regulator protein, CsrA, upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Contrary to what has been described for E. coli, Y. pestis biofilm formation was found to be enhanced by CsrA. Regardless of media composition and available carbon source, deletion of csrA significantly impaired Y. pestis biofilm production. CsrA was found to promote Y. pestis biofilm production independent of glycogen regulation. Loss of csrA did not significantly alter relative hmsH, hmsP, or hmsT mRNA abundance. However, deletion of hmsP in the csrA-deficient mutant enabled excessive biofilm production

  4. Efficacy of NVC-422 against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in a sheep biofilm model of sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Deepti; Jekle, Andreas; Debabov, Dmitri; Wang, Lu; Khosrovi, Bez; Anderson, Mark; Foreman, Andrew; Wormald, Peter-John

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are a major obstacle in management of recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis. NVC-422 is a potent, fast-acting, broad-spectrum, nonantibiotic, antimicrobial with a new mechanism of action effective against biofilm bacteria in in vitro conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of NVC-422 as local antibiofilm treatment in a sheep model of rhinosinusitis. After accessing and occluding frontal sinus ostia in 24 merino sheep via staged endoscopic procedures, S. aureus clinical isolate was instilled in frontal sinuses. Following biofilm formation, ostial obstruction was removed and sinuses irrigated with 0.1% and 0.5% NVC-422 in 5 mM acetate isotonic saline at pH 4.0. Sheep were monitored for adverse effects and euthanized 24 hours after treatment. Frontal sinuses were assessed for infection and changes in mucosa after the treatment. S. aureus biofilms were identified with Baclight-confocal scanning microscopy protocol and the biofilm biomass assayed by applying the COMSTAT2 program to recorded image stacks. After 2 irrigations with 0.1% NVC-422, S. aureus biofilm biomass was reduced when compared to control sinuses (p = 0.0001), though this effect was variable in samples. NVC-422 0.5% solution irrigations reduced biofilm even more significantly and consistently over all samples (p biofilm biomass (p biofilms, with dose-dependent efficacy in this animal model of biofilm-associated sinusitis. Copyright © 2012 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  5. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: towards the development of novel anti-biofilm therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick K; Yeung, Amy T Y; Hancock, Robert E W

    2014-12-10

    The growth of bacteria as structured aggregates termed biofilms leads to their protection from harsh environmental conditions such as physical and chemical stresses, shearing forces, and limited nutrient availability. Because of this highly adapted ability to survive adverse environmental conditions, bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapies and immune clearance. This is particularly problematic in hospital settings where biofilms are a frequent cause of chronic and device-related infections and constitute a significant burden on the health-care system. The major therapeutic strategy against infections is the use of antibiotics, which, due to adaptive resistance, are often insufficient to clear biofilm infections. Thus, novel biofilm-specific therapies are required. Specific features of biofilm development, such as surface adherence, extracellular matrix formation, quorum sensing, and highly regulated biofilm maturation and dispersal are currently being studied as targets to be exploited in the development of novel biofilm-specific treatments. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa for illustrative purposes, this review highlights the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of biofilms, and discusses current research into novel biofilm-specific therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal concentrations in stream biofilm and sediments and their potential to explain biofilm microbial community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancion, Pierre-Yves; Lear, Gavin; Dopheide, Andrew; Lewis, Gillian D.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of metals associated with sediments have traditionally been analysed to assess the extent of heavy metal contamination in freshwater environments. Stream biofilms present an alternative medium for this assessment which may be more relevant to the risk incurred by stream ecosystems as they are intensively grazed by aquatic organisms at a higher trophic level. Therefore, we investigated zinc, copper and lead concentrations in biofilms and sediments of 23 stream sites variously impacted by urbanisation. Simultaneously, biofilm bacterial and ciliate protozoan community structure was analysed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that biofilm associated metals explained a greater proportion of the variations observed in bacterial and ciliate communities than did sediment associated-metals. This study suggests that the analysis of metal concentrations in biofilms provide a good assessment of detrimental effects of metal contaminants on aquatic biota. - Highlights: ► Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations in biofilm and sediments from 23 streams were assessed. ► Bacteria and ciliate protozoa were simultaneously used as biological indicators. ► Zn and Cu were generally enriched in biofilm compared to sediments. ► Metals in biofilm provide a useful assessment of freshwater ecosystem contamination. ► Results highlight the likely ecological importance of biofilm associated metals. - Metal concentrations in stream biofilms provide a good assessment of the effects of trace metal contaminants on freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Biofilm development in fixed bed biofilm reactors: experiments and simple models for engineering design purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, N; Kovács, R; Kenyeres, I; Csikor, Zs

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm development in a fixed bed biofilm reactor system performing municipal wastewater treatment was monitored aiming at accumulating colonization and maximum biofilm mass data usable in engineering practice for process design purposes. Initially a 6 month experimental period was selected for investigations where the biofilm formation and the performance of the reactors were monitored. The results were analyzed by two methods: for simple, steady-state process design purposes the maximum biofilm mass on carriers versus influent load and a time constant of the biofilm growth were determined, whereas for design approaches using dynamic models a simple biofilm mass prediction model including attachment and detachment mechanisms was selected and fitted to the experimental data. According to a detailed statistical analysis, the collected data have not allowed us to determine both the time constant of biofilm growth and the maximum biofilm mass on carriers at the same time. The observed maximum biofilm mass could be determined with a reasonable error and ranged between 438 gTS/m(2) carrier surface and 843 gTS/m(2), depending on influent load, and hydrodynamic conditions. The parallel analysis of the attachment-detachment model showed that the experimental data set allowed us to determine the attachment rate coefficient which was in the range of 0.05-0.4 m d(-1) depending on influent load and hydrodynamic conditions.

  8. Short and long term biosorption of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in heterotrophic biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrling, Maria P. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lackner, Susanne [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Urban Bioengineering for Resource Recovery, Bauhaus-Institute for Infrastructure Solutions, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Coudraystraße 7, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Tatti, Oleg [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Guthausen, Gisela [Pro" 2NMR, Institute for Biological Interfaces 4 and Institute for Mechanical Process Engineering and Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Adenauerring 20b, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delay, Markus [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Franzreb, Matthias [Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Horn, Harald, E-mail: harald.horn@kit.edu [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); DVGW Research Laboratories for Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The increased application of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in industrial processes and consumer products has raised concerns about their impact on health and environmental safety. When ENP enter the global water cycle by e.g. wastewater streams, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent potential sinks for ENP. During biological WWT, the attachment of ENP to biofilms is responsible for the desired removal of ENP from the water phase avoiding their release into the aquatic environment. However, the fundamental mechanisms guiding the interactions between ENP and biofilms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study investigates the behavior and biosorption of inorganic ENP, here magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with silica (scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP), with heterotrophic biofilms at different time scales. Their magnetic properties enable to follow scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP in the biofilm system by a magnetic susceptibility balance and magnetic resonance imaging. Biofilms were exposed to scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP at short contact times (5 min) in flow cells and complementary, scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP were introduced into a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) to be observed for 27 d. Mass balances revealed that scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP sorbed to the biofilm within a few minutes, but that the total biosorption was rather low (3.2 μg Fe/mg TSS). scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP mainly sorbed to the biofilm surface inducing the detachment of outer biofilm parts starting after an exposure time of 3 h in the MBBR. The biosorption depended on the exposure concentration of scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP, but less on the contact time. Most scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP exited the flow cell (up to 65%) and the MBBR (57%) via the effluent. This effect was favored by the stabilization of scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP in the bulk liquid by organic matter leading to a low retention capacity of the MBBR system. The results contribute to improve our understanding about the fate of ENP in environmental and in

  9. Inactivation of Efflux Pumps Abolishes Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Malin; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms cause numerous problems in health care and industry; notably, biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Bacteria rely on efflux pumps...... to get rid of toxic substances. We discovered that efflux pumps are highly active in bacterial biofilms, thus making efflux pumps attractive targets for antibiofilm measures. A number of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are known. EPIs were shown to reduce biofilm formation, and in combination they could...... abolish biofilm formation completely. Also, EPIs were able to block the antibiotic tolerance of biofilms. The results of this feasibility study might pave the way for new treatments for biofilm-related infections and may be exploited for prevention of biofilms in general....

  10. Introducing ZBrush 3rd Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Learn ZBrush inside and out with this updated new edition Get totally comfortable sculpting in a digital environment with the latest edition of this bestselling beginner's guide to ZBrush. Fully updated for the newest version of the software, ZBrush 4R3, this book dispels any fears you might have about the difficulty of using ZBrush and soon has you creating realistic, cartoon, and organic models with flair. Learn all the essentials, as you complete fun tutorials on painting, meshes, organic scripting, hard surface sculpting, lighting, rendering, and more. Introduces you to ZBrush, the sculpt

  11. Introducing time a graphic guide

    CERN Document Server

    Callender, Craig

    2010-01-01

    What is time? The 5th-century philosopher St Augustine famously said that he knew what time was, so long as no one asked him. Is time a fourth dimension similar to space or does it flow in some sense? And if it flows, does it make sense to say how fast? Does the future exist? Is time travel possible? Why does time seem to pass in only one direction?These questions and others are among the deepest and most subtle that one can ask, but "Introducing Time" presents them - many for the first time - in an easily accessible, lucid and engaging manner, wittily illustrated by Ralph Edney.

  12. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  13. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  14. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  15. A high-throughput microfluidic dental plaque biofilm system to visualize and quantify the effect of antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, William C.; Dowd, Scot E.; Samarian, Derek; Chludzinski, Jeffrey; Delli, Joseph; Battista, John; Rickard, Alexander H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Few model systems are amenable to developing multi-species biofilms in parallel under environmentally germane conditions. This is a problem when evaluating the potential real-world effectiveness of antimicrobials in the laboratory. One such antimicrobial is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which is used in numerous over-the-counter oral healthcare products. The aim of this work was to develop a high-throughput microfluidic system that is combined with a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of CPC against oral multi-species biofilms grown in human saliva. Methods Twenty-four-channel BioFlux microfluidic plates were inoculated with pooled human saliva and fed filter-sterilized saliva for 20 h at 37°C. The bacterial diversity of the biofilms was evaluated by bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). The antimicrobial/anti-biofilm effect of CPC (0.5%–0.001% w/v) was examined using Live/Dead stain, CLSM and 3D imaging software. Results The analysis of biofilms by bTEFAP demonstrated that they contained genera typically found in human dental plaque. These included Aggregatibacter, Fusobacterium, Neisseria, Porphyromonas, Streptococcus and Veillonella. Using Live/Dead stain, clear gradations in killing were observed when the biofilms were treated with CPC between 0.5% and 0.001% w/v. At 0.5% (w/v) CPC, 90% of the total signal was from dead/damaged cells. Below this concentration range, less killing was observed. In the 0.5%–0.05% (w/v) range CPC penetration/killing was greatest and biofilm thickness was significantly reduced. Conclusions This work demonstrates the utility of a high-throughput microfluidic–CLSM system to grow multi-species oral biofilms, which are compositionally similar to naturally occurring biofilms, to assess the effectiveness of antimicrobials. PMID:23800904

  16. Myroides odoratimimus Forms Structurally Complex and Inherently Antibiotic-Resistant Biofilm in a Wound-Like in vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Pompilio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Myroides odoratimimus is an aerobic, non-fermenting Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacterium widely distributed in nature that rarely causes infections in immunocompromised patients. We recently described in a diabetic patient a case of recurrent calcaneal ulcer infection caused by a M. odoratimimus strain showing potential for biofilm formation. For the first time, we therefore evaluated the ability of M. odoratimimus to form biofilm under different pH values and glucose concentrations using an in vitro “skin-like” model, and its susceptibility to levofloxacin, meropenem, and tigecycline. The expression of some antibiotic-resistance related genes was also monitored by RT-PCR during planktonic-to-biofilm transition. Our results indicated that M. odoratimimus can produce relevant amounts of biofilm biomass, in a time-dependent manner, especially at acidic pH and regardless of glucose concentration tested. The comparative analysis of MIC and MBC values between planktonic and sessile cells showed that resistance to antibiotics increased during the planktonic-to-biofilm transition. Viable cell count indicated that none of the tested antibiotics were able to completely eradicate preformed biofilms, although meropenem and levofloxacin were the most active causing a significant, dose-independent, reduction of biofilm's viability, as also confirmed by microscopic analysis. RT-PCR showed that antibiotic-resistance related gyrA and acrB genes are over-expressed during the transition from planktonic to sessile (biofilm lifestyle. Overall, our findings showed that M. odoratimimus can form relevant amounts of inherently antibiotic-resistant biofilm under conditions relevant to wound site, therefore suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of chronic ulcer infections.

  17. Mercury methylation rates of biofilm and plankton microorganisms from a hydroelectric reservoir in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, L; Castelle, S; Schäfer, J; Blanc, G; Maury-Brachet, R; Reynouard, C; Jorand, F

    2010-02-15

    The Petit-Saut ecosystem is a hydroelectric reservoir covering 365km(2) of flooded tropical forest. This reservoir and the Sinnamary Estuary downstream of the dam are subject to significant mercury methylation. The mercury methylation potential of plankton and biofilm microorganisms/components from different depths in the anoxic reservoir water column and from two different sites along the estuary was assessed. For this, reservoir water and samples of epiphytic biofilms from the trunk of a submerged tree in the anoxic water column and from submerged branches in the estuary were batch-incubated from 1h to 3 months with a nominal 1000ng/L spike of Hg(II) chloride enriched in (199)Hg. Methylation rates were determined for different reservoir and estuarine communities under natural nutrient (reservoir water, estuary freshwater) and artificial nutrient (culture medium) conditions. Methylation rates in reservoir water incubations were the highest with plankton microorganisms sampled at -9.5m depth (0.5%/d) without addition of biofilm components. Mercury methylation rates of incubated biofilm components were strongly enhanced by nutrient addition. The results suggested that plankton microorganisms strongly contribute to the total Hg methylation in the Petit-Saut reservoir and in the Sinnamary Estuary. Moreover, specific methylation efficiencies (%Me(199)Hg(net)/cell) suggested that plankton microorganisms could be more efficient methylating actors than biofilm consortia and that their methylation efficiency may be reduced in the presence of biofilm components. Extrapolation to the reservoir scale of the experimentally determined preliminary methylation efficiencies suggested that plankton microorganisms in the anoxic water column could produce up to 27mol MeHg/year. Taking into account that (i) demethylation probably occurs in the reservoir and (ii) that the presence of biofilm components may limit the methylation efficiency of plankton microorganisms, this result is

  18. Genetic diversity and distribution of periphytic Synechococcus spp. in biofilms and picoplankton of Lake Constance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.; Singh, A.K.; Postius, C.; Böger, P.; Ernst, A.

    2004-01-01

    In various water depths of the littoral zone of Lake Constance (Bodensee) cyanobacteria of the Synechococcus-type were isolated from biofilms (periphyton) on three natural substrates and an artificial one (unglazed tiles). From one tile three strains of phycoerythrin (PE)-rich Synechococcus spp.

  19. Fractal analysis of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, A. L. D.; Lorite, G. S.; Rodrigues, C. M.; Souza, A. A.; Cotta, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the growth process of Xylella fastidiosa biofilms inoculated on a glass. The size and the distance between biofilms were analyzed by optical images; a fractal analysis was carried out using scaling concepts and atomic force microscopy images. We observed that different biofilms show similar fractal characteristics, although morphological variations can be identified for different biofilm stages. Two types of structural patterns are suggested from the observed fractal dimensions Df. In the initial and final stages of biofilm formation, Df is 2.73±0.06 and 2.68±0.06, respectively, while in the maturation stage, Df=2.57±0.08. These values suggest that the biofilm growth can be understood as an Eden model in the former case, while diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) seems to dominate the maturation stage. Changes in the correlation length parallel to the surface were also observed; these results were correlated with the biofilm matrix formation, which can hinder nutrient diffusion and thus create conditions to drive DLA growth.

  20. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzil, Abid H; Sultana, Sujala T; Saunders, Steven R; Shi, Liang; Marsili, Enrico; Beyenal, Haluk

    2016-12-01

    The biological synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) by bacteria and biofilms via extracellular redox reactions has received attention because of the minimization of harmful chemicals, low cost, and ease of culturing and downstream processing. Bioreduction mechanisms vary across bacteria and growth conditions, which leads to various sizes and shapes of biosynthesized NPs. NP synthesis in biofilms offers additional advantages, such as higher biomass concentrations and larger surface areas, which can lead to more efficient and scalable biosynthesis. Although biofilms have been used to produce NPs, the mechanistic details of NP formation are not well understood. In this review, we identify three critical areas of research and development needed to advance our understanding of NP production by biofilms: 1) synthesis, 2) mechanism and 3) stabilization. Advancement in these areas could result in the biosynthesis of NPs that are suitable for practical applications, especially in drug delivery and biocatalysis. Specifically, the current status of methods and mechanisms of nanoparticle synthesis and surface stabilization using planktonic bacteria and biofilms is discussed. We conclude that the use of biofilms to synthesize and stabilize NPs is underappreciated and could provide a new direction in biofilm-based NP production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Microbial Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Elizabeth; Gose, James; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2017-11-01

    The physical properties of microbial biofilms grown subject to shear flows determine the form and mechanical characteristics of the biofilm structure, and consequently, the turbulent interactions over and through the biofilm. These biofilms - sometimes referred to as slime - are comprised of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrices that surround the multicellular communities. Some of the EPSs take the form of streamers that tend to oscillate in flows, causing increased turbulent mixing and drag. As the presence of EPS governs the compliance and overall stability of the filamentous streamers, investigation of the mechanical properties of biofilms may also inform efforts to understand hydrodynamic performance of fouled systems. In this study, a mixture of four diatom genera was grown under turbulent shear flow on test panels. The mechanical properties and hydrodynamic performance of the biofilm were investigated using rheology and turbulent flow studies in the Skin-Friction Flow Facility at the University of Michigan. The diatoms in the mixture of algae were identified, and the elastic and viscous moduli were determined from small-amplitude oscillations, while a creep test was used to evaluate the biofilm compliance.

  2. Biofilms in Infections of the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. M. Bispo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to form biofilms in a variety of environments is a common trait of bacteria, and may represent one of the earliest defenses against predation. Biofilms are multicellular communities usually held together by a polymeric matrix, ranging from capsular material to cell lysate. In a structure that imposes diffusion limits, environmental microgradients arise to which individual bacteria adapt their physiologies, resulting in the gamut of physiological diversity. Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell–cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing. Biofilms form on abiotic or biotic surfaces, and because of that are associated with a large proportion of human infections. Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants. In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma. As the evidence for the involvement of microbial biofilms in many ocular infections has become compelling, developing new strategies to prevent their formation or to eradicate them at the site of infection, has become a priority.

  3. Treatment of Oral Multispecies Biofilms by an Anti-Biofilm Peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejun Wang

    Full Text Available Human oral biofilms are multispecies microbial communities that exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Dental plaque gives rise to highly prevalent and costly biofilm-related oral infections, which lead to caries or other types of oral infections. We investigated the ability of the recently identified anti-biofilm peptide 1018 to induce killing of bacterial cells present within oral multispecies biofilms. At 10 μg/ml (6.5 μM, peptide 1018 was able to significantly (p50% of the biofilm being killed and >35% being dispersed in only 3 minutes. Peptide 1018 may potentially be used by itself or in combination with CHX as a non-toxic and effective anti-biofilm agent for plaque disinfection in clinical dentistry.

  4. A Rhizobium leguminosarum CHDL- (Cadherin-Like-) Lectin Participates in Assembly and Remodeling of the Biofilm Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozza, Nicolás F.; Abdian, Patricia L; Russo, Daniela M

    2016-01-01

    In natural environments most bacteria live in multicellular structures called biofilms. These cell aggregates are enclosed in a self-produced polymeric extracellular matrix, which protects the cells, provides mechanical stability and mediates cellular cohesion and adhesion to surfaces. Although...... important advances were made in the identification of the genetic and extracellular factors required for biofilm formation, the mechanisms leading to biofilm matrix assembly, and the roles of extracellular proteins in these processes are still poorly understood. The symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum requires...... the synthesis of the acidic exopolysaccharide and the PrsDE secretion system to develop a mature biofilm. PrsDE is responsible for the secretion of the Rap family of proteins that share one or two Ra/CHDL (cadherin-like-) domains. RapA2 is a calcium-dependent lectin with a cadherin-like β sheet structure...

  5. High-resolution visualization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms by freeze-substitution transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ryan C; Beveridge, Terry J

    2005-11-01

    High-pressure freeze-substitution and transmission electron microscopy have been used for high-resolution imaging of the natural structure of a gram-negative biofilm. Unlike more conventional embedding techniques, this method confirms many of the observations seen by confocal microscopy but with finer structural detail. It further reveals that there is a structural complexity to biofilms at both the cellular and extracellular matrix levels that has not been seen before. Different domains of healthy and lysed cells exist randomly dispersed within a single biofilm as well as different structural organizations of exopolymers. Particulate matter is suspended within this network of fibers and appears to be an integral part of the exopolymeric substance (EPS). O-side chains extending from the outer membrane are integrated into EPS polymers so as to form a continuum. Together, the results support the concept of physical microenvironments within biofilms and show a complexity that was hitherto unknown.

  6. Biofilm formation in a hydrodynamic environment by novel FimH variants and ramifications for virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    to mannose inhibition and represent novel phenotypes not previously identified in naturally occurring isolates. Characterization of our enriched clones revealed some similarities to amino acid alterations that occur in urinary tract infection (UTI) strains. Subsequent screening of a selection of UTI Fim...... in adherence and invasion, we have now demonstrated its function in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces subjected to HDF conditions. The study indicates that UTI FimH variants possess adaptations that enhance biofilm formation and suggests a novel role for FimH in UTIs associated with medical implants...

  7. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Cavalheiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  8. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  9. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  10. Biofilm extracellular DNA enhances mixed species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, Mohan; Liang, Rong; Hicks, John; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Versalovic, James

    2013-11-14

    Polymicrobial infections are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in adults and children. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans are the most frequent combination of organisms isolated from polymicrobial infections. Vascular indwelling catheters are sites for mixed species biofilm formation and pose a significant risk for polymicrobial infections. We hypothesized that enhancement of biofilms in a mixed species environment increases patient mortality and morbidity. Mixed species biofilms of S. epidermidis and C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in a subcutaneous catheter infection model in vivo. Mixed species biofilms were enhanced compared to single species biofilms of either S. epidermidis or C. albicans. A mixed species environment increased catheter infection and increased dissemination of S. epidermidis in mice. Microarrays were used to explore differential gene expression of S. epidermidis in the mixed species biofilms. In mixed species biofilms, compared to single species S. epidermidis biofilms, 2.7% of S. epidermidis genes were upregulated and 6% were down regulated. Staphylococcal autolysis repressors lrgA and lrgB were down regulated 36-fold and 27-fold respectively. The role of biofilm extracellular DNA was investigated by quantitation and by evaluating the effects of DNAse in a concentration and time dependent manner. S. epidermidis specific eDNA was increased in mixed species biofilms and further confirmed by degradation with DNAse. Mixed-species biofilms are enhanced and associated with increased S. epidermidis-specific eDNA in vitro and greater systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis in vivo. Down regulation of the lrg operon, a repressor of autolysis, associated with increased eDNA suggests a possible role for bacterial autolysis in mixed species biofilms. Enhancement and systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis may explain adverse outcomes after clinical polymicrobial infections of S. epidermidis and C. albicans.

  11. A novel approach for harnessing biofilm communities in moving bed biofilm reactors for industrial wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Joe A. Lemire; Marc A. Demeter; Iain George; Howard Ceri; Raymond J. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) are an effective biotechnology for treating industrial wastewater. Biomass retention on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers (biofilm support materials), allows for the ease-of-operation and high treatment capacity of MBBR systems. Optimization of MBBR systems has largely focused on aspects of carrier design, while little attention has been paid to enhancing strategies for harnessing microbial biomass. Previously, our research group demonstrated that ...

  12. The Calgary Biofilm Device: New Technology for Rapid Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Bacterial Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Ceri, H.; Olson, M. E.; Stremick, C.; Read, R. R.; Morck, D.; Buret, A.

    1999-01-01

    Determination of the MIC, based on the activities of antibiotics against planktonic bacteria, is the standard assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Adherent bacterial populations (biofilms) present with an innate lack of antibiotic susceptibility not seen in the same bacteria grown as planktonic populations. The Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) is described as a new technology for the rapid and reproducible assay of biofilm susceptibilities to antibiotics. The CBD produces 96 equivalent bi...

  13. Biofilm extracellular DNA enhances mixed species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Polymicrobial infections are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in adults and children. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans are the most frequent combination of organisms isolated from polymicrobial infections. Vascular indwelling catheters are sites for mixed species biofilm formation and pose a significant risk for polymicrobial infections. We hypothesized that enhancement of biofilms in a mixed species environment increases patient mortality and morbidity. Results Mixed species biofilms of S. epidermidis and C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in a subcutaneous catheter infection model in vivo. Mixed species biofilms were enhanced compared to single species biofilms of either S. epidermidis or C. albicans. A mixed species environment increased catheter infection and increased dissemination of S. epidermidis in mice. Microarrays were used to explore differential gene expression of S. epidermidis in the mixed species biofilms. In mixed species biofilms, compared to single species S. epidermidis biofilms, 2.7% of S. epidermidis genes were upregulated and 6% were down regulated. Staphylococcal autolysis repressors lrgA and lrgB were down regulated 36-fold and 27-fold respectively. The role of biofilm extracellular DNA was investigated by quantitation and by evaluating the effects of DNAse in a concentration and time dependent manner. S. epidermidis specific eDNA was increased in mixed species biofilms and further confirmed by degradation with DNAse. Conclusions Mixed-species biofilms are enhanced and associated with increased S. epidermidis-specific eDNA in vitro and greater systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis in vivo. Down regulation of the lrg operon, a repressor of autolysis, associated with increased eDNA suggests a possible role for bacterial autolysis in mixed species biofilms. Enhancement and systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis may explain adverse outcomes after clinical polymicrobial infections of S

  14. Natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  15. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  16. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  17. Quorum sensing inhibitors disable bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    It is now evident that bacteria assume the biofilm mode of growth during chronic infections. The important hallmarks of biofilm infections are development of local inflammations, extreme tolerance to the action of conventional antimicrobial agents and an almost infinite capacity to evade the host...... defence systems in particular innate immunity. In the biofilm mode, bacteria use cell to cell communication termed quorum-sensing (QS) to coordinate expression of virulence, tolerance towards a number of antimicrobial agents and shielding against the host defence system. Chemical biology approaches may...

  18. Inverse modeling approach for evaluation of kinetic parameters of a biofilm reactor using tabu search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Shiva; Venkateswarlu, Ch

    2014-08-01

    The complex nature of biological reactions in biofilm reactors often poses difficulties in analyzing such reactors experimentally. Mathematical models could be very useful for their design and analysis. However, application of biofilm reactor models to practical problems proves somewhat ineffective due to the lack of knowledge of accurate kinetic models and uncertainty in model parameters. In this work, we prop