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Sample records for biofeedback functional electrical

  1. Efficacy of functional electrical stimulation-biofeedback with sexual cognitive-behavioral therapy as treatment of vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ju Tae; Choe, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Sik; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2005-07-01

    To report 12 cases of vaginismus that were successfully treated with functional electrical stimulation (FES)-biofeedback with sexual cognitive-behavioral therapy (SCBT) to determine the efficacy of FES-biofeedback with SCBT as a standard therapy for vaginismus. Vaginismus is an involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer third of the vagina that leads to impossible vaginal penetration, causing personal distress. Various therapeutic approaches, both physiologic and psychological, have been considered. Twelve women with vaginismus referred from a checkup outpatient clinic participated in this study. The patients enrolled in this study had vaginismus according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The patients were assessed before and after treatment with gynecologic examinations and structured interviews pertaining to sexual function and psychological adjustment. After the diagnosis of vaginismus, we conducted weekly pelvic floor muscle relaxation using FES-biofeedback. Once the patients became tolerable to vaginal manipulation, the eight-stage SCBT (eight-stage gradual desensitization described by Kaplan using vaginal self-dilation with fingers and vaginal probe insertion) was added for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment, all 12 couples had completed the program, had become tolerable to vaginal insertion of larger size probes, and could achieve satisfactory vaginal intercourse. FES-biofeedback with SCBT is an effective aid for patients with vaginismus to learn muscle control. Therefore, it may increase the success rate of treatment of vaginismus.

  2. Effect of neurofeedback and electromyographic-biofeedback therapy on improving hand function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayegani, S M; Raeissadat, S A; Sedighipour, L; Rezazadeh, I Mohammad; Bahrami, M H; Eliaspour, D; Khosrawi, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of applying electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback (neurobiofeedback) or electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback to conventional occupational therapy (OT) on improving hand function in stroke patients. This study was designed as a preliminary clinical trial. Thirty patients with stroke were entered the study. Hand function was evaluated by Jebsen Hand Function Test pre and post intervention. Patients were allocated to 3 intervention cohorts: (1) OT, (2) OT plus EMG-biofeedback therapy, and (3) OT plus neurofeedback therapy. All patients received 10 sessions of conventional OT. Patients in cohorts 2 and 3 also received EMG-biofeedback and neurofeedback therapy, respectively. EMG-biofeedback therapy was performed to strengthen the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle. Neurofeedback training was aimed at enhancing sensorimotor rhythm after mental motor imagery. Hand function was improved significantly in the 3 groups. The spectral power density of the sensorimotor rhythm band in the neurofeedback group increased after mental motor imagery. Maximum and mean contraction values of electrical activities of the APB muscle during voluntary contraction increased significantly after EMG-biofeedback training. Patients in the neurofeedback and EMG-biofeedback groups showed hand improvement similar to conventional OT. Further studies are suggested to assign the best protocol for neurofeedback and EMG-biofeedback therapy.

  3. Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo

    Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism Eduardo Enrique, Castrillon Watanabe, DDS, MSc, PhD Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... Summary: Bruxism is a parafunctional activity, which involves the masticatory muscles and probably it is as old as human mankind. Different methods such as portable EMG devices have been proposed to diagnose and understand the pathophysiology of bruxism. Biofeedback / contingent electrical stimulation...... characteristics make it complicated to assess bruxism using portable EMG devices. The possibility to assess bruxism like EMG activity on a portable device made it possible to use biofeedback and CES approaches in order to treat / manage bruxism. The available scientific information about CES effects on bruxism...

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback on Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Xiang; Lin, Xiao-Juan; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Zhi-Kai; Lin, Zhao-Min; Chen, Jian-Hao

    2017-09-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-biofeedback) therapy in improving swallowing function of Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia.A series of 103 Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia were divided into 2 groups, among which the control group (n = 50) received swallowing function training and the treatment group (n = 53) received neuromuscular electrical stimulation plus EMG-biofeedback therapy. The mini-mental state scale score was performed in all patients along the treatment period. Twelve weeks after the treatment, the swallowing function was assessed by the water swallow test. The nutritional status was evaluated by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) as well as the levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin. The frequency and course of aspiration pneumonia were also recorded.No significant difference on mini-mental state scale score was noted between 2 groups. More improvement of swallowing function, better nutritional status, and less frequency and shorter course of aspiration pneumonia were presented in treatment group when compared with the control group.Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and EMG-biofeedback treatment can improve swallowing function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and significantly reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes. Thus, they should be promoted in clinical practice.

  5. Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

  6. Functional chest pain responds to biofeedback treatment but functional heartburn does not: what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael; Shanani, Ram; Taback, Hanna; Abramowich, Dov; Scapa, Eitan; Broide, Efrat

    2012-06-01

    Patients with functional esophageal disorders represent a challenging treatment group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of biofeedback in the treatment of patients with functional esophageal disorders. In this prospective study, patients with typical/atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent upper endoscopy and 24-h pH monitoring. All patients filled out gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom, Hospital Anxiety and Depression, and Symptom Stress Rating questionnaires. Patients with functional heartburn and those with functional chest pain were offered biofeedback treatment. A global assessment questionnaire was filled out at the end of treatment and then 2.8 (range 1-4) years later. From January 2006 to December 2009, 22 patients with functional esophageal diseases were included in the study. Thirteen had functional heartburn and nine had functional chest pain. Six patients from each group received biofeedback treatment. After treatment for 1-4 years, patients with functional chest pain showed significant improvements in symptoms compared with those who were not treated. Patients with functional heartburn showed no improvement. Patients with functional chest pain had a longer time of esophageal acid exposure than those with functional heartburn. Patients with functional chest pain have different central and intraesophageal factors associated with symptom generation in comparison with patients with functional heartburn. Biofeedback is a useful tool in the treatment of patients with functional chest pain, but not for those with functional heartburn.

  7. Breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback may benefit patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelland, Ina E; Svebak, Sven; Berstad, Arnold; Flatabø, Geir; Hausken, Trygve

    2007-09-01

    Many patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) have postprandial symptoms, impaired gastric accommodation and low vagal tone. The aim of this study was to improve vagal tone, and thereby also drinking capacity, intragastric volume and quality of life, using breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback. Forty FD patients were randomized to either a biofeedback group or a control group. The patients received similar information and care. Patients in the biofeedback group were trained in breathing exercises, 6 breaths/min, 5 min each day for 4 weeks, using specially designed software for vagal biofeedback. Effect variables included maximal drinking capacity using a drink test (Toro clear meat soup 100 ml/min), intragastric volume at maximal drinking capacity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance (SC) and dyspepsia-related quality of life scores. Drinking capacity and quality of life improved significantly more in the biofeedback group than in the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01) without any significant change in baseline autonomic activity (RSA and SC) or intragastric volume. After the treatment period, RSA during breathing exercises was significantly correlated to drinking capacity (r=0.6, p=0.008). Breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback increased drinking capacity and improved quality of life in FD patients, but did not improve baseline vagal tone.

  8. Review article: dyssynergic defaecation and biofeedback therapy in the pathophysiology and management of functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardoon, G R; Khera, A J; Emmanuel, A V; Burgell, R E

    2017-08-01

    Functional constipation is a common clinical presentation in primary care. Functional defaecation disorders are defined as the paradoxical contraction or inadequate relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles during attempted defaecation (dyssynergic defaecation) and/or inadequate propulsive forces during attempted defaecation. Prompt diagnosis and management of dyssynergic defaecation is hindered by uncertainty regarding nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and efficacy of management options such as biofeedback therapy. To review the evidence pertaining to the pathophysiology of functional defaecation disorders and the efficacy of biofeedback therapy in the management of patients with dyssynergic defaecation and functional constipation. Relevant articles addressing functional defaecation disorders and the efficacy of biofeedback therapy in the management of dyssynergic defaecation and functional constipation were identified from a search of Pubmed, MEDLINE Ovid and the Cochrane Library. The prevalence of dyssynergic defaecation in patients investigated for chronic constipation is as many as 40%. Randomised controlled trials have demonstrated major symptom improvement in 70%-80% of patients undergoing biofeedback therapy for chronic constipation resistant to standard medical therapy and have determined it to be superior to polyethylene glycol laxatives, diazepam or sham therapy. Long-term studies have shown 55%-82% of patients maintain symptom improvement. Dyssynergic defaecation is a common clinical condition in patients with chronic constipation not responding to conservative management. Biofeedback therapy appears to be a safe, successful treatment with sustained results for patients with dyssynergic defaecation. Further studies are required to standardise the diagnosis of dyssynergic defaecation in addition to employing systematic protocols for biofeedback therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Design of an artificial sphincter system with bio-feedback function based on MSP430].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-kan; Yan, De-tian

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we advance a new treating method for rectectomy postoperative anus incontinence, which is called "artificial sphincter system with biofeedback-function". The system simulates the function of human's sphincter and has entered into a stage of simulation experiments on animals.

  10. [Development of an Analgesia Therapy System for Delivery Based on Bio-feedback Transcuataneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng Songbo; Lu Yaosheng; Fang, Kun; Qin, Ruyi; Lin, Zhan

    2015-06-01

    Transcuataneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) analgesia as a non-drug method has received people's more and more attention recently. Considering problems of existing products, such as unstable performance and unsatisfied effectiveness, we developed a new analgesia therapy system for delivery based on bio-feedback TENS in our laboratory. We proposed a new idea for stimulation signal design, that is, we modulated a middle frequency signal by a traditional low frequency TENS wave in the new system. We designed different prescription waves for pain relief during a uterine contraction or massage between contractions. In the end, a bio-feedback TENS method was proposed, in which the waveforms of stimulation signals were selected and their parameters were modified automatically based on feedback from uterine pressure, etc. It was proved through quality tests and clinical trials that the system had good performance and satisfied analgesia effectiveness.

  11. Pattern analysis of defecography in patients with chronic functional constipation: is it predictable for the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hye Rin; Kim, Ah Young; Hong, Seong Sook; Byun, Jae Ho; Myung Seung Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-15

    To determine of pattern analysis of defecography can predict the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic functional constipation. Over a two-year period, 104 patients with chronic functional constipation underwent defecography and biofeedback therapy. Two blinded readers analyzed the defecographic findings and classified them into six types; I = normal defecation, II = hypertonic lower anal sphincter (poor anal opening due to a persistent contraction of the lower anal sphincter), III dyskinetic puborectal sling (inadequate laxity of the puborectal sling), IV spastic pelvic floor syndrome (persistent contraction of both the puborectal sling and the lower and sphincter), V unclassified (including paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter), VI anatomical obstruction. In addition, the degree of rectal contraction during defecation was scored (grade 0 to 3). After biofeedback therapy, the differences in the defecography patterns or rectal contraction between the two groups, the responsive or non-responsive group, were analyzed. The defecograms revealed that the type IV of the spastic pelvic floor syndrome was most common (50 of 104 patients, 48%), followed by II (21/104, 20%), III (12/104, 11.5%), V (9/104, 9%) and VI (12/104, 11.5%). Biofeedback therapy showed a therapeutic response in 71 out of 104 patients (68%) but failed in 33 patients (32%). However, there were no significant differences in the defecographic pattern between the responsive and non-responsive groups ({rho} = 0.630). The defecograms revealed contractions in 78 patients (75%) and moderate to vigorous contractions (more than grade 2) in 66 patients. Most of the biofeedback-responsive group showed rectal contractions (66 of 71 patients, 93%, {rho} < 0.001). In patients with chronic functional constipation, there was no significant difference in the morphological patterns of the defecogram between the responsive and non-responsive biofeedback groups. However, the presence of

  12. Pattern analysis of defecography in patients with chronic functional constipation: is it predictable for the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hye Rin; Kim, Ah Young; Hong, Seong Sook; Byun, Jae Ho; Myung Seung Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2005-01-01

    To determine of pattern analysis of defecography can predict the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic functional constipation. Over a two-year period, 104 patients with chronic functional constipation underwent defecography and biofeedback therapy. Two blinded readers analyzed the defecographic findings and classified them into six types; I = normal defecation, II = hypertonic lower anal sphincter (poor anal opening due to a persistent contraction of the lower anal sphincter), III dyskinetic puborectal sling (inadequate laxity of the puborectal sling), IV spastic pelvic floor syndrome (persistent contraction of both the puborectal sling and the lower and sphincter), V unclassified (including paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter), VI anatomical obstruction. In addition, the degree of rectal contraction during defecation was scored (grade 0 to 3). After biofeedback therapy, the differences in the defecography patterns or rectal contraction between the two groups, the responsive or non-responsive group, were analyzed. The defecograms revealed that the type IV of the spastic pelvic floor syndrome was most common (50 of 104 patients, 48%), followed by II (21/104, 20%), III (12/104, 11.5%), V (9/104, 9%) and VI (12/104, 11.5%). Biofeedback therapy showed a therapeutic response in 71 out of 104 patients (68%) but failed in 33 patients (32%). However, there were no significant differences in the defecographic pattern between the responsive and non-responsive groups (ρ = 0.630). The defecograms revealed contractions in 78 patients (75%) and moderate to vigorous contractions (more than grade 2) in 66 patients. Most of the biofeedback-responsive group showed rectal contractions (66 of 71 patients, 93%, ρ < 0.001). In patients with chronic functional constipation, there was no significant difference in the morphological patterns of the defecogram between the responsive and non-responsive biofeedback groups. However, the presence of rectal

  13. EEG biofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Vznik EEG aktivity v mozku, rozdělení EEG vln podle frekvence, způsob měření EEG, přístroje pro měření EEG. Dále popis biofeedback metody, její možnosti a návrh biofeedback her. Popis zpracování naměřených EEG signálů. EEG generation, brain rhythms, methods of recording EEG, EEG recorder. Description of biofeedback, potentialities of biofeedback, proposal of biofeedback games. Description of processing measured EEG signals. B

  14. Neurocontrol of the inverse dynamics in functional electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L; Nijhuis, JAG; Ypma, A; Silva, FL; Principe, JC; Almeida, LB

    1997-01-01

    The rehabilitation of paraplegia can be pursued by functional electrical stimulation (FES) combined with biofeedback This requires control by surface electromyographical (EMG) signals to predict the muscle stimulation patterns while compensating the inherent phase lag. This can be realized by a

  15. Effect of Electromyographic Biofeedback Training on Pain, Quadriceps Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed Ahmed Mahmoud; Aly, Sobhy M; El-Shamy, Shamekh M

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training on pain, quadriceps strength, and functional ability in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This is a randomized controlled study; 36 children (11 boys and 25 girls) with polyarticular JRA, with ages ranging from 8 to 13 years, were selected and assigned randomly, using computer-generated random numbers, into 2 groups. The control group (n = 18) received the conventional physical therapy program, whereas the study group (n = 18) received the same program as the control group in addition to EMG biofeedback-guided isometric exercises for 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Pain, peak torque of quadriceps strength, and functional ability were evaluated before, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 12 weeks of the treatment program. By 6 weeks, significant differences were observed in the study group (P biofeedback may be a useful intervention modality to reduce pain, improve quadriceps strength, and functional performance in JRA.

  16. Recent developments in biofeedback for neuromotor rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jiping

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The original use of biofeedback to train single muscle activity in static positions or movement unrelated to function did not correlate well to motor function improvements in patients with central nervous system injuries. The concept of task-oriented repetitive training suggests that biofeedback therapy should be delivered during functionally related dynamic movement to optimize motor function improvement. Current, advanced technologies facilitate the design of novel biofeedback systems that possess diverse parameters, advanced cue display, and sophisticated control systems for use in task-oriented biofeedback. In light of these advancements, this article: (1 reviews early biofeedback studies and their conclusions; (2 presents recent developments in biofeedback technologies and their applications to task-oriented biofeedback interventions; and (3 discusses considerations regarding the therapeutic system design and the clinical application of task-oriented biofeedback therapy. This review should provide a framework to further broaden the application of task-oriented biofeedback therapy in neuromotor rehabilitation.

  17. Biofeedback & Bowel Disorders: Teaching Yourself to Live without the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Tips on Finding a Doctor What is biofeedback? Biofeedback is a neuromuscular reeducation tool therapists can ... to coordinate two responses more effectively. How can biofeedback help? Bowel control is a bodily function that ...

  18. Pilot Randomized Trial Comparing Intersession Scheduling of Biofeedback Results to Individuals with Chronic Pain: Influence on Psychologic Function and Pain Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Douglas L; Whitney, Anthony A; Tindall, Angelique G; Carter, Gregory T

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two biofeedback schedules on long-term improvement in physical and psychologic reactivity to chronic nonmalignant pain. This study is a prospective, randomized pilot trial. Twenty adults with chronic pain engaged in heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training for nine sessions with HRV presented visually. Two groups, formed by random assignment, were compared: The faded feedback group received concurrent visual HRV biofeedback in session 1, with the amount of biofeedback systematically reduced for ensuing sessions so that, by session 9, the participants were controlling HRV without external feedback. The full feedback group received visual HRV biofeedback continuously across all sessions. Outcome measures assessed at baseline, immediately after the program, and 3 mos after the program included pain intensity, fear-avoidance beliefs, and self-report physical functioning. Use of biofeedback skills was also assessed 3 mos after the program. Nominal variables were analyzed with χ. Continuous measures were analyzed with repeated-measures analyses of variance. The faded feedback schedule resulted in greater use of biofeedback skills at 3 mos and improved pain intensity and fear-avoidance beliefs after the program and at 3 mos. Physical functioning did not differ between groups. Systematically reducing the frequency of external visual feedback during HRV biofeedback training was associated with reduced reactivity to chronic pain. Results of this pilot study should be confirmed with a larger randomized study.

  19. Effectiveness of treatment using fecal incontinence biofeedback isolated or associated with electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Melão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI has increased in recent decades, due to an aging population; and result in negative impacts on quality of life. Therefore, it is essential to search for an effective treatment in order to minimize the morbidity caused by incontinence. Objective: To evaluate the effect of perineal training in the treatment of patients with fecal incontinence by biofeedback. Method: This is a prospective study which evaluated 85 patients with FI from January 2009 to January 2014, at the Coloproctology outpatient clinic of the Hospital São Lucas/Cascavel, Paraná. Results: Mean age was 47 years and the duration of treatment ranged from 5 to 25 sessions (mean, 13 sessions. From the women involved in the study, 70% (50 had vaginal deliveries and 34 (40% participants were submitted to some orificial surgery. The FI score at baseline was 10.79 (6–17 and post-treatment FI was 2 (0–14 (p < 0.001. In the population studied, 49.4% (42 of the patients had an associated pre-BFT UI; and only 8.2% (7 had post-BFT UI (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The data presented in this study confirm that perineal training through biofeedback was effective in the treatment of patients with fecal incontinence without immediate indication for surgery, still ensuring for this technique the advantages of being effective, painless and of low cost. Resumo: Introdução: A prevalência de incontinência fecal (IF vem aumentando nas últimas décadas devido ao envelhecimento da população; e resulta em impactos negativos na qualidade de vida. Logo, torna-se fundamental a busca de um tratamento efetivo, a fim de minimizar a morbidade ocasionada pela incontinência. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do treinamento perineal no tratamento de pacientes portadores de incontinência fecal através do biofeedback. Método: Estudo prospectivo, que avaliou 85 pacientes com IF no período de janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2014, no ambulatório de

  20. HRV biofeedback for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain: a clinical replication series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark J; Guiles, Robert A F; Gevirtz, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Functional Abdominal Pain (FAP) are among the most commonly reported Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Both have been associated with varying autonomic dysregulation. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRVB) has recently begun to show efficacy in the treatment of both IBS and FAP. The purpose of this multiple clinical replication series was to analyze the clinical outcomes of utilizing HRVB in a clinical setting. Archival data of twenty-seven consecutive pediatric outpatients diagnosed with IBS or FAP who received HRVB were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were self-report and categorized as full or remission with patient satisfaction, or no improvement. Qualitative reports of patient experiences were also noted. Full remission was achieved by 69.2 % and partial remission was achieved by 30.8 % of IBS patients. Full remission was achieved by 63.6 % and partial remission was achieved by 36.4 % of FAP patients. No patients in either group did not improve to a level of patient satisfaction or >50 %. Patient's commonly reported feeling validated in their discomfort as a result of psychophysiological education. Results suggest that HRVB is a promising intervention for pediatric outpatients with IBS or FAP. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to accurately determine clinical efficacy of HRVB in the treatment of IBS and FAP.

  1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EMG BIOFEEDBACK ON HAND FUNCTION IN SUBJECTS WITH STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sethana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is an event caused by the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or blocked by a clot. Biofeedback can be defined as the technique of using equipment usually electronic to reveal to human beings about some of their internal physiological events normal and abnormal in form of auditory and visual signals. Method: The stroke patients diagnosed by neurologist were recruited from physiotherapy department and inpatients from neurology and general wards of SVIMS hospital, Tirupathi Andhra Pradesh. In the present study 30 subjects were randomly assigned to 15 experimental and 15 control groups. The subject was made to sit comfortably and the Surfaces electrodes were placed on Extensor carpi radialis, Extensor digitorum communis muscle belly and for 30minutes patient voluntarily contracts until signals displayed on screen for which visually and auditory cues are given. In control group placebo EMG where machine is turned away & has no cues. Both groups received CONVENTIONAL PHYSIOTHERAPY; for 30 minutes at a Frequency: 1 hour per day for 5days in a week, for 6weeks. Results: There was statistically significant (p<0.05 improvement in both variables from baseline to 6thweek in experimental group compared to control group. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the potential benefits of EMG BF in improving hand function in subjects with stroke.

  2. Biofeedback and neurofeedback application in the treatment of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Zivoder, Ivana; Kozina, Goran

    2017-09-01

    Biofeedback is a non-invasive method of measurement of physiological functions. Precise instruments measure the slightest changes of different body functions-which are then in a clear and understandable manner shown in the form of feedback. Person gets an insight into what is going on inside the body and thus learns to change the patterns of behavior to improve health and performance. Any changes that are wanted are rewarded, which leads to learning of the new patterns of behavior. Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback which uses electrical activity in the brain. Certain disorders are associated with specific patterns of brain activity, and through neurofeedback it is possible to reduce or even remove symptoms of some disorders. In the treatment of migraine different biofeedback methods- such as breathing, training of vasoconstriction/vasodilatation and neurofeedback, may be applied. This paper will describe the successful treatment of 25 years old girl who suffered for many years from painful migraine. She had in total 25 treatments during which listed biofeedback methods were used. The first part of the treatment was neurofeedback training on the central sensorimotor area, followed by respiration training and at the end by biofeedback training of vasoconstriction/vasodilatation. The final result of the treatment was significant reduce in the frequency of migraine attacks and the pain reduction. Further study, have to be done with more patients and with placebo group to scientifically prove the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Reduced heart rate variability in chronic severe traumatic brain injury: Association with impaired emotional and social functioning, and potential for treatment using biofeedback.

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    Francis, Heather M; Fisher, Alana; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may provide an index of capacity for social functioning and may be remediated by HRV biofeedback. Given reductions in HRV are found following traumatic brain injury (TBI), the present study aimed to determine whether lower HRV in TBI is associated with social function, and whether HRV biofeedback might be a useful remediation technique in this population. Resting state HRV and measures of social and emotional processing were collected in 30 individuals with severe TBI (3-34 years post-injury) and 30 controls. This was followed by a single session of HRV biofeedback. HRV was positively associated with social cognition and empathy, and negatively associated with alexithymia for the TBI group. Both TBI and control groups showed significantly increased HRV on both time-domain (i.e., SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency-domain measures (LF, HF, LF:HF ratio) during biofeedback compared to baseline. These results suggest that decreased HRV is linked to social and emotional function following severe TBI, and may be a novel target for therapy using HRV biofeedback techniques.

  4. Biofeedback effect of hybrid assistive limb in stroke rehabilitation: A proof of concept study using functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Saita

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted rehabilitation has been increasingly drawing attention in the field of neurorehabilitation. The hybrid assistive limb (HAL is an exoskeleton robot developed based on the "interactive biofeedback" theory, and several studies have shown its efficacy for patients with stroke. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the facilitative effect of neurorehabilitation using a single-joint HAL (HAL-SJ and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.Subacute stroke patients admitted to our hospital were assessed in this study for HAL eligibility. We evaluated motor-related cortical activity using an fNIRS system at baseline and immediately after HAL-SJ treatment on the same day. Cortical activity was determined through the relative changes in the hemoglobin concentrations. For statistical analysis, we compared the number of flexion/extension movements before and immediately after HAL-SJ treatment using paired t-test. fNIRS used both the methods of statistical parametric mapping and random effect analysis.We finally included 10 patients (eight men, two women; mean age: 66.8 ± 12.0 years. The mean number of flexion/extension movements within 15 s increased significantly from 4.2 ± 3.1 to 5.3 ± 4.1 immediately after training. fNIRS showed increased cortical activation in the primary motor cortex of the ipsilesional hemisphere immediately after HAL-SJ treatment compared to the baseline condition.This study is the first to support the concept of the biofeedback effect from the perspective of changes in cortical activity measured with an fNIRS system. The biofeedback effect of HAL immediately increased the task-related cortical activity, and this may address the functional recovery. Further studies are warranted to support our findings.

  5. Effect of biofeedback cycling training on functional recovery and walking ability of lower extremity in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Ching Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of biofeedback cycling training on lower limb functional recovery, walking endurance, and walking speed for patients with chronic stroke. Thirty-one patients with stroke (stroke onset >3 months were randomly assigned into two groups using a crossover design. One group (N = 16; mean: 53.6 ± 10.3 years underwent conventional rehabilitation and cycling training (30 minutes/time, 5 times per week for 4 weeks, followed by only conventional rehabilitation for another 4 weeks. The other group (N = 15; mean: 54.5 ± 8.0 years underwent the same training in reverse order. The bike used in this biofeedback cycling training was the MOTOmed viva2 Movement Trainer. Outcome measures included the lower extremity subscale of Fugl-Meyer assessment (LE-FMA, the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, the 10-meter walk test (10MWT, and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS. All participants were assessed at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 4th week, and at the end of the 8th week. Thirty participants completed the study, including the cycling training interventions and all assessments. The results showed that improvements in the period with cycling training were significantly better than the noncycling period in the LE-FMA (p < 0.05, 6MWT (p < 0.001, 10MWT (p < 0.001, and MAS (p < 0.001 scores. No significant carryover effects were observed. The improvements on outcome measures were significantly different between the cycling period and the noncycling period after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.001. The study result indicates that the additional 4-week biofeedback cycling training could lead to improved LE functional recovery, walking endurance, and speed for patients with chronic stroke.

  6. [Comparison of the efficacy and safety between TVT-O and TVT-O with biofeedback pelvic floor electrical stimulation on female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ling; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety between tension-free vaginal tape obturator technique (TVT-O) and TVT-O with biofeedback pelvic floor electrical stimulation on the therapy of female stress urinary incontinence. In this prospective study, 120 female patients of female stress urinary incontinence were enrolled from January 2012 to December 2013. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups, 60 in group A received TVT-O alone, while 60 in group B not only received TVT-O but also received biofeedback pelvic floor electrical stimulation. All the patients were followed up for 12 months to assess the efficacy and safety of the two procedures. Subjective indices [total volume of urine (TV), the total frequency of urination (TOV), the total leakage of urine events (TL), urinary incontinence related quality of life questionnaire (I-QOL), International Advisory Committee on urinary incontinence urinary incontinence questionnaire short form scale (ICI-Q-SF)] and objective indices [Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP), maximum flow rate (MFR), residual urine volume (RUV),pad test] were analyzed. Overall, the cure rate was 75% at 1 year follow-up for group A and 88.33% for group B (PTVT-O on the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.

  7. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ...

  8. Biofeedback in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giggins, Oonagh M; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Caulfield, Brian

    2013-06-18

    This paper reviews the literature relating to the biofeedback used in physical rehabilitation. The biofeedback methods used in rehabilitation are based on biomechanical measurements and measurements of the physiological systems of the body. The physiological systems of the body which can be measured to provide biofeedback are the neuromuscular system, the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Neuromuscular biofeedback methods include electromyography (EMG) biofeedback and real-time ultrasound imaging (RTUS) biofeedback. EMG biofeedback is the most widely investigated method of biofeedback and appears to be effective in the treatment of many musculoskeletal conditions and in post cardiovascular accident (CVA) rehabilitation. RTUS biofeedback has been demonstrated effective in the treatment of low back pain (LBP) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. Cardiovascular biofeedback methods have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a number of health conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, asthma, fibromyalgia and even psychological disorders however a systematic review in this field has yet to be conducted. Similarly, the number of large scale studies examining the use of respiratory biofeedback in rehabilitation is limited. Measurements of movement, postural control and force output can be made using a number of different devices and used to deliver biomechanical biofeedback. Inertial based sensing biofeedback is the most widely researched biomechanical biofeedback method, with a number of studies showing it to be effective in improving measures of balance in a number of populations. Other types of biomechanical biofeedback include force plate systems, electrogoniometry, pressure biofeedback and camera based systems however the evidence for these is limited. Biofeedback is generally delivered using visual displays, acoustic or haptic signals, however more recently virtual reality (VR) or exergaming technology have been used as biofeedback

  9. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Hu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  10. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  11. Biofeedback: Its Uses in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Doris B.

    This paper begins by defining biofeedback and describing some of the major biofeedback machines. An historical perspective is provided of research literature on the relationship of biofeedback and learning. Biofeedback and relaxation are discussed and research is cited for the use of biofeedback techniques in relaxation training with children. Two…

  12. Randomised trial of biofeedback training for encopresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, R. N.; Benninga, M. A.; Redekop, W. K.; Taminiau, J. A.; Büller, H. A.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate biofeedback training in children with encopresis and the effect on psychosocial function. Prospective controlled randomised study. PATIENT INTERVENTIONS: A multimodal treatment of six weeks. Children were randomised into two groups. Each group received dietary and toilet advice, enemas,

  13. Current Evidence of Gait Modification with Real-time Biofeedback to Alter Kinetic, Temporospatial, and Function-Related Outcomes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipo Eddo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gait retraining using real-time biofeedback (RTB may have positive outcomes in decreasing knee adduction moment (KAM in healthy individuals and has shown equal likelihood in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the most effective gait modification strategy, mode of biofeedback or treatment dosage. Objective: The purpose of this review was: i to assess if gait retraining interventions using RTB are valuable to reduce KAM, pain, and improve function in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, ii to evaluate the effectiveness of different gait modifications and modes of RTB in reducing KAM in healthy individuals, and iii to assess the impact of gait retraining interventions with RTB on other variables that may affect clinical outcomes. Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched using five search terms. Studies that utilized any form of gait retraining with RTB to improve one or a combination of the following measures were included: KAM, knee pain, and function. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, evaluating eleven distinctive gait modifications and three modes of RTB. Results: All but one study showed positive outcomes. Self-selected and multi-parameter gait modifications showed the greatest reductions in KAM with visual and haptic RTB being more effective than auditory. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that gait modification using RTB can Positively alter KAM in asymptomatic and symptomatic participants. However, the existing literature is limited and of low quality, with the optimal combination strategies remaining unclear (gait and biofeedback mode. Future studies should employ randomized controlled study designs to compare the effects of different gait modification strategies and biofeedback modes on individuals with knee OA.

  14. Biofeedback: Infant asthma Biofeedback: asma infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Nombela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study is a revision of the different applications of biofeedback in infantile bronchial asthma. The technique may be used on its own (preferably in the motor area or in conjunction with other techniques such as hypnosis, relaxation, etc. However, it should be stated that previous work published in this field is difficult to interpret since results are inconclusive, it is, therefore, difficult to produce a scientific summary.

    KEY WORDS: Biofeedback; infantile asthma; respiratory biofeedback.

    Con este trabajo se pretende hacer una revisión sobre las distintas aplicaciones del biofeedback en el asma bronquial infantil, bien solo (preferentemente en el campo motriz o bien asociado a otras técnicas de hipnosis, relajación, etc. Aunque es necesario manifestar que la producción científica relacionada con el tema, hace que tenga una difícil valoración dado que sus resultados son no concluyentes y discutibles, lo cual dificulta la elaboración de un resumen científico.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Biofeedback; asma infantil; biofeedback respiratorio

  15. EMG biofeedback of the abductor pollicis brevis in piano performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, R; Bedmar, M; Sol Martin, M

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply EMG biofeedback as an auxiliary to piano teaching techniques. We studied the changes in integrated electromyographic activity, using the abductor pollicis brevis functioning as an agonist during the teaching of identical selective movements of piano playing in two groups, one with EMG biofeedback and the other following traditional method of instruction. The analysis of variance revealed an increase in the peak amplitude and the relaxation rate values for the biofeedback group. These results have implications for the application of piano playing techniques and reveal EMG biofeedback as an aid in the teaching of thumb attack with the abductor pollicis brevis as agonist.

  16. An Introduction to Applications of Biofeedback Training in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, David G.; Lowenstein, Timothy J.

    Biofeedback is the use of sensitive detectors (instruments) with visual and auditory displays to reveal to an individual minute changes in his internal physiological functions. Biofeedback training with such instruments results in the ability to voluntarily regulate physiological functions formerly believed involuntary. These physiological…

  17. SU-D-17A-04: The Impact of Audiovisual Biofeedback On Image Quality During 4D Functional and Anatomic Imaging: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keall, P; Pollock, S [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Yang, J; Diehn, M; Berger, J; Graves, E; Loo, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Yamamoto, T [UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The ability of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback to improve breathing regularity has not previously been investigated for functional imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT image quality in a prospective clinical trial. We hypothesized that motion blurring in 4D-PET images and the number of artifacts in 4D-CT images are reduced using AV biofeedback. Methods: AV biofeedback is a real-time, interactive and personalized system designed to help a patient self-regulate his/her breathing using a patient-specific representative waveform and musical guides. In an IRB-approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-PET and 4D-CT images of 10 lung cancer patients were acquired with AV biofeedback (AV) and free breathing (FB). The 4D-PET images in 6 respiratory bins were analyzed for motion blurring by: (1) decrease of GTVPET and (2) increase of SUVmax in 4-DPET compared to 3D-PET. The 4D-CT images were analyzed for artifacts by: (1) comparing normalized cross correlation-based scores (NCCS); and (2) quantifying a visual assessment score (VAS). A two-tailed paired t-test was used to test the hypotheses. Results: The impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT images varied widely between patients, suggesting inconsistent patient comprehension and capability. Overall, the 4D-PET decrease of GTVPET was 2.0±3.0cm3 with AV and 2.3±3.9cm{sup 3} for FB (p=0.61). The 4D-PET increase of SUVmax was 1.6±1.0 with AV and 1.1±0.8 with FB (p=0.002). The 4D-CT NCCS were 0.65±0.27 with AV and 0.60±0.32 for FB (p=0.32). The 4D-CT VAS was 0.0±2.7 (p=ns). Conclusion: A 10-patient study demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of motion blurring of AV over FB for 1/2 functional 4D-PET imaging metrics. No difference between AV and FB was found for 2 anatomic 4D-CT imaging metrics. Future studies will focus on optimizing the human-computer interface and including patient training sessions for improved

  18. SU-D-17A-04: The Impact of Audiovisual Biofeedback On Image Quality During 4D Functional and Anatomic Imaging: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P; Pollock, S; Yang, J; Diehn, M; Berger, J; Graves, E; Loo, B; Yamamoto, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback to improve breathing regularity has not previously been investigated for functional imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT image quality in a prospective clinical trial. We hypothesized that motion blurring in 4D-PET images and the number of artifacts in 4D-CT images are reduced using AV biofeedback. Methods: AV biofeedback is a real-time, interactive and personalized system designed to help a patient self-regulate his/her breathing using a patient-specific representative waveform and musical guides. In an IRB-approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-PET and 4D-CT images of 10 lung cancer patients were acquired with AV biofeedback (AV) and free breathing (FB). The 4D-PET images in 6 respiratory bins were analyzed for motion blurring by: (1) decrease of GTVPET and (2) increase of SUVmax in 4-DPET compared to 3D-PET. The 4D-CT images were analyzed for artifacts by: (1) comparing normalized cross correlation-based scores (NCCS); and (2) quantifying a visual assessment score (VAS). A two-tailed paired t-test was used to test the hypotheses. Results: The impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT images varied widely between patients, suggesting inconsistent patient comprehension and capability. Overall, the 4D-PET decrease of GTVPET was 2.0±3.0cm3 with AV and 2.3±3.9cm 3 for FB (p=0.61). The 4D-PET increase of SUVmax was 1.6±1.0 with AV and 1.1±0.8 with FB (p=0.002). The 4D-CT NCCS were 0.65±0.27 with AV and 0.60±0.32 for FB (p=0.32). The 4D-CT VAS was 0.0±2.7 (p=ns). Conclusion: A 10-patient study demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of motion blurring of AV over FB for 1/2 functional 4D-PET imaging metrics. No difference between AV and FB was found for 2 anatomic 4D-CT imaging metrics. Future studies will focus on optimizing the human-computer interface and including patient training sessions for improved comprehension and

  19. Biofeedback and stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gordon

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Electromyographic biofeedback was used to reduce tension and enhance control of the speech associated muscles, resulting in a reduction of the frequency of stuttering. Five sessions were conducted over a course of three weeks. A mild, moderate and severe stutterer were assessed. A decrease in stuttering frequency was seen in each subject from pre to post biofeedback sessions on both a descriptive and an inferential level.

  20. Flex Sensor Based Biofeedback Monitoring for Post-Stroke Fingers Myopathy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garda, Y. R.; Caesarendra, W.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Turnip, A.; Wahyudati, S.; Nurhasanah, L.; Sutopo, D.

    2018-04-01

    Hands are one of the crucial parts of the human body in carrying out daily activities. Accidents on the hands decreasing in motor skills of the hand so that therapy is necessary to restore motor function of the hand. In addition to accidents, hand disabilities can be caused by certain diseases, e.g. stroke. Stroke is a partial destruction of the brain. It occurs if the arteries that drain blood to the brain are blocked, or if torn or leak. The purpose of this study to make biofeedback monitoring equipment for post-stroke hands myopathy patients. Biofeedback is an alternative method of treatment that involves measuring body functions measured subjects such as skin temperature, sweat activity, blood pressure, heart rate and hand paralysis due to stroke. In this study, the sensor used for biofeedback monitoring tool is flex sensor. Flex sensor is a passive resistive device that changes its resistance as the sensor is bent. Flex sensor converts the magnitude of the bend into electrical resistance, the greater the bend the greater the resistance value. The monitoring used in this biofeedback monitoring tool uses Graphical User Interface (GUI) in C# programming language. The motivation of the study is to monitor and record the progressive improvement of the hand therapy. Patients who experienced post-stroke can see the therapy progress quantitatively.

  1. [Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Mernaia, E M; Shtark, M B

    2008-05-01

    Comparison of influence of usual musical practice and the same trainings but using biofeedback on electrophysiological and psychological markers of optimal psychomotor functioning in 39 students-musicians revealed that the obvious musical practice caused psychomotor pressure in most students (with initially low individual alpha peak frequency), whereas similar practice combined with an individualized session of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback was accompanied by increase of alpha-activity in all examinees and a decrease (reduction) of integrated EMG that indicated reaching of optimal psychomotor functioning. It appears that the psychomotor learning ability depends on the baseline individual alpha-activity. Individual alpha peak frequency was associated with fluency and efficiency of psychomotor performance, individual alpha band width--with plasticity and creativity, individual amount of alpha suppression in response to opening eyes--with the level of selfactualization. These alpha activity EEG indices correlated with efficiency of the biofeedback training.

  2. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  3. Microperimetric biofeedback training: fundamentals, strategies and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Napolitano, Giuseppe; Fragiotta, Serena

    2018-01-01

    Microperimetric biofeedback training (MBFT) is a visual rehabilitative strategy based on fixation stability improvement reinforcing or creating a new preferential fixation locus. The rationale consists in reeducating visual system to a new visual condition, promoting retina-brain transmission, and thus cortical plasticity. The use of MBFT found is major application in visual diseases involving central vision, but later it revealed promising functional outcomes even in myopia, inherited retinal degenerations and nystagmus. However, the use of microperimetric biofeedback is still limited due to poor knowledge of the procedure and inconsistent standards of practice, and thus an incipient skepticism on its efficacy. This review provides an overview of the rationale, current implications, procedures and future perspectives of microperimetric biofeedback training.

  4. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  5. A RCT Comparing Daily Mindfulness Meditations, Biofeedback Exercises, and Daily Physical Exercise on Attention Control, Executive Functioning, Mindful Awareness, Self-Compassion, and Worrying in Stressed Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Esther I; van der Zwan, J Esi; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Our Western society is characterized by multitasking, competition, and constant time pressure. Negative effects of stress for the individual (anxiety, depression, somatic complaints) and for organizations and society (costs due to work absence) are very high. Thus, time-efficient self-help interventions to address these issues are necessary. This study assessed the effects of daily mindfulness meditations (MM) versus daily heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) and daily physical exercise (PE) on attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying. Young adults ( n  = 75, age range 18 to 40) with elevated stress levels were randomized to MM, HRV-BF, or PE, and measurements were taken at pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. Interventions in all three groups were self-guided and lasted for 5 weeks. Generalized estimating equation analyses showed that overall, all three interventions were effective and did not differ from each other. However, practice time differed between groups, with participants in the PE group practicing much more than participants in the other two groups. Therefore, additional analyses were carried out in two subsamples. The optimal dose sample included only those participants who practiced for at least 70 % of the total prescribed time. In the equal dose sample, home practice intensity was equal for all three groups. Again, the effects of the three interventions did not differ. In conclusion, MM, HRV-BF, and PE are all effective self-help methods to improve attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying, and mindfulness meditation was not found to be more effective than HRV-biofeedback or physical exercise for these cognitive processes.

  6. Randomised trial of biofeedback training for encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, R N; Benninga, M A; Redekop, W K; Taminiau, J A; Büller, H A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate biofeedback training in children with encopresis and the effect on psychosocial function. DESIGN: Prospective controlled randomised study. PATIENT INTERVENTIONS: A multimodal treatment of six weeks. Children were randomised into two groups. Each group received dietary and toilet advice, enemas, oral laxatives, and anorectal manometry. One group also received five biofeedback training sessions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Successful treatment was defined as less than two episodes of encopresis, regular bowel movements, and no laxatives. Psychosocial function after treatment was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist. RESULTS: Children given laxatives and biofeedback training had higher success rates than those who received laxatives alone (39% v 19%) at the end of the intervention period. At 12 and 18 months, however, approximately 50% of children in each group were successfully treated. Abnormal behaviour scores were initially observed in 35% of children. Most children had improved behaviour scores six months after treatment. Children with an initial abnormal behaviour score who were successfully treated had a significant improvement in their behavioural profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Biofeedback training had no additional effect on the success rate or behaviour scores. Psychosocial problems are present in a subgroup of children with encopresis. The relation between successful treatment and improvement in behavioural function supports the idea that encopresis has an aetiological role in the occurrence and maintenance of behavioural problems in children with encopresis. PMID:8957948

  7. A novel balance training system using multimodal biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Oh, Min-Kyun; Choi, Hye Young; Yoon, Jungwon

    2016-04-22

    A biofeedback-based balance training system can be used to provide the compromised sensory information to subjects in order to retrain their sensorimotor function. In this study, the design and evaluation of the low-cost, intuitive biofeedback system developed at Gyeongsang National University is extended to provide multimodal biofeedback for balance training by utilization of visual and haptic modalities. The system consists of a smartphone attached to the waist of the subject to provide information about tilt of the torso, a personal computer running a purpose built software to process the smartphone data and provide visual biofeedback to the subject by means of a dedicated monitor and a dedicated Phantom Omni(®) device for haptic biofeedback. For experimental verification of the system, eleven healthy young participants performed balance tasks assuming two distinct postures for 30 s each while acquiring torso tilt. The postures used were the one foot stance and the tandem Romberg stance. For both the postures, the subjects stood on a foam platform which provided a certain amount of ground instability. Post-experiment data analysis was performed using MATLAB(®) to analyze reduction in body sway. Analysis parameters based on the projection of trunk tilt information were calculated in order to ascertain the reduction in body sway and improvements in postural control. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no statistically significant interactions between postures and biofeedback. Post-hoc analysis revealed statistically significant reduction in body sway on provision of biofeedback. Subjects exhibited maximum body sway during no biofeedback trial, followed by either haptic or visual biofeedback and in most of the trials the multimodal biofeedback of visual and haptic together resulted in minimization of body sway, thus indicating that the multimodal biofeedback system worked well to provide significant (p biofeedback system can offer more customized training

  8. Thoracic ROM measurement system with visual bio-feedback: system design and biofeedback evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takeshi; Kawamura, Kazuya; Fujitani, Junko; Koike, Tomokazu; Fujimoto, Masashi; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) need to improve their thorax mobility. Thoracic ROM is one of the simplest and most useful indexes to evaluate the respiratory function. In this paper, we have proposed the prototype of a simple thoracic ROM measurement system with real-time visual bio-feedback in the chest expansion test. In this system, the thoracic ROM is measured using a wire-type linear encoder whose wire is wrapped around the thorax. In this paper, firstly, the repeatability and reliability of measured thoracic ROM was confirmed as a first report of the developed prototype. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of the bio-feedback system on the respiratory function. The result of the experiment showed that it was easier to maintain a large and stable thoracic ROM during deep breathing by using the real-time visual biofeedback system of the thoracic ROM.

  9. Biofeedback and Performance: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    non-biofeedback meditation procedure; a single control was a group untrained in relaxation. It is not clear what instructions if any were given to...found in techniques to control motion sickness. Using a procedure they call " autogenic biofeedback training (AFT)", investigators at NASA (Cowings...and meditation in the treatment of generalized anxiety. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America, 187-189

  10. Pelvic floor dyssynergia: efficacy of biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel Hak, Nabil; El-Hemaly, Mohamed; Hamdy, Emad; El-Raouf, Ahmed Abd; Atef, Ehab; Salah, Tarek; El-Hanafy, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad; Haleem, Magdy; Hamed, Hala

    2011-03-01

    Paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor during attempts to defaecate is described as pelvic floor dyssynergia (anismus). It is a behavioural disorder (no associated morphological or neurological abnormalities); consequently, biofeedback training has been recommended as a behavioural therapy for such a disorder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term satisfaction of patients diagnosed with pelvic floor dyssynergia after biofeedback. Sixty patients (35 females and 25 males) with a mean age of 30±12years and a 4year duration of constipation were included. Forty-five patients had normal colonic transit and 15 patients had slow colonic transit. History, physical examination and barium enema were done to exclude constipation secondary to organic causes. Colonic and pelvic floor functions (colon-transit time, anorectal manometry, EMG and defaecography) were performed before and after biofeedback treatments. Patients were treated on a weekly basis with an average of (6±2) sessions. At the end of sessions, 55 out of 60 patients (91.6%) reported a subjectively overall improvement. Symptoms of dyschezia were reported less frequently after biofeedback. Age and gender were not predictive factors of outcome. No symptoms at initial assessment were predictive for patient's satisfaction but the only factor of predictive value was the diagnosis of anismus and the motivated patient who wanted to continue the sessions. Biofeedback remains a morbidity free, low-cost and effective outpatient therapy for well-motivated patients complaining of functional constipation and diagnosed as pelvic floor dyssynergia. Copyright © 2011 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress Management by Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980's, Dr. Patrick Doyle served on a project to train U.S. astronauts at Johnson Space Center in biofeedback techniques to control anxiety and hypertension. Traditional biofeedback concepts were found to be too mundane, repetitive and boring, so Doyle developed Bio-Games with more interesting and involved formats. The first product, Bio-Ball, is an interactive, multimedia baseball video game that is played by relaxing in order to hit the ball. Gradually the player is able to relax at will, and with practice is able to apply the skills to real-life situations. Doyle has since gone on to create a number of biofeedback games marketed by Creative MultiMedia Inc. including Bio-Golf, Clutch City, and Pachyderm. Stress-busting screen savers are also being marketed under the Buddies series. In addition to being used in the corporate world, Bio-Games have been recognized by the Starbright Foundation which focuses on improving the total hospital environments of critically injured and chronically-ill children.

  12. Biofeedback systems and adaptive control hemodialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line monitoring devices to control functions such as volume, body temperature, and ultrafiltration, were considered more toys than real tools for routine clinical application. However, bio-feedback blood volume controlled hemodialysis (HD is now possible in routine dialysis, allowing the delivery of a more physiologically acceptable treatment. This system has proved to reduce the incidence of intra-HD hypotension episodes significantly. Ionic dialysance and the patient′s plasma conductivity can be calculated easily from on-line measurements at two different steps of dialysate conductivity. A bio-feedback system has been devised to calculate the patient′s plasma conductivity and modulate the conductivity of the dialysate continuously in order to achieve a desired end-dialysis patient plasma conductivity corresponding to a desired end-dialysis plasma sodium concentration. Another bio-feedback system can control the body tempe-rature by measuring it at the arterial and venous lines of the extra-corporeal circuit, and then modulating the dialysate temperature in order to stabilize the patients′ temperature at constant values that result in improved intra-HD cardiovascular stability. The module can also be used to quantify vascular access recirculation. Finally, the simultaneous computer control of ultrafiltration has proven the most effective means for automatic blood pressure stabilization during hemo-dialysis treatment. The application of fuzzy logic in the blood-pressure-guided biofeedback con-trol of ultrafiltration during hemodialysis is able to minimize HD-induced hypotension. In con-clusion, online monitoring and adaptive control of the patient during the dialysis session using the bio-feedback systems is expected to render the process of renal replacement therapy more physiological and less eventful.

  13. Biofeedback. Psychofysiologische en leertheoretische aspecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Schelte Jan

    1978-01-01

    Het voornaamste uitgangspunt van deze studie was de gecompliceerdheid van biofeedback, waarin diverse psychologische en psychofysiologische processen een rol spelen. Het belang van theorie-ontwikkeling- ook ten behoeve van toepassingen van de biofeedback- werd uiteengezet en de nadruk lag dan ook op

  14. Biofeedback: The Beat Goes On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kater, Donna; Spires, Jeanette

    1975-01-01

    This article reviews some of the research applications of biofeedback techniques and suggests how these may be of use in counseling. The goals toward which biofeedback can be used are increased self-awareness, integration of the individual, and the freedom to make choices regarding states of consciousness. (SJL)

  15. Biofeedback training in chronic constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, M. A.; Büller, H. A.; Taminiau, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty nine patients, aged 5-16 years, were studied to evaluate whether biofeedback training is effective in treating children with chronic constipation and encopresis; the clinical outcome at six weeks and 12 months was also evaluated. Patients received on average five biofeedback training

  16. Suitability of Smartphone Inertial Sensors for Real-Time Biofeedback Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Anton; Tomažič, Sašo; Umek, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the suitability of smartphones with built-in inertial sensors for biofeedback applications. Biofeedback systems use various sensors to measure body functions and parameters. These sensor data are analyzed, and the results are communicated back to the user, who then tries to act on the feedback signals. Smartphone inertial sensors can be used to capture body movements in biomechanical biofeedback systems. These sensors exhibit various inaccuracies that induce significant angular and positional errors. We studied deterministic and random errors of smartphone accelerometers and gyroscopes, primarily focusing on their biases. Based on extensive measurements, we determined accelerometer and gyroscope noise models and bias variation ranges. Then, we compiled a table of predicted positional and angular errors under various biofeedback system operation conditions. We suggest several bias compensation options that are suitable for various examples of use in real-time biofeedback applications. Measurements within the developed experimental biofeedback application show that under certain conditions, even uncompensated sensors can be used for real-time biofeedback. For general use, especially for more demanding biofeedback applications, sensor biases should be compensated. We are convinced that real-time biofeedback systems based on smartphone inertial sensors are applicable to many similar examples in sports, healthcare, and other areas. PMID:26927125

  17. Suitability of Smartphone Inertial Sensors for Real-Time Biofeedback Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Anton; Tomažič, Sašo; Umek, Anton

    2016-02-27

    This article studies the suitability of smartphones with built-in inertial sensors for biofeedback applications. Biofeedback systems use various sensors to measure body functions and parameters. These sensor data are analyzed, and the results are communicated back to the user, who then tries to act on the feedback signals. Smartphone inertial sensors can be used to capture body movements in biomechanical biofeedback systems. These sensors exhibit various inaccuracies that induce significant angular and positional errors. We studied deterministic and random errors of smartphone accelerometers and gyroscopes, primarily focusing on their biases. Based on extensive measurements, we determined accelerometer and gyroscope noise models and bias variation ranges. Then, we compiled a table of predicted positional and angular errors under various biofeedback system operation conditions. We suggest several bias compensation options that are suitable for various examples of use in real-time biofeedback applications. Measurements within the developed experimental biofeedback application show that under certain conditions, even uncompensated sensors can be used for real-time biofeedback. For general use, especially for more demanding biofeedback applications, sensor biases should be compensated. We are convinced that real-time biofeedback systems based on smartphone inertial sensors are applicable to many similar examples in sports, healthcare, and other areas.

  18. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S

    2015-08-01

    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70.7 ± 10.3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Biofeedback treatment for sleep bruxism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Fei; Long, Hu; Deng, Meng; Xu, Hui; Fang, Jie; Fan, Yi; Bai, Ding; Han, Xiang-Long

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of any biofeedback treatment on sleep bruxism. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Science, System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and PsycINFO up to October 2012 for randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials involving biofeedback treatment for sleep bruxism. Reference lists of relevant studies were hand searched. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. Seven eligible studies involving 240 participants were finally included. Three of them had moderate risk of bias, and four had high risk of bias. In an electromyographic-measured sleep bruxism episode, meta-analysis showed no significant difference between contingent electrical stimulation and blank control (95% confidence interval = -12.33, 3.38, P = 0.26). Moreover, five studies reported electromyographic activity index. Due to the diversity of biofeedback modalities (auditory, electrical, and visual stimulus) and controls (splint, occlusal adjustment, etc.), these data were unable to be pooled, so only qualitative description was provided. In the current stage, there is no powerful evidence to support the use of biofeedback technology on sleep bruxism treatment. Contingent electrical stimulation which is defined as a kind of biofeedback modality shows no effect on reducing sleep bruxism episode compared with the no-treatment group. Although many studies support the efficacy of biofeedback treatment, more large sample-sized randomized controlled trials which adopt uniform outcome index are necessitated to verify its application.

  20. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders,

  1. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biofeedback device. 882.5050 Section 882.5050 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5050 Biofeedback device. (a) Identification. A biofeedback device is an instrument that provides a visual or auditory signal corresponding to...

  2. Anismus and biofeedback: who benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siproudhis, L; Dautrème, S; Ropert, A; Briand, H; Renet, C; Beusnel, C; Juguet, F; Rabot, A F; Bretagne, J F; Gosselin, M

    1995-06-01

    Biofeedback is the main treatment for dyschezia in patients with anismus, but retraining may fail because of the frequent association of pelvirectal disorders with anismus. We set out to identify indices of biofeedback failure in the treatment of anismus. From May 1990 to May 1993, 27 patients (20 women and seven men; median age 46 years) with anismus in which dyschezia was not improved by laxative agents were enrolled in a biofeedback retraining programme. All patients underwent proctologic examination, anal manometry and defecography. Anismus was defined as an increase in anal pressure during attempted defecation in conjunction with an impairment of rectal emptying as assessed using an objective test (barium paste expulsion). Associated disorders were encountered frequently. These included abnormal perineal descent (22 cases), large rectocoele (12 cases), high-grade rectal prolapse (six cases), abnormally high anal canal pressures at rest (seven cases) and abnormal rectal response to inflation (20 cases). Anismus was the sole abnormality in 12 patients when perineal descent, low-grade prolapse and abnormal rectal sensations were not taken into account. Biofeedback retraining did not suppress dyschezia in 13 out of 27 patients. Neither associated disorders (rectocoele, rectal prolapse, abnormal perineal descent, anal pressure and abnormalities of rectal sensation) nor a relevant past history (hysterectomy, laxative abuse, use of antidepressive agents) were encountered more frequently in these 13 patients than in the other 14. The duration of symptoms before treatment was significantly longer in the group unresponsive to biofeedback retraining (81 +/- 61 compared with 33 +/- 34 months for the responsive group, P anismus is not mandatory because the failure of retraining (48%) is not related to the presence of associated pelvirectal disorders. (2) A long past history of dyschezia seems to provide an index of the failure of biofeedback retraining.

  3. Biofeedback for robotic gait rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Gery

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait therapy can increase the training duration and the intensity for the patients while reducing the physical strain for the therapist. Optimal training effects during gait therapy generally depend on appropriate feedback about performance. Compared to manual treadmill therapy, there is a loss of physical interaction between therapist and patient with robotic gait retraining. Thus, it is difficult for the therapist to assess the necessary feedback and instructions. The aim of this study was to define a biofeedback system for a gait training robot and test its usability in subjects without neurological disorders. Methods To provide an overview of biofeedback and motivation methods applied in gait rehabilitation, previous publications and results from our own research are reviewed. A biofeedback method is presented showing how a rehabilitation robot can assess the patients' performance and deliver augmented feedback. For validation, three subjects without neurological disorders walked in a rehabilitation robot for treadmill training. Several training parameters, such as body weight support and treadmill speed, were varied to assess the robustness of the biofeedback calculation to confounding factors. Results The biofeedback values correlated well with the different activity levels of the subjects. Changes in body weight support and treadmill velocity had a minor effect on the biofeedback values. The synchronization of the robot and the treadmill affected the biofeedback values describing the stance phase. Conclusion Robot-aided assessment and feedback can extend and improve robot-aided training devices. The presented method estimates the patients' gait performance with the use of the robot's existing sensors, and displays the resulting biofeedback

  4. Effects of real-time gait biofeedback on paretic propulsion and gait biomechanics in individuals post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthe, Katlin; Schenck, Christopher; Eicholtz, Steven; Zajac-Cox, Laura; Wolf, Steven; Kesar, Trisha M

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Gait training interventions that target paretic propulsion induce improvements in walking speed and function in individuals post-stroke. Previously, we demonstrated that able-bodied individuals increase propulsion unilaterally when provided real-time biofeedback targeting anterior ground reaction forces (AGRF). The purpose of this study was to, for the first time, investigate short-term effects of real-time AGRF gait biofeedback training on post-stroke gait. Methods Nine individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis (6 females, age = 54 ± 12.4 years 39.2 ± 24.4 months post-stroke) completed three 6-minute training bouts on an instrumented treadmill. During training, visual and auditory biofeedback were provided to increase paretic AGRF during terminal stance. Gait biomechanics were evaluated before training, and during retention tests conducted 2, 15, and 30 minutes post-training. Primary dependent variables were paretic and non-paretic peak AGRF; secondary variables included paretic and non-paretic peak trailing limb angle, plantarflexor moment, and step length. In addition to evaluating the effects of biofeedback training on these dependent variables, we compared effects of a 6-minute biofeedback training bout to a non-biofeedback control condition. Results Compared to pre-training, significantly greater paretic peak AGRFs were generated during the 2, 15, and 30-minute retention tests conducted after the 18-minute biofeedback training session. Biofeedback training induced no significant effects on the non-paretic leg. Comparison of a 6-minute biofeedback training bout with a speed-matched control bout without biofeedback demonstrated a main effect for training type, with greater peak AGRF generation during biofeedback. Discussion Our results suggest that AGRF biofeedback may be a feasible and promising gait training strategy to target propulsive deficits in individuals post-stroke.

  5. Biofeedback treatment of chronic constipation: myths and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, G

    2016-09-01

    Chronic constipation is a prevalent disorder with considerable impact on healthcare costs and quality of life. Most patients would respond to conservative measures in primary care. Patients with refractory constipation are commonly referred to dedicated centers for appropriate investigations and management. After testing, three main subtypes of constipation are commonly identified: normal colon transit, slow transit, and functional defecation disorders. The etiology of functional defecation disorders is consistent with maladaptive behavior, and biofeedback therapy has been considered a valuable treatment option. Being safe and only marginally invasive, retraining has been historically employed to manage all types of refractory constipation. There are a number of strongly held beliefs about biofeedback therapy that are not evidence-based. The aim of this review was to address these beliefs concerning protocols, efficacy, indications, and safety, with a special focus on the relevance of identifying patients with a functional defecation disorder who are ideal candidates for retraining. Randomized controlled trials support the effectiveness of biofeedback therapy for severe, refractory constipation due to functional defecation disorders. Limitations of the treatment are discussed, but biofeedback remains the safest option to successfully manage this hard-to-treat subtype of constipation.

  6. Evaluation of the balance, the corporal symmetry and the functionality in submitted hemiparéticos patients to the trainings for biofeedback visual.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruba, Luciana Barcala

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o equilíbrio, a simetria corporal e a funcionalidade após o treino de equilíbrio por biofeedback visual por meio do Wii Fit. Participaram do estudo vinte indivíduos hemiparéticos pós AVE com idade de 59,35±8,3 anos, sendo divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o grupo convencional (GC) submetido à fisioterapia convencional e o outro, o grupo Wii (GW), submetido à fisioterapia convencional associada aos exercícios do Wii Fit. Na análise da funcionalidade ambo...

  7. Neural activity based biofeedback therapy for Autism spectrum disorder through wearable wireless textile EEG monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Ahna; Rai, Pratyush; Oh, Sechang; Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2014-04-01

    Mu waves, also known as mu rhythms, comb or wicket rhythms are synchronized patterns of electrical activity involving large numbers of neurons, in the part of the brain that controls voluntary functions. Controlling, manipulating, or gaining greater awareness of these functions can be done through the process of Biofeedback. Biofeedback is a process that enables an individual to learn how to change voluntary movements for purposes of improving health and performance through the means of instruments such as EEG which rapidly and accurately 'feedback' information to the user. Biofeedback is used for therapeutic purpose for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by focusing on Mu waves for detecting anomalies in brain wave patterns of mirror neurons. Conventional EEG measurement systems use gel based gold cup electrodes, attached to the scalp with adhesive. It is obtrusive and wires sticking out of the electrodes to signal acquisition system make them impractical for use in sensitive subjects like infants and children with ASD. To remedy this, sensors can be incorporated with skull cap and baseball cap that are commonly used for infants and children. Feasibility of Textile based Sensor system has been investigated here. Textile based multi-electrode EEG, EOG and EMG monitoring system with embedded electronics for data acquisition and wireless transmission has been seamlessly integrated into fabric of these items for continuous detection of Mu waves. Textile electrodes were placed on positions C3, CZ, C4 according to 10-20 international system and their capability to detect Mu waves was tested. The system is ergonomic and can potentially be used for early diagnosis in infants and planning therapy for ASD patients.

  8. [Functional electric stimulation (FES) in cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M H; Lourenção, M I; Ribeiro Sobrinho, J B; Battistella, L R

    1992-01-01

    Our study concerns a patient with cerebral palsy, submitted to conventional occupational therapy and functional electrical stimulation. The results as to manual ability, spasticity, sensibility and synkinesis were satisfactory.

  9. Biofeedback training in chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, M A; Büller, H A; Taminiau, J A

    1993-01-01

    Twenty nine patients, aged 5-16 years, were studied to evaluate whether biofeedback training is effective in treating children with chronic constipation and encopresis; the clinical outcome at six weeks and 12 months was also evaluated. Patients received on average five biofeedback training sessions. The existence of external anal contraction or decreased rectal sensation in 16 (55%) and eight (27%) of the children, respectively was identified on manometry. After biofeedback training, 26 (90%) of the patients learned to relax the external anal sphincter; 18 (63%) normalised rectal sensation. The training resulted in a significant increase in defecation frequency and a significant decrease in encopresis. At six weeks, 16 (55%) of the patients were clinically symptom free. At follow up after 12 months the results were sustained. Only three patients showed a relapse within six months, of whom two were successfully treated with one extra training session. Biofeedback training might be a useful therapeutical approach in children with chronic constipation and encopresis. PMID:8434996

  10. Biofeedback defaecation training for anismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestàr, B; Penninckx, F; Kerremans, R

    1991-11-01

    Anismus, paradoxical external sphincter function, spastic pelvic floor syndrome, rectoanal dysnergia, abdomino-levator incoordination for abdominopelvic asychronism, are all due to paradoxical contraction of the striated sphincter apparatus during voiding and is characterised by prolonged and excessive straining at stool. Biofeedback is the treatment of choice and has to be introduced at an early stage. We present the results of an ambulatory approach based on the integration of simulated balloon defaecation with small (50 ml) as well as constant rectal sensation volume, defaecometry and anal manometry. The pathophysiology visualised by the patient's own anorectal pressure recordings on the screen of a personal computer is explained and corrected. Sixteen patients were treated and followed for at least 1 year. Manometric data were normal except for an increased minimum residual pressure and rectal compliance. Nine patients could not evacuate a 50 ml bolus initially. Simulated defaecation became possible in seven out of these nine patients when the bolus was increased up to the individual constant rectal sensation volume. Two patients could not evacuate this volume either, while defaecation was made much less laborious in the other seven patients. Paradoxical contraction was immediately corrected in 7/16 cases. Also, as an immediate, objective benefit of a single training session, improved defaecation of a 50 ml bolus was observed in 11 patients. This effect was preserved after 6 weeks in nine cases; symptomatic recurrence did not occur in these patients during follow-up. This method of defaecation training has many advantages as compared with sphincter training using EMG electrodes eventually performed in the absence of a desire to defaecate or in lying position.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Biofeedback on heart rate variability in cardiac rehabilitation: practical feasibility and psycho-physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climov, Daniela; Lysy, Camille; Berteau, Sylvain; Dutrannois, Jacques; Dereppe, Hubert; Brohet, Christian; Melin, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback is a self-regulation therapy by which the patient learns how to optimize the functioning of his autonomic nervous system. It has been applied to patients with various cardiovascular disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the practical feasibility and the psychophysiological effects of biofeedback applied to heart rate variability (HRV biofeedback) in order to increase cardiac coherence in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation programme. In this randomised and controlled study, 31 CAD patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or to a control group. The experimental group participated in a programme of 10 sessions of cardiac coherence biofeedback training, in addition to the rehabilitation programme. The control group participated in the usual cardiac rehabilitation programme only. Physiological variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SDNN) and psychosocial variables (anxiety, depression, type D personality) were measured at the start and at the end of the programme in both groups. Statistical comparisons assessed the inter and intra group differences. The small sample size precludes any firm conclusions concerning the effect of cardiac coherence biofeedback on physiological or psychological variables. However, we observed a significant increase of the percentage of cardiac coherence, in relation with an increased SDNN index. Our study demonstrated the practical feasibility of cardiac coherence biofeedback training in CAD patients. Further research is desirable to investigate the potential benefit of cardiac coherence biofeedback as an adjunct to stress management in cardiac rehabilitation.

  12. Electricity price forecasting through transfer function models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogales, F.J.; Conejo, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Forecasting electricity prices in present day competitive electricity markets is a must for both producers and consumers because both need price estimates to develop their respective market bidding strategies. This paper proposes a transfer function model to predict electricity prices based on both past electricity prices and demands, and discuss the rationale to build it. The importance of electricity demand information is assessed. Appropriate metrics to appraise prediction quality are identified and used. Realistic and extensive simulations based on data from the PJM Interconnection for year 2003 are conducted. The proposed model is compared with naive and other techniques. Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006) 57, 350-356.doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2601995; published online 18 May 2005. (author)

  13. Green functions in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of scalar quantum electrodynamics, when vacuum is unstable as to the birth of electron-positron couples, calculated have been Green functions for the case of stable homogeneous electric field. By summing corresponding solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation of the Green function are obtained in the form of contour integrals according to the proper time. Operation representations of all the calculated Green functions in the mentioned field are presented

  14. Oculomotor biofeedback therapy for exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrich, S G

    1982-04-01

    Twelve exotropes of various types received oculomotor biofeedback therapy at State College of New York (SUNY) University Optometric Center. Feedback of a variable pitch tone which reflected changes in ocular vergence reinforced motor control of eye posture. Patients were trained to achieve and sustain alignment in a variety of viewing situations. The six intermittent exotropes in the study who did not have amblyopia or prior history of unsuccessful surgical or orthoptic therapy achieved the highest recovery rating after training. The amblyope and those who had orthoptic training learned to voluntarily correct their eye position, although they did not achieve as acute a sensitivity to loss of alignment as did the others. Therapy restored eye control at near in a young constant exotrope whose condition resulted from severe neurological dysfunction. A constant postsurgical exotrope who had no ability for sensory fusion made little progress. Advantages of oculomotor biofeedback therapy are shorter treatment time, elimination of lengthy home training exercises, and enhanced patient motivation.

  15. Effect of EEG biofeedback on improving brain function of children with comorbidity of ADHD and LD%脑电生物反馈对共患ADHD和LD患儿脑功能改善作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟杰; 仇新华; 薛波; 徐淑祝; 刘晓军

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨脑电生物反馈对共患注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)和学习障碍(LD)患儿脑功能的改善作用.方法 应用脑电生物反馈治疗仪对48例共患ADHD和LD患儿进行治疗.采用脑电反馈仪检测脑电波功率比值,采用持续注意测验检测注意力,采用瑞文推理测验评价智力,采用酶联夹心免疫吸附测定法检测血清浓度.结果 治疗后患儿θ/β、θ/SMR值较前明显下降(P<0.01),漏报数、错误数、反应时间较前降低(P<0.01),智商较前改善(P<0.01),血清β-EP浓度[(180.29±32.38)pg/ml,(191.01±22.85)pg/ml]较前升高(P<0.01).结论 脑电反馈治疗能够显著改善共患ADHD和LD患儿的脑电异常、智力、注意力,且对脑电异常改善作用无左右脑半球特异性.%Objective To investigate the effect of EEG biofeedback treatment on improving brain func-tion of children with Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and Learning disorder(LD).Methods Forty-eight children with Comorbidity of ADHD and LD diagnosed according to ICD-10 received 40 sessions of EEG biofeedback treatment. Feedback was contingent on enhancing beta activity and suppressing the-ta activity. All subjects were measured at pretreatment and at posttreatment on EEG activity, Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, Continuous Performance Task (CPT). Serum levels were measured by enzyme linked immu-nosorbent assay. Results After treatment significante decreases were observed in the EEG ratio of the theta/be-ta and theta/SMR (P<0.01), in the errors commission and errors of omiss and reaction time of CPT (P<0.01). The mean concentration of Serum β-EP[(180.29±32.38) pg/ml and (191.01±22.85) pg/ml] in-creased significantly(P<0.01). IQ improve after treatment (P<0.01). Conclusion EEG biofeedback is highly effective in improving EEG spectrum,intelligence, attention of children with Comorbidity of ADHD and LD. The effect of EEG biofeedback is not hemispheric specific.

  16. Effectiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Univaldo Etsuo Sagae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical therapy in women diagnosed with chronic constipation using functional training of the pelvic floor (biofeedback. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From March 2009 to March 2010, 67 women with chronic constipation were prospectively evaluated. The patients were evaluated and the constipation score proposed by Agachan et al. was applied. Then, they were sent to biofeedback. These patients were divided into 2 groups: with anismus (group I: mean age of 46.90 years old and without anismus (group II: mean age of 44.89 years old and diagnosed by anorectal electromanometry. The treatment was performed with different exercises for each group, associated with some hygieno-dietetic directions. At the end of treatment, the constipation score was reapplied. RESULTS: Pre-biofeedback constipation score in group I was 15.04 (standard deviation - SD=2.48 and post-biofeedback constipation score was 3.39 (SD=1.62 (pOBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do tratamento fisioterapêutico, em mulheres diagnosticadas com constipação crônica, utilizando treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico (biofeedback. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: No período de março de 2009 a março de 2010, foram avaliadas, prospectivamente, 67 mulheres com constipação intestinal. As pacientes foram avaliadas e o escore de constipação, proposto por Agachan et al., foi aplicado; então, foram encaminhadas ao biofeedback. Essas pacientes foram divididas em 2 grupos: com anismus (56 pacientes do grupo I: média de idade 46,90 anos e sem anismus (11 pacientes do grupo II: média de idade 44,89 anos, diagnosticadas pela eletromanometria anorretal. Para o tratamento, foram estipulados exercícios diferentes para cada grupo, associados com orientações higienodietéticas. Ao fim do tratamento, foi reaplicado o escore de constipação. RESULTADOS: O escore de constipação do grupo I, na avaliação pré-biofeedback, foi 15

  17. Real-time biofeedback to target risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury: a technical report for injury prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; DiCesare, Christopher A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-05-20

    Biofeedback training enables an athlete to alter biomechanical and physiological function by receiving biomechanical and physiological data concurrent with or immediately after a task. To compare the effects of 2 different modes of real-time biofeedback focused on reducing risk factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Randomized crossover study design. Biomechanics laboratory and sports medicine center. Female high school soccer players (age 14.8 ± 1.0 y, height 162.6 ± 6.8 cm, mass 55.9 ± 7.0 kg; n = 4). A battery of kinetic- or kinematic-based real-time biofeedback during repetitive double-leg squats. Baseline and posttraining drop vertical jumps were collected to determine if either feedback method improved high injury risk landing mechanics. Maximum knee abduction moment and angle during the landing was significantly decreased after kinetic-focused biofeedback (P = .04). The reduced knee abduction moment during the drop vertical jumps after kinematic-focused biofeedback was not different (P = .2). Maximum knee abduction angle was significantly decreased after kinetic biofeedback (P < .01) but only showed a trend toward reduction after kinematic biofeedback (P = .08). The innovative biofeedback employed in the current study reduced knee abduction load and posture from baseline to posttraining during a drop vertical jump.

  18. Effects of biofeedback on obstructive defecation--reconditioning of the defecation reflex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachrysostomou, M; Smith, A N

    1994-01-01

    Twenty two patients with obstructive defecation were recruited for relaxation training by domiciliary self regulatory biofeedback. Each patient served as his or her own control for anorectal and proctographic assessments. Biofeedback training improved the obstructive symptoms of the patients and showed significant change in various parameters related to the obstructive defecation syndrome. As examined by isotope dynamic proctography: the defecation rate (% of evacuation/defecation time) was significantly increased (p anismus index (p < 0.0001). The rectal sensation was improved (p < 0.05), concomitantly. Biofeedback thus improves the defecation act in patients suffering from inappropriate contraction of the pelvic floor and sphincter musculature. Furthermore, this study has shown that biofeedback objectively influences the defecation reflex leading to an improved quality of higher control of bowel function. PMID:8307478

  19. Electrical tensor Green functions for cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijmenko, S.D.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Formation of electrical tensor Green functions for cylindrical waveguides is considered. Behaviour of these functions in the source region is studied. Cases of electrical tensor Green functions for vector potential G E (r-vector, r'-vector) and electric field G e (r-vector, r'-vector) are analysed. When forming G E (r-vector, r'-vector), its dependence on lateral coordinates is taken into account by means of two-dimensional fundamental vector Hansen functions, several methods are used to take into account the dependence on transverse coordinate. When forming G e (r-vector, r'-vector) we use the fact that G E (r-vector, r'-vector) and G e (r-vector, r'-vector) are the generalized functions. It is shown that G e (r-vector, r'-vector) behaviour in the source region is defined by a singular term, which properties are described by the delta-function. Two variants of solving the problem of defining singular and regular sides of tensor function G E (r-vector, r'-vector) are presented. 23 refs

  20. Improving biofeedback for the treatment of fecal incontinence in women: implementation of a standardized multi-site manometric biofeedback protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, A D; Jelovsek, J E; Whitehead, W E; Newman, D K; Andy, U U; Dyer, K; Harm-Ernandes, I; Cichowski, S; McCormick, J; Rardin, C; Sutkin, G; Shaffer, A; Meikle, S

    2017-01-01

    Standardized training and clinical protocols using biofeedback for the treatment of fecal incontinence (FI) are important for clinical care. Our primary aims were to develop, implement, and evaluate adherence to a standardized protocol for manometric biofeedback to treat FI. In a Pelvic Floor Disorders Network (PFDN) trial, participants were enrolled from eight PFDN clinical centers across the United States. A team of clinical and equipment experts developed biofeedback software on a novel tablet computer platform for conducting standardized anorectal manometry with separate manometric biofeedback protocols for improving anorectal muscle strength, sensation, and urge resistance. The training protocol also included education on bowel function, anal sphincter exercises, and bowel diary monitoring. Study interventionists completed online training prior to attending a centralized, standardized certification course. For the certification, expert trainers assessed the ability of the interventionists to perform the protocol components for a paid volunteer who acted as a standardized patient. Postcertification, the trainers audited interventionists during trial implementation to improve protocol adherence. Twenty-four interventionists attended the in-person training and certification, including 46% advanced practice registered nurses (11/24), 50% (12/24) physical therapists, and 4% physician assistants (1/24). Trainers performed audio audits for 88% (21/24), representing 84 audited visits. All certified interventionists met or exceeded the prespecified 80% pass rate for the audit process, with an average passing rate of 93%. A biofeedback protocol can be successfully imparted to experienced pelvic floor health care providers from various disciplines. Our process promoted high adherence to a standard protocol and is applicable to many clinical settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biofeedback and Communication: Perspectives and Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, C.E.; Goyer, R.S.

    This paper discusses the term "biofeedback" in its historical context and relates it to behavioral research in speech communication. The paper presents an operational model of the communication process, suggesting that biofeedback techniques might be used within the scope of the model to monitor, study, and ultimately modify an…

  2. Transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation in functional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R R; Arbit, J; Siqueira, E B; Zagar, R

    1981-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) has recently emerged as a distinct therapeutic modality in the alleviation of acute and chronic pain. We applied this modality to 15 nonsurgical low-back pain patients having diagnoses of functional pain, with 40% initially having significant pain relief (50% of greater). However, this pain-alleviating effect of TENS did not last longer than two months. After initiation of neurostimulation, increased pain and/or bizarre and inappropriate sensations and behavior frequently developed. We also applied this modality in the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of 24 patients having diagnoses of postsurgical chronic intractable low-back pain of psychosomatic origin and achieved similar results. In both groups, we utilized a simplified poststimulation "normal-saline-sterile-water intramuscular injection test" to confirm the findings from transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation and to verify the functional basis of the present low-back pain.

  3. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry.

  4. Heart Rate Variability (HRV biofeedback: A new training approach for operator’s performance enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auditya Purwandini Sutarto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The widespread implementation of advanced and complex systems requires predominantly operators’ cognitive functions and less importance of human manual control. On the other hand, most operators perform their cognitive functions below their peak cognitive capacity level due to fatigue, stress, and boredom. Thus, there is a need to improve their cognitive functions during work. The goal of this paper is to present a psychophysiology training approach derived from cardiovascular response named heart rate variability (HRV biofeedback. Description of resonant frequency biofeedback - a specific HRV training protocol - is discussed as well as its supported researches for the performance enhancement. HRV biofeedback training works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary HRV and to control patterns of this physiological response. The training is directed to increase HRV amplitude that promotes autonomic nervous system balance. This balance is associated with improved physiological functioning as well as psychological benefits. Most individuals can learn HRV biofeedback training easily which involves slowing the breathing rate (around six breaths/min to each individual’s resonant frequency at which the amplitude of HRV is maximized. Maximal control over HRV can be obtained in most people after approximately four sessions of training. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of HRV biofeedback to the improvement of some cognitive functions in both simulated and real industrial operators.

  5. Effects of unilateral real-time biofeedback on propulsive forces during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Christopher; Kesar, Trisha M

    2017-06-06

    In individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis, reduced push-off force generation in the paretic leg negatively impacts walking function. Gait training interventions that increase paretic push-off can improve walking function in individuals with neurologic impairment. During normal locomotion, push-off forces are modulated with variations in gait speed and slope. However, it is unknown whether able-bodied individuals can selectively modulate push-off forces from one leg in response to biofeedback. Here, in a group of young, neurologically-unimpaired individuals, we determined the effects of a real-time visual and auditory biofeedback gait training paradigm aimed at unilaterally increasing anteriorly-directed ground reaction force (AGRF) in the targeted leg. Ground reaction force data during were collected from 7 able-bodied individuals as they walked at a self-selected pace on a dual-belt treadmill instrumented with force platforms. During 11-min of gait training, study participants were provided real-time AGRF biofeedback encouraging a 20-30% increase in peak AGRF generated by their right (targeted) leg compared to their baseline (pre-training) AGRF. AGRF data were collected before, during, and after the biofeedback training period, as well as during two retention tests performed without biofeedback and after standing breaks. Compared to AGRFs generated during the pre-training gait trials, participants demonstrated a significantly greater AGRF in the targeted leg during and immediately after training, indicating that biofeedback training was successful at inducing increased AGRF production in the targeted leg. Additionally, participants continued to demonstrate greater AGRF production in the targeted leg after two standing breaks, showing short-term recall of the gait pattern learned during the biofeedback training. No significant effects of training were observed on the AGRF in the non-targeted limb, showing the specificity of the effects of biofeedback toward the

  6. Biofeedback in medicine: who, when, why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Biofeedback is a mind–body technique in which individuals learn how to modify their physiology for the purpose of improving physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health. Much like physical therapy, biofeedback training requires active participation on the part of patients and often regular practice between training sessions. Clinical biofeedback may be used to manage disease symptoms as well as to improve overall health and wellness through stress management training. Research has shown that biofeedback interventions are efficacious in treating a variety of medical conditions, and many Americans are turning to biofeedback and other less traditional therapies for their routine healthcare. Clinical biofeedback training is growing increasingly popular in the USA, as many people are seeking out relatively new approaches to healthcare. This article provides an overview of clinical biofeedback training, outlines two models of training, details research which has established how effective biofeedback is in patients with a given disease, and describes who should be referred for biofeedback training. PMID:22477926

  7. BIOFEEDBACK THERAPY FOR CONSTIPATION IN ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Dyssynergic defecation is common and affects up to one half of patients with chronic constipation. This acquired behavioral problem is due to the inability to coordinate the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles to evacuate stools. Today, it is possible to diagnose this problem and treat this effectively with biofeedback therapy, history, prospective stool diaries, and anorectal physiological tests. Several randomized controlled trails have demonstrated that biofeedback therapy using neuromuscular training and visual and verbal feedback is not only efficacious but superior to other modalities such as laxative or sham training. Also the symptom improvement is due a change in the underlying pathophysiology. Development of user friendly approaches to biofeedback therapy and use of home biofeedback programs will significantly enhance the adoption of this treatment by gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons in the future. Improved reimbursement for this proven and relatively inexpensive treatment will carry a significant impact on the problem. PMID:21382587

  8. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based strain sensors for a wearable monitoring and biofeedback system for pressure ulcer prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, Patrick; Genest, Jonathan; Patenaude, Johanne; Poirier, Marie-Sol; Chenel, Vanessa; Béland, Jean-Pierre; Legault, Georges-Auguste; Bernier, Louise; Tapin, Danielle; Beauvais, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the functioning principles of CNTs and their electrical and mechanical properties when used as strain sensors and describes a system embodiment for a wearable monitoring and biofeedback platform for use in pressure ulcer prevention and rehabilitation. Two type of CNTs films (multi-layered CNTs film vs purified film) were characterized electrically and mechanically for potential use as source material. The loosely woven CNTs film (multi-layered) showed substantial less sensitivity than the purified CNTs film but had an almost linear response to stress and better mechanical properties. CNTs have the potential to achieve a much higher sensitivity to strain than other piezoresistors based on regular of conductive particles such as commercially available resistive inks and could become an innovative source material for wearable strain sensors. We are currently continuing the characterization of CNTs based strain sensors and exploring their use in a design for 3-axis strain sensors.

  9. Functional Electrical Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…

  10. Biofeedback in the treatment of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael G; Moravec, Christine S

    2010-07-01

    Biofeedback training can be used to reduce activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and increase activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). It is well established that hyperactivation of the SNS contributes to disease progression in chronic heart failure. It has been postulated that underactivation of the PNS may also play a role in heart failure pathophysiology. In addition to autonomic imbalance, a chronic inflammatory process is now recognized as being involved in heart failure progression, and recent work has established that activation of the inflammatory process may be attenuated by vagal nerve stimulation. By interfering with both autonomic imbalance and the inflammatory process, biofeedback-assisted stress management may be an effective treatment for patients with heart failure by improving clinical status and quality of life. Recent studies have suggested that biofeedback and stress management have a positive impact in patients with chronic heart failure, and patients with higher perceived control over their disease have been shown to have better quality of life. Our ongoing study of biofeedback-assisted stress management in the treatment of end-stage heart failure will also examine biologic end points in treated patients at the time of heart transplant, in order to assess the effects of biofeedback training on the cellular and molecular components of the failing heart. We hypothesize that the effects of biofeedback training will extend to remodeling the failing human heart, in addition to improving quality of life.

  11. Using music as a signal for biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Ilias; Seinfeld, Sofia; Arroyo-Palacios, Jorge; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the potential benefits of conveying biofeedback stimulus using a musical signal have appeared in recent years with the intent of harnessing the strong effects that music listening may have on subjects. While results are encouraging, the fundamental question has yet to be addressed, of how combined music and biofeedback compares to the already established use of either of these elements separately. This experiment, involving young adults (N = 24), compared the effectiveness at modulating participants' states of physiological arousal of each of the following conditions: A) listening to pre-recorded music, B) sonification biofeedback of the heart rate, and C) an algorithmically modulated musical feedback signal conveying the subject's heart rate. Our hypothesis was that each of the conditions (A), (B) and (C) would differ from the other two in the extent to which it enables participants to increase and decrease their state of physiological arousal, with (C) being more effective than (B), and both more than (A). Several physiological measures and qualitative responses were recorded and analyzed. Results show that using musical biofeedback allowed participants to modulate their state of physiological arousal at least equally well as sonification biofeedback, and much better than just listening to music, as reflected in their heart rate measurements, controlling for respiration-rate. Our findings indicate that the known effects of music in modulating arousal can therefore be beneficially harnessed when designing a biofeedback protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A wireless wearable surface functional electrical stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Guo, Ai-Wen; Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Xia, Yang; Huang, Jia; Xu, Chong-Yao; Huang, Zong-Hao; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Gong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a wireless wearable functional electrical stimulator controlled by Android phone with real-time-varying stimulation parameters for multichannel surface functional electrical stimulation application has been developed. It can help post-stroke patients using more conveniently. This study focuses on the prototype design, including the specific wristband concept, circuits and stimulation pulse-generation algorithm. A novel stimulator circuit with a driving stage using a complementary current source technique is proposed to achieve a high-voltage compliance, a large output impedance and an accurate linear voltage-to-current conversion. The size of the prototype has been significantly decreased to 17 × 7.5 × 1 cm3. The performance of the prototype has been tested with a loaded resistor and wrist extension/flexion movement of three hemiplegic patients. According to the experiments, the stimulator can generate four-channel charge-balanced biphasic stimulation with a voltage amplitude up to 60 V, and the pulse frequency and width can be adjusted in real time with a range of 100-600 μs and 20-80 Hz, respectively.

  13. Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical and mental health issues, including: Anxiety or stress Asthma Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Chemotherapy side effects Chronic pain Constipation Fecal incontinence Fibromyalgia Headache High blood pressure Irritable bowel syndrome Motion sickness ...

  14. A real time biofeedback using Kinect and Wii to improve gait for post-total knee replacement rehabilitation: a case study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Zeina, Daniel; Teshome, Assefa K; Skinner, Elizabeth; Begg, Rezaul; Abbott, John Haxby

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a low-cost real-time biofeedback system to assist with rehabilitation for patients following total knee replacement (TKR) and to assess its feasibility of use in a post-TKR patient case study design with a comparison group. The biofeedback system consisted of Microsoft Kinect(TM) and Nintendo Wii balance board with a dedicated software. A six-week inpatient rehabilitation program was augmented by biofeedback and tested in a single patient following TKR. Three patients underwent a six weeks standard rehabilitation with no biofeedback and served as a control group. Gait, function and pain were assessed and compared before and after the rehabilitation. The biofeedback software incorporated real time visual feedback to correct limb alignment, movement pattern and weight distribution. Improvements in pain, function and quality of life were observed in both groups. The strong improvement in the knee moment pattern demonstrated in the case study indicates feasibility of the biofeedback-augmented intervention. This novel biofeedback software has used simple commercially accessible equipment that can be feasibly incorporated to augment a post-TKR rehabilitation program. Our preliminary results indicate the potential of this biofeedback-assisted rehabilitation to improve knee function during gait. Research is required to test this hypothesis. Implications for Rehabilitation The real-time biofeedback system developed integrated custom-made software and simple low-cost commercially accessible equipment such as Kinect and Wii board to provide augmented information during rehabilitation following TKR. The software incorporated key rehabilitation principles and visual feedback to correct alignment of the lower legs, pelvic and trunk as well as providing feedback on limbs weight distribution. The case study patient demonstrated greater improvement in their knee function where a more normal biphasic knee moment was achieved following the six

  15. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-04-01

    The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients' respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion management techniques affected by system latencies used in radiotherapy.

  16. Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Nenad S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. Methods The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype’s software. Results The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers. One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. Conclusions The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.

  17. Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Nenad S; Saranovac, Lazar V; Popović, Dejan B

    2012-08-09

    The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype's software. The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.

  18. Biofeedback Training for Peak Performance in Sport - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Demerdzieva, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    The use of peripheral biofeedback and neurofeedback is growing rapidly in sport psychology. The aim is to lower competition stress, anxiety, and muscle tension.We present a case report concerned to biofeedback training in an athlete in preparation to Olympic Game competition. It is the first case in our region to prepare athlete with biofeedback modalities. Obtained results are very encouraging.

  19. EMG Biofeedback Training Versus Systematic Desensitization for Test Anxiety Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Cabianca, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Biofeedback training to reduce test anxiety among university students was investigated. Biofeedback training with systematic desensitization was compared to an automated systematic desensitization program not using EMG feedback. Biofeedback training is a useful technique for reducing test anxiety, but not necessarily more effective than systematic…

  20. BIOFEEDBACK TRAINING AND TENSION-TYPE HEADACHE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šecić, Ana; Cvjeticanin, Timon; Kes, Vanja Bašić

    2016-03-01

    Biofeedback is a training method, which connects physiological and psychological processes in a person for the purposes of improving his/her physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health. In biofeedback treatment, an active role of the patient is stressed for him/her to be able to actively control the physiological and emotional processes. The aim of biofeedback is to improve the conscious control of the individual's involuntary physiological activity. Research has shown that biofeedback, either applied alone or in combination with other behavioral therapies (techniques), is an effective treatment for various medical and psychological disorders, from headache and hypertension to temporomandibular and attention deficit disorders. More than 90% of adults experience headache once a year, which makes headache one of the most common symptoms and diagnoses in medicine. Tension-type headaches occur in at least 40% of the population and their impact on the health insurance costs and diminished productivity is significant. Studies have shown that clinical biofeedback training is effective in treating headaches. Moreover, the authors stress the need for additional research and further development of methodology for this kind of research.

  1. Enhancing generalisation in biofeedback intervention using the challenge point framework: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    HITCHCOCK, ELAINE R.; BYUN, TARA McALLISTER

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback intervention can help children achieve correct production of a treatment-resistant error sound, but generalisation is often limited. This case study suggests that generalisation can be enhanced when biofeedback intervention is structured in accordance with a “challenge point” framework for speech-motor learning. The participant was an 11-year-old with residual /r/ misarticulation who had previously attained correct /r/ production through a structured course of ultrasound biofeedback treatment but did not generalise these gains beyond the word level. Treatment difficulty was adjusted in an adaptive manner following predetermined criteria for advancing, maintaining, or moving back a level in a multidimensional hierarchy of functional task complexity. The participant achieved and maintained virtually 100% accuracy in producing /r/ at both word and sentence levels. These preliminary results support the efficacy of a semi-structured implementation of the challenge point framework as a means of achieving generalisation and maintenance of treatment gains. PMID:25216375

  2. ANALYSIS OF A DIFFERENTIATED APPROACH TO THE APPOINTMENT OF DICK METHODS IN BIOFEEDBACK CORRECTION AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Polyakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of research: analysis of the effectiveness of Biofeedback therapy is differentiated depending on the clinical forms of autonomic dysfunction. Exchange rate control efficacy of biofeedback hardware was conducted on the dynamics of clinical andl aboratory data, surveys and assessment of the functional State of the SNC using heart rate variability, vegetative resonance test, Kerdo index definition, as well as èlektrokardiografiče applications and questionnaires, characterizing the State of psychoemotional sphere (Spilbergera–Hanina, test, Luscher. Laboratory tests include a complete blood count with evaluation of Adaptive reactions of the organism. The results of the rehabilitation complex of the patients with the use of biofeedback have confirmed its effectiveness.

  3. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Does Not Substitute for Asthma Steroid Controller Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul M; Irvin, Charles G; Lu, Shou-En; Scardella, Anthony; Roehmheld-Hamm, Beatrix; Aviles-Velez, Milisyaris; Graves, Jessica; Vaschillo, Evgeny G; Vaschillo, Bronya; Hoyte, Flavia; Nelson, Harold; Wamboldt, Frederick S

    2018-03-01

    Despite previous findings of therapeutic effects for heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) on asthma, it is not known whether HRVB can substitute either for controller or rescue medication, or whether it affects airway inflammation. Sixty-eight paid volunteer steroid naïve study participants with mild or moderate asthma were given 3 months of HRVB or a comparison condition consisting of EEG alpha biofeedback with relaxing music and relaxed paced breathing (EEG+), in a two-center trial. All participants received a month of intensive asthma education prior to randomization. Both treatment conditions produced similar significant improvements on the methacholine challenge test (MCT), asthma symptoms, and asthma quality of life (AQOL). MCT effects were of similar size to those of enhanced placebo procedures reported elsewhere, and were 65% of those of a course of a high-potency inhaled steroid budesonide given to a sub-group of participants following biofeedback training. Exhaled nitric oxide decreased significantly only in the HRVB group, 81% of the budesonide effect, but with no significant differences between groups. Participants reported becoming more relaxed during practice of both techniques. Administration of albuterol after biofeedback sessions produced a large improvement in pulmonary function test results, indicating that neither treatment normalized pulmonary function as a potent controller medication would have done. Impulse oscillometry showed increased upper airway (vocal cord) resistance during biofeedback periods in both groups. These data suggest that HRVB should not be considered an alternative to asthma controller medications (e.g., inhaled steroids), although both biofeedback conditions produced some beneficial effects, warranting further research, and suggesting potential complementary effects. Various hypotheses are presented to explain why HRVB effects on asthma appeared smaller in this study than in earlier studies. Clinical Trial

  4. Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Mernaya, E M; Shtark, M B

    2009-06-01

    The influences of individual musical practice and the same practice supplemented with biofeedback using electrophysiological markers for optimum music-performing activity were studied in 39 music students. Traditional technical practice produced increases in integral EMG power and decreases in alpha activity in most of the students with initially low maximum alpha activity peak frequencies. Similar practice but combined with individual sessions of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback were accompanied by increases in the frequency, bandwidth, and activation responses of EEG alpha rhythms in all subjects, along with decreases in EEG integral power. The efficacy of training with biofeedback and the ability to experience psychomotor learning depended on the initial individual characteristics of EEG alpha activity.

  5. Functional electrical stimulation on paraplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on clinical and physiological effects of 8 months Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES of quadriceps femoris muscle on 16 paraplegic patients. Each patient had muscle biopsies, CT-muscle diameter measurements, knee extension strength testing carried out before and after 8 months FES training. Skin perfusion was documented through infrared telethermography and xenon clearance, muscle perfusion was recorded through thallium scintigraphy. After 8 months FES training baseline skin perfusion showed 86 % increase, muscle perfusion was augmented by 87 %. Muscle fiber diameters showed an average increase of 59 % after 8 months FES training. Muscles in patients with spastic paresis as well as in patients with denervation showed an increase in aerob and anaerob muscle enzymes up to the normal range. Even without axonal neurotropic substances FES was able to demonstrate fiberhypertrophy, enzyme adaptation and intracellular structural benefits in denervated muscles. The increment in muscle area as visible on CT-scans of quadriceps femoris was 30 % in spastic paraplegia and 10 % in denervated patients respectively. FES induced changes were less in areas not directly underneath the surface electrodes. We strongly recommend the use of Kern`s current for FES in denervated muscles to induce tetanic muscle contractions as we formed a very critical opinion of conventional exponential current. In patients with conus-cauda-lesions FES must be integrated into modern rehabilitation to prevent extreme muscle degeneration and decubital ulcers. Using FES we are able to improve metabolism and induce positive trophic changes in our patients lower extremities. In spastic paraplegics the functions „rising and walking“ achieved through FES are much better training than FES ergometers. Larger muscle masses are activated and an increased heart rate is measured, therefore the impact on cardiovascular fitness and metabolism is much greater. This effectively

  6. [Biofeedback in young singer vocal training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Paula; Ciochină, Al D; Burlui, Ada; Zaharia, D

    2007-01-01

    Biofeedback therapy is a learning process that is based on "operant conditioning" techniques. To estimate the significance of biofeedback to an accurate and faster control of singing voice emission. Significantly, it was discovered that professional singers active in performing of both classical and music theatre repertoire with regard to the visual-kinesthetic effect of melodic contour in musical notation as it affect vocal timbre. The results of the study also indicate that the development of new technology for youth singer vocal training, may be useful to these singers.

  7. Influence of sphincter defect on biofeedback outcomes in patients with fecal incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. Kaiser, Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effect of sphincter defect (SD on biofeedback (BF response in patients with fecal incontinence. Methods: two hundred and forty-two patients with fecal incontinence undergoing BF as exclusive treatment were identified from a BF database. Patients were evaluated with fecal incontinence score (Cleveland Clinic Florida – Fecal Incontinence Score, CCF-FI and anorectal physiology tests. The pre- and immediate post-treatment outcomes were obtained from the chart, and the long-term outcomes by CCF-FI score that was sent by mail. Results: 242 patients underwent BF for fecal incontinence. 143 (59.1% underwent ultrasonography, 43 (30.1% of whom had sphincter defect detected on US. The immediate outcomes were not affected by the presence of absence of SD. The second CCF-FI questionnaire was mailed after a mean of 6.1 years after treatment. 31 (57.4% exhibited improvement, 4 (7.4% remained unchanged, and 19 (35.2% had worsening function, which was significantly inferior in patients with SD (p = 0.021. Electromyography demonstrated increased electrical activity in the contraction phase after BF in both groups. Conclusions: the majority of patients experience improvement in fecal incontinence after BF. However, patients with SD detected on US prior to treatment seem to have worse function at long term. Resumo: Objetivos: avaliar a influência do defeito esfincteriano (DE na resposta ao biofeedback (BF em pacientes com incontinência fecal. Métodos: 242 pacientes com incontinência fecal, submetidos exclusivamente ao BF como forma de tratamento, foram selecionados. Os pacientes foram submetidos ao escore de incontinência fecal (Cleveland Clinic Flórida-Escore de Incontinência Fecal, CCF-IF e testes de investigação da fisiologia anorretal. O pré e pós-tratamento imediato foram obtidos do prontuário e para avaliação a longo prazo foi enviado o CCF-IF pelo correio. Resultados: 242 pacientes realizaram BF. 143 (59

  8. BIOFEEDBACK: A NEW METHOD FOR CORRECTION OF MOTOR DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. S. Pekker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major disabling factors in multiple sclerosis is motor disorders. Rehabilitation of such violations is one of the most important medical and social problems. Currently, most of the role given to the development of methods for correction of motor disorders based on accessing natural resources of the human body. One of these methods is the adaptive control with biofeedback (BFB. The aim of our study was the correction of motor disorders in multiple sclerosis patients using biofeedback training. In the study, we have developed scenarios for training rehabilitation program computer EMG biofeedback aimed at correction of motor disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The method was tested in the neurological clinic of SSMU. The study included 9 patients with definite diagnosis of MS with the presence of the clinical picture of combined pyramidal and cerebellar symptoms. Assessed the effectiveness of rehabilitation procedures biofeedback training using specialized scales (rating scale functional systems Kurtzke; questionnaire research quality of life – SF-36, evaluation of disease impact Profile – SIP and score on a scale fatigue – FSS. In the studied group of patients decreased score on a scale of fatigue (FSS, increased motor control (SIP2, the physical and mental components of health (SF-36. The tendency to reduce the amount of neurological deficit by reducing the points on the pyramidal Kurtske violations. Analysis of the exchange rate dynamics of biofeedback training on EMG for trained muscles indicates an increase in the recorded signal OEMG from session to session. Proved a tendency to increase strength and coordination trained muscles of patients studied.Positive results of biofeedback therapy in patients with MS can be recommended to use this method in the complex rehabilitation measures to correct motor and psycho-emotional disorders.

  9. Changes in muscle thickness after exercise and biofeedback in people with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partner, Shandi L; Sutherlin, Mark Alan; Acocello, Shellie; Saliba, Susan A; Magrum, Eric M; Hart, Joe M

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with low back pain (LBP) have reduced function of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles. Biofeedback during exercise may increase the ability to contract the TrA and LM muscles compared with exercise alone. To compare TrA preferential activation ratio (PAR) and the percent change in LM-muscle thickness in patients with LBP history before and after exercise with or without biofeedback. Controlled laboratory study. University research laboratory. 20 LBP individuals, 10 exercise alone and 10 exercise with biofeedback. Patients were allotted to tabletop exercises in isolation or tabletop exercises with visual, auditory, and tactile biofeedback. TrA PAR and percent change in LM-muscle thickness. There were no differences between groups at baseline (all P > .05). Nonparametric statistics showed decreased resting muscle thickness for total lateral abdominal-wall muscles (P = .007) but not TrA (P = .410) or LM (P = .173). Percent TrA thickness increased from table to standing positions before (P = .006) and after exercise (P = .009). TrA PAR increased after exercise (pre 0.01 ± 0.02, post 0.03 ± 0.04, P = .033) for all patients and for exercise with biofeedback (pre 0.02 ± 0.01, post 0.03 ± 0.01, P = .037) but not for exercise alone (pre 0.01 ± 0.02, post 0.02 ± 0.05, P = .241). No group differences were observed for TrA PAR before (exercise 0.01 ± 0.02, exercise with biofeedback 0.02 ± 0.01, P = .290) or after exercise (exercise 0.02 ± 0.05, exercise with biofeedback 0.03 ± 0.01, P = .174). There were no group differences in LM percent change before exercise (P = .999) or after exercise (P = .597). In addition, no changes were observed in LM percent change as a result of exercise among all participants (P = .391) or for each group (exercise P = .508, exercise with biofeedback P = .575). TrA PAR increased after a single session of exercises, whereas no thickness changes occurred in LM.

  10. Plasmonic functionalities based on detuned electrical dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders Lambertus; Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the concept of detuned electrical dipoles (DED) that originates from the plasmonic realization of the dressed-state picture of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic physics. Numerically and experimentally analyzing DED metamaterials consisting of unit cells...

  11. The Response of Hyperkinesis to EMG Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Maryellen J.; And Others

    A study was conducted involving eight hyperkinetic males (11-15 years old) to determine if Ss receiving electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training would show a reduction in frontalis muscle tension, hyperactivity, and lability, and increases in self-esteem and visual and auditory attention span. Individual 45- and 30-minute relaxation exercises…

  12. Outlet obstruction constipation (anismus) managed by biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawimbe, B M; Papachrysostomou, M; Binnie, N R; Clare, N; Smith, A N

    1991-10-01

    Fifteen subjects presenting with intractable constipation due to obstructive defecation, mean (SEM) duration 8.8 (1.8) years, had the inappropriate contraction and electromyographic changes in the pelvic floor muscles and external and sphincter typical of this condition. An electromyographically derived index was used to grade its severity. A self applied biofeedback device was used to allow electromyographic recording of the abnormal external anal sphincter. The subjects were encouraged to reduce the abnormal electromyographic activity on straining after instruction and training. The procedure was intended as a relearning process in which the non-relaxing activity of the pelvic floor was gradually suppressed. Biofeedback training was maintained on a domiciliary basis for a mean time of 3.1 weeks and resulted in a significant reduction in the anismus index (mean (SEM) 69.9 (7.8)% before biofeedback, mean 14 (3.9)% after biofeedback, p less than 0.01). There was an associated reduction in the time spent straining at stool and in the difficulty of defecation and an increased frequency of defecation. Defecatory video proctograms in six subjects showed improvements in the anorectal angle during straining and evacuation. The clinical benefit to the patients persisted after a mean follow up of 6.2 months.

  13. [Biofeedback effectiveness in patients with fecal incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Mora, José Raúl; Buenrostro-Acebes, José María; Erciga-Vergara, Nancy; Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan de Dios; Mosqueda, Maria Elena; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; González-Alvarado, Carlos; Villanueva-Saenz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is defined as an involuntary bowel movement through the anal canal in inadequate time and place. There are different types of therapies for the management of fecal incontinence, being biofeedback therapy one of the most effective techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessary number of sessions of biofeedback electromyographyc therapy to achieve the maximum sphincteric complex contraction. Descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study. 65 patients with fecal incontinence were included. Weekly electromyographyc biofeedback therapies were applied, with a maximum of 6, in which the sphincteric complex contraction was measured. A two ways Friedman analysis was made to determine the significant differences between the sessions. A total of 65 patients were evaluated for fecal incontinence. The values for pelvic floor contraction were significantly higher in the third session, and did not show any significant difference in posterior sessions. The maximum contraction of the sphicnteric complex was achieved in the third weekly biofeedback session, without any significant differences in the posterior sessions.

  14. Biofeedback-driven dialysis: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Antonio; Ferramosca, Emiliana; Mancini, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The progressive increase in the mean age and the growing conditions of co-morbidity, especially of cardiovascular pathologies and diabetes, have significantly worsened the patients' clinical status and tolerance to the hemodialysis (HD) treatment. On the other hand, the demand for short treatment times enhances the risk for hemodynamic instability as well as for inadequate depuration. The traditional management of the dialysis session, setting of predefined treatment parameters, with active therapeutic interventions only in the event of complications, is definitely unsuitable for short-lasting treatments, often complicated by hemodynamic instability, especially in critical patients. The first step to improve the management of the dialysis session is the utilization of continuous and uninvasive monitoring systems for hemodynamic or biochemical parameters involved in the dialysis quality. Special sensors for the continuous measurement of blood volume, blood temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, electrolytes, have been realized throughout the last 10 years. As a second step, some of these devices have been implemented in the dialysis instrumentation, mainly with a view to preventing cardiocirculatory instability but also to control the dialysis efficiency (biofeedback control systems). The basic components of a biofeedback system are: the plant, the sensors, the actuators and the controller. The plant is the biological process that we need to control, while the sensors are the devices used for measuring the output variables. The actuators are the working arms of the controller. The controller is the mathematical model that continuously sets the measured output variable against the reference input and modifies the actuators in order to reduce any discrepancies. Yet, in practice there are a number of conceptual, physical and technological difficulties to be overcome. In particular, the behavior of what is to be controlled may be non-linear and time-varying, with

  15. 3Mo: A model for music-based biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter-Jan Maes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of sports and motor rehabilitation, it is of major importance to regulate and control physiological processes and physical motion in most optimal ways. For that purpose, real-time auditory feedback of physiological and physical information based on sound signals, often termed `sonification’, has been proven particularly useful. However, the use of music in biofeedback systems has been much less explored. In the current article, we assert that the use of music, and musical principles, can have a major added value, with respect to mere sound signals, to the benefit of psychological and physical optimization of sports and motor rehabilitation tasks. In this article, we present the 3Mo model to describe three main functions of music that contribute to these benefits. These functions relate the power of music to Motivate, and to Monitor and Modify physiological and physical processes. The model brings together concepts and theories related to human sensorimotor interaction with music, and specifies the underlying psychological and physiological principles. This 3Mo model is intended to provide a conceptual framework that guides future research on musical biofeedback systems in the domain of sports and motor rehabilitation.

  16. 3Mo: A Model for Music-Based Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Buhmann, Jeska; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the domain of sports and motor rehabilitation, it is of major importance to regulate and control physiological processes and physical motion in most optimal ways. For that purpose, real-time auditory feedback of physiological and physical information based on sound signals, often termed "sonification," has been proven particularly useful. However, the use of music in biofeedback systems has been much less explored. In the current article, we assert that the use of music, and musical principles, can have a major added value, on top of mere sound signals, to the benefit of psychological and physical optimization of sports and motor rehabilitation tasks. In this article, we present the 3Mo model to describe three main functions of music that contribute to these benefits. These functions relate the power of music to Motivate, and to Monitor and Modify physiological and physical processes. The model brings together concepts and theories related to human sensorimotor interaction with music, and specifies the underlying psychological and physiological principles. This 3Mo model is intended to provide a conceptual framework that guides future research on musical biofeedback systems in the domain of sports and motor rehabilitation.

  17. Influence of visual and auditory biofeedback on partial body weight support treadmill training of individuals with chronic hemiparesis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, A; Gama, G; Trigueiro, L; Ribeiro, T; Silva, E; Galvão, É; Lindquist, A

    2015-02-01

    Stroke is an important causal factor of deficiency and functional dependence worldwide. To determine the immediate effects of visual and auditory biofeedback, combined with partial body weight supported (PBWS) treadmill training on the gait of individuals with chronic hemiparesis. Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Thirty subjects with chronic hemiparesis and ability to walk with some help. Participants were randomized to a control group that underwent only PBWS treadmill training; or experimental I group with visual biofeedback from the display monitor, in the form of symbolic feet as the subject took a step; or experimental group II with auditory biofeedback associated display, using a metronome at 115% of the individual's preferred cadence. They trained for 20 minutes and were evaluated before and after training. Spatio-temporal and angular gait variables were obtained by kinematics from the Qualisys Motion Analysis system. Increases in speed and stride length were observed for all groups over time (speed: F=25.63; Phemiparesis, in short term. Additional studies are needed to determine whether, in long term, the biofeedback will promote additional benefit to the PBWS treadmill training. The findings of this study indicate that visual and auditory biofeedback does not bring immediate benefits on PBWS treadmill training of individuals with chronic hemiparesis. This suggest that, for additional benefits are achieved with biofeedback, effects should be investigated after long-term training, which may determine if some kind of biofeedback is superior to another to improve the hemiparetic gait.

  18. The Mozart effect in biofeedback visual rehabilitation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Serena; Librando, Aloisa; Esposito, Mariacristina; Vingolo, Enzo M

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of acoustic biofeedback by means of Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K. 448 to maintain and/or restore visual performance in a patient with macular pucker and glaucoma. A 74-year-old patient with open angle glaucoma in both eyes and macular pucker in the right eye (RE) underwent visual rehabilitation with acoustic biofeedback by means of the MAIA™ Vision Training Module (Centervue, Padova, Italy) 10 minutes each eye once a week for 5 weeks. The patient was asked to move his eyes according to a sound which changed into Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos when the patient locked the fixation target. Best-corrected visual acuity improved in his right eye (RE) and was stable in the left eye (LE). Fixation stability improved in both eyes, and retinal sensitivity decreased in the RE and improved in the LE. The characteristic of the macular pucker did not change during the training as demonstrated with optical coherence tomography. The patient was very satisfied with the training, as demonstrated by a 25-item questionnaire (National Eye Institute - Visual Functioning Questionnaire, NEI-VFQ-25). The patient's reading speed and the character size which he was able to read improved in his RE. Music could enhance synaptic plasticity and affect neural learning and fixation training by means of MAIA vision training. Therefore it can improve visual performance in patients with macular pucker, postpone the surgical time, and assure a better quality of life for the patient.

  19. Biofeedback for anismus in 15 sexually abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, A M; Duval, V; Roussignol, C; Berkelmans, I; Peninque, P; Denis, P

    1996-01-01

    This work aimed to see whether (1) biofeedback is useful and (2) whether it needs to be combined with psychotherapy in sexually abused patients with anismus. Fifteen women aged 41.2 +/- 4.1 years who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood (9 cases) or adulthood (6 cases) and complained of symptoms of irritable bowel disease were studied. Anismus was recorded during anorectal manometry in all cases. Patients were free to choose biofeedback and/or group psychotherapy and/or individual psychotherapy. When necessary, psychoactive drugs were prescribed after a psychiatric evaluation. Initially all the patients chose biofeedback and none accepted psychotherapy. Eight patients accepted psychotherapy after several weeks of biofeedback. Thirteen patients completed the study: 5 treated by biofeedback alone, 5 with biofeedback and group therapy, and 3 with biofeedback and individual psychotherapy. Eight women recovered completely from their symptoms, only two of whom had had biofeedback without psychotherapy. Biofeedback alone was not always sufficient to cure abused patients, but was chose initially by all the patients. It could initially be a middle path between somatic treatment and psychotherapy, at a time when patients are not yet ready to undertake the latter.

  20. Impact Analysis of Electrical Current Characteristics in Relay Function for Electrical and Electronic Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawadi Hasim

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to study effect of electrical current on relay reaction, which has coil and switch inside the relay. An analysis on the electrical current will be conducted to determine current limitation for relay activation purpose. The result of analysis showing that current characteristic of relay and applied load will present their affect to the relay function performance. Finding from this result will bring the idea to develop a suitable design circuit for electrical and electronic protection. (author)

  1. Biofeedback device for patients on axillary crutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, E J; Goh, J C; Bose, K; Toh, S L; Choo, A

    1989-08-01

    The axillary crutch is commonly prescribed as an ambulatory aid to patients with temporal or permanent disability in the lower extremity. When fitting the axillary crutch, it is important that the user be instructed not to bear excessive weight on the axillary bar. Excessive weight bearing on the axillary bar can result in a sevenfold increase in the reaction force under the armpit. This force may be a contributory factor to crutch paralysis or thrombosis of the axillobrachial artery. In order to prevent this occurrence an electronic biofeedback device was designed and developed for use in the training of 3-point swing-through axillary crutch ambulation. It detects excessive weight bearing on the axillary bar during crutch ambulation and produces an audible signal which prompts the patient to make necessary adjustment to relieve load bearing on the axillary bar. The design and development of the biofeedback device is discussed in this paper.

  2. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  3. BIOFEEDBACK AS A METHOD FOR STUDENTS’ MENTAL STATE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Ababkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurotechnologies based on the principles of a nervous system functioning are being introduced into modern educational process more and more actively. Neurotechnology-based devices give the chance to develop new educational products; to enlarge the content of education by means of transition from text, graphic and sound content filling of educational process to use of tactile, motor, emotional, and other content. One of the most perspective neurotechnologies for the field of education is the method of biofeedback (BF which enables to define students’ mental state, change various physiological processes proceeding from the obtained data, correct educational process, and improve its quality and effectiveness.The aim of the present publication is to identify the opportunities of the biofeedback method application for educational purposes.Methodology and research methods. A pilot study on the basis of biofeedback technique was conducted in order to study the influence of active learning methods on students’ mental state mastering in specialty “Advertising and Public Relations”. H. Eysenck’s PEN Model was used to form focus-groups (control and experimental; psychophysiological technique CMS (Current Mental State was applied for results processing. Also, such methods as comparative analysis, induction and generalization were used.Results. A true picture of psychological attributes of students’ mental condition has been received for efficient studying of the current psychological state on psychophysiological functions, and training active methods impact on a condition of mentality of students according to the results of cardiorhythmogram.The main results of a pilot research were quantitative data (as percentage points of the current mental and psychological conditions of examinees. The obtained results have reflected the degree of attributes manifestation such as general adaptive resource, degree of mobility (lability of

  4. Design for relaxation during milk expression using biofeedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Kierkels, J.G.T.; Marcus, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience difficulty expressing milk using a breast pump. A negative influence upon their success is stress, hampering the milk ejection reflex. We explore biofeedback to enhance relaxation during milk expression. We discuss context, the principles of biofeedback and the design of an

  5. A Cognitively Oriented Psychologist Looks at Bio-feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Richard S.

    1975-01-01

    It is advocated that bio-feedback research be approached within the larger context of emotion and adaption and oriented to the wide variety of mediators that affect the reaction pattern, rather than be treated as a special or unique kind of process limited to the bio-feedback laboratory. (EH)

  6. Biofeedback-Based, Videogame Balance Training in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G.; Mason, Andrea H.; Mrotek, Leigh Ann; Ellertson, Anthony; Dean, Douglas C., III; Engel, Courtney; Gomez, Andres; Dadalko, Olga I.; McLaughlin, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a visual-based biofeedback training on improving balance challenges in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-nine youth with ASD (7-17 years) completed an intensive 6-week biofeedback-based videogame balance training. Participants exhibited training-related balance improvements that significantly…

  7. The Reliability of Single Subject Statistics for Biofeedback Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Frederick J.; And Others

    To test the usefulness of single subject statistical designs for biofeedback, three experiments were conducted comparing biofeedback to meditation, and to a compound stimulus recognition task. In a statistical sense, this experimental design is best described as one experiment with two replications. The apparatus for each of the three experiments…

  8. The Effects of EEG Biofeedback Training on Hyperactive and/or Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Steve

    The literature review presents an explanation of biofeedback and a critical evaluation of the research pertaining to electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback training for the hyperactive and/or learning disabled child. Three hypotheses are examined: whether EEG biofeedback training is efficacious; whether EEG biofeedback training is more…

  9. Improvement of standards on functional reliability of electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, V.A.; Volkov, G.A.; Kalita, V.V.; Kogan, F.L.; Makarov, S.F.; Manevich, A.S.; Mogirev, V.V.; Sin'chugov, F.I.; Skopintsev, V.A.; Khvoshchinskaya, Z.G.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the most principal aspects of the existing standards and requirements on assuring safety and stability of electric power systems (EPS) and effective (reliable and economical) power supply of consumers is given. The reliability is determined as ability to accomplish the assigned functions. Basic recommendations on improving the standards regulating the safety and reliability of the NPP functioning are formulated

  10. Visual Biofeedback Balance Training Using Wii Fit after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcala, Luciana; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Colella, Fernanda; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Salgado, Afonso Shiguemi Inoue; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of balance training with visual biofeedback on balance, body symmetry, and function among individuals with hemiplegia following a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was performed using a randomized controlled clinical trial with a blinded evaluator. The subjects were twenty adults with hemiplegia following a stroke. The experimental group performed balance training with visual biofeedback using Wii Fit® together with conventional physical therapy. The control group underwent conventional physical therapy alone. The intervention lasted five weeks, with two sessions per week. Body symmetry (baropodometry), static balance (stabilometry), functional balance (Berg Balance Scale), functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test), and independence in activities of daily living (Functional Independence Measure) were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] No statistically significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups. In the intragroup analysis, both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in all variables studied. [Conclusion] The physical therapy program combined with balance training involving visual biofeedback (Wii Fit®) led to an improvement in body symmetry, balance, and function among stroke victims. However, the improvement was similar to that achieved with conventional physical therapy alone. PMID:24259909

  11. The biofeedback treatment for non-monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebiloglu, Turgay; Ergin, Giray; Irkilata, Hasan Cem; Kibar, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Enuresis is a child older than 5 years wetting in discrete portions during sleep. It has two subgroups: monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna (MSEN) and non-monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna (NMSEN). In this research, we specifically aimed to examine the effect of biofeedback in NMSEN. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 182 children with NMSEN who were refractory to urotherapy modifications and directed to biofeedback therapies between 2005 and 2010. Enuresis before and after biofeedback therapies was evaluated. One or less enuretic night in a month was defined as success. There were 118 (64%) girls and 64 (35%) boys. With biofeedback therapy, 117 of 182 patients recovered with a success rate of 64% (P Biofeedback therapy is an effective treatment option for the enuresis component of NMSEN with a 64% success rate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Local electronic and electrical properties of functionalized graphene nano flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutia, Arunabhiram; Sahnoun, Riadh; Deka, Ramesh C.; Zhu, Zhigang; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Miyamoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Based on experimental findings models of amorphous graphene related carbon materials were generated using graphene nano flakes. On the optimized structures detailed local electronic properties were investigated using density functional theory. The electrical conductivities of all these models were also estimated using an in-house program based on tight-binding method. The calculated electrical conductivity values of all the models agreed well with the trend of calculated energy gap and graphitic character.

  13. Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspection (EDSFI) data base program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, A.

    1993-01-01

    This document describes the organization, installation procedures, and operating instructions for the database computer program containing inspection findings from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspections (EDSFIs). The program enables the user to search and sort findings, ascertain trends, and obtain printed reports of the findings. The findings include observations, unresolved issues, or possible deficiencies in the design and implementation of electrical distribution systems in nuclear plants. This database will assist those preparing for electrical inspections, searching for deficiencies in a plant, and determining the corrective actions previously taken for similar deficiencies. This database will be updated as new EDSFIs are completed

  14. Design and Evaluation of Photo-Induced Biofeedback Fabric for the Enhancement in Sleeping Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Hsin-Ju; Chiu, Shu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Based on overcoming the sleeping obstacle for people, the purpose of this study is to design a photo-induced biofeedback fabric which is a kind of optical fiber fabric with the function of enhancing sleeping sense and to evaluate its effect. The fabrics with two layers including background layer and pattern layer were designed firstly. The pattern layers with 3 kinds of wavelengths of sine waves and the light controller with 3 kinds of flashing frequencies were then prepared. Guiding the ligh...

  15. The Mozart effect in biofeedback visual rehabilitation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serena Salvatore, Aloisa Librando, Mariacristina Esposito, Enzo M VingoloDepartment of Ophthalmology, University La Sapienza, Polo Pontino, Alfredo Fiorini Hospital, Terracina, ItalyPurpose: To evaluate the usefulness of acoustic biofeedback by means of Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K. 448 to maintain and/or restore visual performance in a patient with macular pucker and glaucoma.Methods: A 74-year-old patient with open angle glaucoma in both eyes and macular pucker in the right eye (RE underwent visual rehabilitation with acoustic biofeedback by means of the MAIA™ Vision Training Module (Centervue, Padova, Italy 10 minutes each eye once a week for 5 weeks. The patient was asked to move his eyes according to a sound which changed into Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos when the patient locked the fixation target.Results: Best-corrected visual acuity improved in his right eye (RE and was stable in the left eye (LE. Fixation stability improved in both eyes, and retinal sensitivity decreased in the RE and improved in the LE. The characteristic of the macular pucker did not change during the training as demonstrated with optical coherence tomography. The patient was very satisfied with the training, as demonstrated by a 25-item questionnaire (National Eye Institute – Visual Functioning Questionnaire, NEI-VFQ-25. The patient’s reading speed and the character size which he was able to read improved in his RE.Conclusion: Music could enhance synaptic plasticity and affect neural learning and fixation training by means of MAIA vision training. Therefore it can improve visual performance in patients with macular pucker, postpone the surgical time, and assure a better quality of life for the patient.Keywords: glaucoma, macular cellophane, music, vision training

  16. Production function application attempt in electricity generation forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamrat, W.; Augusiak, A.

    1996-01-01

    A modified Cobb-Douglas production function is applied to evaluate level of electricity generation for medium and long term prognosis (up to 2010) in an easy and simple way. The test calculations have been done for hard coal fired power plants, based on generation data supplied in Main Statistical Office of Poland publications.The model of electricity generation is defined using data on capital of a typical productivity power plant and its employment for time series 1980-90. The test calculation results based on the parameters of Rosenbroock's optimization procedure of electricity generation model are presented. The method described is distinguished for its high accuracy as compared to classical methods despite the relatively short time series. It is suitable for studies in electricity generation policy . 1 tab

  17. Smartphone Applications Utilizing Biofeedback Can Aid Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Alison; Kelly, Mark; Robertson, Ian H.; Robertson, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stress is one of the leading global causes of disease and premature mortality. Despite this, interventions aimed at reducing stress have low adherence rates. The proliferation of mobile phone devices along with gaming-style applications allows for a unique opportunity to broaden the reach and appeal of stress-reduction interventions in modern society. We assessed the effectiveness of two smartphone applications games combined with biofeedback in reducing stress. Methods: We compared a control game to gaming-style smartphone applications combined with a skin conductance biofeedback device (the Pip). Fifty participants aged between 18 and 35 completed the Trier Social Stress Test. They were then randomly assigned to the intervention (biofeedback game) or control group (a non-biofeedback game) for thirty minutes. Perceived stress, heart rate and mood were measured before and after participants had played the games. Results: A mixed factorial ANOVA showed a significant interaction between time and game type in predicting perceived stress [F(1,48) = 14.19, p biofeedback intervention had significantly reduced stress compared to the control group. There was also a significant interaction between time and game in predicting heart rate [F(1,48) = 6.41, p biofeedback intervention showed significant reductions in heart rate compared to the control group. Discussion: This illustrates the potential for gaming-style smartphone applications combined with biofeedback as stress reduction interventions. PMID:27378963

  18. Biofeedback treatment for Tourette syndrome: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yoko; Cavanna, Andrea E; Critchley, Hugo D; Stern, Jeremy J; Robertson, Mary M; Joyce, Eileen M

    2014-03-01

    To study the clinical effectiveness of biofeedback treatment in reducing tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Despite advances in the pharmacologic treatment of patients with Tourette syndrome, many remain troubled by their tics, which may be resistant to multiple medications at tolerable doses. Electrodermal biofeedback is a noninvasive biobehavioral intervention that can be useful in managing neuropsychiatric and neurologic conditions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of electrodermal biofeedback training in 21 patients with Tourette syndrome. After training the patients for 3 sessions a week over 4 weeks, we observed a significant reduction in tic frequency and improved indices of subjective well-being in both the active-biofeedback and sham-feedback (control) groups, but there was no difference between the groups in these measurements. Furthermore, the active-treatment group did not demonstrably learn to reduce their sympathetic electrodermal tone using biofeedback. Our findings indicate that this form of biofeedback training was unable to produce a clinical effect greater than placebo. The main confounding factor appeared to be the 30-minute duration of the training sessions, which made it difficult for patients to sustain a reduction in sympathetic tone when their tics themselves were generating competing phasic electrodermal arousal responses. Despite a negative finding in this study, electrodermal biofeedback training may have a role in managing tics if optimal training schedules can be identified.

  19. Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lappin Martha S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional peripheral biofeedback has grade A evidence for effectively treating migraines. Two newer forms of neurobiofeedback, EEG biofeedback and hemoencephalography biofeedback were combined with thermal handwarming biofeedback to treat 37 migraineurs in a clinical outpatient setting. Methods 37 migraine patients underwent an average of 40 neurofeedback sessions combined with thermal biofeedback in an outpatient biofeedback clinic. All patients were on at least one type of medication for migraine; preventive, abortive or rescue. Patients kept daily headache diaries a minimum of two weeks prior to treatment and throughout treatment showing symptom frequency, severity, duration and medications used. Treatments were conducted an average of three times weekly over an average span of 6 months. Headache diaries were examined after treatment and a formal interview was conducted. After an average of 14.5 months following treatment, a formal interview was conducted in order to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results Of the 37 migraine patients treated, 26 patients or 70% experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of their headaches which was sustained on average 14.5 months after treatments were discontinued. Conclusions All combined neuro and biofeedback interventions were effective in reducing the frequency of migraines with clients using medication resulting in a more favorable outcome (70% experiencing at least a 50% reduction in headaches than just medications alone (50% experience a 50% reduction and that the effect size of our study involving three different types of biofeedback for migraine (1.09 was more robust than effect size of combined studies on thermal biofeedback alone for migraine (.5. These non-invasive interventions may show promise for treating treatment-refractory migraine and for preventing the progression from episodic to chronic migraine.

  20. Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional peripheral biofeedback has grade A evidence for effectively treating migraines. Two newer forms of neurobiofeedback, EEG biofeedback and hemoencephalography biofeedback were combined with thermal handwarming biofeedback to treat 37 migraineurs in a clinical outpatient setting. Methods 37 migraine patients underwent an average of 40 neurofeedback sessions combined with thermal biofeedback in an outpatient biofeedback clinic. All patients were on at least one type of medication for migraine; preventive, abortive or rescue. Patients kept daily headache diaries a minimum of two weeks prior to treatment and throughout treatment showing symptom frequency, severity, duration and medications used. Treatments were conducted an average of three times weekly over an average span of 6 months. Headache diaries were examined after treatment and a formal interview was conducted. After an average of 14.5 months following treatment, a formal interview was conducted in order to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results Of the 37 migraine patients treated, 26 patients or 70% experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of their headaches which was sustained on average 14.5 months after treatments were discontinued. Conclusions All combined neuro and biofeedback interventions were effective in reducing the frequency of migraines with clients using medication resulting in a more favorable outcome (70% experiencing at least a 50% reduction in headaches) than just medications alone (50% experience a 50% reduction) and that the effect size of our study involving three different types of biofeedback for migraine (1.09) was more robust than effect size of combined studies on thermal biofeedback alone for migraine (.5). These non-invasive interventions may show promise for treating treatment-refractory migraine and for preventing the progression from episodic to chronic migraine. PMID:20205867

  1. [Biofeedback treatment for acute whiplash patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Hernández, Carmen Lizette; Rodríguez-Ortiz, María Dolores; Del Río-Portilla, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the physiological and psychological effect after an electromyographic biofeedback treatment in combination with progressive muscular relaxation training in patients with acute whiplash. Twelve patients with acute whiplash volunteered to participate in a quasi-experimental design and a control group. Two months maximum after car accident, severity levels II and I. previous history of persistent pain or serious previous injury. The groups were randomly divided in two (treatment and waiting list groups). We used electromyographic measures of the trapezius muscles with psychometric tests: Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventory; Oswestry Pain Disability Questionnaire; Visual Analog Scale of Pain; TAMPA Scale for Kinesiophobia. The treatment consisted in electromyographic biofeedback after progressive muscular relaxation training. There were significant intra-group differences before and after treatment in muscular symmetry and subjective pain perception in the treatment group. We achieved a significant change (clinical and statistical) in subjective pain perception and muscular symmetry. This study highlights the importance of multidisciplinary work in acute pain patients and the effectiveness of clinical psychophysiological strategies with acute whiplash patients.

  2. Neuroplus biofeedback improves attention, resilience, and injury prevention in elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciano, Aiace; Corradini, Giuliano; Stoianov, Ivilin

    2017-06-01

    Performance and injury prevention in elite soccer players are typically investigated from physical-tactical, biomechanical, and metabolic perspectives. However, executive functions, visuospatial abilities, and psychophysiological adaptability or resilience are also fundamental for efficiency and well-being in sports. Based on previous research associating autonomic flexibility with prefrontal cortical control, we designed a novel integrated autonomic biofeedback training method called Neuroplus to improve resilience, visual attention, and injury prevention. Herein, we introduce the method and provide an evaluation of 20 elite soccer players from the Italian Soccer High Division (Serie-A): 10 players trained with Neuroplus and 10 trained with a control treatment. The assessments included psychophysiological stress profiles, a visual search task, and indexes of injury prevention, which were measured pre- and posttreatment. The analysis showed a significant enhancement of physiological adaptability, recovery following stress, visual selective attention, and injury prevention that were specific to the Neuroplus group. Enhancing the interplay between autonomic and cognitive functions through biofeedback may become a key principle for obtaining excellence and well-being in sports. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that shows improvement in visual selective attention following intense autonomic biofeedback. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Presence and biofeedback in first-person perspective computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw-Aagaard, Mark Nicholas

    2019-01-01

    . Following the line taken by presence theorists, I differentiate between immersion, an objective measure such that computer game technology can be less or more immersive, and presence, a subjective, human response to that technology. The third section looks at current possibilities for biofeedback...... in relation to sound design for first-person perspective computer games; in line with the first section, biofeedback devices are treated as an immersive technology. I close the chapter by suggesting ways in which sound design in such games might make use of biofeedback to enhance the perception of presence...

  4. Audiovisual biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; O’Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In lung radiotherapy, variations in cycle-to-cycle breathing results in four-dimensional computed tomography imaging artifacts, leading to inaccurate beam coverage and tumor targeting. In previous studies, the effect of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on the external respiratory signal reproducibility has been investigated but the internal anatomy motion has not been fully studied. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility of internal anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: To test the hypothesis 15 healthy human subjects were enrolled in an ethics-approved AV biofeedback study consisting of two imaging sessions spaced ∼1 week apart. Within each session MR images were acquired under free breathing and AV biofeedback conditions. The respiratory signal to the AV biofeedback system utilized optical monitoring of an external marker placed on the abdomen. Synchronously, serial thoracic 2D MR images were obtained to measure the diaphragm motion using a fast gradient-recalled-echo MR pulse sequence in both coronal and sagittal planes. The improvement in the diaphragm motion reproducibility using the AV biofeedback system was quantified by comparing cycle-to-cycle variability in displacement, respiratory period, and baseline drift. Additionally, the variation in improvement between the two sessions was also quantified. Results: The average root mean square error (RMSE) of diaphragm cycle-to-cycle displacement was reduced from 2.6 mm with free breathing to 1.6 mm (38% reduction) with the implementation of AV biofeedback (p-value biofeedback (p-value biofeedback (p-value = 0.012). The diaphragm motion reproducibility improvements with AV biofeedback were consistent with the abdominal motion reproducibility that was observed from the external marker motion variation. Conclusions: This study was the first to investigate the potential of AV biofeedback to improve the motion

  5. Biofeedback monitoring-devices for astronauts in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, G.; Pancheri, P.; Monesi, F.; Grantaliano, G.; DePascalis, V.

    After a reconsideration of the state-of-the-art in biofeedback research the implementation of biofeedback systems is envisioned as a countermeasure of stress for the psychoprophylaxis of the astronaut. A one-session experiment performed on two groups of subjects to assess the interference from EMG-feedback on the performance in a simultaneous psychomotor trial with a view to expanding biofeedback application is described. The results show that the experimental group performed in the same way as the control without feedback, but with less CNS activation. Some general conclusions are drawn from the advances in technology.

  6. Changes in the functions of undertakings in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlack, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    For the electricity supply industry also it is necessary, by means of more intensive publicity work, to achieve the general realisation that neither new laws nor intervention of the state are required for dealing in the interests of the consumer with the problems arising, from great changes in all fields of business enterprise. It is more important for the electricity supply undertakings (EVU), by means of executive power and the administration of justice, to be put a position to carry out in the most efficient manner the functions entrusted to them by the Federal Government under the Power Supply Law and the energy programme. (orig.) [de

  7. Home electrical stimulation for women with fecal incontinence: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zubary, Nira; Gingold-Belfer, Rachel; Lambort, Inna; Wasserberg, Nir; Krissi, Haim; Levy, Sigal; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness and cost of home electrical stimulation and standardized biofeedback training in females with fecal incontinence Thirty-six females suffering from fecal incontinence were randomized into two groups, matched for mean age (67.45 ± 7.2 years), mean body mass index (kg/m2) (26.2 ± 3.9), mean disease duration (4.1 ± 0.8 years), mean number of births (2.7 ± 1.3), and reports of obstetric trauma (25%). Questionnaires were used to evaluate their demographics, medical, and childbearing history. Subjects were randomized to home electrical stimulation or standardized biofeedback training for a period of 6 weeks. Subjective outcome measures included the frequency of fecal, urine, and gas incontinence by visual analog scale, Vaizey incontinence score, and subjects' levels of fecal incontinence related anxiety. Objective outcome measures included pelvic floor muscle strength assessed by surface electromyography. We also compared the cost of each treatment modality. Only females who received home electrical stimulation (HES) reported a significant improvement in Vaizey incontinence score (p = 0.001), anxiety (p = 0.046), and in frequency of leaked solid stool (p = 0.013). A significant improvement in pelvic floor muscle strength was achieved by both groups. HES was much cheaper compared to the cost of standardized biofeedback training (SBT) (US $100 vs. US $220, respectively). Our study comprised a small female population, and the study endpoints did not include objective measures of anorectal function test, such as anorectal manometry, before and after treatment. Home electrical stimulation may offer an alternative to standardized biofeedback training as it is effective and generally well-tolerated therapy for females with fecal incontinence.

  8. Effect of visual biofeedback cycling training on gait in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochsprung, A; Granja Domínguez, A; Magni, E; Escudero Uribe, S; Moreno García, A

    2017-09-06

    Gait alterations are present in a high percentage of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). They appear from early stages of the disease and can limit patients' capacity to perform basic activities of daily living, affecting their quality of life. Visual biofeedback cycling training appears to be a useful tool in treating these impairments. This study aims to evaluate the short-term effect of visual biofeedback cycling training on gait in patients with MS. A total of 61 patients with mild to moderate MS were randomly assigned to a control group and an intervention group. The intervention group received visual biofeedback cycling training (MOTOmed viva2 system) once per week for 3 months, and a home exercise program. The control group only received the home exercise program. Both groups were evaluated using the GAITRite ® Walkway gait assessment system before the intervention, during the first month of the programme, and after the intervention. In the intervention group, the analysis revealed statistically significant differences between Functional Ambulation Profile (FAP) scores before and during the intervention (P=.014), and before and after the intervention (P=.002). A statistically significant improvement was observed in step length in the intervention group between pre- and post-intervention scores (P=.001) and between first-month and post-intervention scores (P=.004). Visual biofeedback cycling training improved specific gait parameters in the short term and appears to be a therapeutic option for gait retraining in patients with MS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECTS OF FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION IN REHABILITATION WITH HEMIPARESIS PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanović, Edina

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident is a focal neurological deficiency occurring suddenly and lasting for more than 24 hours. The purpose of our work is to determine the role of the functional electrical simulation (FES) in the rehabilitation of patients with hemiparesis, which occurred as a consequence of a cerebrovascular accident. This study includes the analysis of two groups of 40 patients with hemiparesis (20 patients with deep hemiparesis and 20 patients with light hemi- paresis), a control group which was only treated with kinesiotherapy and a tested group which was treated with kinesiotherapy and functional electrical stimulation. Both groups of patients were analyzed in respect to their sex and age. Additional analysis of the walking function was completed in accordance with the BI and RAP index. The analysis of the basic demographical data demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the control and tested group. The patients of both groups are equal in respect of age and sex. After 4 weeks of rehabilitation of patients with deep and light hemiparesis there were no statistically significant differences between the groups after evaluation by the BI index. However, a statistically significant difference was noted between the groups by the RAP index among patients with deep hemiparesis. After 8 weeks of rehabilitation the group of patients who were treated with kinesiotherapy and functional electrical stimulation showed better statistically significant results of rehabilitation in respect to the control group with both the BI index and the RAP index (p<0,001). In conclusion, we can state that the patients in rehabilitation after a cerebrovascular accident require rehabilitation longer than 4 weeks. Walking rehabilitation after stroke is faster and more successful if we used functional electrical stimulation, in combination with kinesiotherapy, in patients with disabled extremities. PMID:19284395

  10. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation in Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-20

    SI n.c... ~ y aid ld.ruity by Mock numb.,) Biofeedback Operant condition ing Behav i oral factors in hypertension Re l axa ti on Meditation • 20...preliminary findings of a clini- cal study in which two types of biofeedback training were compared to a form of meditation in the treatment of borderline...behav ioral methods not involving the use of complex feedback techniques include progressive relaxation, medita- tion, yogic practices, autogenic

  11. Power amplifier circuits for functional electrical stimulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Carvalho de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional electrical stimulation (FES is a technique that has been successfully employed in rehabilitation treatment to mitigate problems after spinal cord injury (SCI. One of the most relevant modules in a typical FES system is the power or output amplifier stage, which is responsible for the application of voltage or current pulses of proper intensity to the biological tissue, applied noninvasively via electrodes, placed on the skin surface or inside the muscular tissue, closer to the nervous fibers. The goals of this paper are to describe and discuss about the main power output designs usually employed in transcutaneous functional electrical stimulators as well as safety precautions taken to protect patients. Methods A systematic review investigated the circuits of papers published in IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect databases from 2000 to 2016. The query terms were “((FES or Functional electric stimulator and (circuit or design” with 274 papers retrieved from IEEE Xplore and 29 from ScienceDirect. After the application of exclusion criteria the amount of papers decreased to 9 and 2 from IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect, respectively. One paper was inserted in the results as a technological contribution to the field. Therefore, 12 papers presented power stage circuits suitable to stimulate great muscles. Discussion The retrieved results presented relevant circuits with different electronic strategies and circuit components. Some of them considered patient safety strategies or aimed to preserve muscle homeostasis such as biphasic current application, which prevents charge accumulation in stimulated tissues as well as circuits that dealt with electrical impedance variation to keep the electrode-tissue interface within an electrochemical safe regime. The investigation revealed a predominance of design strategies using operational amplifiers in power circuits, current outputs, and safety methods to reduce risks of electrical

  12. Simultaneous EEG and EMG biofeedback for peak performance in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Georgiev, Dejan

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alpha neurofeedback and EMG biofeedback protocols for improvement of musical performance in violinists. The sample consisted of 12 music students (10 violinists and 2 viola players) from the Faculty of Music, Skopje (3 males, mean age of 20 +/- 0 and 9 females, mean age = 20.89 +/- 2.98). Six of them had a low alpha peak frequency (APF) ( 10 Hz). The sample was randomized in two groups. The students from the experimental group participated in 20 sessions of biofeedback (alpha/EMG), combined with music practice, while the students from the control group did only music practice. Average absolute power, interhemispheric coherence in the alpha band, alpha peak frequency (APF), individual alpha band width (IABW), amount of alpha suppression (AAS) and surface forehead integrated EMG power (IEMG), as well as a score on musical performance and inventories measuring anxiety, were assessed. Alpha-EEG/EMG-biofeedback was associated with a significant increase in average alpha power, APF and IABW in all the participants and with decreases in IEMG only in high-APF musicians. The biofeedback training success was positively correlated with the alpha power, IcoH, APF, IABW and baseline level of APF and IABW. Alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback is capable of increasing voluntary self-regulation and the quality of musical performance. The efficiency of biofeedback training depends on the baseline EEG alpha activity status, in particular the APF.

  13. Biofeedback for pain management in traumatised refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Julia; Karl, Anke; Denke, Claudia; Mathier, Fabienne; Dittmann, Jennifer; Rohleder, Nicolas; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain (CP) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are both frequent and often comorbid in refugees. To date, few controlled trials have studied the efficacy of treatments targeting this comorbidity; no treatment guidelines yet exist. The authors examined the feasibility and efficacy of short-term cognitive behavioural biofeedback (BF) addressing CP in traumatised refugees. The sample comprised 11 severely traumatised refugees with CP and PTSD (mean age = 36 years, SD = 6), who underwent assessment with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Pain Disability Index, and Visual Rating Scale. Additionally, coping with pain and psychotherapy tolerance were assessed. Acceptance of BF was high. Pre-post effects were small to medium for increased pain management and associated heart rate reactivity but large for coping with pain. The results encourage further research to confirm whether BF is indicated as a treatment component, but not a stand-alone treatment, for traumatised refugees with comorbid CP and PTSD.

  14. Efficacy of biofeedback therapy on sleep bruxism: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokubauskas, L; Baltrušaitytė, A

    2018-03-26

    This study updates the review published by Wang et al in 2014 (Sleep Breath 2014;18(2):235-242). The review focuses on the most recent literature on management of sleep bruxism (SB) with biofeedback. An electronic search was conducted in five databases searching for articles published later than the date of Wang et al's search, viz., October 2012. Six articles of 2320 identified citations involving 86 adult participants were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of them, 4 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 were uncontrolled before-after studies. Different feedback modalities (electrical, auditory and vibratory stimulus) were investigated. The overall quality of the selected studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Due to heterogeneity between studies, the quantitative synthesis was performed out of three RCTs, of which two were retrieved from the previous review. The meta-analysis indicated a non-significant difference in electromyographic-measured SB episodes per hour after one night of contingent electrical stimulation (CES) compared with placebo control, yet a significant difference was shown after five nights of CES. The quality of evidence identified through GRADEpro was from low to moderate, due to imprecision and inconsistency between studies. Qualitative synthesis did not present a reliable reduction in clinical pain levels; however, no substantial sleep disturbances were indicated following the intervention. In conclusion, one of the biofeedback modalities, CES, is effective in reducing SB-related motor activities after a short-term treatment period. However, evidence of long-term effects is lacking. Further longitudinal studies with larger samples are necessary to acknowledge the clinical application of biofeedback. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rohini

    function could be approximated to a normal distribution function. A statistical analysis was also performed to investigate if a patient's physical, tumor or general characteristics played a role in identifying whether he/she responded positively to the coaching type---signified by a reduction in the variability of respiratory motion. The analysis demonstrated that, although there were some characteristics like disease type and dose per fraction that were significant with respect to time-independent analysis, there were no significant time trends observed for the inter-session or intra-session analysis. Based on patient feedback with the existing audio-visual biofeedback system used for the study and research performed on other feedback systems, an improved audio-visual biofeedback system was designed. It is hoped the widespread clinical implementation of audio-visual biofeedback for radiotherapy will improve the accuracy of lung cancer radiotherapy.

  16. Relationship between dysfunctional breathing patterns and ability to achieve target heart rate variability with features of "coherence" during biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Rosalba; Cohen, Marc; van Dixhoorn, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback is a self-regulation strategy used to improve conditions including asthma, stress, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory muscle function affects hemodynamic influences on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and HRV and HRV-biofeedback protocols often include slow abdominal breathing to achieve physiologically optimal patterns of HRV with power spectral distribution concentrated around the 0.1-Hz frequency and large amplitude. It is likely that optimal balanced breathing patterns and ability to entrain heart rhythms to breathing reflect physiological efficiency and resilience and that individuals with dysfunctional breathing patterns may have difficulty voluntarily modulating HRV and RSA. The relationship between breathing movement patterns and HRV, however, has not been investigated. This study examines how individuals' habitual breathing patterns correspond with their ability to optimize HRV and RSA. Breathing pattern was assessed using the Manual Assessment of Respiratory Motion (MARM) and the Hi Lo manual palpation techniques in 83 people with possible dysfunctional breathing before they attempted HRV biofeedback. Mean respiratory rate was also assessed. Subsequently, participants applied a brief 5-minute biofeedback protocol, involving breathing and positive emotional focus, to achieve HRV patterns proposed to reflect physiological "coherence" and entrainment of heart rhythm oscillations to other oscillating body systems. Thoracic-dominant breathing was associated with decreased coherence of HRV (r = -.463, P = .0001). Individuals with paradoxical breathing had the lowest HRV coherence (t(8) = 10.7, P = .001), and the negative relationship between coherence of HRV and extent of thoracic breathing was strongest in this group (r = -.768, P = .03). Dysfunctional breathing patterns are associated with decreased ability to achieve HRV patterns that reflect cardiorespiratory efficiency and

  17. Differential Biofeedback Intervention in Moderating Inhibited Performance in Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumendra Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance excellence in soccer crucially depends on mental toughness or more specifically the aspect of emotional flexibility and hardiness of the player. Since indices of projective evaluations can reveal hidden emotional crises and internal conflicts, psychobiological evaluations could substantiate with the inner emotionality revealed to provide etiological information related to performance hindrances in soccer. Present study was carried out to identify the efficacy of skin conductance (Sc biofeedback in regulation of sudomotor nerve activity (SNA and of electromyography (EMG biofeedback in regulation of peak torque and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC in modification of performance catastrophe in soccer. All of them were assessed with autonomic measures (SNA and Sc amplitude; electromyography evaluation of emotionality and MVC revealed through EMG. Forty National-selection group soccer players of Malaysia were randomly categorized into four groups (Gr. A, N = 10, no-intervention control group; Gr. B (who received Sc biofeedback training; Gr. C (received EMG biofeedback intervention and Gr. D (players who received combined training of Sc and EMG biofeedback intervention. Players of intervention groups received their respective trainings for 12 weeks (15 min.s /day for 3 days/ week. Post-intervention analyses revealed marked improvement in the soccer players who received Sc and EMG biofeedback intervention, and the combined biofeedback training was evident as most efficient intervention technique in modulating emotionality as well as muscle potentiality. Analysis of variance and repeated measure of ANOVA were done to observe shared aetiology in the form of direct, inverse and supportive relationships between psychobiological and emotional indices related to performance crises in soccer. Comprehensive understanding of the confounding relationships between subjective feelings emotionality and corroborative psychobiological indices as

  18. Biofeedback for anismus: has placebo effect been overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher; Sun; Kennedy; Smart; Lubowski

    1999-03-01

    Multiple uncontrolled studies have concluded that biofeedback is successful in treating anismus. This study's objective was to assess the physiological effects of placebo and biofeedback treatment on patients with anismus and to correlate changes with clinical improvement. Twelve patients with symptoms and electrophysiological findings of anismus were studied. Initial assessment included a detailed history, symptom assessment by linear analogue scales, anorectal manometric and electrophysiological studies, colon transit scintigraphy, and scintigraphic proctography. Patients underwent 5 days of placebo treatment, followed 1 week later by re-assessment of symptoms and physiological studies. Five days of biofeedback was then given followed by another complete re-assessment 1 week later. A final interview was performed 2 months later. All assessments were by an independent observer who was not responsible for the treatments. Seven patients reported an overall improvement in symptoms following placebo treatment. A total of seven patients reported improvement following biofeedback, three of whom had already reported an improvement with placebo. One patient who reported improvement following placebo had worsening of symptoms following biofeedback. The only symptoms or tests which changed more with biofeedback than placebo were anal pressure and electromyographic activity on attempted defaecation in the left lateral position. There was no demonstrable correlation between change in symptoms and change in physiological tests. The scintigraphic 'ejection fraction' of the rectum was unchanged by treatment. Clinical improvement in previous studies may in part be due to placebo effect and observer bias. Improvement with biofeedback may be due to physiological changes which are not detected with conventional anorectal physiological tests.

  19. The Improvement of Dental Posture Using Personalized Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2015-01-01

    Dentists are subject to staying in static or awkward postures for long periods due to their highly concentrated work. This study describes a real-time personalized biofeedback system developed for dental posture training with the use of vibrotactile biofeedback. The real-time personalized biofeedback system was an integrated solution that comprised of two components: 1) a wearable device that contained an accelerometer sensor for measuring the tilt angle of the body (input) and provided real-time vibrotactile biofeedback (output); and 2) software for data capturing, processing, and personalized biofeedback generation. The implementation of real-time personalized vibrotactile feedback was computed using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). For the test case, we calculated the probability and log-likelihood of the test movements under the Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) and non-WMSD HMMs. The vibrotactile biofeedback was provided to the user via a wearable device for a WMSD-predicted case. In the system evaluation, a randomized crossover trial was conducted to compare dental posture measure using tilt angles of the upper back and muscle activities of those dental students that received vibrotactile biofeedback from the system with the control group against the dental students who received no feedback. The participants who received feedback from the system had a lower tilt angle at 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of Backx and Backy, as well as muscular load, which were statistically different (pbiofeedback system for posture training in dental students is feasible and associated with quantitative improvements of the dental posture.

  20. Electricity Demand Forecasting Using a Functional State Space Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nagbe , Komi; Cugliari , Jairo; Jacques , Julien

    2018-01-01

    In the last past years the liberalization of the electricity supply, the increase variability of electric appliances and their use, and the need to respond to the electricity demand in the real time had made electricity demand forecasting a challenge. To this challenge, many solutions are being proposed. The electricity demand involves many sources such as economic activities, household need and weather sources. All this sources make hard electricity demand forecasting. To forecast the electr...

  1. Exploring the role of self-efficacy in biofeedback video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdmeester, J.W.; Rooij, M.M.J.W. van; Harris, O.; Smit, N.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Granic, I.

    2017-01-01

    Biofeedback training and game-based biofeedback are increasingly used to improve mental health. When evaluating the effects of biofeedback however, the focus often lies solely on therapeutic outcomes. Meanwhile, it is known that psychological factors such as perceptions of competence, also known as

  2. Direction of attentional focus in biofeedback treatment for /r/ misarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Swartz, Michelle T; Halpin, Peter F; Szeredi, Daniel; Maas, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Maintaining an external direction of focus during practice is reported to facilitate acquisition of non-speech motor skills, but it is not known whether these findings also apply to treatment for speech errors. This question has particular relevance for treatment incorporating visual biofeedback, where clinician cueing can direct the learner's attention either internally (i.e., to the movements of the articulators) or externally (i.e., to the visual biofeedback display). This study addressed two objectives. First, it aimed to use single-subject experimental methods to collect additional evidence regarding the efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback treatment for children with /r/ misarticulation. Second, it compared the efficacy of this biofeedback intervention under two cueing conditions. In the external focus (EF) condition, participants' attention was directed exclusively to the external biofeedback display. In the internal focus (IF) condition, participants viewed a biofeedback display, but they also received articulatory cues encouraging an internal direction of attentional focus. Nine school-aged children were pseudo-randomly assigned to receive either IF or EF cues during 8 weeks of visual-acoustic biofeedback intervention. Accuracy in /r/ production at the word level was probed in three to five pre-treatment baseline sessions and in three post-treatment maintenance sessions. Outcomes were assessed using visual inspection and calculation of effect sizes for individual treatment trajectories. In addition, a mixed logistic model was used to examine across-subjects effects including phase (pre/post-treatment), /r/ variant (treated/untreated), and focus cue condition (internal/external). Six out of nine participants showed sustained improvement on at least one treated /r/ variant; these six participants were evenly divided across EF and IF treatment groups. Regression results indicated that /r/ productions were significantly more likely to be rated accurate post

  3. Biofeedback as Prophylaxis for Pediatric Migraine: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Anker; Varkey, Emma; McCrory, Douglas C; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Linde, Mattias

    2016-08-01

    Migraine is a common problem in children and adolescents, but few satisfactory prophylactic treatments exist. Our goal was to investigate the pooled evidence for the effectiveness of using biofeedback to reduce childhood migraine. A systematic search was conducted across the databases Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. Prospective, randomized controlled trials of biofeedback for migraine among children and adolescents were located in the search. Data on reduction of mean attack frequency and a series of secondary outcomes, including adverse events, were extracted. Risk of bias was also assessed. Forest plots were created by using a fixed effects model, and mean differences were reported. Five studies with a total of 137 participants met the inclusion criteria. Biofeedback reduced migraine frequency (mean difference, -1.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.72 to -1.21]; P Biofeedback demonstrated no adjuvant effect when combined with other behavioral treatment; neither did it have significant advantages over active treatment. Only 40% of bias judgments were deemed as "low" risk. Methodologic issues hampered the meta-analyses. Only a few studies were possible to include, and they suffered from incomplete reporting of data and risk of bias. Biofeedback seems to be an effective intervention for pediatric migraine, but in light of the limitations, further investigation is needed to increase our confidence in the estimate. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. A distributed transducer system for functional electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Bruun, Erik

    2001-01-01

    to be affected by the inductive link. Neural stimulators are affected to a lesser degree, but still benefit from the partitioning. As a test case, we have designed a transceiver and a sensor chip which implement this partitioning policy. The transceiver is designed to operate in the 6.78 MHz ISM band......Implanted transducers for functional electrical stimulation (FES) powered by inductive links are subject to conflicting requirements arising from low link efficiency, a low power budget and the need for protection of the weak signals against strong RF electromagnetic fields. We propose a solution...... to these problems by partitioning the RF transceiver and sensor/actuator functions onto separate integrated circuits. By amplifying measured neural signals directly at the measurements site and converting them into the digital domain before passing them to the transceiver the signal integrity is less likely...

  5. A mathematical model for incorporating biofeedback into human postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersal Tulga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofeedback of body motion can serve as a balance aid and rehabilitation tool. To date, mathematical models considering the integration of biofeedback into postural control have represented this integration as a sensory addition and limited their application to a single degree-of-freedom representation of the body. This study has two objectives: 1 to develop a scalable method for incorporating biofeedback into postural control that is independent of the model’s degrees of freedom, how it handles sensory integration, and the modeling of its postural controller; and 2 to validate this new model using multidirectional perturbation experimental results. Methods Biofeedback was modeled as an additional torque to the postural controller torque. For validation, this biofeedback modeling approach was applied to a vibrotactile biofeedback device and incorporated into a two-link multibody model with full-state-feedback control that represents the dynamics of bipedal stance. Average response trajectories of body sway and center of pressure (COP to multidirectional surface perturbations of subjects with vestibular deficits were used for model parameterization and validation in multiple perturbation directions and for multiple display resolutions. The quality of fit was quantified using average error and cross-correlation values. Results The mean of the average errors across all tactor configurations and perturbations was 0.24° for body sway and 0.39 cm for COP. The mean of the cross-correlation value was 0.97 for both body sway and COP. Conclusions The biofeedback model developed in this study is capable of capturing experimental response trajectory shapes with low average errors and high cross-correlation values in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for all perturbation directions and spatial resolution display configurations considered. The results validate that biofeedback can be modeled as an additional

  6. A mathematical model for incorporating biofeedback into human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofeedback of body motion can serve as a balance aid and rehabilitation tool. To date, mathematical models considering the integration of biofeedback into postural control have represented this integration as a sensory addition and limited their application to a single degree-of-freedom representation of the body. This study has two objectives: 1) to develop a scalable method for incorporating biofeedback into postural control that is independent of the model’s degrees of freedom, how it handles sensory integration, and the modeling of its postural controller; and 2) to validate this new model using multidirectional perturbation experimental results. Methods Biofeedback was modeled as an additional torque to the postural controller torque. For validation, this biofeedback modeling approach was applied to a vibrotactile biofeedback device and incorporated into a two-link multibody model with full-state-feedback control that represents the dynamics of bipedal stance. Average response trajectories of body sway and center of pressure (COP) to multidirectional surface perturbations of subjects with vestibular deficits were used for model parameterization and validation in multiple perturbation directions and for multiple display resolutions. The quality of fit was quantified using average error and cross-correlation values. Results The mean of the average errors across all tactor configurations and perturbations was 0.24° for body sway and 0.39 cm for COP. The mean of the cross-correlation value was 0.97 for both body sway and COP. Conclusions The biofeedback model developed in this study is capable of capturing experimental response trajectory shapes with low average errors and high cross-correlation values in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for all perturbation directions and spatial resolution display configurations considered. The results validate that biofeedback can be modeled as an additional torque to the postural

  7. Passive reach and grasp with functional electrical stimulation and robotic arm support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Ard J.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Veltink, Peter H.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of arm and hand function is crucial to increase functional independence of stroke subjects. Here, we investigate the technical feasibility of an integrated training system combining robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) to support reach and grasp during functional

  8. Use of Biofeedback Combined With Diet for Treatment of Obstructed Defecation Associated With Paradoxical Puborectalis Contraction (Anismus): Predictive Factors and Short-term Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela M; Regadas, Francisco S Pinheiro; Bezerra, Carla C Rocha; de Oliveira, Maura T Coutinho Cajazeiras; Regadas Filho, Francisco S Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Almeida, Saulo Santiago; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela O

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have described the use of biofeedback therapy for the treatment of anismus. Success rates vary widely, but few data are available regarding factors predictive of success. Our aim was to evaluate short-term results of biofeedback associated with diet in patients with obstructed defecation because of anismus and to investigate factors that may affect the results. Patients were identified from a single-institution prospectively maintained database. This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Consecutive patients who had obstructed defecation associated with anismus and were treated with biofeedback associated with diet were eligible. Each patient underwent anal manometry and/or dynamic anal ultrasound. Patients with anismus and were treated with biofeedback associated with diet. Patients classed as having a satisfactory response to therapy and those classed as having an unsatisfactory response were compared with regard to sex, age, Cleveland Clinic Florida constipation score, functional factors (anal resting and squeeze pressures and reversal of paradoxical puborectalis contraction on manometry), and anatomic factors in women (history of vaginal delivery, number of vaginal deliveries, menopause, hysterectomy, and previous anorectal surgery). A total of 116 patients were included (75 women and 41 men). Overall, 59% were classed as having a satisfactory response (decrease in constipation score, >50%). Patients with satisfactory responses to biofeedback plus diet did not differ from those with unsatisfactory responses with regard to clinical, anatomic, and physiological factors. This was not a randomized controlled trial. Biofeedback combined with diet is a valuable treatment option for patients with obstructed defecation syndrome associated with anismus, and more than half of our patients of both sexes achieved a satisfactory response. Improvement was not related to reversal of paradoxical contraction of puborectalis muscles at manometry. Patient

  9. Effect of short-term heart rate variability biofeedback on long-term abstinence in alcohol dependent patients - a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Barlinn, Kristian; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Weidner, Kerstin; Siepmann, Martin; Siepmann, Timo

    2017-09-06

    A randomized controlled study (RCT) recently showed that short-term heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in addition to standard rehabilitation care for alcohol dependence can reduce craving, anxiety and improve cardiovascular autonomic function. In this one-year follow-up study we aimed to explore whether completion of 2-week HRV-Biofeedback training is associated with long-term abstinence. Furthermore, we sought to identify potential predictors of post-treatment abstinence. We conducted a survey on abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence 1 year after completion of an RCT comparing HRV-biofeedback in addition to inpatient rehabilitation treatment alone (controls). Abstinence rates were compared and analysed for association with demographic data as well as psychometric and autonomic cardiac assessment before and after completion of the biofeedback training using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Out of 48 patients who participated in the RCT, 27 patients (9 females, ages 42.9 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) completed our one-year follow-up. When including in the analysis only patients who completed follow-up, the rate of abstinence tended to be higher in patients who underwent HRV-biofeedback 1 year earlier compared to those who received rehabilitative treatment alone (66.7% vs 50%, p = ns). This non-significant trend was also observed in the intention-to-treat analysis where patients who did not participate in the follow-up were assumed to have relapsed (46,7% biofeedback vs. 33.3% controls, p = ns). Neither cardiac autonomic function nor psychometric variables were associated with abstinence 1 year after HRV-biofeedback. Our follow-up study provide a first indication of possible increase in long-term abstinence after HRV-biofeedback for alcohol dependence in addition to rehabilitation. The original randomized controlled trial was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00004618 ). This one-year follow-up survey has not been

  10. Electromyographic control of functional electrical stimulation in selected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupe, D; Kohn, K H; Basseas, S; Naccarato, E

    1984-07-01

    The paper describes initial results of above-lesion electromyographic (EMG) controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) of paraplegics. Such controlled stimulation is to provide upper-motor-neuron paraplegics (T5 to T12) with self-controlled standing and some walking without braces and with only the help of walkers or crutches. The above-lesion EMG signal employed serves to map the posture of the patient's upper trunk via a computerized mapping of the temporal patterns of that EMG. Such control also has an inherent safety feature in that it prevents the patient from performing a lower-limb movement via FES unless his trunk posture is adequate. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Enhancing vestibular function in the elderly with imperceptible electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrador, Jorge M; Deegan, Brian M; Geraghty, Maria C; Wood, Scott J

    2018-01-10

    Age-related loss of vestibular function can result in decrements in gaze stabilization and increased fall risk in the elderly. This study was designed to see if low levels of electrical stochastic noise applied transcutaneously to the vestibular system can improve a gaze stabilization reflex in young and elderly subject groups. Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) using a video-based technique was obtained in 16 subjects during low frequency passive roll tilts. Consistent with previous studies, there was a significant reduction in OCR gains in the elderly compared to the young group. Imperceptible stochastic noise significantly increased OCR in the elderly (Mean 23%, CI: 17-35%). Increases in OCR gain were greatest for those with lowest baseline gain and were negligible in those with normal gain. Since stimulation was effective at low levels undetectable to subjects, stochastic noise may provide a new treatment alternative to enhance vestibular function, specifically otolith-ocular reflexes, in the elderly or patient populations with reduced otolith-ocular function.

  12. Density functional theory of the electrical double layer: the RFD functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Dirk; Valisko, Monika; Boda, Dezso

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) of electrolytes is applied to the electrical double layer under a wide range of conditions. The ions are charged, hard spheres of different size and valence, and the wall creating the double layer is uncharged, weakly charged, and strongly charged. Under all conditions, the density and electrostatic potential profiles calculated using the recently proposed RFD electrostatic functional (Gillespie et al 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 12129; 2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 031503) compare well to Monte Carlo simulations. When the wall is strongly charged, the RFD functional results agree with the results of a simpler perturbative electrostatic DFT, but the two functionals' results qualitatively disagree when the wall is uncharged or weakly charged. The RFD functional reproduces these phenomena of weakly charged double layers. It also reproduces bulk thermodynamic quantities calculated from pair correlation functions

  13. Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...

  14. Diazonium functionalized graphene: microstructure, electric, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Jing, Long; Zhu, Huarui; Gao, Xueyun

    2013-01-15

    The unique honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its outstanding electronic properties such as ultrahigh carrier mobility, ballistic transport, and more. However, a crucial obstacle to its use in the electronics industry is its lack of an energy bandgap. A covalent chemistry strategy could overcome this problem, and would have the benefits of being highly controllable and stable in the ambient environment. One possible approach is aryl diazonium functionalization. In this Account, we investigate the micromolecular/lattice structure, electronic structure, and electron-transport properties of nitrophenyl-diazonium-functionalized graphene. We find that nitrophenyl groups mainly adopt random and inhomogeneous configurations on the graphene basal plane, and that their bonding with graphene carbon atoms leads to slight elongation of the graphene lattice spacing. By contrast, hydrogenated graphene has a compressed lattice. Low levels of functionalization suppressed the electric conductivity of the resulting functionalized graphene, while highly functionalized graphene showed the opposite effect. This difference arises from the competition between the charge transfer effect and the scattering enhancement effect introduced by nitrophenyl groups bonding with graphene carbon atoms. Detailed electron transport measurements revealed that the nitrophenyl diazonium functionalization locally breaks the symmetry of graphene lattice, which leads to an increase in the density of state near the Fermi level, thus increasing the carrier density. On the other hand, the bonded nitrophenyl groups act as scattering centers, lowering the mean free path of the charge carriers and suppressing the carrier mobility. In rare cases, we observed ordered configurations of nitrophenyl groups in local domains on graphene flakes due to fluctuations in the reaction processes. We describe one example of such a superlattice, with a lattice constant nearly twice of that of pristine graphene

  15. Biofeedback and Counseling for Stress and Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Sverduk, Kevin; Prince, Judy; Hayashino, Diane

    2012-01-01

    With the rise in stress and anxiety among college students, there is a need for more comprehensive and effective counseling options for counselors in college counseling centers. This study investigated the impact of using biofeedback and brief counseling in treating stress and anxiety in an ethnically diverse college student population. Results…

  16. The use of EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewcz, Renata

    2017-12-30

    The aim of the systematic review was to evaluate the use of EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback in patients treated for mental disorders. The review covered publications analyzing influences and effects of therapy in patients receiving psychiatric treatment based on EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback. Selection of publications was made by searching PubMed and Scopus databases. 328 records concerning applications of the presented method were identified in total, including 84 records for patients diagnosed with mental disorders. The analysis of studies indicates that EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback is used for treatment of neurological, somatic and mental disorders. Its psychiatric applications for clinically diagnosed disorders include treatmentof depression, anorexia, dyslexia, dysgraphia, ADD, ADHD, schizophrenia, abuse of substances, neuroses, PTSD, and Alzheimer's disease. Research results imply that the neuromodulating effect of the therapy positively influences cognitive processes, mood, and anxiety levels. Positive effects of EEG Biofeedback confirm usefulness of this method as a main or auxiliary method in treatment of people with mental disorders. On the basis of conducted studies, it is worthwhile to consider inclusion of this method into the comprehensive neurorehabilitation activities.

  17. Temperature biofeedback and sleep: limited findings and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Koninck J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Geneviève Forest,1,2 Cameron van den Heuvel,3 Kurt Lushington,4 Joseph De Koninck21Sleep Laboratory, Département de Psychoéducation et de Psychologie, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Québec, Canada; 2Sleep and Dreams Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Research Branch University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 4School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Given the close link between body temperature and sleep, the perspective of manipulating core and peripheral temperature by self-regulation techniques is very appealing. We report here on a series of attempts conducted independently in two laboratories to use self-regulation (biofeedback of oral (central and hand (peripheral temperature, and measured the impact on sleep-onset latency, sleep architecture, and circadian phase. We found that hand temperature was more successful than oral temperature biofeedback. Moreover, an increase in hand temperature was associated with reduced sleep-onset latency. However, most participants found the procedure difficult to implement. The temperature response to biofeedback was reduced in the aged and weakest at the time of sleep onset, and there was not a systematic relationship between the change in temperature and change in sleep latency. Methodological limitations and individual differences may account for these results. Recommendations for future research are presented.Keywords: biofeedback, core body temperature, sleep, circadian rhythm, sleep onset

  18. Direction of Attentional Focus in Biofeedback Treatment for /R/ Misarticulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Swartz, Michelle T.; Halpin, Peter F.; Szeredi, Daniel; Maas, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maintaining an external direction of focus during practice is reported to facilitate acquisition of non-speech motor skills, but it is not known whether these findings also apply to treatment for speech errors. This question has particular relevance for treatment incorporating visual biofeedback, where clinician cueing can direct the…

  19. Advanced biofeedback from surface electromyography signals using fuzzy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a fuzzy inference-based biofeedback system and investigate its effects when inducing active (shoulder elevation) and passive (relax) pauses on the trapezius muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work. Surface EMG signals were recorded from...

  20. Multi-functional Electric Module for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Reed, Ryan (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Markee, Mason M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A multi-functional electric module (eModule) is provided for a vehicle having a chassis, a master controller, and a drive wheel having a propulsion-braking module. The eModule includes a steering control assembly, mounting bracket, propulsion control assembly, brake controller, housing, and control arm. The steering control assembly includes a steering motor controlled by steering controllers in response to control signals from the master controller. A mounting feature of the bracket connects to the chassis. The propulsion control assembly and brake controller are in communication with the propulsion-braking module. The control arm connects to the lower portion and contains elements of a suspension system, with the control arm being connectable to the drive wheel via a wheel input/output block. The controllers are responsive to the master controller to control a respective steering, propulsion, and braking function. The steering motor may have a dual-wound stator with windings controlled via the respective steering controllers.

  1. Objective versus subjective outcome measures of biofeedback: what really matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Amanda; Rudick, Kristen; Richter, Meg; Zderic, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clinical epidemiologic studies suggest that once established, voiding dysfunction can become a lifelong condition if not treated correctly early on in life. Biofeedback is one component of a voiding retraining program to help children with voiding dysfunction. Our goal was to compare objective non-invasive urodynamic data obtained during office biofeedback sessions with patient reported voiding symptom scores. Charts of 55 children referred in 2010 for pelvic floor muscle biofeedback therapy for urinary incontinence were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with any anatomic diagnoses were excluded. Forty-seven (86%) females and eight males (14%) with a mean age of 8.2 years made up the cohort. Uroflow curves, voided volumes, and post-void residuals were recorded at each visit and served as objective data. Volumes were normalized as a percentage of expected bladder capacity according to age. The patient reported symptom score and patient reported outcome (improved, no change or worse) served as subjective measures of intervention. The primary referral diagnoses were day and night wetting in 37 (67%) and daytime incontinence in 18 (33%) children. A history of urinary tract infection (UTI) was noted in 32 (64%) patients, and 25% were maintained on antibiotic prophylaxis during the study period. Twenty-nine percent were maintained on anticholinergic medication. Patients attended an average of 2.5 biofeedback sessions. Voided volumes and post void residual volumes were unchanged, 50% of the abnormal uroflow curves normalized over the course of treatment (p biofeedback were rated an improved in 26 (47%), no change in 15 (27%), worse in three (5%) patients, and not rated in 11 patients (21%). Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback is associated with patient-reported improvement in symptoms, reduction in voiding symptom score, and normalization of uroflow curves, but these improvements are not correlated with objective parameters of voided volumes and post-void residual urine

  2. Effects of Biofeedback in Preventing Urinary Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S. B. Perez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a biofeedback method for the strengthening of perineal muscles during the preoperative procedures for radical prostatectomy, and we evaluate this technique as a prevention measure against complications such as urinary incontinence (UI and erectile dysfunction (ED, which affect prostatectomy patients after surgery. In the experimental protocol, the patients performed specific exercises with the help of a device that provided the patient with visual biofeedback, based on a plot of the anal pressure. For the experimental protocol, we selected 20 male patients, with an average age of 64.0 years, and submitted them to ten therapeutic sessions each. A control group consisting of 32 men with an average age of 66.3 years, who were treated with the same surgical procedure but not with the preoperative procedures, also took part in the experiment. To evaluate UI and ED after the surgery in both control and experimental groups, we used two validated questionnaires—to assess UI, we used the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ and, for ED, we used the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 Questionnaire. We compared the variables associated with UI and ED after the surgery for the control and experimental groups. The occurrence of UI after radical prostatectomy in the control group (100% of the patients was higher than that for the experimental group (5% of the patients, with p < 0.0001. Likewise, the occurrence of erectile dysfunction after prostatectomy in the control group (48.6% of the patients was higher than that for the experimental group (5% of the patients, with p < 0.0001. The number of nocturia events also decreased as a consequence of the intervention (p < 0.0001, as did the number of disposable underwear units for urinary incontinence (p < 0.0001. Furthermore, we compared, only for the experimental group, the anal pressure before the biofeedback intervention and after the surgery, and we

  3. Development of Functional Electrical Stimulation Rowing: The Rowstim Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian; Gibbons, Robin; Wheeler, Garry

    2017-11-01

    Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin. The stimulated muscle contractions are synchronized with voluntary rowing movements of the upper limbs. A range of steady-state FES rowing exercise intensities have been demonstrated from 15.2 ± 1.8 mL/kg/min in tetraplegia to 22.9 ±7.1 mL/kg/min in paraplegia. We expect that such high levels may help some to achieve significant reductions in the risks to their health, particularly where a dose-response relationship exists as is the case for cardiovascular disease and Type II diabetes. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that cyclical forces more than 1.5 times body weight are imposed on the leg long bones which may help to reduce the risk of fragility fractures. We have demonstrated the feasibility of FES rowing on land and water using adapted rowing technology that includes; a fixed stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2, Model E), a floating stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2 Dynamic), a turbine powered water rowing tank, a custom hydraulic sculling simulator and a single scull (adapted Alden 16). This has involved volunteers with paraplegia and tetraplegia with SCI ranging from C4 to T12 AIS A using at least 4-channels of surface electrical stimulation. FES rowers, with SCI, have competed alongside non-SCI rowers over the Olympic distance of 2000 m at the British Indoor Rowing Championships in 2004, 2005, and 2006

  4. Patterns of anismus and the relation to biofeedback therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, U C; Choi, S K; Piccirillo, M F; Verzaro, R; Wexner, S D

    1996-07-01

    A study was undertaken to assess physiologic characteristics and clinical significance of anismus. Specifically, we sought to assess patterns of anismus and the relation of these findings to the success of therapy. Sixty-eight patients were found to have anismus based on history and diagnostic criteria including anismus by defecography and at least one of three additional tests: anorectal manometry, electromyography, or colonic transit time study. Interpretation of defecography was based on the consensus of at least three of four observers. Anal canal hypertonia (n = 32) was defined when mean and maximum resting pressures were at least 1 standard deviation higher than those in 63 controls. There were two distinct defecographic patterns of anismus: Type A (n = 26), a flattened anorectal angle without definitive puborectalis indentation but a closed anal canal; Type B (n = 42), a clear puborectalis indentation, narrow anorectal angle, and closed anal canal. Outcomes of 57 patients who had electromyographybased biofeedback therapy were reported as either improved or unimproved at a mean follow-up of 23.7 (range, 6-62) months. These two types of anismus were compared with biofeedback outcome to assess clinical relevance. Patients with Type A anismus showed greater perineal descent at rest (mean, 5.1 vs. 3.5 cm; P anismus. Only 25 percent of patients who had Type A anismus with anal canal hypertonia were improved by biofeedback therapy. Conversely, 86 percent of patients with Type B anismus without anal canal hypertonia were successfully treated with biofeedback (P anismus correlate with the success of biofeedback treatment. Therefore, knowledge of these patterns may help direct therapy.

  5. Biofeedback and the electromyographic activity of pelvic floor muscles in pregnant women Biofeedback na atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos do assoalho pélvico em gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta L. A. Batista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maintaining continence is among the functions of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM and their dysfunction can cause urinary incontinence (UI, which is a common occurrence during pregnancy and the puerperal period. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT, therefore, is important during pregnancy, although most women perform the muscle contractions unsatisfactorily. OBJECTIVES: This study is an exploratory analysis of the results of three electromyographic (EMG activity biofeedback sessions in pregnant women. METHODS: The study sample included 19 nulliparous women with low risk pregnancies. The participants performed three sessions of EMG biofeedback consisting of slow and fast contractions. The average value of the normalized amplitudes of surface electromyography was used to evaluate the results. The linear regression model with mixed effects was used for statistical analysis, with the EMG data normalized by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. RESULTS: A steady increase in EMG amplitude was observed during each contraction and by the end of the biofeedback sessions, although this difference was only significant when comparing the first tonic contraction of each session (p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that three sessions of training with biofeedback improved PFM EMG activity during the second trimester in women with low-risk pregnancies. The effectiveness of this protocol should be further investigated in randomized controlled trials.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Dentre as funções dos músculos do assoalho pélvico (MAPs, pode-se citar a manutenção da continência, sendo que sua disfunção pode causar a incontinência urinária (IU, muito frequente no período gestacional e no puerpério. Diante disso, se faz importante o treinamento dos músculos do assoalho pélvico (TMAP durante o período gestacional, entretanto grande parte das mulheres realiza a contração dessa musculatura de maneira insatisfatória. OBJETIVOS: Realizar uma an

  6. Managing the GPS/GIS function in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, M.W. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A new period of higher significance has arrived for the GPS/GIS function at electric utilities such that to a degree never seen before, utility managers are looking to their GIS programs, filled with increasingly accurate data collected by GPS technology, before making many decisions. With this capability comes an expectation for GPS/GIS professionals to provide higher levels of planning and management of their data collection process. At Duke Power in Charlotte, North Carolina, managers rely on GPS mapping to fill their data collection equipment needs. When the city of Charlotte requested a more detailed billing system, Duke Power co-sponsored the street lighting inventory project, a comprehensive program implemented to fully account for street lighting facilities within the billing area. One of the key projects to be kept in mind was the creation of a common data base viewable by GIS from which a bill could be created and as well reveal data. A billing calculation routine can be run against the data base to generate a bill or use MapInfo to see a graphical picture. Prior to the creation of this data base capability, the difference between the data base as a display tool and billing system was a potential source of discrepancy, which is eliminated now. Creating the data base allows more than just creating a bill for the city, it allows Duke Power to work better with the city by improving its billing accountability and provides better service as well

  7. The influence of electromyographic biofeedback therapy on knee extension following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanell Franz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of knee extension and a deficit in quadriceps strength are frequently found following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of Eletromyographic Biofeedback (EMG BFB therapy for the vastus medialis muscle to the in the early phase of the standard rehabilitation programme could improve the range of knee extension and strength after ACL reconstruction more than a standard rehabilitation programme. The correlation between EMG measurement and passive knee extension was also investigated. Method Sixteen patients, all of whom underwent endoscopic ACL reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft, were randomly assigned to two groups: • Control group (8 patients: standard rehabilitation protocol; with full weight-bearing postoperative, knee brace (0° extension, 90° flexion, electrical stimulation, aquatics and proprioceptive training. • The EMG BFB group (8 patients: EMG BFB was added to the standard rehabilitation protocol within the first postoperative week and during each session for the next 6 weeks. Each patent attended a total of 16 outpatient physiotherapy sessions following surgery. High-Heel-Distance (HHD Test, range of motion (ROM and integrated EMG (iEMG for vastus medialis were measured preoperatively, and at the 1, 2, 4 and 6-week follow ups. Additionally, knee function, swelling and pain were evaluated using standardized scoring scales. Results At 6 weeks, passive knee extension (p  0.01 differences were found between the two groups for the assessment of knee function, swelling and pain. Conclusion The results indicate that EMG BFB therapy, in the early phase of rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction, is useful in enhancing knee extension. Improved innervation of the vastus medialis can play a key role in the development of postoperative knee extension. EMG BFB therapy is a simple, inexpensive and valuable adjunct to conventional

  8. SEARCHING FOR ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, PHENOMENA AND MECHANISMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF CHROMOSOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kanev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1 chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2 chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3 chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important.

  9. Setup of a novel biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand and preliminary application in patients with peripheral nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Haw-Yen; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Su, Fong-Chin; Jou, I-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2013-02-01

    Biofeedback training is widely used for rehabilitative intervention in patients with central or peripheral nervous impairment to train correct movement patterns; however, no biofeedback apparatus is currently available to correct pinch force ratios for patients with sensory deficiencies. A cross-sectional and longitudinal design was used in an observational measurement study for establishing a prototype and to determine the effects of biofeedback intervention, respectively. This study aimed to develop a computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB) prototype for application in clinical settings. A CERB prototype was developed integrating pinch apparatus hardware, a biofeedback user-controlled interface, and a data processing/analysis interface to detect momentary pinch performances in 79 people with normal hand sensation. Nine patients with hand sensory impairments were recruited to investigate the effects of training hand function with the CERB prototype. Hand dominance, pinch pattern, and age significantly affected the peak pinch force and force ratio for lifting a 480-g object with a steel surface. In the case of the 79 volunteers with normal hand sensation, hand dominance affected the time lag between peak pinch force and maximum load; however, it was unaffected by pinch pattern or age. Training with the CERB prototype produced significant improvements in force ratio and better performance in the pin insertion subtests, although the results for both 2-point discriminative and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament tests did not change significantly. The intervention findings are preliminary. This study developed a conjunct system suited for evaluating and restoring sensorimotor function for patients with impaired hand sensibility. The results from the participants with normal hand sensation could serve as a reference database for comparison with patients with nerve injuries.

  10. Comparing the Efficacy of Biofeedback and Balloon-Assisted Training in the Treatment of Dyssynergic Defecation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbs Ali Pourmomeny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dyssynergic defecation does not respond appropriately to routine treatments for constipation. Recently, research has shown that biofeedback therapy is useful in anorectal dyssynergia.

  11. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth.

  12. Manipulation of the kinematic chain using visual biofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Mulloy, Franky; Mullineaux, David; Irwin, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Feedback has been shown to be an influential component in skill development, yet this has not been assessed in movements involving an explosive proximal to distal sequencing pattern. Novices (n=14) were introduced to a lunge touch task. Visual biofeedback were given on the timing and magnitude of rear leg kinematics. Results showed that those who received feedback adapted their movement patterns by developing extension velocity magnitudes in a summative pattern (pre v post, mean ± SD peak ank...

  13. Calming Children When Drawing Blood Using Breath-based Biofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Sonne, T.; Merritt, T.; Marshall, P. E.; Lomholt, J.; Müller, J.; Grønbæk, K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood sampling is a common and necessary procedure in the treatment and diagnosis of a variety of diseases. However, it often results in painful and stressful experiences for children. Designed together with domain experts, ChillFish is a breath-controlled biofeedback game technology with bespoke airflow sensor that aims to calm children during blood sampling procedures. An experimental pilot study was conducted in which 20 children aged 6-11 were assigned to one of two conditions involving e...

  14. THE POSSIBILITY OF BIOFEEDBACK IN EDUCATIONAL ADAPTATION OF JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop an effective self-regulation skills in younger students the technology of computer games biofeedback psychological state of the child. Using the virtual simulation of situations and conditions it is shown that as a result of conscious control over one’s own state, the student can develop skills of self-regulation. Described stories of gaming training, which is controlled by the heart rate of the player

  15. PP-4 ANORECTAL MALFORMATIONS: MOTILITY STUDIES AND RESPONSE TO BIOFEEDBACK THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliardi, Roman N; Ditaranto, A; Reynoso, R; Vidal, J H; Messere, G; Toca, M; Silvestri, G; Ortiz, G; Noriega, S; Varela, A

    2015-10-01

    Anorectal malformations (ARM) are infrequent anatomic defects with a prevalence of 1 each 5000 alive newborns. Most of the patients repaired of this illness have some degree of constipation or fecal incontinence. There are few reports about manometric studies and biofeedback treatment in patients with anorectal malformations. To evaluate of our population's anorectal functionality late after surgery by anorectal manometry; To study the response to diet, toilet training, and/or biofeedback. Anorectal manometry was done in 39 patients with ARM and 35 of them received combinated treatment of diet, toilet training and biofeedback. Age: 6 to 17 years old. Mean age: 8.05 years. Descriptive study. From april 2004 to april 2015. 14 patients had high malformations(36%), 18 had low malformations(46%) and 7 had cloaca(18%). children over 6 years of age with anorectal malformation operated using Peña's technique (postsagittal anorectoplasty). patients with neurological disorders that do not non-compliant with study and treatment indications. Average resting pressure was 28 mmHg(High level 25,5 and Low level 29,8 mmHg), range between 7 and 51 mmHg. Squeezing pressure between 29 and 120 mmHg(mean:69mmHg). Combined treatment of diet, toilet training, and biofeedback was succesfull to get total continence in 22 patients (4 cloacas, 10 high malformations and 8 low malformations), partial continence in 6(all low) and without response in 3(1 low, 1 high and 1 cloaca); 2 patients archived continence only with toilet training and 2 were lost in follow up(T.Fisher: 0,1). In high ARM 8 had positive(+) rectoanal inhibitory reflex(RAIR) and 6 negative(¬). In cloacas it was (+) in 3, (¬) in 3 and doubtful in 1. In low ARM 15(+), 2 (¬) and 1 doubtful. Reflex was obtained with 20 to 60cc of air(mean 31,36). The RRAI duration was 10 to 17 seconds(mean: 13 seconds).From 22 total continent, RAIR was (+) in 13, (¬) in 7 and hazardous in 2. All 6 partially continent had (+) RAIR; and from 3

  16. Biofeedback effectiveness to reduce upper limb muscle activity during computer work is muscle specific and time pressure dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Pernille; Søgaard, Karen; Blangsted, Anne Katrine

    2011-01-01

    trapezius (TRA) can reduce bilateral TRA activity but not extensor digitorum communis (EDC) activity; (2) biofeedback from EDC can reduce activity in EDC but not in TRA; (3) biofeedback is more effective in no time constraint than in the time constraint working condition. Eleven healthy women performed......Continuous electromyographic (EMG) activity level is considered a risk factor in developing muscle disorders. EMG biofeedback is known to be useful in reducing EMG activity in working muscles during computer work. The purpose was to test the following hypotheses: (1) unilateral biofeedback from...... computer work during two different working conditions (time constraint/no time constraint) while receiving biofeedback. Biofeedback was given from right TRA or EDC through two modes (visual/auditory) by the use of EMG or mechanomyography as biofeedback source. During control sessions (no biofeedback), EMG...

  17. Biofeedback Training in Crisis Managers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Brunner, B; Oppenrieder, S; Duschek, S

    2017-06-01

    Working in crisis environments represents a major challenge, especially for executive personnel engaged in directing disaster operations, i.e. crisis managers. Crisis management involves operating under conditions of extreme stress resulting, for instance, from high-level decision-making, principal responsibility for personnel, multitasking or working under conditions of risk and time pressure. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a newly developed biofeedback training procedure based on electrodermal activity, especially designed for the target group of crisis managers. The training comprised exercises promoting acquisition of control over sympathetic arousal under resting conditions and during exposure to visual, acoustic and cognitive stressors resembling situations related to crisis management. In a randomized controlled design, 36 crisis managers were assigned to either a biofeedback training group or waiting list control group. Subjective stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. In the training group, stress level markedly decreased; the decrease remained stable at follow-up 2 months after the training. The results indicate that biofeedback training in crisis management is an effective method for stress management that may help to reduce vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and stress-related disease.

  18. The difference between electrical microstimulation and direct electrical stimulation - towards new opportunities for innovative functional brain mapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marion; Rossel, Olivier; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues; Guiraud, David; Bonnetblanc, François

    2016-04-01

    Both electrical microstimulation (EMS) and direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain are used to perform functional brain mapping. EMS is applied to animal fundamental neuroscience experiments, whereas DES is performed in the operating theatre on neurosurgery patients. The objective of the present review was to shed new light on electrical stimulation techniques in brain mapping by comparing EMS and DES. There is much controversy as to whether the use of DES during wide-awake surgery is the 'gold standard' for studying the brain function. As part of this debate, it is sometimes wrongly assumed that EMS and DES induce similar effects in the nervous tissues and have comparable behavioural consequences. In fact, the respective stimulation parameters in EMS and DES are clearly different. More surprisingly, there is no solid biophysical rationale for setting the stimulation parameters in EMS and DES; this may be due to historical, methodological and technical constraints that have limited the experimental protocols and prompted the use of empirical methods. In contrast, the gap between EMS and DES highlights the potential for new experimental paradigms in electrical stimulation for functional brain mapping. In view of this gap and recent technical developments in stimulator design, it may now be time to move towards alternative, innovative protocols based on the functional stimulation of peripheral nerves (for which a more solid theoretical grounding exists).

  19. Learning effects of dynamic postural control by auditory biofeedback versus visual biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Naoya; Takeda, Kenta; Sakuma, Moe; Mani, Hiroki; Maejima, Hiroshi; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2017-10-01

    Augmented sensory biofeedback (BF) for postural control is widely used to improve postural stability. However, the effective sensory information in BF systems of motor learning for postural control is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning effects of visual versus auditory BF training in dynamic postural control. Eighteen healthy young adults were randomly divided into two groups (visual BF and auditory BF). In test sessions, participants were asked to bring the real-time center of pressure (COP) in line with a hidden target by body sway in the sagittal plane. The target moved in seven cycles of sine curves at 0.23Hz in the vertical direction on a monitor. In training sessions, the visual and auditory BF groups were required to change the magnitude of a visual circle and a sound, respectively, according to the distance between the COP and target in order to reach the target. The perceptual magnitudes of visual and auditory BF were equalized according to Stevens' power law. At the retention test, the auditory but not visual BF group demonstrated decreased postural performance errors in both the spatial and temporal parameters under the no-feedback condition. These findings suggest that visual BF increases the dependence on visual information to control postural performance, while auditory BF may enhance the integration of the proprioceptive sensory system, which contributes to motor learning without BF. These results suggest that auditory BF training improves motor learning of dynamic postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Subcellular Electrical Measurements as a Function of Wood Moisture Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The percolation model developed by Zelinka et al. was based upon macroscale measurements of the electrical conductivity and implicitly treats the wood material as homogenous. The transport mechanism proposed by Jakes et al. depends upon a moisture induced glass transition occurring in the hemicelluloses. This theory suggests that there are likely differences in the...

  1. FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR CONTROL OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Jianhang

    Nearly 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy and one-third of them do not respond well to any antiepileptic drugs. Given the large population of patients experiencing drug resistant epilepsy, increased attention has been paid over the last two decades to the development of electrical stimulat...

  2. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; Mancini, Martina; Chiari, Lorenzo; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2010-01-01

    Context: An effective application of biofeedback for interventions in older adults with balance and mobility disorders may be compromised due to co-morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of biofeedback-based training of balance and/or mobility in older adults. Data

  3. Haptic biofeedback for improving compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; DeLuke, Levi; Buerba, Rafael A; Fan, Richard E; Zheng, Ying Jean; Leslie, Michael P; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-11-01

    After lower-extremity orthopedic trauma and surgery, patients are often advised to restrict weight bearing on the affected limb. Conventional training methods are not effective at enabling patients to comply with recommendations for partial weight bearing. The current study assessed a novel method of using real-time haptic (vibratory/vibrotactile) biofeedback to improve compliance with instructions for partial weight bearing. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic participants were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: verbal instruction, bathroom scale training, and haptic biofeedback. Participants were instructed to restrict lower-extremity weight bearing in a walking boot with crutches to 25 lb, with an acceptable range of 15 to 35 lb. A custom weight bearing sensor and biofeedback system was attached to all participants, but only those in the haptic biofeedback group were given a vibrotactile signal if they exceeded the acceptable range. Weight bearing in all groups was measured with a separate validated commercial system. The verbal instruction group bore an average of 60.3±30.5 lb (mean±standard deviation). The bathroom scale group averaged 43.8±17.2 lb, whereas the haptic biofeedback group averaged 22.4±9.1 lb (Phaptic biofeedback group averaged 14.5±6.3% (Phaptic biofeedback to improve compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing, haptic biofeedback was superior to conventional physical therapy methods. Further studies in patients with clinical orthopedic trauma are warranted. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Biofeedback as complementary treatment in patients with epilepsy – an underestimated therapeutic option? Review, results, discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biofeedback methods represent side effect free complementary options in the treatment of epilepsy. In this paper we review the current status of these methods in terms of clinical study results and their evaluation by systematic review papers. Possible mechanisms of action in biofeedback methods are discussed.

  5. Biofeedback for stress reduction: towards a brigth future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Broek, E.L.; Westerink, J.H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. Thisarticle proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. Aconcise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental health

  6. Biofeedback and physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S B; Walter, S

    1996-01-01

    Biofeedback is a method of pelvic floor rehabilitation using a surface electrode inserted into the vagina and a catheter in the rectum. Forty women with genuine urinary stress incontinence were randomized to compare the efficacy of physiotherapy and physiotherapy in combination with biofeedback...

  7. DEEP: A biofeedback virtual reality game for children at-risk for anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.M.J.W. van; Lobel, A.M.; Harris, O.; Smit, N.; Granic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Biofeedback games have the potential to make gaming a deeply personal experience by linking the gamespace to each player's physiological state. First, this paper describes the psycho-educational potential of the horror-themed biofeedback game Nevermind. In Nevermind, players' heart rate is

  8. First clinical implementation of audiovisual biofeedback in liver cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Sean; Tse, Regina; Martin, Darren

    2015-01-01

    This case report details a clinical trial's first recruited liver cancer patient who underwent a course of stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment utilising audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance. Breathing motion results for both abdominal wall motion and tumour motion are included. Patient 1 demonstrated improved breathing motion regularity with audiovisual biofeedback. A training effect was also observed.

  9. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction: Towards a Bright Future for a Revitalized Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Conchon, E.; Correia, C.; Fred, A.; Gamboa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  10. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction : Towards a bright future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-of-the-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  11. Is EEG-biofeedback an effective treatment in autism spectrum disorders? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Schie, H.T. van; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Moor, J.M.H. de

    2013-01-01

    EEG-biofeedback has been reported to reduce symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in several studies. However, these studies did not control for nonspecific effects of EEG-biofeedback and did not distinguish between participants who succeeded in influencing their own EEG activity and

  12. Using a False Biofeedback Methodology to Explore Relationships between Learners' Affect, Metacognition, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Amber Chauncey; Azevedo, Roger; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2013-01-01

    We used a false-biofeedback methodology to manipulate physiological arousal in order to induce affective states that would influence learners' metacognitive judgments and learning performance. False-biofeedback is a method used to induce physiological arousal (and resultant affective states) by presenting learners with audio stimuli of false heart…

  13. Heart rate variability biofeedback reduces food cravings in high food cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Freund, Rebecca; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback has been reported to increase HRV while decreasing symptoms in patients with mental disorders. In addition, associations between low HRV and lowered self-regulation were found in non-clinical samples, e.g., in individuals with strong chocolate cravings or unsuccessful dieting. The current study aimed at decreasing food cravings with HRV-biofeedback in individuals frequently experiencing such cravings. Participants (N = 56) with strong or low food cravings associated with a lack of control over eating were selected from the local community. Half of the participants with strong cravings (craving-biofeedback; n = 14) performed 12 sessions of HRV-biofeedback while the other half (craving-control; n = 14) and a group with low cravings (non-craving-control; n = 28) received no intervention. Subjective food cravings related to a lack of control over eating decreased from pre- to post-measurement in the craving-biofeedback group, but remained constant in the control groups. Moreover, only the craving-biofeedback group showed a decrease in eating and weight concerns. Although HRV-biofeedback was successful in reducing food cravings, this change was not accompanied by an increase in HRV. Instead, HRV decreased in the craving-control group. This study provides preliminary evidence that HRV-biofeedback could be beneficial for attenuating dysfunctional eating behavior although specific mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  14. Critique: Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig; Conlon, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critique on K. Amon and A. Campbell's "Can children with AD/HD learn relaxation and breathing techniques through biofeedback video games?". Amon and Campbell reported a successful trial of a commercially available biofeedback program, "The Wild Divine", in reducing symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)…

  15. Integrating Course Work With Field Work Placements in Undergraduate Clinical Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiff, James P.

    The three major aspects of the clinical biofeedback experience for undergraduates at Hope College, Holland, Michigan are presented in terms of the academic program, the actual clinical experience, and the procedures for becoming certified as a "biofeedback assistant." The academic program is detailed, including the requirements for…

  16. Designing and utilizing biofeedback games for emotion regulation: The case of Nevermind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobel, A.M.; Gotsis, M.; Reynolds, E.; Annetta, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Granic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Biofeedback games have the potential to make gaming a deeply personal experience by linking the gamespace to each player's physiological state. First, this paper describes the psycho-educational potential of the horror-themed biofeedback game Nevermind. In Nevermind, players' heart rate is

  17. Determinants of electricity consumption function in Pakistan: Old wine in a new bottle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Muhammad M.; Ahmad, Mehboob; Rustam, Rabiah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to re-investigate the multivariate electricity consumption function for Pakistan, particularly, economic growth, foreign direct investment and population growth over a 36-year time period, i.e., between 1975 and 2010. The study employed the bounds-testing procedure for cointegration which examines the short-run and long-run estimates. Dynamic short-run causality test is applied to determine the causality direction between electricity consumption and its determinants, by using Wald-F statistics. The results reveal that determinants of electricity consumption function are cointegrated and influx of foreign direct investment, income and population growth is positively related to electricity consumption in Pakistan. However, the intensity of these determinants is different on electricity consumption. If there is 1% increase in income, foreign direct investment and population growth; electricity consumption increases by 0.973%; 0.056% and 1.605%, respectively. This infers that income, foreign direct investment and population growth induce an increase in electricity consumption in Pakistan. Dynamic short-run causality test indicates that there has been unidirectional causality which is running from population growth to electricity consumption in Pakistan. - Highlights: ► To re-investigate the multivariate electricity consumption function for Pakistan. ► FDI, income and population growth are positively related to electricity consumption. ► The intensity of determinants is different on electricity consumption. ► Population growth exerts the major contributor to increase electricity consumption. ► Unidirectional causality running from population growth to electricity.

  18. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  19. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luber, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.luber@chem.uzh.ch [Institut für Chemie, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange–correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  20. Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Cine–Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measured Lung Tumor Motion Consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Danny [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Ludbrook, Joanna; Arm, Jameen; Hunter, Perry [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Pollock, Sean; Makhija, Kuldeep; O' brien, Ricky T. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Kim, Taeho [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Keall, Paul, E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on intra- and interfraction tumor motion for lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Lung tumor motion was investigated in 9 lung cancer patients who underwent a breathing training session with AV biofeedback before 2 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions. The breathing training session was performed to allow patients to become familiar with AV biofeedback, which uses a guiding wave customized for each patient according to a reference breathing pattern. In the first MRI session (pretreatment), 2-dimensional cine-MR images with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback were obtained, and the second MRI session was repeated within 3-6 weeks (mid-treatment). Lung tumors were directly measured from cine-MR images using an auto-segmentation technique; the centroid and outlier motions of the lung tumors were measured from the segmented tumors. Free breathing and AV biofeedback were compared using several metrics: intra- and interfraction tumor motion consistency in displacement and period, and the outlier motion ratio. Results: Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved intrafraction tumor motion consistency by 34% in displacement (P=.019) and by 73% in period (P<.001). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved interfraction tumor motion consistency by 42% in displacement (P<.046) and by 74% in period (P=.005). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback reduced the outlier motion ratio by 21% (P<.001). Conclusions: These results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved intra- and interfraction lung tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results demonstrate that AV biofeedback can facilitate consistent tumor motion, which is advantageous toward achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  1. Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Cine–Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measured Lung Tumor Motion Consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B.; Ludbrook, Joanna; Arm, Jameen; Hunter, Perry; Pollock, Sean; Makhija, Kuldeep; O'brien, Ricky T.; Kim, Taeho; Keall, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on intra- and interfraction tumor motion for lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Lung tumor motion was investigated in 9 lung cancer patients who underwent a breathing training session with AV biofeedback before 2 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions. The breathing training session was performed to allow patients to become familiar with AV biofeedback, which uses a guiding wave customized for each patient according to a reference breathing pattern. In the first MRI session (pretreatment), 2-dimensional cine-MR images with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback were obtained, and the second MRI session was repeated within 3-6 weeks (mid-treatment). Lung tumors were directly measured from cine-MR images using an auto-segmentation technique; the centroid and outlier motions of the lung tumors were measured from the segmented tumors. Free breathing and AV biofeedback were compared using several metrics: intra- and interfraction tumor motion consistency in displacement and period, and the outlier motion ratio. Results: Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved intrafraction tumor motion consistency by 34% in displacement (P=.019) and by 73% in period (P<.001). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved interfraction tumor motion consistency by 42% in displacement (P<.046) and by 74% in period (P=.005). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback reduced the outlier motion ratio by 21% (P<.001). Conclusions: These results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved intra- and interfraction lung tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results demonstrate that AV biofeedback can facilitate consistent tumor motion, which is advantageous toward achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  2. Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Su, Fong-Chin; Kuo, Huan-Ting; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2012-05-09

    Hemianaesthesia patients usually exhibit awkward and inefficient finger movements of the affected hands. Conventionally, most interventions emphasize the improvement of motor deficits, but rarely address sensory capability and sensorimotor control following stroke. Thus it is critical for stroke patients with sensory problems to incorporate appropriate strategies for dealing with sensory impairment, into traditional hand function rehabilitation programs. In this study, we used a custom-designed computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB) prototype to analyze hand grasp performances, and monitor the training effects on hand coordination for stroke patients with sensory disturbance and without motor deficiency. The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6-60 months) were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed. The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p = 0.033) in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p = 0.005) than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p = 0.009) than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced significant improvements in grip force modulation (p = 0.020) and

  3. Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Hsiu-Yun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemianaesthesia patients usually exhibit awkward and inefficient finger movements of the affected hands. Conventionally, most interventions emphasize the improvement of motor deficits, but rarely address sensory capability and sensorimotor control following stroke. Thus it is critical for stroke patients with sensory problems to incorporate appropriate strategies for dealing with sensory impairment, into traditional hand function rehabilitation programs. In this study, we used a custom-designed computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB prototype to analyze hand grasp performances, and monitor the training effects on hand coordination for stroke patients with sensory disturbance and without motor deficiency. Methods The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6–60 months were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed. Results The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p = 0.033 in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p = 0.005 than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p = 0.009 than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced

  4. Incorporation of in-plane interconnects to reflow bonding for electrical functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moğulkoç, B; Jansen, H V; Ter Brake, H J M; Elwenspoek, M C

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of in-plane electrical interconnects to reflow bonding is studied to provide electrical functionality to lab-on-a-chip or microfluidic devices. Reflow bonding is the packaging technology, in which glass tubes are joined to silicon substrates at elevated temperatures. The tubes are used to interface the silicon-based fluidic devices and are directly compatible with standard Swagelok® connectors. After the bonding, the electrically conductive lines will allow probing into the volume confined by the tube, where the fluidic device operates. Therefore methods for fabricating electrical interconnects that survive the bonding procedure at elevated temperature and do not alter the properties of the bond interface are investigated

  5. Pelvic floor exercises with biofeedback for stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Capelini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prospective study to objectively evaluate the benefits of pelvic floor strengthening exercises associated to biofeedback for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence (SUI were selected for this study. All patients underwent a pelvic floor training associated to biofeedback for 12 consecutive weeks. Urodynamic tests, pad test and bladder diary were analyzed at the beginning of the study, at the end and after 3 months. The King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ was applied before and after treatment to assess the impact in the quality of life. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the pad weight (from 14.21 g to 1 g, number of urinary leakage episodes (from 8.14 per day to 2.57 per day and daytime frequency (from 7.93 per day to 5.85 per day. At urodynamics the authors observed a significant increase in Valsalva leak-point pressure (from 103.93 cm H2O to 139.14 cm H2O, cistometric capacity (from 249.29 mL to 336.43 mL, p = 0.0015 and bladder volume at first desire to void (from 145 mL to 215.71 mL. Those differences were kept during the first 3 months of follow up. The KHQ revealed significant differences except in the case of "general health perception", which covers health in general and not exclusively urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION: Treatment of SUI with pelvic floor exercises associated to biofeedback caused significant changes in the parameters analyzed, with maintenance of good results 3 months after treatment.

  6. Heart rate variability biofeedback: how and why does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul M.; Gevirtz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been substantial support for heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) as a treatment for a variety of disorders and for performance enhancement (Gevirtz, 2013). Since conditions as widely varied as asthma and depression seem to respond to this form of cardiorespiratory feedback training, the issue of possible mechanisms becomes more salient. The most supported possible mechanism is the strengthening of homeostasis in the baroreceptor (Vaschillo et al., 2002; Lehrer et al., 2003). Recently, the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and other possible mechanisms that might explain the positive effects of HRVB. PMID:25101026

  7. Heart rate variability biofeedback: How and why does it work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Lehrer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been substantial support for Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRVB as a treatment for a variety of disorders and for performance enhancement (Gevirtz, 2013. Since conditions as widely varied as asthma and depression seem to respond to this form of cardiorespiratory feedback training, the issue of possible mechanisms becomes more salient. The most supported possible mechanism is the strengthening of homeostasis in the barorecptor (Vashillo, et al, 2002; Lehrer, et al, 2003. Recently, the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and other possible mechanisms that might explain the positive effects of HRVB.

  8. Double-section curvature tunable functional actuator with micromachined buckle and grid wire for electricity delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Hou, Sheng-You

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC)-driven tentacle-like biocompatible flexible actuator with double-section curvature tunability. This actuator, possessing an embedded electrical transmission ability that mimics skeletal muscle nerves in the human body, affords versatile device functions. Novel micromachined copper buckles and grid wires are fabricated and their superiority in electricity delivery and driving the IPMC component with less flexural rigidity is demonstrated. In addition, soft conductive wires realized on a polydimethylsiloxane structure function as electrical signal transmitters. A light-emitting diode integrated with the developed actuator offers directional guiding light ability while the actuator performs a snake-like motion. The electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of the key actuator components are investigated, and flexural rigidity and dynamic behavior analyses of the actuator under electrical manipulation are elaborated.

  9. Double-section curvature tunable functional actuator with micromachined buckle and grid wire for electricity delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Hou, Sheng-You

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC)-driven tentacle-like biocompatible flexible actuator with double-section curvature tunability. This actuator, possessing an embedded electrical transmission ability that mimics skeletal muscle nerves in the human body, affords versatile device functions. Novel micromachined copper buckles and grid wires are fabricated and their superiority in electricity delivery and driving the IPMC component with less flexural rigidity is demonstrated. In addition, soft conductive wires realized on a polydimethylsiloxane structure function as electrical signal transmitters. A light-emitting diode integrated with the developed actuator offers directional guiding light ability while the actuator performs a snake-like motion. The electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of the key actuator components are investigated, and flexural rigidity and dynamic behavior analyses of the actuator under electrical manipulation are elaborated. (paper)

  10. Comparative study between biofeedback retraining and botulinum neurotoxin in the treatment of anismus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohamed; El Monem, Hisham Abd; Omar, Waleed; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Fikry, Amir; Youssef, Tamer; Yousef, Mohamed; Ghazy, Hosam; Fouda, Elyamani; El Metwally, Teto; Khafagy, Wael; Ahmed, Sabry; El Awady, Salih; Morshed, Mosaad; El Lithy, Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Anismus is a significant cause of chronic constipation. This study came to revive the results of BFB training and BTX-A injection in the treatment of anismus patients. Forty-eight patients with anismus (33 women; mean age 39.6 +/- 15.9) were included in this study. All patients fulfilled Rome II criteria for functional constipation. All patients underwent anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, defecography, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the EAS. All patients had non-relaxing puborectalis muscle. The patients were randomized into two groups. Group I patients received biofeedback therapy, two times per week for about 1 month. Group II patients were injected with BTX-A. Follow-up was conducted weekly in the first month then monthly for about 1 year. In the BFB training group, three patients quit before the end of sessions with no improvement; initial improvement was recorded in 12 patients (50%) while long-term success was recorded in six patients (25%). In the BTX-A group, clinical improvement was recorded in 17 patients (70.83%), but the improvement persisted only in eight patients (33.3%). There is a significant difference between BTX-A group and BFB group regarding the initial success, but this significant difference disappeared at the end of follow-up. Manometric relaxation was achieved significantly post-BFB and post-BTX-A injection with no significant difference between the two groups. Biofeedback training has a limited therapeutic effect on patients suffering from anismus. BTX-A injection seems to be successful for temporary treatment of anismus.

  11. The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring: the development of emotional self-awareness and self-control in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, G; Watson, J S

    1996-12-01

    The authors present a new theory of parental affect-mirroring and its role in the development of emotional self-awareness and control in infancy. It is proposed that infants first become sensitised to their categorical emotion-states through a natural social biofeedback process provided by the parent's 'marked' reflections of the baby's emotion displays during affect-regulative interactions. They argue that this sensitisation process is mediated (similarly to that of adult biofeedback training) by the mechanism of contingency-detection and maximising. Apart from sensitisation, affect-mirroring serves three further developmental functions: (1) it contributes to the infant's state-regulation; (2) it leads to the establishment of secondary representations that become associated with the infant's primary procedural affect-states providing the cognitive means for accessing and attributing emotions to the self; (3) it results in the development of a generalised communicative code of "marked' expressions characterised by the representational functions of referential decoupling, anchoring and suspension of realistic consequences. They consider the clinical implications of our theory, relating it to current psychodynamic approaches to the functions of parental affect-mirroring. Using their model they identify various types of deviant mirroring styles and speculate about their developmental consequences. Finally, they discuss what role their social biofeedback model may play as a mediating mechanism in the therapeutic process.

  12. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  13. The electricity exchange. On the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading as seen from the viewpoint of market sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacovelli, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Electricity exchange trading in Germany has existed since the year 2000. Since this time, the Leipzig electricity exchange, a reference market for off-exchange electricity trading, has operated in an environment marked by both criticism and acceptance. Taking this field of controversy as a point of departure the present empirical study in market sociology undertakes to investigate the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading. The ensuing analysis provides answers to questions as to how prices are formed on the electricity exchange and what officially incommunicable functions are served by price formation on exchanges.

  14. The internal-external respiratory motion correlation is unaffected by audiovisual biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Harry; Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated if an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback causes variation in the level of external and internal correlation due to its interactive intervention in natural breathing. The internal (diaphragm) and external (abdominal wall) respiratory motion signals of 15 healthy human subjects under AV biofeedback and free breathing (FB) were analyzed and measures of correlation and regularity taken. Regularity metrics (root mean square error and spectral power dispersion metric) were obtained and the correlation between these metrics and the internal and external correlation was investigated. For FB and AV biofeedback assisted breathing the mean correlations found between internal and external respiratory motion were 0.96±0.02 and 0.96±0.03, respectively. This means there is no evidence to suggest (p-value=0.88) any difference in the correlation between internal and external respiratory motion with the use of AV biofeedback. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that the internal-external correlation with AV biofeedback is the same as for free breathing. Should this correlation be maintained for patients, AV biofeedback can be implemented in the clinic with confidence as regularity improvements using AV biofeedback with an external signal will be reflected in increased internal motion regularity.

  15. The benefit of heart rate variability biofeedback and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jung K; Wachholtz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that biofeedback treatment and relaxation techniques are effective in reducing psychological and physical symptoms (Hammond, 2005; Manzoni, G. M., Pagnini, F., Castelnuovo, G., & Molinari, E., 2008). However, dearth of studies has compared heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment and relaxation training to reduce trait anxiety. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of HRV biofeedback treatment and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety compared to control group without any treatment using students in a science and engineering university of South Korea. For the present study, a total of 15 graduate students with moderate level of trait anxiety were recruited for 4 individual sessions every two weeks. They were randomly assigned into three groups: biofeedback treatment (n = 5), relaxation training (n = 5), and no treatment control group (n = 5). Our results revealed significant difference in change score of trait anxiety between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the no treatment control group. However, no significant difference was found between the relaxation training group and the no treatment control group. In addition, there was no significant difference between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the relaxation training. Results of the present study indicate that there is potential benefit in utilizing HRV biofeedback treatment for stress management programs and/or anxiety reduction treatment PMID:27099546

  16. [Biofeedback and drug-resistant epilepsy: back to an earlier treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Lanteaume, L; Pallanca, O; Vion-Dury, J; Bartolomei, F

    2014-03-01

    Biofeedback is a complementary non-pharmacological and non-surgical therapeutic developed over the last thirty years in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy. Biofeedback allows learning cognitive and behavioral strategies via a psychophysiological feedback loop. Firstly, this paper describes the different types of biofeedback protocols used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and their physiological justifications. Secondly, this paper analyzes the evidence of effectiveness, from a medical point of view, on reducing the numbers of seizures, and from a neurophysiological point of view, on the changing brain activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback) protocol on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) has been investigated in many studies, the main limitation being small sample sizes and lack of control groups. The newer neurofeedback protocol on slow cortical potential (SCP) and galvanic skin response (GSR) biofeedback protocols have been used in a smaller number of studies. But, these studies are more rigorous with larger sized samples, matched control groups, and attempts to control the placebo effect. These protocols also open the way for innovative neurophysiological researches and may predict a renewal of biofeedback techniques. Biofeedback would have legitimacy in the field of clinical drug-resistant epilepsy at the interface between therapeutic and clinical neurophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. NOTE: Development and preliminary evaluation of a prototype audiovisual biofeedback device incorporating a patient-specific guiding waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Raghu B.; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; George, Rohini; Keall, Paul J.

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel audio-visual biofeedback respiratory training tool to reduce respiratory irregularity. The audiovisual biofeedback system acquires sample respiratory waveforms of a particular patient and computes a patient-specific waveform to guide the patient's subsequent breathing. Two visual feedback models with different displays and cognitive loads were investigated: a bar model and a wave model. The audio instructions were ascending/descending musical tones played at inhale and exhale respectively to assist in maintaining the breathing period. Free-breathing, bar model and wave model training was performed on ten volunteers for 5 min for three repeat sessions. A total of 90 respiratory waveforms were acquired. It was found that the bar model was superior to free breathing with overall rms displacement variations of 0.10 and 0.16 cm, respectively, and rms period variations of 0.77 and 0.33 s, respectively. The wave model was superior to the bar model and free breathing for all volunteers, with an overall rms displacement of 0.08 cm and rms periods of 0.2 s. The reduction in the displacement and period variations for the bar model compared with free breathing was statistically significant (p = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively); the wave model was significantly better than the bar model (p = 0.006 and 0.005, respectively). Audiovisual biofeedback with a patient-specific guiding waveform significantly reduces variations in breathing. The wave model approach reduces cycle-to-cycle variations in displacement by greater than 50% and variations in period by over 70% compared with free breathing. The planned application of this device is anatomic and functional imaging procedures and radiation therapy delivery.

  18. Development and preliminary evaluation of a prototype audiovisual biofeedback device incorporating a patient-specific guiding waveform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat, Raghu B; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Keall, Paul J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5847 (United States); George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)], E-mail: Paul.Keall@stanford.edu

    2008-06-07

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel audio-visual biofeedback respiratory training tool to reduce respiratory irregularity. The audiovisual biofeedback system acquires sample respiratory waveforms of a particular patient and computes a patient-specific waveform to guide the patient's subsequent breathing. Two visual feedback models with different displays and cognitive loads were investigated: a bar model and a wave model. The audio instructions were ascending/descending musical tones played at inhale and exhale respectively to assist in maintaining the breathing period. Free-breathing, bar model and wave model training was performed on ten volunteers for 5 min for three repeat sessions. A total of 90 respiratory waveforms were acquired. It was found that the bar model was superior to free breathing with overall rms displacement variations of 0.10 and 0.16 cm, respectively, and rms period variations of 0.77 and 0.33 s, respectively. The wave model was superior to the bar model and free breathing for all volunteers, with an overall rms displacement of 0.08 cm and rms periods of 0.2 s. The reduction in the displacement and period variations for the bar model compared with free breathing was statistically significant (p = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively); the wave model was significantly better than the bar model (p = 0.006 and 0.005, respectively). Audiovisual biofeedback with a patient-specific guiding waveform significantly reduces variations in breathing. The wave model approach reduces cycle-to-cycle variations in displacement by greater than 50% and variations in period by over 70% compared with free breathing. The planned application of this device is anatomic and functional imaging procedures and radiation therapy delivery. (note)

  19. Development and preliminary evaluation of a prototype audiovisual biofeedback device incorporating a patient-specific guiding waveform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat, Raghu B; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Keall, Paul J; George, Rohini

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel audio-visual biofeedback respiratory training tool to reduce respiratory irregularity. The audiovisual biofeedback system acquires sample respiratory waveforms of a particular patient and computes a patient-specific waveform to guide the patient's subsequent breathing. Two visual feedback models with different displays and cognitive loads were investigated: a bar model and a wave model. The audio instructions were ascending/descending musical tones played at inhale and exhale respectively to assist in maintaining the breathing period. Free-breathing, bar model and wave model training was performed on ten volunteers for 5 min for three repeat sessions. A total of 90 respiratory waveforms were acquired. It was found that the bar model was superior to free breathing with overall rms displacement variations of 0.10 and 0.16 cm, respectively, and rms period variations of 0.77 and 0.33 s, respectively. The wave model was superior to the bar model and free breathing for all volunteers, with an overall rms displacement of 0.08 cm and rms periods of 0.2 s. The reduction in the displacement and period variations for the bar model compared with free breathing was statistically significant (p = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively); the wave model was significantly better than the bar model (p = 0.006 and 0.005, respectively). Audiovisual biofeedback with a patient-specific guiding waveform significantly reduces variations in breathing. The wave model approach reduces cycle-to-cycle variations in displacement by greater than 50% and variations in period by over 70% compared with free breathing. The planned application of this device is anatomic and functional imaging procedures and radiation therapy delivery. (note)

  20. [Efficacy observation of dysphagia after acute stroke treated with acupuncture and functional electric stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling; He, Peng-Lan; Zhou, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Yan-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To observe the impacts on the recovery of swallowing function in patients of dysphagia after acute stroke treated with acupuncture and functional electric stimulation. Seventy-four patients were randomized into an acupuncture plus electric stimulation group (38 cases) and an electric stimulation group (36 cases). The functional electric stimulator was used in the two groups. The electric pads were placed on the hyoid bone, the upper part of thyroid cartilage, the masseter muscle and the mandibular joint. The treatment lasted for 30 mm each time. In the acupuncture plus electric stimulation group, acupuncture was supplemented at motor area of Jiao's scalp acupuncture, lower 2/5 of sensory area, Baihui (CV 20), Lianquan (CV 23), Jinjin (EX-HN 12) and Yuye (EX-HN 13), 30 mm each time. The treatment was given once a day, 6 treatments for one session and there was 1 day at interval between the sessions, 4 sessions were required totally in the two groups. The dysphagia scale was adopted for efficacy evaluation before treatment and after 4 sessions of treatment in the two groups. The removal rate of nasal feeding tube was observed after treatment. The dysphagia score was increased apparently after treatment compared with that before treatment in the two groups (both P vs 6.73 +/- 1.36, P stroke and promotes the early removal of nasal feeding tube. The efficacy is better than that of the simple electric stimulation therapy.

  1. Ultrasound biofeedback treatment for persisting childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Brick, Nickole; Landi, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment program that includes ultrasound biofeedback for children with persisting speech sound errors associated with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Six children ages 9-15 years participated in a multiple baseline experiment for 18 treatment sessions during which treatment focused on producing sequences involving lingual sounds. Children were cued to modify their tongue movements using visual feedback from real-time ultrasound images. Probe data were collected before, during, and after treatment to assess word-level accuracy for treated and untreated sound sequences. As participants reached preestablished performance criteria, new sequences were introduced into treatment. All participants met the performance criterion (80% accuracy for 2 consecutive sessions) on at least 2 treated sound sequences. Across the 6 participants, performance criterion was met for 23 of 31 treated sequences in an average of 5 sessions. Some participants showed no improvement in untreated sequences, whereas others showed generalization to untreated sequences that were phonetically similar to the treated sequences. Most gains were maintained 2 months after the end of treatment. The percentage of phonemes correct increased significantly from pretreatment to the 2-month follow-up. A treatment program including ultrasound biofeedback is a viable option for improving speech sound accuracy in children with persisting speech sound errors associated with CAS.

  2. Business model design for a wearable biofeedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidefjäll, Patrik; Titkova, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Wearable sensor technologies used to track daily activities have become successful in the consumer market. In order for wearable sensor technology to offer added value in the more challenging areas of stress-rehab care and occupational health stress-related biofeedback parameters need to be monitored and more elaborate business models are needed. To identify probable success factors for a wearable biofeedback system (Affective Health) in the two mentioned market segments in a Swedish setting, we conducted literature studies and interviews with relevant representatives. Data were collected and used first to describe the two market segments and then to define likely feasible business model designs, according to the Business Model Canvas framework. Needs of stakeholders were identified as inputs to business model design. Value propositions, a key building block of a business model, were defined for each segment. The value proposition for occupational health was defined as "A tool that can both identify employees at risk of stress-related disorders and reinforce healthy sustainable behavior" and for healthcare as: "Providing therapists with objective data about the patient's emotional state and motivating patients to better engage in the treatment process".

  3. The influence of biofeedback training on trapezius activity and rest during occupational computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Søgaard, K; Christensen, H

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of biofeedback training on trapezius activity and rest (gaps) during occupational computer work. A randomized controlled trial with 164 computer workers was performed. Two groups working with computer mouse more than 50% (n = 64) and less than 25% (n....... By improving trapezius inactivity during computer work, biofeedback training may have the potential to prevent trapezius myalgia in computer workers....... muscles during normal computer work was recorded. Changes in discomfort/pain were not recorded. The biofeedback training reduced activity (P

  4. Rehabilitation of balance-impaired stroke patients through audio-visual biofeedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gheorghe, Cristina; Nissen, Thomas; Juul Rosengreen Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how audio-visual biofeedback influences physical balance of seven balance-impaired stroke patients, between 33–70 years-of-age. The setup included a bespoke balance board and a music rhythm game. The procedure was designed as follows: (1) a control group who performed a balance...... training exercise without any technological input, (2) a visual biofeedback group, performing via visual input, and (3) an audio-visual biofeedback group, performing via audio and visual input. Results retrieved from comparisons between the data sets (2) and (3) suggested superior postural stability...

  5. Differential Effects of Visual-Acoustic Biofeedback Intervention for Residual Speech Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Campbell, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the incorporation of visual biofeedback technologies may enhance response to treatment in individuals with residual speech errors. However, there is a need for controlled research systematically comparing biofeedback versus non-biofeedback intervention approaches. This study implemented a single-subject experimental design with a crossover component to investigate the relative efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback and traditional articulatory treatment for residual rhotic errors. Eleven child/adolescent participants received ten sessions of visual-acoustic biofeedback and 10 sessions of traditional treatment, with the order of biofeedback and traditional phases counterbalanced across participants. Probe measures eliciting untreated rhotic words were administered in at least three sessions prior to the start of treatment (baseline), between the two treatment phases (midpoint), and after treatment ended (maintenance), as well as before and after each treatment session. Perceptual accuracy of rhotic production was assessed by outside listeners in a blinded, randomized fashion. Results were analyzed using a combination of visual inspection of treatment trajectories, individual effect sizes, and logistic mixed-effects regression. Effect sizes and visual inspection revealed that participants could be divided into categories of strong responders (n = 4), mixed/moderate responders (n = 3), and non-responders (n = 4). Individual results did not reveal a reliable pattern of stronger performance in biofeedback versus traditional blocks, or vice versa. Moreover, biofeedback versus traditional treatment was not a significant predictor of accuracy in the logistic mixed-effects model examining all within-treatment word probes. However, the interaction between treatment condition and treatment order was significant: biofeedback was more effective than traditional treatment in the first phase of treatment, and traditional treatment was more effective

  6. Effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation (fes) versus conventional electrical stimulation in gait rehabilitation of patients with stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, F.; Ghulam, S.; Malik, A.N.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation (FES) versus conventional electrical stimulation in gait rehabilitation of patients with stroke for finding the most appropriate problem-oriented treatment for foot drop patients in a shorter time period. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study:Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2016. Methodology: Subjects with foot drop due to stroke were allotted randomly into 1 of 2 groups receiving standard rehabilitation with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) or Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS). FES was applied on tibialis anterior 30 minutes/day, five days/week for six weeks. EMS was also applied on the tibialis anterior five days/week for six weeks. Outcome measures included Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Time Up and Go Test (TUG) and Gait Dynamic Index (GDI). They were recorded at baseline, after 3 and 6 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment scores were analyzed between two groups on SPSS-20. Results: After six weeks of intervention, significant improvement was recorded in Fugl-Meyer Assessment score (p<0.001), modified Ashworth Scale score (p=0.027), Berg Balance Scale score (p<0.001), Time Up and Go Test (p<0.001) and Gait Dynamic Index (p=0.012) of the group subjected to FES. Conclusion: Gait training with FES is more effective than EMS in improving mobility, balance, gait performance and reducing spasticity in stroke patients. The research will help clinicians to select appropriate treatment of foot drop in stroke patients. (author)

  7. Towards an ankle neuroprosthesis for hybrid robotics: Concepts and current sources for functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, S; Fuster, I; Galeano, R; Moreno, J C; Pons, J L; Brunetti, F

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid rehabilitation robotics combine neuro-prosthetic devices (close-loop functional electrical stimulation systems) and traditional robotic structures and actuators to explore better therapies and promote a more efficient motor function recovery or compensation. Although hybrid robotics and ankle neuroprostheses (NPs) have been widely developed over the last years, there are just few studies on the use of NPs to electrically control both ankle flexion and extension to promote ankle recovery and improved gait patterns in paretic limbs. The aim of this work is to develop an ankle NP specifically designed to work in the field of hybrid robotics. This article presents early steps towards this goal and makes a brief review about motor NPs and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) principles and most common devices used to aid the ankle functioning during the gait cycle. It also shows a current sources analysis done in this framework, in order to choose the best one for this intended application.

  8. The effect of functionalization on structure and electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Cher Hon; Cervini, Raoul; Clarke, Stephen R.; Markovic, Milena Ginic; Matisons, Janis G.; Hawkins, Stephen C.; Huynh, Chi P.; Simon, George P.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of interest in many areas of nanotechnology and used in a number of novel applications. However effective dispersion remains a problem and one solution is to functionalize the nanotubes. Any functionalization that is undertaken must preferably not influence other key properties such as strength and electrical conductivity. In this work, multi-walled CNTs are functionalized for comparison, using a range of oxidative techniques, including thermal treatment, acid reflux, and dry UV-ozonolysis. The effects of these treatments on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their electrical properties were characterized using a range of surface and compositional techniques. The electrical conductivity of MWCNTs was found to increase with functionalization in all cases, and dry UV-ozonolysis was shown to be the treatment technique which best increased conductivity, whilst at the same time maintaining the structural integrity of the nanotubes, even though the level of modification was less than by the other treatment methods.

  9. 50-60 Hz electric and magnetic field effects on cognitive function in humans: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasson, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of 50-60 Hz weak electric, magnetic and combined electric and magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions such as memory, attention, information processing and time perception, as determined by electroencephalographic methods and performance measures. Overall, laboratory studies, which have investigated the acute effects of power frequency fields on cognitive functioning in humans are heterogeneous, in terms of both electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposure and the experimental design and measures used. Results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret with regard to functional relevance for possible health risks. Statistically significant differences between field and control exposure, when they are found, are small, subtle, transitory, without any clear dose-response relationship and difficult to reproduce. The human performance or event related potentials (ERPs) measures that might specifically be affected by EMF exposure, as well as a possible cerebral structure or function that could be more sensitive to EMF, cannot be better determined. (author)

  10. Molecular monolayers for electrical passivation and functionalization of silicon-based solar energy devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J.; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, R.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based

  11. Application of Trapezoidal-Shaped Characteristic Basis Functions to Arrays of Electrically Interconnected Antenna Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, R.; Mittra, R.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Graglia, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique for generating the characteristic basis functions (CBFs) used to represent the surface currents on finite arrays of electrically interconnected antenna elements. The CBFs are high-level basis functions, defined on subdomains in which the original problem is

  12. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted walking for persons with incomplete spinal injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladouceur, M.; Barbeau, H.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in maximal overground walking speed (MOWS) that occurred during; walking training with a functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthosis by chronic spinal cord injured persons with incomplete motor function loss. The average walking: speed over a distance of 10...

  13. Clinical efficacy of electrical stimulation exercise training : Effects on health, fitness, and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T. W J; Glaser, R. M.; Shuster, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize research findings pertaining to the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) lower limb exercise training on health, fitness, and function in individuals with spinal cord injury. This lays the foundation for defining the potential clinical

  14. Rational function systems and electrical networks with multiparameters

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, KaiSheng

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the problems of system theory and network theory over real field, this book uses matrices over the field F(z) of rational functions in multiparameters describing coefficient matrices of systems and networks and makes systems and network description over F(z) and researches their structural properties: reducible condition of a class of matrices over F(z) and their characteristic polynomial; type1 matrix and two basic properties; variable replacement conditions for independent parameters; structural controllability and observability of linear systems over F(z); separability, reducibi

  15. Biofeedback no tratamento de transtornos relacionados ao estresse e à ansiedade: uma revisão crítica Biofeedback en el tratamiento de trastornos relacionados con el estrés y la ansiedad: una revisión crítica Biofeedback in the treatment of stress and anxiety-related disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo da Costa Padovani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O treinamento em biofeedback tem sido utilizado para o tratamento de diferentes quadros clínicos e para a prevenção/alívio de sintomas relacionados ao estresse/ansiedade. Este trabalho analisou a literatura de 2008 a 2012 sobre o tema "biofeedback, estresse e ansiedade" publicada nas bases MEDLINE, LILACS e Web of Sciences, utilizando como palavras-chave "biofeedback", "anxiety", "stress", "psychology" e "biofeedback training". Os resultados demonstram que técnicas de biofeedback são eficazes no manejo do estresse/ansiedade nas diferentes populações estudadas. Entretanto, todos os estudos encontrados foram realizados fora do Brasil, o que sugere que técnicas de biofeedback como ferramenta terapêutica não tem sido utilizadas no país, por algum motivo que merece ser melhor investigado.El entrenamiento con biofeedback se ha utilizado para el tratamiento de diferentes manifestaciones clínicas y para la prevención y alivio de síntomas relacionados con el estrés/ansiedad. Este estudio analizó la literatura desde 2008 hasta 2012 sobre el tema "biofeedback, estrés y ansiedad", publicada en MEDLINE, LILACS y Web of Sciences, utilizando como palabras clave "biofeedback", "anxiety", "stress", "psychology" y "biofeedback training". Los resultados demuestran que técnicas de biofeedback son eficaces para el tratamiento del estrés y la ansiedad en diferentes poblaciones. Sin embargo, todos los estudios encontrados se realizaron fuera de Brasil, un indicador de que el biofeedback como herramienta terapéutica no ha sido utilizado en el país por una razón que debe investigarse más a fondo.Biofeedback training has been utilized for the treatment of different pathological conditions, in particular those related to stress/anxiety. This study reviews the scientific literature from 2008 to 2012 about the subject "biofeedback, stress and anxiety", published in MEDLINE, LILACS and Web of Sciences, using as keywords "biofeedback", "anxiety

  16. The supply function equilibrium and its policy implications for wholesale electricity auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer; Newbery, David

    2010-01-01

    The supply function equilibrium provides a game-theoretic model of strategic bidding in oligopolistic wholesale electricity auctions. This paper presents an intuitive account of current understanding and shows how welfare losses depend on the number of firms in the market and their asymmetry. Previous results and general recommendations for divisible-good/multi-unit auctions provides guidance on the design of the auction format, setting the reservation price, the rationing rule, and restrictions on the offer curves in wholesale electricity auctions. (author)

  17. EEG-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Restoring Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke with Severe Hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Marquez-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the therapeutic effects of integrating brain-computer interfacing technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore upper limb reaching movements in a 64-year-old man with severe left hemiplegia following a hemorrhagic stroke he sustained six years prior to this study. He completed 40 90-minute sessions of functional electrical stimulation therapy using a custom-made neuroprosthesis that facilitated 5 different reaching movements. During each session, the participant attempted to reach with his paralyzed arm repeatedly. Stimulation for each of the movement phases (e.g., extending and retrieving the arm was triggered when the power in the 18 Hz–28 Hz range (beta frequency range of the participant’s EEG activity, recorded with a single electrode, decreased below a predefined threshold. The function of the participant’s arm showed a clinically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity (FMA-UE subscore (6 points as well as moderate improvement in Functional Independence Measure Self-Care subscore (7 points. The changes in arm’s function suggest that the combination of BCI technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy may restore voluntary motor function in individuals with chronic hemiplegia which results in severe upper limb deficit (FMA-UE ≤ 15, a population that does not benefit from current best-practice rehabilitation interventions.

  18. Understanding the response of pulsed electric field on osteoblast functions in three-dimensional mesh structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Nune, K C; Misra, Rdk

    2016-10-01

    The endogenous electric field plays a determining role in impacting biological functions including communication with the physiological system, brain, and bone regeneration by influencing cellular functions. From this perspective, the objective of the study described here is to elucidate the effect of external electric field under dynamic conditions, in providing a guiding cue to osteoblasts in terms of cell-cell interactions and synthesis of prominent adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins. This was accomplished using pulsed direct current electric field of strength 0.1-1 V/cm. The electric field provided guided cue to the cells to migrate toward cathode. Membrane blebbing or necrosis was nearly absent in the vicinity of cathode at 0.1 and 0.5 V/cm electric field strength. Moreover, a higher cell proliferation as well as higher expression of vinculin and densely packed actin stress fibers was observed. At anode, the cells though healthy but expression of actin and vinculin was less. We underscore for the first time that the biological functionality can be favorably modulated on 3D printed scaffolds in the presence of electric field and under dynamic conditions with consequent positive effect on cell proliferation, growth, and expression level of prominent proteins. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral methods, and hypnosis in dermatology: is it all in your mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2003-01-01

    Biofeedback can improve cutaneous problems that have an autonomic nervous system component. Examples include biofeedback of galvanic skin resistance (GSR) for hyperhidrosis and biofeedback of skin temperature for Raynaud's disease. Hypnosis may enhance the effects obtained by biofeedback. Cognitive-behavioral methods may resolve dysfunctional thought patterns (cognitive) or actions (behavioral) that damage the skin or interfere with dermatologic therapy. Responsive diseases include acne excoriée, atopic dermatitis, factitious cheilitis, hyperhidrosis, lichen simplex chronicus, needle phobia, neurodermatitis, onychotillomania, prurigo nodularis, trichotillomania, and urticaria. Hypnosis can facilitate aversive therapy and enhance desensitization and other cognitive-behavioral methods. Hypnosis may improve or resolve numerous dermatoses. Examples include acne excoriée, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, dyshidrotic dermatitis, erythromelalgia, furuncles, glossodynia, herpes simplex, hyperhidrosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, lichen planus, neurodermatitis, nummular dermatitis, postherpetic neuralgia, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, trichotillomania, urticaria, verruca vulgaris, and vitiligo. Hypnosis can also reduce the anxiety and pain associated with dermatologic procedures.

  20. ANMS-ESNM position paper and consensus guidelines on biofeedback therapy for anorectal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, S. S. C.; Benninga, M. A.; Bharucha, A. E.; Chiarioni, G.; Di Lorenzo, C.; Whitehead, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    Anorectal disorders such as dyssynergic defecation, fecal incontinence, levator ani syndrome, and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome are common, and affect both the adult and pediatric populations. Although they are treated with several treatment approaches, over the last two decades, biofeedback

  1. A Wearable Respiratory Biofeedback System Based on Generalized Body Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities. PMID:21545293

  2. The role of biofeedback in the rehabilitation of veno-occlusive erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R Al-Helow

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Pelviperineal muscles′ visual pressure biofeedback rehabilitation is effective, inexpensive, noninvasive, safe, and easily applicable in the treatment of venogenic ED and does not have as much side effects as medication.

  3. The effect of biofeedback therapy on dyssynergic constipation in patients with or without Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tannaz Ahadi; Faezeh Madjlesi; Bahar Mahjoubi; Rezvan Mirzaei; Bijan Forogh; Seyedeh Somayeh Daliri; Seyed Majid Derakhshandeh; Roxana Bazaz Behbahani; G Reza Raissi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Rome II and III diagnostic criteria for dyssynergic defecation recommended the exclusion of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study determined the effect of biofeedback therapy on dyssynergic constipation in patients with or without IBS. Materials and Methods: This study was a nonrandomized, single blinded, semi experimental study. Dyssynergic defecation patients with and without IBS were asked to undergo biofeedback therapy 8 sessions. The defecation dynamics and balloon e...

  4. Randomised controlled trial of biofeedback training in persistent encopresis with anismus

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, T.; Catto-Smith, T.; Coffey, C.; Wells, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Paradoxical external anal sphincter contraction during attempted defecation (anismus) is thought to be an important contributor to chronic faecal retention and encopresis in children. Biofeedback training can be used to teach children to abolish this abnormal contraction.
METHODS—A randomised controlled trial in medical treatment resistant and/or treatment dependent children with anismus using surface electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training to determine wh...

  5. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W. Kiefer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance.

  6. Structural and electrical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, S.; Rout, D.; Swain, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube on the structure and electrical properties of composites was investigated. Samples based on epoxy resin with different weight percentage of MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. The interaction between MWCNT & epoxy resin was noticed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) reinforced epoxy composite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The dispersion of f-MWCNT in epoxy resin was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Electrical properties of epoxy/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were measured & the result indicated that the conductivity increased with increasing concentration of f-MWCNTs.

  7. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Greer, P. B.; Arm, J.; Keall, P.; Kim, T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  8. Efficacy of Alfa EEG wave biofeedback in the management of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala Bhat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofeedback is a technique in which people are trained to improve their health by learning to control certain internal bodily processes that normally occur involuntarily. Various studies in the past have shown usefulness of Alfa electroencephalographic (EEG biofeedback in the alleviation of anxiety symptoms. Though most of the psychiatric centers in the armed forces have this facility, not much work has been done in our setup to assess its efficacy in the management of anxiety. Hence this study was undertaken. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in a multispecialty Command Hospital by enrolling 100 patients with psychiatric diagnosis from both inpatient and outpatient services. The anxiety level was assessed clinically and by using Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Taylor′s Manifest Anxiety Scale. One group of 50 patients was treated with Alfa EEG biofeedback sessions only, 5 times in a week for 8 weeks, along with specific pharmacotherapy. The other group was treated with appropriate dose of anxiolytics. The anxiety level was reassessed after 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Results: The response was better for mixed anxiety and depressive disorder with pharmacotherapy than with the biofeedback, but female patients showed better response with EEG biofeedback. Conclusion: In the short term, Alfa EEG biofeedback therapy is almost as efficacious as pharmacological intervention in the management of anxiety symptoms, and relatively more useful in females.

  9. Enhancing Intervention for Residual Rhotic Errors Via App-Delivered Biofeedback: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Campbell, Heather; Carey, Helen; Liang, Wendy; Park, Tae Hong; Svirsky, Mario

    2017-06-22

    Recent research suggests that visual-acoustic biofeedback can be an effective treatment for residual speech errors, but adoption remains limited due to barriers including high cost and lack of familiarity with the technology. This case study reports results from the first participant to complete a course of visual-acoustic biofeedback using a not-for-profit iOS app, Speech Therapist's App for /r/ Treatment. App-based biofeedback treatment for rhotic misarticulation was provided in weekly 30-min sessions for 20 weeks. Within-treatment progress was documented using clinician perceptual ratings and acoustic measures. Generalization gains were assessed using acoustic measures of word probes elicited during baseline, treatment, and maintenance sessions. Both clinician ratings and acoustic measures indicated that the participant significantly improved her rhotic production accuracy in trials elicited during treatment sessions. However, these gains did not transfer to generalization probes. This study provides a proof-of-concept demonstration that app-based biofeedback is a viable alternative to costlier dedicated systems. Generalization of gains to contexts without biofeedback remains a challenge that requires further study. App-delivered biofeedback could enable clinician-research partnerships that would strengthen the evidence base while providing enhanced treatment for children with residual rhotic errors. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5116318.

  10. The effects of heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, Martin; Hennig, Una-Dorothea; Siepmann, Timo; Nitzsche, Katharina; Mück-Weymann, Michael; Petrowski, Katja; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-03-01

    Preterm birth is a highly prevalent phenomenon that was shown to be associated with mental stress during pregnancy (Rich-Edwards and Grizzard in Am J Obstet Gynecol 192(5 Suppl):S30-S35, 2005). We aimed to assess the effects of heart rate variability (HRV)-biofeedback in patients with preterm labour. Therefore, we conducted a controlled randomized parallel group study in 48 female patients aged 19-38 years (median = 29) with preterm labour at gestational week 24th-32nd (median = 29th). In this study, one group (n = 24) attended six sessions of HRV-biofeedback over 2 weeks whereas patients of the other group (n = 24) were assigned to control sessions. In the HRV-biofeedback treated group, perception of chronic stress was decreased 4 weeks after completion of training compared to baseline (p biofeedback group, preterm birth was seen in 3 patients (13 %) whereas in the control group, preterm delivery occurred in 8 patients (33 %, p = n.s.). There was no difference in birth weight between groups and HRV remained unchanged. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that HRV-biofeedback can reduce chronic stress in patients with preterm labour when administered as an adjunct to routine care. However, it remains unclear whether stress reduction through HRV-biofeedback has a beneficial effect on preterm birth.

  11. A psychoengineering paradigm for the neurocognitive mechanisms of biofeedback and neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, A; Vialatte, A; Mora-Sánchez, A; Ramdani, C; Vialatte, F B

    2016-09-01

    We believe that the missing keystone to design effective and efficient biofeedback and neurofeedback protocols is a comprehensive model of the mechanisms of feedback learning. In this manuscript we review the learning models in behavioral, developmental and cognitive psychology, and derive a synthetic model of the psychological perspective on biofeedback. We afterwards review the neural correlates of feedback learning mechanisms, and present a general neuroscience model of biofeedback. We subsequently show how biomedical engineering principles can be applied to design efficient feedback protocols. We finally present an integrative psychoengineering model of the feedback learning processes, and provide new guidelines for the efficient design of biofeedback and neurofeedback protocols. We identify five key properties, (1) perceptibility=can the subject perceive the biosignal?, (2) autonomy=can the subject regulate by himself?, (3) mastery=degree of control over the biosignal, (4) motivation=rewards system of the biofeedback, and (5) learnability=possibility of learning. We conclude with guidelines for the investigation and promotion of these properties in biofeedback protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrical transport of SiNWs array after covalent attachment of new organic functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ambrico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modification of the electrical transport of a random network of silicon nanowires assembled on n‐ silicon support, after silicon nanowires functionalization by chlorination/alkylation procedure , is here described and discussed. We show that the organic functionalities induce charge transfer at single SiNW and produce doping‐like effect that is kept in the random network too. The\tSiNWs\tnetwork\talso\tpresents\ta\tsurface recombination velocity lower than that of bulk silicon. Interestingly, the functionalized silicon nanowires/n‐Si junctions display photo‐yield and open circuit voltages higher than those including oxidized silicon nanowire networks. Electrical properties stability in time of junctions embedding propenyl terminated silicon nanowires network and transport modification after secondary functionalization is also shown. These results suggest a possible route for the integration of functionalized\tSi\tnanowires,\talthough\trandomly distributed, in stable large area photovoltaic or molecule sensitive based devices.

  13. Electric Field Encephalography as a tool for functional brain research: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Petrov

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG based on measuring electric fields of the brain and demonstrate, using computer modeling, that given the appropriate electric field sensors this technique may have significant advantages over the current EEG technique. Unlike EEG, EFEG can be used to measure brain activity in a contactless and reference-free manner at significant distances from the head surface. Principal component analysis using simulated cortical sources demonstrated that electric field sensors positioned 3 cm away from the scalp and characterized by the same signal-to-noise ratio as EEG sensors provided the same number of uncorrelated signals as scalp EEG. When positioned on the scalp, EFEG sensors provided 2-3 times more uncorrelated signals. This significant increase in the number of uncorrelated signals can be used for more accurate assessment of brain states for non-invasive brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback applications. It also may lead to major improvements in source localization precision. Source localization simulations for the spherical and Boundary Element Method (BEM head models demonstrated that the localization errors are reduced two-fold when using electric fields instead of electric potentials. We have identified several techniques that could be adapted for the measurement of the electric field vector required for EFEG and anticipate that this study will stimulate new experimental approaches to utilize this new tool for functional brain research.

  14. Biofeedback for foot offloading in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Z; de León Rodriguez, D; Allet, L; Golay, A; Assal, M; Assal, J-P; Hauert, C-A

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of high plantar pressure in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy is mandatory for prevention of foot ulcers and amputations. We used a new biofeedback-based method to reduce the plantar pressure at an at-risk area of foot in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Thirteen diabetic patients (age 60.8 +/- 12.3 years, body mass index 29.0 +/- 5.0 kg/m(2)) with peripheral neuropathy of the lower limbs were studied. Patients with memory impairment were excluded. The portable in-shoe foot pressure measurement system (PEDAR) was used for foot offloading training by biofeedback. The learning procedure consisted in sequences of walking (10 steps), each followed by a subjective estimation of performance and objective feedback. The goal was to achieve three consecutive walking cycles of 10 steps, with a minimum of seven steps inside the range of 40-80% of the baseline peak plantar pressure. The peak plantar pressure was assessed during the learning period and at retention tests. A significant difference in peak plantar pressure was recorded between the beginning and the end of the learning period (when the target for plantar pressure was achieved) (262 +/- 70 vs. 191 +/- 53 kPa; P = 0.002). The statistically significant difference between the beginning of learning and all retention tests persisted, even at the 10-day follow-up. Terminal augmented feedback training may positively affect motor learning in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and could possibly lead to suitable foot offloading. Additional research is needed to confirm the maintenance of offloading in the long term.

  15. Game-based peripheral biofeedback for stress assessment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Gucev, Zoran

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral biofeedback is considered to be an efficient method for assessment and stress mitigation in children. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of stress and stress mitigation in healthy school children (HSC), in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), general anxiety (GA) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Each investigated group (HSC, CF, GA, ADHD) consisted of 30 school-aged children from both sexes. Psychological characteristics were evaluated on Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The lie scale was used to determine participant honesty. Four biofeedback games using a pulls detector were applied for assessment of the stress levels as well as to evaluate ability to relax. EPQ found more psychopathological traits (P Magic blocks score was significantly different in relaxation levels between control and CF children (P game Canal was significantly different in relaxation levels between healthy controls and all other groups, but no changes in pulls, as a relaxation measure, were found during the game. The CF group had much more commissions stemming from impulsivity (t= 5.71, P < 0.01), while the GA and ADHD children had more inattention omissions (P < 0.05). Strong negative correlation between age and pulls (r= 0.49, P= 0.003) and strong negative correlation between age and omissions (r=-0.86, P= 0.029) were found among all groups analyzed. The ability to learn stress mediation is correlated with age. All three groups of children had significantly lower relaxation levels when compared to healthy controls. Relaxation was more difficult for children with GA or ADHD, and easier for children with CF.

  16. Effects of charging and electric field on graphene functionalized with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürel, H Hakan; Ciraci, S

    2013-01-01

    Titanium atoms are adsorbed to graphene with a significant binding energy and render diverse functionalities to it. Carrying out first-principles calculations, we investigated the effects of charging and static electric field on the physical and chemical properties of graphene covered by Ti adatoms. When uniformly Ti covered graphene is charged positively, its antiferromagnetic ground state changes to ferromagnetic metal and attains a permanent magnetic moment. Static electric field applied perpendicularly causes charge transfer between Ti and graphene, and can induce metal–insulator transition. While each Ti adatom adsorbed to graphene atom can hold four hydrogen molecules with a weak binding, these molecules can be released by charging or applying electric field perpendicularly. Hence, it is demonstrated that charging and applied static electric field induce quasi-continuous and side specific modifications in the charge distribution and potential energy of adatoms absorbed to single-layer nanostructures, resulting in fundamentally crucial effects on their physical and chemical properties. (paper)

  17. The Analytical Potential Energy Function of NH Radical Molecule in External Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dong-Lan; Tan Bin; Wan Hui-Jun; Xie An-Dong; Ding Da-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The geometric structures of an NH radical in different external electric fields are optimized by using the density functional B3P86/cc-PV5Z method, and the bond lengths, dipole moments, vibration frequencies and IR spectrum are obtained. The potential energy curves are gained by the CCSD (T) method with the same basis set. These results indicate that the physical property parameters and potential energy curves may change with the external electric field, especially in the reverse direction electric field. The potential energy function of zero field is fitted by the Morse potential, and the fitting parameters are in good accordance with the experimental data. The potential energy functions of different external electric fields are fitted adopting the constructed potential model. The fitted critical dissociation electric parameters are shown to be consistent with the numerical calculation, and the relative errors are only 0.27% and 6.61%, hence the constructed model is reliable and accurate. The present results provide an important reference for further study of the molecular spectrum, dynamics and molecular cooling with Stark effect. (paper)

  18. Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziembowska, Inga; Izdebski, Paweł; Rasmus, Anna; Brudny, Janina; Grzelczak, Marta; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) has been shown as useful tool to manage stress in various populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes' HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem. The study involved 41 healthy male athletes, aged 16-21 (mean 18.34 ± 1.36) years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: biofeedback and control. Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn't receive any intervention. During the randomized controlled trial (days 0-21), the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group (change-4 p athletes in biofeedback group showed substantial and statistically significant improvement in heart rate variability indices and changes in power spectra of both theta and alpha brain waves, and alpha asymmetry. These changes suggest better self-control in the central nervous system and better flexibility of the autonomic nervous system in the group that received biofeedback training. A HRV biofeedback-based stress management tool may be beneficial for stress reduction for young male athletes.

  19. Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Radisic, Milica (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

  20. Electric fields control the orientation of peptides irreversibly immobilized on radical-functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lewis J; Akhavan, Behnam; Bilek, Marcela M M

    2018-01-24

    Surface functionalization of an implantable device with bioactive molecules can overcome adverse biological responses by promoting specific local tissue integration. Bioactive peptides have advantages over larger protein molecules due to their robustness and sterilizability. Their relatively small size presents opportunities to control the peptide orientation on approach to a surface to achieve favourable presentation of bioactive motifs. Here we demonstrate control of the orientation of surface-bound peptides by tuning electric fields at the surface during immobilization. Guided by computational simulations, a peptide with a linear conformation in solution is designed. Electric fields are used to control the peptide approach towards a radical-functionalized surface. Spontaneous, irreversible immobilization is achieved when the peptide makes contact with the surface. Our findings show that control of both peptide orientation and surface concentration is achieved simply by varying the solution pH or by applying an electric field as delivered by a small battery.

  1. Real-time and wearable functional electrical stimulation system for volitional hand motor function control using the electromyography bridge method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-peng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary participation of hemiplegic patients is crucial for functional electrical stimulation therapy. A wearable functional electrical stimulation system has been proposed for real-time volitional hand motor function control using the electromyography bridge method. Through a series of novel design concepts, including the integration of a detecting circuit and an analog-to-digital converter, a miniaturized functional electrical stimulation circuit technique, a low-power super-regeneration chip for wireless receiving, and two wearable armbands, a prototype system has been established with reduced size, power, and overall cost. Based on wrist joint torque reproduction and classification experiments performed on six healthy subjects, the optimized surface electromyography thresholds and trained logistic regression classifier parameters were statistically chosen to establish wrist and hand motion control with high accuracy. Test results showed that wrist flexion/extension, hand grasp, and finger extension could be reproduced with high accuracy and low latency. This system can build a bridge of information transmission between healthy limbs and paralyzed limbs, effectively improve voluntary participation of hemiplegic patients, and elevate efficiency of rehabilitation training.

  2. Wave function for harmonically confined electrons in time-dependent electric and magnetostatic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2014-01-14

    We derive via the interaction "representation" the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field-the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement - the uniform electron gas - the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.

  3. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  4. Capillary pressure as a unique function of electric permittivity and water saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.; Slob, E.; Van Turnhout, J.; Bruining, J.

    2007-01-01

    The relation between capillary pressure (Pc) and interfacial area has been investigated by measuring Pc and the electric permittivity at 100 kHz simultaneously as function of the water saturation, (Sw). Drainage and imbibition experiments have been conducted for sand-distilled water-gas (CO2/N2)

  5. Concepts and methods in neuromodulation and functional electrical stimulation: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsheimer, J

    1998-04-01

    This article introduces two clinical fields in which stimulation is applied to the nervous system: neuromodulation and functional electrical stimulation. The concepts underlying these fields and their main clinical applications, as well as the methods and techniques used in each field, are described. Concepts and techniques common in one field that might be beneficial to the other are discussed. 1998 Blackwell Science, Inc.

  6. Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2013-09-21

    The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential.

  7. Remote-Activated Electrical Stimulation via Piezoelectric Scaffold System for Functional Peripheral and Central Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Karen Gail

    2017-01-01

    A lack of therapeutic technologies that enable electrically stimulating nervous tissues in a facile and clinically relevant manner has partly hindered the advancement in treating nerve injuries for full functional recovery. Currently, the gold standard for nerve repair is autologous nerve grafting. However, this method has several disadvantages, such as necessity for multiple surgeries, creation of functionally impaired region where graft was taken from, disproportion of graft to nerve tissue...

  8. Effects of the reconnection electric field on crescent electron distribution functions in asymmetric guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L. J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection with a guide field in the Earth's magnetopause, electron motion in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is largely affected by the guide field, the Hall electric field, and the reconnection electric field. The electron motion in the EDR is neither simple gyration around the guide field nor simple meandering motion across the current sheet. The combined meandering motion and gyration has essential effects on particle acceleration by the in-plane Hall electric field (existing only in the magnetospheric side) and the out-of-plane reconnection electric field. We analyze electron motion and crescent-shaped electron distribution functions in the EDR in asymmetric guide field reconnection, and perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to elucidate the effect of reconnection electric field on electron distribution functions. Recently, we have analytically expressed the acceleration effect due to the reconnection electric field on electron crescent distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field (Bessho et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 072903, 2017). We extend the theory to asymmetric guide field reconnection, and predict the crescent bulge in distribution functions. Assuming 1D approximation of field variations in the EDR, we derive the time period of oscillatory electron motion (meandering + gyration) in the EDR. The time period is expressed as a hybrid of the meandering period and the gyro period. Due to the guide field, electrons not only oscillate along crescent-shaped trajectories in the velocity plane perpendicular to the antiparallel magnetic fields, but also move along parabolic trajectories in the velocity plane coplanar with magnetic field. The trajectory in the velocity space gradually shifts to the acceleration direction by the reconnection electric field as multiple bounces continue. Due to the guide field, electron distributions for meandering particles are bounded by two paraboloids (or hyperboloids) in the

  9. SU-E-J-29: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Tumor Motion Consistency for Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Makhija, K; Keall, P; Greer, P; Arm, J; Hunter, P; Kim, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the breathing-guidance system: audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. This will minimize respiratory-induced tumor motion variations across cancer imaging and radiotherapy procedues. This is the first study to investigate the impact of respiratory guidance on tumor motion. Methods: Tumor motion consistency was investigated with five lung cancer patients (age: 55 to 64), who underwent a training session to get familiarized with AV biofeedback, followed by two MRI sessions across different dates (pre and mid treatment). During the training session in a CT room, two patient specific breathing patterns were obtained before (Breathing-Pattern-1) and after (Breathing-Pattern-2) training with AV biofeedback. In each MRI session, four MRI scans were performed to obtain 2D coronal and sagittal image datasets in free breathing (FB), and with AV biofeedback utilizing Breathing-Pattern-2. Image pixel values of 2D images after the normalization of 2D images per dataset and Gaussian filter per image were used to extract tumor motion using image pixel values. The tumor motion consistency of the superior-inferior (SI) direction was evaluated in terms of an average tumor motion range and period. Results: Audiovisual biofeedback improved tumor motion consistency by 60% (p value = 0.019) from 1.0±0.6 mm (FB) to 0.4±0.4 mm (AV) in SI motion range, and by 86% (p value < 0.001) from 0.7±0.6 s (FB) to 0.1±0.2 s (AV) in period. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves both breathing pattern and tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential for facilitating reproducible tumor motion towards achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures

  10. SU-E-J-29: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Tumor Motion Consistency for Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Makhija, K; Keall, P [The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Arm, J; Hunter, P [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Kim, T [The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the breathing-guidance system: audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. This will minimize respiratory-induced tumor motion variations across cancer imaging and radiotherapy procedues. This is the first study to investigate the impact of respiratory guidance on tumor motion. Methods: Tumor motion consistency was investigated with five lung cancer patients (age: 55 to 64), who underwent a training session to get familiarized with AV biofeedback, followed by two MRI sessions across different dates (pre and mid treatment). During the training session in a CT room, two patient specific breathing patterns were obtained before (Breathing-Pattern-1) and after (Breathing-Pattern-2) training with AV biofeedback. In each MRI session, four MRI scans were performed to obtain 2D coronal and sagittal image datasets in free breathing (FB), and with AV biofeedback utilizing Breathing-Pattern-2. Image pixel values of 2D images after the normalization of 2D images per dataset and Gaussian filter per image were used to extract tumor motion using image pixel values. The tumor motion consistency of the superior-inferior (SI) direction was evaluated in terms of an average tumor motion range and period. Results: Audiovisual biofeedback improved tumor motion consistency by 60% (p value = 0.019) from 1.0±0.6 mm (FB) to 0.4±0.4 mm (AV) in SI motion range, and by 86% (p value < 0.001) from 0.7±0.6 s (FB) to 0.1±0.2 s (AV) in period. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves both breathing pattern and tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential for facilitating reproducible tumor motion towards achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  11. Can a four-session biofeedback regimen be used effectively for treating children with dysfunctional voiding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Nevzat Can; Altunkol, Adem; Unal, Umut; Ercil, Hakan; Bas, Okan; Gumus, Kemal; Ciftci, Halil; Yeni, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of the open-ended six to ten sessions of biofeedback against a novel regime of four sessions of biofeedback to treat children with dysfunctional voiding. Patients from two centers using different methods were retrospectively analyzed. Group 1 comprised 20 patients treated with four sessions of biofeedback. Group 2 comprised 20 patients treated with six to ten sessions of biofeedback. Each group was evaluated with subjective and objective parameters pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment and 6 months post-treatment. All patients in Group 1 were treated with four sessions of biofeedback and in Group 2 the mean number of sessions was 7.35±1.30 (range 6-10). Normalized voiding flow curves after treatment were determined in 18 patients in Group 1 (90%) and 19 patients in Group 2 (95%) (p=0.553). There were seven patients (35%) in Group 1 and eight patients (40%) in Group 2 with reflux. When units were compared, there were 11 units (4 bilateral) in Group 1 and 13 units (5 bilateral) in Group 2 with reflux (p=0.747). At 6 months post-treatment, in Group 1, seven had resolved (63.6%), three had improved (27.2%) and one persisted (9.01%). In Group 2, ten had resolved (76.9%) and three had improved (23.1%) (p=0.553). Biofeedback therapy is one of the most widely used techniques in dysfunctional voiding in children. The regime of use has not been well defined, and the results of this study showed that a regime of four sessions of biofeedback therapy may be as safe and effective as the previously defined open-ended six to ten sessions.

  12. Biofeedback interventions for people with cerebral palsy: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Alexander; Vignais, Nicolas; Biddiss, Elaine

    2017-01-13

    Cerebral palsy is a life-long disability that affects motor control and activities of daily living. Depending on the type of cerebral palsy, some individuals may have trouble performing tasks with one or both of their arms and/or legs. Different strategies exist to help develop motor capacity. Biofeedback therapy is a commonly applied rehabilitation strategy. In biofeedback therapy, information about the motor behavior while completing a task is given back to the individual to help improve their performance. This can provide valuable information that would otherwise be unknown to the individual. Biofeedback may also have a unique method of operation in clinical populations, such as people with cerebral palsy. Therefore, it is important to identify the most effective mechanisms for specific populations. This review aims to evaluate the effects of biofeedback interventions that have been used towards improving motor performance and motor learning in people with cerebral palsy. Using a customized strategy, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro databases will be searched. Two independent reviewers will screen titles and abstracts, review full texts for inclusion criteria, and extract data from relevant articles using a standardized template. Quality of evidence and risk of bias will be assessed through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Several studies have investigated biofeedback-based interventions for people with cerebral palsy. However, there is a great variety and limited consensus regarding how to implement biofeedback mechanisms. This systematic review will consolidate the current evidence to direct future study and develop effective biofeedback rehabilitation strategies. PROSPERO ID: CRD42016047612.

  13. Anisotropy model for modern grain oriented electrical steel based on orientation distribution function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurately modeling the anisotropic behavior of electrical steel is mandatory in order to perform good end simulations. Several approaches can be found in the literature for that purpose but the more often those methods are not able to deal with grain oriented electrical steel. In this paper, a method based on orientation distribution function is applied to modern grain oriented laminations. In particular, two solutions are proposed in order to increase the results accuracy. The first one consists in increasing the decomposition number of the cosine series on which the method is based. The second one consists in modifying the determination method of the terms belonging to this cosine series.

  14. A supply function model for representing the strategic bidding of the producers in constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, Ettore; Napoli, Roberto; Lu, Wene; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of the bidding behaviour of the producer is a key-point in the modeling and simulation of the competitive electricity markets. In our paper, the linear supply function model is applied so as to find the Supply Function Equilibrium analytically. It also proposed a new and efficient approach to find SFEs for the network constrained electricity markets by finding the best slope of the supply function with the help of changing the intercept, and the method can be applied on the large systems. The approach proposed is applied to study IEEE-118 bus test systems and the comparison between bidding slope and bidding intercept is presented, as well, with reference to the test system. (author)

  15. [Real-time Gait Training System with Embedded Functional Electrical Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linyan; Ruan, Zhaomin; Jia, Guifeng; Xla, Jing; Qiu, Lijian; Wu, Changwang; Jin, Xiaoqing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-07-01

    To solve the problem that mostly gait analysis is independent from the treatment, this work proposes a system that integrates the functions of gait training and assessment for foot drop treatment. The system uses a set of sensors to collect gait parameters and designes multi-mode functional electrical stimulators as actuator. Body area network technology is introduced to coordinate the data communication and execution of the sensors and stimulators, synchronize the gait analysis and foot drop treatment. Bluetooth 4.0 is applied to low the power consumption of the system. The system realizes the synchronization of treatment and gait analysis. It is able to acquire and analyze the dynamic parameters of ankle, knee and hip in real-time, and treat patients by guiding functional electrical stimulation delivery to the specific body locations of patients.

  16. Silicon photonic integrated circuits with electrically programmable non-volatile memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J-F; Lim, A E-J; Luo, X-S; Fang, Q; Li, C; Jia, L X; Tu, X-G; Huang, Y; Zhou, H-F; Liow, T-Y; Lo, G-Q

    2016-09-19

    Conventional silicon photonic integrated circuits do not normally possess memory functions, which require on-chip power in order to maintain circuit states in tuned or field-configured switching routes. In this context, we present an electrically programmable add/drop microring resonator with a wavelength shift of 426 pm between the ON/OFF states. Electrical pulses are used to control the choice of the state. Our experimental results show a wavelength shift of 2.8 pm/ms and a light intensity variation of ~0.12 dB/ms for a fixed wavelength in the OFF state. Theoretically, our device can accommodate up to 65 states of multi-level memory functions. Such memory functions can be integrated into wavelength division mutiplexing (WDM) filters and applied to optical routers and computing architectures fulfilling large data downloading demands.

  17. Training and orthotic effects related to functional electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Tamsyn; Swain, Ian; Taylor, Paul

    2017-01-31

    To examine the evidence for a training effect on the lower limb of functional electrical stimulation. Cohort study. A total of 133 patients >6 months post-stroke. Training and orthotic effects were determined from walking speed over 10 m, associated minimal and substantial clinically important differences (i.e. >0.05 and >0.10 m/s), and Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), ranging from household walking to independent walking in the community. An overall significant (p training effect was found that was not a clinically important difference (0.02 m/s); however, "community" FAC (≥ 0.8 m/s) and "most limited community walkers" FAC (0.4-0.58 m/s), but not "household walkers" (effect (0.10 m/s) was found. In terms of overall improvement of one or more FACs, 23% achieved this due to a training effect, compared with 43% due to an orthotic effect. The findings suggest that functional electrical stimulation provides a training effect in those who are less impaired. Further work, which optimizes the use of the device for restoration of function, rather than as an orthotic device, will provide greater clarity on the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation for eliciting a training effect.

  18. Comparing the innovation effects of support schemes for renewable electricity technologies: A function of innovation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Bleda, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative assessment of the innovation effects of instruments which support the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies with a functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. The paper provides a link between two major streams of the literature: the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. We show that, when a functional perspective is adopted, feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other policy instruments (quotas with tradable green certificates and tendering), although they still need to be complemented with other instruments, most importantly, direct R and D support. Furthermore, those innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of the instruments chosen. - Highlights: ► A comparison of the innovation effects of instruments for the diffusion of renewable technologies. ► A functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. ► A link between the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. ► Feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other instruments. ► Innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of instruments.

  19. Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Rohini; Chung, Theodore D.; Vedam, Sastry S.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Mohan, Radhe; Weiss, Elisabeth; Keall, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating

  20. Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function. PMID:25408634

  1. INTRINSIC ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MAMMALIAN NEURONS AND CNS FUNCTION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified towards one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

  2. Effects on functional groups and zeta potential of SAP1pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Li, Xuenan; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    SAP 1 pulsed electric field (PEF) technology. The effects of electric field intensity and pulse frequency on SAP 1 electric field intensity 15 kV cm -1 , pulse frequency 1600 Hz and flow velocity 2.93 mL min -1 ). Furthermore, the PEF-treated SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa under optimal conditions lacked the characteristic absorbance of N-H, C = C and the amide band and the zeta potential was reduced to -18.0 mV. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that the improvement of antioxidant activity of SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa is a result of the contribution of the functional groups and the change in zeta potential when treated with PEF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Audiovisual biofeedback improves the correlation between internal/external surrogate motion and lung tumor motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B; Paganelli, Chiara; Ludbrook, Joanna Jane; Kim, Taeho; Keall, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Breathing management can reduce breath-to-breath (intrafraction) and day-by-day (interfraction) variability in breathing motion while utilizing the respiratory motion of internal and external surrogates for respiratory guidance. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback, an interactive personalized breathing motion management system, has been developed to improve reproducibility of intra- and interfraction breathing motion. However, the assumption of the correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors is not always verified during medical imaging and radiation treatment. Therefore, the aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors is the same under free breathing without guidance (FB) and with AV biofeedback guidance for voluntary motion management. For 13 lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images were acquired across two MRI sessions (pre- and mid-treatment) with two breathing conditions: (a) FB and (b) AV biofeedback, totaling 88 patient measurements. Simultaneously, the external respiratory motion of the abdomen was measured. The internal respiratory motion of the diaphragm and lung tumor was retrospectively measured from 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images. The correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient for: (a) abdomen to tumor (abdomen-tumor) and (b) diaphragm to tumor (diaphragm-tumor). The correlations were compared between FB and AV biofeedback using several metrics: abdomen-tumor and diaphragm-tumor correlations with/without ≥5 mm tumor motion range and with/without adjusting for phase shifts between the signals. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved abdomen-tumor correlation by 11% (p = 0.12) from 0.53 to 0.59 and diaphragm-tumor correlation by 13% (p = 0.02) from 0.55 to 0.62. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved abdomen-tumor correlation by 17% (p = 0

  4. Assessment of the effectiveness of biofeedback in children with dyssynergic defecation and recalcitrant constipation/encopresis: does home biofeedback improve long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croffie, Joseph M; Ammar, M Samer; Pfefferkorn, Marian D; Horn, Debra; Klipsch, Ann; Fitzgerald, Joseph F; Gupta, Sandeep K; Molleston, Jean P; Corkins, Mark R

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether biofeedback benefits children with dyssynergic defecation and constipation/encopresis, and whether home biofeedback improves long-term outcomes. Thirty-six patients with chronic constipation who had failed at least 6 months of conventional treatment and demonstrated dyssynergic defecation at anorectal manometry were randomized to biofeedback in the laboratory alone (group 1, n=24) or in the laboratory and at home (group 2, n=12) and followed up at 2, 4, and a mean of 44 months. Thirty patients were available for long-term follow-up. Bowel movements increased in all from a mean of 1.4/week to 5.1, 5.8, and 5.1 per week at 2 months, 4 months, and long-term, respectively (p < or = 0.001). Soiling decreased in all from a mean of 5.5/week to 0.6, 0.1, and 1 per week at 2 months, 4 months, and long-term, respectively (p < or = 0.001). Laxative use decreased from a mean of 4.1 days/week to 0.6, 0.3, and 0.7 per week at 2 months, 4 months, and long-term, respectively (p < or = 0.001). Twenty-seven of 30 parents ranked their satisfaction a mean of 2.2 (range 1-excellent to 3-good). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the laboratory alone group and the laboratory plus home group. Biofeedback is beneficial for some children with chronic constipation and dyssynergic defecation. Supplemental home biofeedback does not improve long-term outcomes.

  5. Comprehension of the Electric Polarization as a Function of Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changshi

    2017-01-01

    Polarization response to warming plays an increasingly important role in a number of ferroelectric memory devices. This paper reports on the theoretical explanation of the relationship between polarization and temperature. According to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, the basic property of electric polarization response to temperature in magnetoelectric multiferroic materials is theoretically analyzed. The polarization in magnetoelectric multiferroic materials can be calculated by low temperature using a phenomenological theory suggested in this paper. Simulation results revealed that the numerically calculated results are in good agreement with experimental results of some inhomogeneous multiferroic materials. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate the influences of both electric and magnetic fields on the polarization in magnetoelectric multiferroic materials. Furthermore, polarization behavior of magnetoelectric multiferroic materials can be predicted by low temperature, electric field and magnetic induction using only one function. The calculations offer an insight into the understanding of the effects of heating and magnetoelectric field on electrical properties of multiferroic materials and offer a potential to use similar methods to analyze electrical properties of other memory devices.

  6. Vibration Prediction Method of Electric Machines by using Experimental Transfer Function and Magnetostatic Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, A; Kuroishi, M; Nakai, H

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns the noise and structural vibration caused by rotating electric machines. Special attention is given to the magnetic-force induced vibration response of interior-permanent magnet machines. In general, to accurately predict and control the vibration response caused by the electric machines, it is inevitable to model not only the magnetic force induced by the fluctuation of magnetic fields, but also the structural dynamic characteristics of the electric machines and surrounding structural components. However, due to complicated boundary conditions and material properties of the components, such as laminated magnetic cores and varnished windings, it has been a challenge to compute accurate vibration response caused by the electric machines even after their physical models are available. In this paper, we propose a highly-accurate vibration prediction method that couples experimentally-obtained discrete structural transfer functions and numerically-obtained distributed magnetic-forces. The proposed vibration synthesis methodology has been applied to predict vibration responses of an interior permanent magnet machine. The results show that the predicted vibration response of the electric machine agrees very well with the measured vibration response for several load conditions, for wide frequency ranges. (paper)

  7. Non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltage and current in electric transportation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Kostin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltages and currents. This decomposition is adapted for the electric transportation systems. The numerical representation is carried out for the random function of voltage on the pantograph of electric locomotives VL8 and DE1.

  8. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  9. Design and Evaluation of Photo-Induced Biofeedback Fabric for the Enhancement in Sleeping Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on overcoming the sleeping obstacle for people, the purpose of this study is to design a photo-induced biofeedback fabric which is a kind of optical fiber fabric with the function of enhancing sleeping sense and to evaluate its effect. The fabrics with two layers including background layer and pattern layer were designed firstly. The pattern layers with 3 kinds of wavelengths of sine waves and the light controller with 3 kinds of flashing frequencies were then prepared. Guiding the light into the optical fiber, it will emit out of the optical fiber and stimulate our visual system to change the form of brain wave. Finally, EEG and sleeping scale were applied to evaluate the effect of enhancing sleeping sense. The results were shown that human’s brain wave can be changed from sober status to shallow-sleeping status and the effect of enhancing sleeping sense can be achieved for all pattern layers in frequencies of 0, 5 and 10 Hz. Furthermore, female is more significant than male and participants age from 30 to 49 are the most significant. Besides, the stronger the participant’s stress is, the more significant the sleeping sense is.

  10. Direct manipulation of physiological arousal in induced anxiety therapy - biofeedback approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, A A

    1977-10-01

    This study investigated the role of physiological arousal in the affect induction phase of Induced Anxiety therapy by using biofeedback to facilitate arousal. Twenty-one college students who were suffering from free-floating anxiety were assigned randomly to one of three groups: (1) a no-treatment control group simply completed the measures before and after therapy; (2) a conventional Induced Anxiety group went through five standard Induced Anxiety sessions; and (3) biofeedback Induced Anxiety group went through a similar procedure except that biofeedback was used in the affect induction phase to facilitate heart rate increase. It was found that the biofeedback procedure did result in a greater heart rate increase during the affect induction phase arousal than did the conventional procedure (.01 level of significance), but did not facilitate subjective emotional arousal. Biofeedback Induced Anxiety resulted in a greater reduction of trait anxiety as measured by the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List than did the no-treatment group or the conventonal Induced Anxiety group. The conventional Induced Anxiety group did not differ significantly from the no-treatment control group.

  11. Management of Facial Synkinesis with a Combination of BTX-A and Biofeedback: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Asadi, Sahar; Cheatsaz, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Synkinesis and facial asymmetry due to facial nerve palsy are distressing conditions that affect quality of life. Unfortunately, these sequelae of facial nerve palsy are unresolved. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a combination of biofeedback therapy and botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection for the management of synkinesis and asymmetry of facial muscles. Among referrals from three university hospitals, 34 patients with facial synkinesis were divided randomly into two groups. All participants were evaluated using Photoshop software, videotape, and facial grading system (FGS). The first group received a single dose of BTX-A at the start of treatment, while the second group received normal saline as a control. Both groups received electromyography (EMG) biofeedback three times a week for 4 months. The mean FGS values for the BTX group before and after treatment were 55.17 and 74.17, respectively, and those for the biofeedback group were 66.31 and 81.37, respectively. Moreover, it was shown that in both groups oral-ocular and oculo-oral synkinesis decreased significantly after treatment compared with before treatment (PPhotoshop and videotape, these differences were even greater. Despite the decrease in synkinesis in both groups after treatment, there were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (P>0.05). Biofeedback therapy is as effective as the combination of biofeedback and BTX in reducing synkinesis and recovery of facial symmetry in Bell's palsy.

  12. The effect of biofeedback therapy on dyssynergic constipation in patients with or without Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Ahadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Rome II and III diagnostic criteria for dyssynergic defecation recommended the exclusion of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. This study determined the effect of biofeedback therapy on dyssynergic constipation in patients with or without IBS. Materials and Methods: This study was a nonrandomized, single blinded, semi experimental study. Dyssynergic defecation patients with and without IBS were asked to undergo biofeedback therapy 8 sessions. The defecation dynamics and balloon expulsion time were evaluated before, at the end and 1 month after the biofeedback therapy. IBS symptoms were graded using a 4-point Likert scale. Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon test and Friedman test were applied to analyze data using SPSS software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: After the biofeedback therapy, the IBS symptoms have been decreased significantly (the median of 2 before and 1 after therapy, P 0.05 with respect to outcome. No complication was observed in treatment groups. Conclusion: Dyssynergic constipation patients with and without IBS will likely benefit from biofeedback therapy.

  13. Efficacy of a telerehabilitation intervention programme using biofeedback among computer operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebowicz, Merav; Levanon, Yafa; Palti, Ram; Ratzon, Navah Z

    2015-01-01

    Computer operators spend long periods of time sitting in a static posture at computer workstations and therefore have an increased exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD). The present study is aimed at investigating the feasibility and effectiveness of a tele-biofeedback ergonomic intervention programme among computer operators suffering from WRMSD. Twelve subjects with WRMSD were assigned an ergonomic intervention accompanied by remote tele-biofeedback training, which was practised at their workstations. Evaluations of pain symptoms and locations, body posture and psychosocial characteristics were carried out before and after the intervention in the workplace. The hypothesis was partially verified as it showed improved body position at the workstation and decreased pain in some body parts. Tele-biofeedback, as part of an intervention, appears to be feasible and efficient for computer operators who suffer from WRMSD. This study encourages further research on tele-health within the scope of occupational therapy practice. Practitioner summary: Research concerning tele-health using biofeedback is scarce. The present study analyses the feasibility and partial effectiveness of a tele-biofeedback ergonomic intervention programme for computer operators suffering from WRMSD. The uniqueness and singularity of this study is the usage of remote communication between participants and practitioners through the Internet.

  14. Bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles after 6-week biofeedback training in nulliparous continent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Smykla, Agnieszka; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Sobota, Grzegorz; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program on pelvic floor muscle activity in young continent women. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Biofeedback training was continued for 6 weeks, 3 times a week. Muscle strenghtening and endurance exercises were performed alternately. SEMG (surface electromyography) measurements were recorded on four different occasions: before training started, after the third week of training, after the sixth week of training, and one month after training ended. A 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program significantly decreased the resting activity of the pelvic floor muscles in supine lying and standing. The ability to relax the pelvic floor muscles after a sustained 60-second contraction improved significantly after the 6-week training in both positions. SEMG-biofeedback training program did not seem to affect the activity of the pelvic floor muscles or muscle fatigue during voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions. SEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training might be recommended for physiotherapists to improve the effectiveness of their relaxation techniques.

  15. Effects of electromyographic and mechanomyographic biofeedback on upper trapezius muscle activity during standardized computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of surface electromyography (EMG)- and mechanomyography (MMG)-based audio and visual biofeedback during computer work. Standardized computer work was performed for 3 min with/without time constraint and biofeedback in a randomize...... alternative to EMG in ergonomics. A lowering of the trapezius muscle activity may contribute to diminish the risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders development.......The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of surface electromyography (EMG)- and mechanomyography (MMG)-based audio and visual biofeedback during computer work. Standardized computer work was performed for 3 min with/without time constraint and biofeedback in a randomized......) values as well as the work performance in terms of number of completed graph/mouse clicks/errors, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the usefulness of the biofeedback were assessed. The duration of muscle activity above the threshold was significantly lower with MMG compared with EMG as source...

  16. Biofeedback relaxation for pain associated with continuous passive motion in Taiwanese patients after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Chang, Ching-Fen; Lou, Meei-Fang; Ao, Man-Kuan; Liu, Chiung-Chen; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Tung, Heng-Hsing

    2015-02-01

    Effective pain management is crucial for patient recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biofeedback therapy, which encourages relaxation and helps alleviate various conditions associated with stress, may help to decrease postoperative pain in patients undergoing TKA. A quasi- experimental design was used to investigate the efficacy of a biofeedback relaxation intervention in reducing pain associated with postoperative continuous passive motion (CPM) therapy. Sixty-six patients admitted to a general hospital in Taiwan for TKA were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received biofeedback training twice daily for 5 days, concurrent with CPM therapy, whereas the control group did not receive the biofeedback intervention. Pain was measured using a numeric rating scale before and after each CPM therapy session on postoperative days 1 through 5. The CPM-elicited pain score was calculated by subtracting the pre-CPM pain score from the post-CPM pain score. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance showed intervention group reported significantly less pain caused by CPM than did the control group (f = 29.70, p biofeedback relaxation, a non-invasive and non-pharmacological intervention, as a complementary treatment option for pain management in this population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Stress and Anxiety Management in Nursing Students: Biofeedback and Mindfulness Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Park, Janet F; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Kathalae, Duangrat

    2015-09-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of two brief intervention programs-biofeedback and mindfulness meditation-on levels of state anxiety and perceived stress in second-year Thai nursing students as they began clinical training. Eighty-nine participants from a public nursing college in Thailand were randomly assigned to one of three groups: biofeedback group, mindfulness meditation group, or a control group. All participants were given pre- and postintervention surveys, which included demographic information; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (State Anxiety Scale); and the Perceived Stress Scale. Findings indicated that biofeedback significantly reduced anxiety and maintained stress levels in nursing students. Mindfulness meditation similarly decreased anxiety levels, while also significantly lowering stress levels. The biofeedback group exhibited significant reduction in anxiety levels among the three groups at postintervention. Despite stressors and demands nursing students experience as they begin clinical practice, study findings support the use of biofeedback and mindfulness meditation interventions to assist nursing students in managing stress and anxiety. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. EMG biofeedback training in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: An active (control) training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Beatrix; Mayer, Kerstin; Strehl, Ute; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2017-06-30

    The present study aimed at revealing neurophysiological effects induced by electromyography (EMG) based biofeedback, considered as a semi-active control condition in neurofeedback studies, in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. 20 adult ADHD patients trained their muscle activity in the left and right supraspinatus muscle over the course of 30 EMG biofeedback sessions. Changes induced by the EMG feedback were evaluated at a clinical and neurophysiological level; additionally, the relation between changes in EEG activity recorded at the vertex over the training course and changes of symptom severity over the treatment course were assessed in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback. Participants showed significant behavioral improvements on a self-rating scale. There was a significant increase in alpha power, but no significant changes in the delta frequency range; changes in the theta and beta frequency range were not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. No statistically significant correlation was found between changes in EEG frequency bands and changes in ADHD symptoms. The current results assessed by means of a single-electrode EEG constitute a starting point regarding a clearer understanding of mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback. Although we did not reveal systematic effects induced by EMG feedback on brain activity it remains an open question whether EMG biofeedback induces changes in brain regions or parameters we did not gather in the present study (e.g. motor cortex). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of heart rate variability biofeedback training on stress and anxiety: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessl, V C; Curtiss, J E; Hofmann, S G

    2017-11-01

    Some evidence suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback might be an effective way to treat anxiety and stress symptoms. To examine the effect of HRV biofeedback on symptoms of anxiety and stress, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies extracted from PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. The search identified 24 studies totaling 484 participants who received HRV biofeedback training for stress and anxiety. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis. The pre-post within-group effect size (Hedges' g) was 0.81. The between-groups analysis comparing biofeedback to a control condition yielded Hedges' g = 0.83. Moderator analyses revealed that treatment efficacy was not moderated by study year, risk of study bias, percentage of females, number of sessions, or presence of an anxiety disorder. HRV biofeedback training is associated with a large reduction in self-reported stress and anxiety. Although more well-controlled studies are needed, this intervention offers a promising approach for treating stress and anxiety with wearable devices.

  20. ABILITY TO SELF-CONTROL IN BIOFEEDBACK GAMES AND SUCCESS OF PUPILS OF 11–13 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Gileva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation of indicators of biofeedback and the school success was studied. The relation of pulse interval, wave structure of heart rate, Sacred George's index (StGe and progress of children is found out. Results are discussed with relations of use of computer biofeedback games for studying of psychophysiological features and predictors of school success.

  1. Behavioural and physiological outcomes of biofeedback therapy on dental anxiety of children undergoing restorations: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeepya, P; Nuvvula, S; Kamatham, R; Nirmala, S V S G

    2014-04-01

    To explore the efficacy of biofeedback as possible alternative means of psychological behaviour guidance in children receiving dental restorations. Randomised clinical trial with a cross over design carried out on 40 children (19 boys and 21 girls) to determine the efficacy of biofeedback in reducing the dental anxiety through subjective and objective measures during restorative treatments under cotton roll isolation without administration of local analgesia. Highly anxious children with a minimum of five carious lesions were trained to lower their anxiety using biofeedback in five sessions within a 4-week interval, each session lasting for 45 min. After initial training, children were randomly divided into two groups and restorations were placed in four sequential therapeutic sessions with a 1-week interval and a follow-up visit 3 months later. First group received biofeedback in the second and third sessions; whereas the second group received biofeedback in the first and third sessions. Biofeedback therapy in children led to lower levels of anxiety in the initial appointments when assessed objectively, however the subjective methods of evaluation could not depict any statistically significant difference. Biofeedback can be used in the initial visits for dentally anxious children and the usage of simpler biofeedback machines for these appointments in dental setup is suggested.

  2. Impact of biofeedback on self-efficacy and stress reduction in obesity: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Martin; Stephan, Kerstin; Kowalski, Axel; Käsberger, Saskia; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2013-09-01

    Biofeedback application is an evidence-based technique to induce relaxation. A primary mechanism of action is the improvement of self-efficacy, which is needed to facilitate the translation of health behavioral intentions into action. Obesity is often associated with low self-efficacy and dysfunctional eating patterns, including comfort eating as an inexpedient relaxation technique. This is the first study investigating the effects of biofeedback on self-efficacy and relaxation in obesity. In the present experiment, 31 women, mean body mass index 35.5 kg/m², were randomized to a food-specific biofeedback paradigm, a non-specific relaxation biofeedback paradigm, or a waiting list control. Eight sessions of biofeedback of the electrodermal activity were performed while presenting either a challenging food stimulus or a non-specific landscape stimulus. Self-efficacy, stress, ability to relax, eating behavior, and electrodermal activity were assessed before, directly after, and 3 months after the intervention. The food-specific biofeedback predominantly showed effects on food-related self-efficacy and perceived stress. The non-specific relaxation biofeedback showed effects on the ability to relax. Self-reported improvements were confirmed by corresponding decrease in the electrodermal reaction to food stimuli. Biofeedback treatment is effective in improving self-efficacy in individuals with obesity and might therefore be a valuable additional intervention in obesity treatment.

  3. Artificial Cochlear Sensory Epithelium with Functions of Outer Hair Cells Mimicked Using Feedback Electrical Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tsuji

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel vibration control technique of an artificial auditory cochlear epithelium that mimics the function of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. The proposed piezoelectric and trapezoidal membrane not only has the acoustic/electric conversion and frequency selectivity of the previous device developed mainly by one of the authors and colleagues, but also has a function to control local vibration according to sound stimuli. Vibration control is achieved by applying local electrical stimuli to patterned electrodes on an epithelium made using micro-electro-mechanical system technology. By choosing appropriate phase differences between sound and electrical stimuli, it is shown that it is possible to both amplify and dampen membrane vibration, realizing better control of the response of the artificial cochlea. To be more specific, amplification and damping are achieved when the phase difference between the membrane vibration by sound stimuli and electrical stimuli is zero and π , respectively. We also demonstrate that the developed control system responds automatically to a change in sound frequency. The proposed technique can be applied to mimic the nonlinear response of the outer hair cells in a cochlea, and to realize a high-quality human auditory system.

  4. Molecular Monolayers for Electrical Passivation and Functionalization of Silicon-Based Solar Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, Rick; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-11

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based solar cells. Organic monolayers were coupled to silicon surfaces by hydrosilylation in order to avoid an insulating silicon oxide layer at the surface. Monolayers of 1-tetradecyne were shown to passivate silicon micropillar-based solar cells with radial junctions, by which the efficiency increased from 8.7% to 9.9% for n + /p junctions and from 7.8% to 8.8% for p + /n junctions. This electrical passivation of the surface, most likely by removal of dangling bonds, is reflected in a higher shunt resistance in the J-V measurements. Monolayers of 1,8-nonadiyne were still reactive for click chemistry with a model catalyst, thus enabling simultaneous passivation and future catalyst coupling.

  5. Causal electric charge diffusion and balance functions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Joseph I.; Plumberg, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We study the propagation and diffusion of electric charge fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions using the Cattaneo form for the dissipative part of the electric current. As opposed to the ordinary diffusion equation this form limits the speed at which charge can propagate. Including the noise term in the current, which arises uniquely from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we calculate the balance functions for charged hadrons in a simple 1+1-dimensional Bjorken hydrodynamical model. Limiting the speed of propagation of charge fluctuations increases the height and reduces the width of these balance functions when plotted versus rapidity. We also estimate the numerical value of the associated diffusion time constant from anti-de Sitter-space/conformal-field theory.

  6. Upper limb functional electrical stimulation devices and their man-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, L; Taylor, P N; Cobb, J E; Swain, I D

    2015-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses electricity to activate the nerves of a muscle that is paralysed due to hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or spinal cord injury (SCI). FES has been widely used to restore upper limb functions in people with hemiplegia and C5-C7 tetraplegia and has improved their ability to perform their activities of daily living (ADL). At the time of writing, a detailed literature review of the existing upper limb FES devices and their man-machine interfaces (MMI) showed that only the NESS H200 was commercially available. However, the rigid arm splint doesn't fit everyone and prevents the use of a tenodesis grip. Hence, a robust and versatile upper limb FES device that can be used by a wider group of people is required.

  7. Botulinum toxin type-A injection to treat patients with intractable anismus unresponsive to simple biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhen-Ning; He, Lei; Gao, Ge; Zhai, Qing; Yin, Zhi-Tao; Zeng, Xian-Dong

    2014-09-21

    To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injection to the puborectalis and external sphincter muscle in the treatment of patients with anismus unresponsive to simple biofeedback training. This retrospective study included 31 patients suffering from anismus who were unresponsive to simple biofeedback training. Diagnosis was made by anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, surface electromyography of the pelvic floor muscle, and defecography. Patients were given botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection and pelvic floor biofeedback training. Follow-up was conducted before the paper was written. Improvement was evaluated using the chronic constipation scoring system. BTX-A injection combined with pelvic floor biofeedback training achieved success in 24 patients, with 23 maintaining persistent satisfaction during a mean period of 8.4 mo. BTX-A injection combined with pelvic floor biofeedback training seems to be successful for intractable anismus.

  8. Seismic functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical component based on shaking table testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurukovski, D.; Mamucevski, D.

    1996-01-01

    This report involves the description of the experimental seismic and vibration tests of electrical, mechanical and processing equipment that were carried out by using laboratory equipment with high performances. This equipment should generate programmable dynamic excitations, measure and analyze parameters defining dynamic behaviour of the structural and functional capabilities of the tested specimen. Development of testing methodology and criteria is described together with the method for processing the results. Application of the methodology and criteria to selected specimen is included

  9. A new paradigm of electrical stimulation to enhance sensory neural function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Paul P; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; McIntosh, Caroline; Dinneen, Sean F; Quinlan, Leo R; Serrador, Jorge M

    2014-08-01

    The ability to improve peripheral neural transmission would have significant therapeutic potential in medicine. A technology of this kind could be used to restore and/or enhance sensory function in individuals with depressed sensory function, such as older adults or patients with peripheral neuropathies. The goal of this study was to investigate if a new paradigm of subsensory electrical noise stimulation enhances somatosensory function. Vibration (50Hz) was applied with a Neurothesiometer to the plantar aspect of the foot in the presence or absence of subsensory electrical noise (1/f type). The noise was applied at a proximal site, on a defined region of the tibial nerve path above the ankle. Vibration perception thresholds (VPT) of younger adults were measured in control and experimental conditions, in the absence or presence of noise respectively. An improvement of ∼16% in VPT was found in the presence of noise. These are the first data to demonstrate that modulation of axonal transmission with externally applied electrical noise improves perception of tactile stimuli in humans. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  10. Functioning of the Finnish electricity wholesale markets; Saehkoen tukkumarkkinan toimivuus Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehvilainen, I.; Broeckl, M.; Hakala, L.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-12-15

    The purpose of common Nordic electricity market has been to increase competition and efficiency. Market seems to be moving to the opposite direction in the 2010s. Wholesale market has become more fragmented as the market is split to larger number of price areas more often. Poor functioning of the wholesale markets is also the largest contributor to problems in the retail market. Politicians, market regulators, transmission system operators, and market players need to take action to improve the functioning of the market. Separation of price areas reduces competition in all market areas. The Finnish wholesale market is moderately or highly concentrated when Finland is separated from other price areas. Concentration is moderate, if all production capacity is considered. If only price setting hydropower and condensing power capacity are considered, the market is highly concentrated. High concentration can provide opportunities for the biggest producers to use strategic bidding to increase market prices. Larger number of price areas has reduced competition and liquidity with the financial area price products or CfDs. Poor functioning of CfD markets is emphasized by the low competition within the price areas. Bottlenecks between market areas create income for the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) that are responsible of the border transmissions. TSOs have no economic incentives to maintain and repair the border transmission lines, which seems peculiar when compared to e.g. regulation of electricity distribution companies. Finnish Fingrid shows a good example on transparent disclosure of received income and how the accrued funds are used. Import of electricity from Russia to Finland has been reduced since the end of 2011 because of the changes made in the Russian electricity market. Market liberalization in Russia has lead to a market structure that is different from the Nordic markets. Despite the differences, the two markets are becoming more integrated as the

  11. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  12. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ratanasiripong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  13. Combined use of autogenic therapy and biofeedback in training effective control of heart rate by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 24 men and women (aged 20-27 yr) in three equal groups who were taught to control their own heart rates by autogenic training and biofeedback under dark and sound-isolated conditions. Group I was parasympathetic dominant, group II was sympathetic dominant, and group III consisted of parasympathetic-dominant subjects and controls who received only biofeedback of their own heart rates. The results corroborate three hypotheses: (1) subjects with para-sympathetic-dominant autonomic profiles perform in a way that is both qualitatively and quantitatively different from subjects with sympathetic-dominant autonomic profiles; (2) tests of interindividual variability yield data relevant to individual performance in visceral learning tasks; and (3) the combined use of autogenic training, biofeedback, and verbal feedback is suitable for conditioning large stable autonomic responses in humans.

  14. Patient-Controlled Biofeedback Device for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damin, Daniel C; Hommerding, Felipe; Schirmer, Delber; Sanches, Paulo R S; Silva Junior, Danton P; Müller, André F; Thome, Paulo R O

    2017-06-01

    Although biofeedback has been used as a first-line therapy for fecal incontinence, it is known to be time consuming and demands attendance to a hospital during the whole period of treatment. In this study, we describe a new biofeedback device specifically developed for home treatment of fecal incontinence, which consists of a microprocessor controlled unit able to register and store the anal pressure waves corresponding to exercises performed by patients at home. In order to test the new device, a pilot study including ten patients with fecal incontinence was conducted. Evaluation of patients before and after the biofeedback training showed significant improvement in manometric and clinical parameters of anal continence. The new method may improve compliance of patients with the training program and reduce their need to be supervised during the treatment. It might represent a new alternative for the treatment of fecal incontinence.

  15. The Possibility of Functioning at Maximum Power for Solar Photovoltaic - Electric Battery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the functioning of a solar photovoltaic module(PVM that debits direct to on electric battery (EB. By a good adaptingof PVM to EB, so that the no load voltage of the two components (PVMand EB are well suited, during a day the energy value can be reachednear to the maximum possible value, when the PVM functions in themaximum power point (MPP. The proposed solution is much moreeconomic than the classical: PVM + DC – DC + EB because the directcurrent - direct current power converter, is not necessary (DC - DC.

  16. Effect of the metal work function on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube network transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Ko, Dae Young; Kil, Joon Pyo; Lee, Jung Wha; Park, Wan Jun

    2012-01-01

    A nearly perfect semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube random network thin film transistor array was fabricated, and its reproducible transport properties were investigated. The effects of the metal work function for both the source and the drain on the electrical properties of the transistors were systematically investigated. Three different metal electrodes, Al, Ti, and Pd, were employed. As the metal work function increased, p-type behavior became dominant, and the field effect hole mobility dramatically increased. Also, the Schottky barrier of the Ti-nanotube contact was invariant to the molecular adsorption of species in air.

  17. A multi-pad electrode based functional electrical stimulation system for restoration of grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Nebojša M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES applied via transcutaneous electrodes is a common rehabilitation technique for assisting grasp in patients with central nervous system lesions. To improve the stimulation effectiveness of conventional FES, we introduce multi-pad electrodes and a new stimulation paradigm. Methods The new FES system comprises an electrode composed of small pads that can be activated individually. This electrode allows the targeting of motoneurons that activate synergistic muscles and produce a functional movement. The new stimulation paradigm allows asynchronous activation of motoneurons and provides controlled spatial distribution of the electrical charge that is delivered to the motoneurons. We developed an automated technique for the determination of the preferred electrode based on a cost function that considers the required movement of the fingers and the stabilization of the wrist joint. The data used within the cost function come from a sensorized garment that is easy to implement and does not require calibration. The design of the system also includes the possibility for fine-tuning and adaptation with a manually controllable interface. Results The device was tested on three stroke patients. The results show that the multi-pad electrodes provide the desired level of selectivity and can be used for generating a functional grasp. The results also show that the procedure, when performed on a specific user, results in the preferred electrode configuration characteristics for that patient. The findings from this study are of importance for the application of transcutaneous stimulation in the clinical and home environments.

  18. Visual Biofeedback using trans-perineal ultrasound during the second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yinon; Frenkel, Tahl I; Schlesinger, Yael; Rousseau, Sofie; Hamiel, Daniel; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon

    2017-11-20

    to assess the obstetrical and psychological effect of visual biofeedback using trans-perineal ultrasound (TPU) during the second stage of labor. Visual biofeedback using TPU was performed prospectively during the second stage of labor in twenty-six low risk nulliparous women. Pushing efficacy was assessed by the angle of progression at rest and during pushing efforts before and after observing the ultrasound screen. Obstetrical outcomes included level of perineal tearing, mode of delivery and length of the second stage. Psychological outcomes were assessed via self-report measures during the postnatal hospital stay. These included measures of perceived control and maternal satisfaction with childbirth as well as level of maternal feelings of connectedness toward her newborn. Obstetrical and psychological results were compared to a control group (n=69) who received standard obstetrical coaching by midwifes. Pushing efficacy significantly increased following visual biofeedback by TPU (p = 0.01). A significant association was found between the visual biofeedback and an intact perineum following delivery (p = 0.03). No significant differences were found in regard to mode of delivery or the length of the second stage. Feelings of maternal connectedness towards the newborn were significantly higher in the visual biofeedback group relative to non-biofeedback controls (p = 0.003). The results of this pilot study implicate that TPU may serve as a complementary tool to coached maternal pushing during the second stage of labor with obstetrical as well as psychological benefits. Further studies are required to confirm our findings and define the exact timing for optimal results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of biofeedback therapy on dyssynergic constipation in patients with or without Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Tannaz; Madjlesi, Faezeh; Mahjoubi, Bahar; Mirzaei, Rezvan; Forogh, Bijan; Daliri, Seyedeh Somayeh; Derakhshandeh, Seyed Majid; Behbahani, Roxana Bazaz; Raissi, G Reza

    2014-10-01

    The Rome II and III diagnostic criteria for dyssynergic defecation recommended the exclusion of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study determined the effect of biofeedback therapy on dyssynergic constipation in patients with or without IBS. This study was a nonrandomized, single blinded, semi experimental study. Dyssynergic defecation patients with and without IBS were asked to undergo biofeedback therapy 8 sessions. The defecation dynamics and balloon expulsion time were evaluated before, at the end and 1 month after the biofeedback therapy. IBS symptoms were graded using a 4-point Likert scale. Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon test and Friedman test were applied to analyze data using SPSS software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). After the biofeedback therapy, the IBS symptoms have been decreased significantly (the median of 2 before and 1 after therapy, P anismus index in IBS group by the mean of 0.75 ± 0.31, 0.28 ± 0.07 and 0.28 ± 0.06 in three phases, respectively. Similar results were found in non-IBS patients (the mean of 0.74 ± 0.32, 0.28 ± 0.08, 0.27 ± 0.08 in three phases, respectively). The symptoms of constipation (sensation of incomplete evacuation, difficult and painful defecation), defecation facilitative manual maneuver frequency, pelvic floor muscles resting amplitude and strain amplitude decreased and squeezing amplitude improved significantly after biofeedback therapy in both groups with and without IBS (P 0.05) with respect to outcome. No complication was observed in treatment groups. Dyssynergic constipation patients with and without IBS will likely benefit from biofeedback therapy.

  20. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D; Keall, P; Kim, T; Greer, P B; Arm, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement <0.01 and p-value of period 0.12). This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  1. Real-Time Assessment of the Effect of Biofeedback Therapy with Migraine: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odawara, Miyuki; Hashizume, Masahiro; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Tsuboi, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Biofeedback therapy has been reported to be effective in the treatment of migraine. However, previous studies have assessed its effectiveness using paper-and-pencil diaries, which are not very reliable. The objective of the present pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of using computerized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) for evaluating the efficacy of BF treatment for migraine in a randomized controlled trial. The subjects comprised one male and 26 female patients with migraine. They were randomly assigned to either biofeedback or wait-list control groups. Patients were asked to carry a palmtop-type computer to record momentary symptoms for 4 weeks before and after biofeedback treatment. The primary outcome measure was headache intensity. The secondary outcome measures included psychological stress, anxiety, irritation, headache-related disability and the frequency (number of days per month) of migraine attack and of headache of at least moderate intensity (pain rating ≥50). Headache intensity showed significant main effects of period (before vs. after therapy, p = 0.02) and group (biofeedback vs. control groups, p = 0.42) and a significant period × group interaction (p Biofeedback reduced the duration of headaches by 1.9 days, and the frequency of days when headache intensity was ≥50 by 2.4 times. In addition, headache-related disability, psychological stress, depression, anxiety, and irritation were significantly improved. The present study used computerized EMA to show that biofeedback could improve the symptoms of migraine, including psychological stress and headache-related disability.

  2. Supplementary home biofeedback improves quality of life in younger patients with fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lynne; Sloots, Kathryn; Nowak, Madeleine; Ho, Yik-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biofeedback is a scarce, resource-intensive clinical therapy. It is used to treat patients with bowel problems, including fecal incontinence (FI), who fail to respond to simple dietary advice, medication, or pelvic floor exercises. Populations are aging and younger cohorts use technology in managing their health, affording FI self-management opportunities. Does supplementary home-based biofeedback improve FI and quality of life (QOL)? Seventy-five incontinent participants (12 male), mean age 61.1 years, consented to participate. Thirty-nine patients (5 male) were randomized to the standard biofeedback protocol plus daily home use of a Peritron perineometer (intervention) and 36 patients (7 male) to the standard biofeedback protocol (control). On completion of the study each perineometer exercise session was rated for technique by 2 raters, blinded to the patient and order of sessions. With the exception of Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale lifestyle improvement (intervention--9.1% vs. controls--0.3%, P=0.026) and embarrassment improvement (intervention--50.0% vs. controls--18.3%, P=0.026), supplementary home biofeedback did not result in greater clinical improvement for the intervention group as a whole. However, on stratification around the mean age, continence and QOL of younger people in the intervention group were significantly better than those of their control counterparts. Graphed perineometer sessions demonstrated high compliance and improvement in exercise technique. Perineometers provided reassurance, motivation, and an exercise reminder ensuring that confidence was achieved quickly. Home biofeedback was acceptable and well tolerated by all users. Younger participants significantly benefited from using this technology.

  3. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  4. Negative transfer of heart rate control following biofeedback training: a partial replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Macready, D

    1985-09-01

    Ability to raise and lower heart rate (HR) on instruction was tested before and after unidirectional biofeedback training in two groups of 10 male volunteers. Instructional control was assessed in 2-min trials before training, and after 5 and 10 biofeedback trials of increasing (Group I) and decreasing (Group D) HR. The magnitude of HR elevations produced by Group D diminished following training, while modifications in Group I were unchanged. This negative transfer effect is discussed in relation to whether voluntary speeding and slowing HR reflect distinct capacities.

  5. Cost function estimates, scale economies and technological progress in the Turkish electricity generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Akkemik, K.

    2009-01-01

    Turkish electricity sector has undergone significant institutional changes since 1984. The recent developments since 2001 including the setting up of a regulatory agency to undertake the regulation of the sector and increasing participation of private investors in the field of electricity generation are of special interest. This paper estimates cost functions and investigates the degree of scale economies, overinvestment, and technological progress in the Turkish electricity generation sector for the period 1984-2006 using long-run and short-run translog cost functions. Estimations were done for six groups of firms, public and private. The results indicate existence of scale economies throughout the period of analysis, hence declining long-run average costs. The paper finds empirical support for the Averch-Johnson effect until 2001, i.e., firms overinvested in an environment where there are excess returns to capital. But this effect was reduced largely after 2002. Technological progress deteriorated slightly from 1984-1993 to 1994-2001 but improved after 2002. Overall, the paper found that regulation of the market under the newly established regulating agency after 2002 was effective and there are potential gains from such regulation. (author)

  6. Investigation of Balance Function Using Dynamic Posturography under Electrical-Acoustic Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schwab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI patients by using the EquiTest and to help answer the question of whether electrically stimulating the inner ear using a cochlear implant influences the balance system in any way. Material and Methods. A test population (=50 was selected at random from among the cochlear implant recipients. Dynamic posturography (using the EquiTest was performed with the device switched off an switched on. Results. In summary, it can be said that an activated cochlear implant affects the function of the vestibular system and may, to an extent, even lead to a stabilization of balance function under the static conditions of dynamic posturography, but nevertheless also to a significant destabilization. Significant improvements in vestibular function were seen mainly in equilibrium scores under conditions 4 and 5, the composite equilibrium score, and the vestibular components as revealed by sensory analysis. Conclusions. Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the explanation for any symptoms of dizziness lies precisely in the fact that they occur in supposedly noncritical situations, since, when the cochlear implant makes increased demands on the balance system, induced disturbances can be centrally suppressed.

  7. Restoration of Upper Limb Function in an Individual with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy using Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milos R; Zivanovic, Vera; Valiante, Taufik A

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic spinal cord pathology is responsible for 25-52% of all spinal cord lesions. Studies have revealed that spinal stenosis accounts for 16-21% of spinal cord injury (SCI) admissions. Impaired grips as well as slow unskilled hand and finger movements are the most common complaints in patients with spinal cord disorders, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. In the past, our team carried out couple of successful clinical trials, including two randomized control trials, showing that functional electrical stimulation therapy (FEST) can restore voluntary reaching and/or grasping function, in people with stroke and traumatic SCI. Motivated by this success, we decided to examine changes in the upper limb function following FEST in a patient who suffered loss of hand function due to myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. The participant was a 61-year-old male who had C3-C7 posterior laminectomy and instrumented fusion for cervical myelopathy. The participant presented with progressive right hand weakness that resulted in his inability to voluntarily open and close the hand and to manipulate objects unilaterally with his right hand. The participant was enrolled in the study ~22 months following initial surgical intervention. Participant was assessed using Toronto Rehabilitation Institute's Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The pre-post differences in scores on all measures clearly demonstrated improvement in voluntary hand function following 15 1-h FEST sessions. The changes observed were meaningful and have resulted in substantial improvement in performance of activities of daily living. These results provide preliminary evidence that FEST has a potential to improve upper limb function in patients with non-traumatic SCI, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis.

  8. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes/graphene by polyoxometalates and their enhanced photo-electrical catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuang-Shuang; Liu Rong-Ji; Zhang Guang-Jin; Gu Zhan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene are carbon-based materials, which possess not only unique structure but also properties such as high surface area, extraordinary mechanical properties, high electronic conductivity, and chemical stability. Thus, they have been regarded as an important material, especially for exploring a variety of complex catalysts. Considerable efforts have been made to functionalize and fabricate carbon-based composites with metal nanoparticles. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of our research on the decoration of carbon nanotubes/graphene with metal nanoparticles by using polyoxometalates as key agents, and their enhanced photo-electrical catalytic activities in various catalytic reactions. The polyoxometalates play a key role in constructing the nanohybrids and contributing to their photo-electrical catalytic properties. (invited review — international conference on nanoscience and technology, china 2013)

  9. The effect of the adsorbate layer on the work function reduction of gold substrates under external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Cheng, Feng; Chen, Zhao-Xu

    2017-12-01

    The interface interaction between the dimethyl sulfide (DMS) molecule and the gold substrate under external electric fields is investigated by density functional theory method. The polarized DMS adsorbate reduces the work function of the gold substrate while the induced substrate dipole upon the adsorption slightly increases the work function. The DMS layer partially shields the Au(111) substrate from the electric fields and the vacuum level of DMS/Au(111) shifts less than of Au(111) in consequence. Under electric fields pointing outward from the Au(111) surface, both the reduction of work function and the adsorption of DMS molecule are enhanced on the surface. We also suggest the possible application of the field-effect transistor (FET) sensor with gold gate for detecting DMS molecule by utilizing the reduction of substrate work function upon adsorption. The effects of coverage and electric field on the theoretical sensitivity of the sensor are also discussed.

  10. Improved proprioceptive function by application of subsensory electrical noise: Effects of aging and task-demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Diana R; Barela, José A; Kohn, André F

    2017-09-01

    The application of subsensory noise stimulation over the lower limbs has been shown to improve proprioception and postural control under certain conditions. Whereas the effect specificity seems to depend on several factors, studies are still needed to determine the appropriate method for training and rehabilitation purposes. In the current study, we investigated whether the application of subsensory electrical noise over the legs improves proprioceptive function in young and older adults. We aimed to provide evidence that stronger and age-related differential effects occur in more demanding tasks. Proprioceptive function was initially assessed by testing the detection of passive ankle movement (kinesthetic perception) in twenty-eight subjects (14 young and 14 older adults). Thereafter, postural control was assessed during tasks with different sensory challenges: i) by removing visual information (eyes closed) and; ii) by moving the visual scene (moving room paradigm). Tests performed with the application of electrical noise stimulation were compared to those performed without noise. The results showed that electrical noise applied over the legs led to a reduction in the response time to kinesthetic perception in both young and older adults. On the other hand, the magnitude of postural sway was reduced by noise stimulation only during a more challenging task, namely, when the optical flow was changing in an unpredictable (nonperiodic) manner. No differential effects of stimulation between groups were observed. These findings suggest that the relevance of proprioceptive inputs in tasks with different challenges, but not the subjects' age, is a determining factor for sensorimotor improvements due to electrical noise stimulation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Grid Support Function Laboratory Validation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumar [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shindo, Jon [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kubojiri, Kandice [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ceria, Riley [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The objective for this test plan was to better understand how to utilize the performance capabilities of advanced inverter functions to allow the interconnection of distributed energy resource (DER) systems to support the new Customer Self-Supply, Customer Grid-Supply, and other future DER programs. The purpose of this project was: 1) to characterize how the tested grid supportive inverters performed the functions of interest, 2) to evaluate the grid supportive inverters in an environment that emulates the dynamics of O'ahu's electrical distribution system, and 3) to gain insight into the benefits of the grid support functions on selected O'ahu island distribution feeders. These goals were achieved through laboratory testing of photovoltaic inverters, including power hardware-in-the-loop testing.

  12. Functional Modeling of Perspectives on the Example of Electric Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    The integration of energy systems is a proven approach to gain higher overall energy efficiency. Invariably, this integration will come with increasing technical complexity through the diversification of energy resources and their functionality. With the integration of more fluctuating renewable ...... which enables a reflection on system integration requirements independent of particular technologies. The results are illustrated on examples related to electric energy systems.......The integration of energy systems is a proven approach to gain higher overall energy efficiency. Invariably, this integration will come with increasing technical complexity through the diversification of energy resources and their functionality. With the integration of more fluctuating renewable...... energies higher system flexibility will also be necessary. One of the challenges ahead is the design of control architecture to enable the flexibility and to handle the diversity. This paper presents an approach to model heterogeneous energy systems and their control on the basis of purpose and functions...

  13. Functional requirements for an intelligent RPC. [remote power controller for spaceborne electrical distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, B. M.; Heller, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    An intelligent remote power controller (RPC) based on microcomputer technology can implement advanced functions for the accurate and secure detection of all types of faults on a spaceborne electrical distribution system. The intelligent RPC will implement conventional protection functions such as overcurrent, under-voltage, and ground fault protection. Advanced functions for the detection of soft faults, which cannot presently be detected, can also be implemented. Adaptive overcurrent protection changes overcurrent settings based on connected load. Incipient and high-impedance fault detection provides early detection of arcing conditions to prevent fires, and to clear and reconfigure circuits before soft faults progress to a hard-fault condition. Power electronics techniques can be used to implement fault current limiting to prevent voltage dips during hard faults. It is concluded that these techniques will enhance the overall safety and reliability of the distribution system.

  14. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF BIOFEEDBACK IN A CLOSED LOOP OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND PACED BREATHING IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Kulik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biofeedback in a closed loop of heart rate variability (HRV and paced breathing in patients with arterial hypertension was studied. 61 subjects with arterial hypertension (31 females and 30 males, mean age 56.8 ± 6.2 years were examined. In accordance with the objective of the study all subjects were divided into 2 groups: 1 – biofeedback group (34 subjects and 2 – the comparison group (27 subjects. 5 biofeedback sessions were performed in biofeedback group. In the comparison group only two biofeedback sessions were performed – at admission and before discharge from the hospital. Efficacy of biofeedback was evaluated by comparing the values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively, heart rate (HR, HRV indices, indicators of optimality (O, sensitivity (S and efficiency (E and BQI index at admission and discharge in both groups of patients. The use of biofeedback in arterial hypertension subjects allowed to achieve better control of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and improves HRV indices. The positive dynamics of optimality and the integral BQI values indicated a training effect of regulation systems.

  16. Can electrical stimulation enhance effects of a functional training program in hospitalized geriatric patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinglersen, Amanda Hempel; Halsteen, Malte Bjoern; Kjaer, Michael; Karlsen, Anders

    2018-06-01

    Hospitalization of older medical patients may lead to functional decline. This study investigated whether simultaneously applied neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can enhance the effects of a functional training program in hospitalized geriatric patients. This was a quasi-randomized controlled trial in geriatric hospitalized patients (N = 16, age = 83.1 ± 8.1 years, mean ± SD). The patients performed a simple and time efficient chair-stand based functional exercise program daily, either with (FT + NMES, N = 8) or without (FT, N = 8) simultaneous NMES to the knee extensor muscles. Physical function was assessed at day 2 and 6-10 of the hospitalization with the De Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI), a 30-second chair stand test (30 s-CST) and a 4-meter gait speed test (4 m-GST). Additionally, the pooled results of training from the two training groups (TRAINING, N = 16) was compared to a similar historical control-group (CON, N = 48) receiving only standard-care. Eight patients were assigned to FT, 12 to FT+NMES with 4 dropouts during intervention. During the 6-10 days of hospitalization, both groups improved in all functional measures (p  0.05). The training sessions within the FT+NMES-group were more time consuming (~11 vs ~7 min) and entailed higher levels of discomfort than FT-training sessions. Compared to standard-care, training resulted in significantly larger improvements in the 30 s-CST (TRAINING: +3.8 repetitions; CON: +1.4 repetitions, p functional training program improves chair stand performance in hospitalized geriatric patients, with no additional effect of simultaneous electrical muscle stimulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing efficient functioning of the nordic electricity market. Summary and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    In September 2004, Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) in their meeting in Akureyri, Iceland, assessed the state of the Nordic electricity market. The Ministers acknowledged that the market has proved it is well functioning in many respects, however, further development of the Nordic electricity market is needed, i.e. towards a regional market without borders. The Nordic Transmission System Operators (TSOs) were asked to study how a further co-ordination of the system responsibility, a joint organizing and financing of the grid investments and a handling of peak load situations can be established in the Nordic countries. In this report, the main focus is on market-related tasks within system responsibility that are market-related and may have an effect on the functioning of the market. The report covers the following issues: definition of the system responsibility and role of TSOs, harmonization of operational rules and practices in order to improve functioning of the market, TSOs' collaboration in disturbances and shortage situations and joint Nordic transmission investments. Furthermore, the report summarizes the concrete actions taken by the TSOs in strengthening of the market mechanisms in peak load situations. (BA)

  18. Enhancing efficient functioning of the nordic electricity market. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    In September 2004, Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) in their meeting in Akureyri, Iceland, assessed the state of the Nordic electricity market. The Ministers acknowledged that the market has proved it is well functioning in many respects, however, further development of the Nordic electricity market is needed, i.e. towards a regional market without borders. The Nordic Transmission System Operators (TSOs) were asked to study how a further co-ordination of the system responsibility, a joint organizing and financing of the grid investments and a handling of peak load situations can be established in the Nordic countries. In this report, the main focus is on market-related tasks within system responsibility that are market-related and may have an effect on the functioning of the market. The report covers the following issues: definition of the system responsibility and role of TSOs, harmonization of operational rules and practices in order to improve functioning of the market, TSOs' collaboration in disturbances and shortage situations and joint Nordic transmission investments. Furthermore, the report summarizes the concrete actions taken by the TSOs in strengthening of the market mechanisms in peak load situations. (BA)

  19. Electrical Properties of Conductive Cotton Yarn Coated with Eosin Y Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Arul, Narayanasamy Sabari; Han, Jeong In

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication and investigation of the electrical properties of two types of conductive cotton yarns coated with eosin Y or eosin B functionalized reduced graphene (RGO) and bare graphene oxide (GO) using dip-coating method. The surface morphology of the conductive cotton yarn coated with reduced graphene oxide was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Due to the strong electrostatic attractive forces, the negatively charged surface such as the eosin Y functionalized reduced graphene oxide or bare GO can be easily coated to the positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) treated cotton yarn. The maximum current for the conductive cotton yarn coated with eosin Y functionalized RGO and bare GO with 20 cycles repetition of (5D + R) process was found to be 793.8 μA and 3482.8 μA. Our results showed that the electrical conductivity of bare GO coated conductive cotton yarn increased by approximately four orders of magnitude with the increase in the dipping cycle of (5D+R) process.

  20. Deuteron A(Q2) structure function and the neutron electric form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.; Amroun, A.; Auffret, S.; Cavedon, J.M.; Dreux, P.; Duclos, J.; Frois, B.; Goutte, D.; Hachemi, H.; Martino, J.

    1989-01-01

    We present new measurements of the deuteron A(Q 2 ) structure function in the momentum transfer region between 1 and 18 fm -2 . The accuracy of the data ranges from 2% to 6%. We investigate the sensitivity of A(Q 2 ) to the nucleon-nucleon interaction and to the neutron electric form factor G E n . Our analysis shows that below 20 fm -2 G E n can be inferred from these data with a significantly improved accuracy. The model dependence of this analysis is discussed

  1. Constraining the electric dipole photon strength function in {sup 130}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, J.; Loeher, B.; Savran, D.; Silva, J. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Ahmed, M.W.; Kelley, J.H.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University, TUNL (United States); Beller, J.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Zweidinger, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Glorius, J.; Sonnabend, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Krticka, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Rusev, G. [Chemistry Division, LANL (United States); Scheck, M. [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland (United Kingdom); Tonchev, A.P. [Physics Division, LLNL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The decay properties of photo-excited states in {sup 130}Te have been investigated by means of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence experiments at the Darmstadt High Intensity Photon Setup (DHIPS) and the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS). The combination of continuous-energy bremsstrahlung on the one hand and the quasi-monoenergetic and linearly polarized photon beam on the other enables a detailed insight into the photoabsorption cross section and the decay behavior of spin-1 states. Comparing these results to simulations within the statistical model allow for constraining the electric dipole photon strength function (E1-PSF). Results are presented and discussed.

  2. Gait training assisted by multi-channel functional electrical stimulation early after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, M. van; Bus, S.A.; Boer, C.E. de; Nollet, F.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Beelen, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many stroke survivors suffer from paresis of lower limb muscles, resulting in compensatory gait patterns characterised by asymmetries in spatial and temporal parameters and reduced walking capacity. Functional electrical stimulation has been used to improve walking capacity, but evidence

  3. Specification errors in estimating cost functions: the case of the nuclear-electric-generating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study is an application of production-cost duality theory. Duality theory is reviewed for the competitive and rate-of-return regulated firm. The cost function is developed for the nuclear electric-power-generating industry of the United States using capital, fuel, and labor factor inputs. A comparison is made between the Generalized Box-Cox (GBC) and Fourier Flexible (FF) functional forms. The GBC functional form nests the Generalized Leontief, Generalized Square Root Quadratic and Translog functional forms, and is based upon a second-order Taylor-series expansion. The FF form follows from a Fourier-series expansion in sine and cosine terms using the Sobolev norm as the goodness-of-fit measure. The Sobolev norm takes into account first and second derivatives. The cost function and two factor shares are estimated as a system of equations using maximum-likelihood techniques, with Additive Standard Normal and Logistic Normal error distributions. In summary, none of the special cases of the GBC function form are accepted. Homotheticity of the underlying production technology can be rejected for both GBC and FF forms, leaving only the unrestricted versions supported by the data. Residual analysis indicates a slight improvement in skewness and kurtosis for univariate and multivariate cases when the Logistic Normal distribution is used

  4. Feasibility and acceptance of biofeedback-assisted mental training in an Austrian elementary school: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Richard; Krammer, Christine; Keilani, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study aimed to investigate feasibility, acceptance, and effects of biofeedback-assisted mental training in a population of fifteen 10-year-old pupils in an Austrian elementary school. Participants were instructed in relaxation techniques by using biofeedback. Before intervention, after 6 weeks with active mental training and with regular instructions by the teacher, and after a further time period of 6 weeks without instructions, attention and concentration improved. The results indicate feasibility, good acceptance, and beneficial effects of biofeedback-assisted mental techniques in Austrian elementary school pupils.

  5. Comparing electromagnetic stimulation with electrostimulation plus biofeedback in treating male refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsin Yang

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Both EMS and ESB physical therapy of the pelvic floor muscle effectively reduce pain, increase the QoL, and improve urinary tract symptoms in male CPPS patients who are refractory to medical treatments. The combination therapy of ES plus biofeedback demonstrates additional benefits in pain and QoL when compared with EMS alone.

  6. Biofeedback and physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S B; Walter, S

    1996-01-01

    . The effect of the treatment was determined by a standardized pad-weighing test. Long-term status was determined using a questionnaire after 2-3 years. Thirty-four women completed the treatment. The study showed a statistically significant better improvement in the biofeedback group. The long-term effect...

  7. Biofeedback for Developing Self-Control of Tension and Stress in One's Hierarchy of Psychological States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell

    1985-01-01

    Describes six stage hierarchial patterns in the development of self-control through biofeedback. The stages include Skeletal and Striated Muscle Tension; Visceral Involvement-Anxiety Neuroses; Chronic Physiological Dysfunctioning; Decision Making Competency; Twilight Learning-Permissive Concentration; and Autogenic Feedback Training. (BL)

  8. [The effect of EMG level by EMG biofeedback with progressive muscle relaxation training on tension headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, U J; Kim, N C; Kim, H S

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess if EMG biofeedback training with progressive muscle relaxation training is effective in reducing the EMG level in patients with tension headaches. This study which lasted from 23 October to 30 December 1989, was conducted on 10 females who were diagnosed as patients with tension headaches and selected from among volunteers at C. University in Seoul. The process of the study was as follows: First, before the treatment, the baseline was measured for two weeks and the level of EMG was measured five times in five minutes. And then EMG biofeedback training was used for six weeks, 12 sessions in all, and progressive muscle relaxation was done at home by audio tape over eight weeks. Each session was composed of a 5-minute baseline, two 5-minute EMG biofeedback training periods and a 5-minute self-control stage. Each stage was followed by a five minute rest period. So each session took a total of 40 minutes. The EMG level was measured by EMG biofeedback (Autogenic-Cyborg: M 130 EMG module). The results were as follows: 1. The average age of the subjects was 44.1 years and the average history of headache was 10.6 years (range: 6 months-20 years). 2. The level of EMG was lowest between the third and the fourth week of the training except in Cases I and IV. 3. The patients began to show a nonconciliatory attitude at the first session of the fifth week of the training.

  9. A randomized clinical trial comparing fitness and biofeedback training versus basic treatment in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Marijke; Bolwijn, Paulien; Verstappen, Frans; Bakker, Carla; Hidding, Alita; Houben, Harry; van der Heijde, Desiree; Landewé, Robert; van der Linden, Sjef

    2002-01-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of physical fitness training or biofeedback training with the results of usual care in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). One hundred forty-three female patients with FM (American College of Rheumatology criteria) were randomized into 3 groups: a fitness program (n =

  10. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  11. Active biofeedback changes the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal effects of advanced biofeedback by inducing active and passive pauses on the trapezius activity pattern using high-density surface electromyography (HD-EMG). Thirteen healthy male subjects performed computer work with superimposed...... benefit of superimposed muscle contraction in relation to the spatial organization of muscle activity during computer work....

  12. Wearable Vibrotactile Biofeedback Device Allowing Identification of Different Floor Conditions for Lower-Limb Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Anson H; Wong, Duo W; Ma, Christina Z; Zhang, Ming; Lee, Winson C

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate a newly developed biofeedback device enabling lower-limb amputees to identify various floor conditions. Self-control with repeated measures (with and without the biofeedback device) within the amputee group, and group control comparing between amputee and nonamputee groups. University locomotion laboratory. Five lower-limb amputees and 8 nonamputees (N=13). A wearable biofeedback device, which identified different floor conditions by analyzing the force patterns under the prosthetic feet and provided vibration cues in response to different floor conditions, was provided to the amputees. The subjects stepped on a foam platform concealing a small object or no object at 1 of the 4 locations of the foot sole. Subjects were asked whether there was a small object under their feet and the location of the object if it existed. The test was repeated with 4 different object types and 4 object locations. The success rate of floor identification was evaluated. Without the biofeedback device, nonamputee subjects (76.56%) identified floor conditions better than amputees (22.5%) significantly (Pdevice, the amputees significantly improved (Pdevice, amputees significantly improved their abilities in identifying different floor conditions. Future attempts could configure the device to allow it to provide warning signals in response to fall-inducing conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conceptual Framework for Therapeutic Training with Biofeedback in Virtual Reality: First Evaluation of a Relaxation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Førland, Ekaterina; Stiles, Tore C.; Krogh, Anne Berit; Linde, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for designing low-cost therapeutic training with biofeedback and virtual reality. We completed the first evaluation of a prototype--a mobile learning application for relaxation training, primarily for adolescents suffering from tension-type headaches. The system delivers visual experience on a head-mounted display. A…

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Temporal Pulse Amplitude Biofeedback Training for Recurrent Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…

  15. Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.…

  16. Autogenic Training and Hand Temperature Biofeedback in the Treatment of Migraine: A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, B.; And Others

    The possibility of alleviating migraine headaches by autogenic relaxation training, with or without hand temperature biofeedback, was assessed. The study examined five independent groups in a bi-directional control group design. Volunteer migraine sufferers served as subjects, each participating for 12 weeks. The first four weeks of the study were…

  17. Evaluation of a Biofeedback Intervention in College Students Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Garret

    2013-01-01

    This study used exploratory data analysis (EDA) to examine the use of a biofeedback intervention in the treatment of anxiety for college students diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (n = 10) and in a typical college population (n = 37). The use of EDA allowed for trends to emerge from the data and provided a foundation for future…

  18. Effects of Biofeedback on Distress in a University Counseling Center: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper-Smith, Adriana; Tift, Jay H.; Frye, Joan F.

    2016-01-01

    Biofeedback (BF) and its mechanisms of change were examined alongside self-regulation and mind-body approaches in the context of counseling centers. The advance in psychopathology within this context and its intersections with neurophysiological, psychological, and social variables were highlighted. Although BF is commonly provided to students,…

  19. Analysis of different image-based biofeedback models for improving cycling performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbo, D.; Conforto, S.; Bernabucci, I.; Carli, M.; Schmid, M.; D'Alessio, T.

    2012-03-01

    Sport practice can take advantage from the quantitative assessment of task execution, which is strictly connected to the implementation of optimized training procedures. To this aim, it is interesting to explore the effectiveness of biofeedback training techniques. This implies a complete chain for information extraction containing instrumented devices, processing algorithms and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to extract valuable information (i.e. kinematics, dynamics, and electrophysiology) to be presented in real-time to the athlete. In cycling, performance indexes displayed in a simple and perceivable way can help the cyclist optimize the pedaling. To this purpose, in this study four different GUIs have been designed and used in order to understand if and how a graphical biofeedback can influence the cycling performance. In particular, information related to the mechanical efficiency of pedaling is represented in each of the designed interfaces and then displayed to the user. This index is real-time calculated on the basis of the force signals exerted on the pedals during cycling. Instrumented pedals for bikes, already designed and implemented in our laboratory, have been used to measure those force components. A group of subjects underwent an experimental protocol and pedaled with (the interfaces have been used in a randomized order) and without graphical biofeedback. Preliminary results show how the effective perception of the biofeedback influences the motor performance.

  20. Audiovisual biofeedback guided breath-hold improves lung tumor position reproducibility and volume consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lee, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be used to improve the reproducibility and consistency of breath-hold lung tumor position and volume, respectively. These results may provide a pathway to achieve more accurate lung cancer radiation treatment in addition to improving various medical imaging and treatments by using breath-hold procedures.

  1. Effects of Biofeedback on Control and Generalization of Nasalization in Typical Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth S. Heller; Mendoza, Joseph O.; Gill, Simone V.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of biofeedback on control of nasalization in individuals with typical speech. Method: Forty-eight individuals with typical speech attempted to increase and decrease vowel nasalization. During training, stimuli consisted of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) tokens with the center vowels…

  2. Retroflex Versus Bunched in Treatment for Rhotic Misarticulation: Evidence From Ultrasound Biofeedback Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Swartz, Michelle T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To document the efficacy of ultrasound biofeedback treatment for misarticulation of the North American English rhotic in children. Because of limited progress in the first cohort, a series of two closely related studies was conducted in place of a single study. The studies differed primarily in the nature of tongue-shape targets (e.g., retroflex, bunched) cued during treatment. Method Eight participants received 8 weeks of individual ultrasound biofeedback treatment targeting rhotics. In Study 1, all 4 participants were cued to match a bunched tongue-shape target. In Study 2, participants received individualized cues aimed at eliciting the tongue shape most facilitative of perceptually correct rhotics. Results Participants in Study 1 showed only minimal treatment effects. In Study 2, all participants demonstrated improved production of rhotics in untreated words produced without biofeedback, with large to very large effect sizes. Conclusions The results of Study 2 indicate that with proper parameters of treatment, ultrasound biofeedback can be a highly effective intervention for children with persistent rhotic errors. In addition, qualitative comparison of Studies 1 and 2 suggests that treatment for the North American English rhotic should include opportunities to explore different tongue shapes, to find the most facilitative variant for each individual speaker. PMID:25088034

  3. Functional electrical stimulation of the ankle dorsiflexors during walking in spastic cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Irene; Vles, Johannes S H; Soudant, Dan L H M; Witlox, Adhiambo M A; Staal, Heleen M; Speth, Lucianne A W M; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J M; Coenen, Marcel; Koudijs, Suzanne M; Vermeulen, R Jeroen

    2017-12-01

    To assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of ankle dorsiflexors in children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) during walking. A systematic review was performed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six databases were searched for studies applying interventions to patients aged younger than 20 years. Outcomes were classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Seven hundred and eighty abstracts were found, 35 articles were fully screened, and 14 articles were used for analysis. Only five articles (three studies) were of level I to III evidence. At ICF participation and activity level, there is limited evidence for a decrease in self-reported frequency of toe-drag and falls. At ICF body structure and function level, there is clear evidence (I-III) that FES increased (active) ankle dorsiflexion angle, strength, and improved selective motor control, balance, and gait kinematics, but decreased walking speed. Adverse events include skin irritation, toleration, and acceptation issues. There are insufficient data supporting functional gain by FES on activity and participation level. However, evidence points towards a role for FES as an alternative to orthoses in children with spastic CP. Effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) point towards a potential role as an alternative to orthoses for patients with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Some evidence for a decrease in self-reported frequency of toe-drag and falls with the use of FES in spastic CP. Limited evidence for improvements in activity and participation in patients with spastic CP using FES. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Using climate response functions in analyzing electricity production variables. A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Martino, Sara; Mo, Birger

    2016-04-01

    representation of hydropower is included and total hydro power production for each area is calculated, and the production is distributed among all available plants within each area. During simulation, the demand is affected by prices and temperatures. 6 different infrastructure scenarios of wind and power line development are analyzed. The analyses are done by running EMPS calibrated for today's situation for 11*11*8 different combinations of altered weather variables (temperature, precipitation and wind) describing different climate change scenarios, finding the climate response function for every EMPS-variable according the electricity production, such as prices and income, energy balances (supply, consumption and trade), overflow losses, probability of curtailment etc .

  5. Signal processing methods for reducing artifacts in microelectrode brain recordings caused by functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.; Willett, F.; Memberg, W. D.; Murphy, B.; Walter, B.; Sweet, J.; Miller, J.; Hochberg, L. R.; Kirsch, R. F.; Ajiboye, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising technology for restoring movement to paralyzed limbs. Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) have enabled intuitive control over virtual and robotic movements, and more recently over upper extremity FES neuroprostheses. However, electrical stimulation of muscles creates artifacts in intracortical microelectrode recordings that could degrade iBCI performance. Here, we investigate methods for reducing the cortically recorded artifacts that result from peripheral electrical stimulation. Approach. One participant in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial had two intracortical microelectrode arrays placed in the motor cortex, and thirty-six stimulating intramuscular electrodes placed in the muscles of the contralateral limb. We characterized intracortically recorded electrical artifacts during both intramuscular and surface stimulation. We compared the performance of three artifact reduction methods: blanking, common average reference (CAR) and linear regression reference (LRR), which creates channel-specific reference signals, composed of weighted sums of other channels. Main results. Electrical artifacts resulting from surface stimulation were 175  ×  larger than baseline neural recordings (which were 110 µV peak-to-peak), while intramuscular stimulation artifacts were only 4  ×  larger. The artifact waveforms were highly consistent across electrodes within each array. Application of LRR reduced artifact magnitudes to less than 10 µV and largely preserved the original neural feature values used for decoding. Unmitigated stimulation artifacts decreased iBCI decoding performance, but performance was almost completely recovered using LRR, which outperformed CAR and blanking and extracted useful neural information during stimulation artifact periods. Significance. The LRR method was effective at reducing electrical artifacts resulting from both intramuscular and surface FES, and

  6. SU-E-J-235: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves the Correlation Between Internal and External Respiratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Keall, P; Greer, P; Ludbrook, J; Paganelli, C; Kim, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: External respiratory surrogates are often used to predict internal lung tumor motion for beam gating but the assumption of correlation between external and internal surrogates is not always verified resulting in amplitude mismatch and time shift. To test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves the correlation between internal and external respiratory motion, in order to improve the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatments for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: In nine lung cancer patients, 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images were acquired across two MRI sessions (pre- and mid-treatment) with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback. External anterior-posterior (AP) respiratory motions of (a) chest and (b) abdomen were simultaneously acquired with physiological measurement unit (PMU, 3T Skyra, Siemens Healthcare Erlangen, Germany) and real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian, Palo Alto, USA), respectively. Internal superior-inferior (SI) respiratory motions of (c) lung tumor (i.e. centroid of auto-segmented lung tumor) and (d) diaphragm (i.e. upper liver dome) were measured from individual cine-MR images across 32 dataset. The four respiratory motions were then synchronized with the cine-MR image acquisition time. Correlation coefficients were calculated in the time variation of two nominated respiratory motions: (1) chest-abdomen, (2) abdomen-diaphragm and (3) diaphragm-lung tumor. The three combinations were compared between FB and AV biofeedback. Results: Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved chest-abdomen correlation by 17% (p=0.005) from 0.75±0.23 to 0.90±0.05 and abdomen-diaphragm correlation by 4% (p=0.058) from 0.91±0.11 to 0.95±0.05. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved diaphragm-lung tumor correlation by 12% (p=0.023) from 0.65±0.21 to 0.74±0.16. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved the correlation of internal and external respiratory motion, thus

  7. Biofeedback training effects on minimum toe clearance variability during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Oren; Cambell, Amity; Begg, Rezaul K; Sparrow, W A

    2013-08-01

    A number of variability analysis techniques, including Poincaré plots and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were used to investigate minimum toe clearance (MTC) control during walking. Ten young adults walked on a treadmill for 10 min at preferred speed in three conditions: (i) no-intervention baseline, (ii) with biofeedback of MTC within a target range, and (iii) no-biofeedback retention. Mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and inter quartile range of MTC during biofeedback (45.57 ± 11.65, 44.98 ± 11.57, 7.08 ± 2.61, 8.58 ± 2.77 mm, respectively) and retention (56.95 ± 20.31, 56.69 ± 20.94, 10.68 ± 5.41, 15.38 ± 10.19 mm) were significantly greater than baseline (30.77 ± 9.49, 30.51 ± 9.49, 3.04 ± 0.77, 3.66 ± 0.91 mm). Relative to baseline, skewness was reduced in biofeedback and retention but only significantly for retention (0.88 ± 0.51, 0.63 ± 0.55, and 0.40 ± 0.40, respectively). Baseline Poincaré measures (SD1 = 0.25, SD2 = 0.34) and DFA (α1 = 0.72 and α2 = 0.64) were lower than biofeedback (SD1 = 0.58, SD2 = 0.83, DFA α1 = 0.76 and α2 = 0.92) with significantly greater variability in retention compared to biofeedback only in the long-term SD2 and α2 analyses. Increased DFA longer-term correlations α2 in retention confirm that a novel gait pattern was acquired with a longer-term variability structure. Short- and long-term variability analyses were both useful in quantifying gait adaptations with biofeedback. The findings provide evidence that MTC can be modified with feedback, suggesting future applications in gait training procedures for impaired populations designed to reduce tripping risk.

  8. SU-E-J-235: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves the Correlation Between Internal and External Respiratory Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Ludbrook, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Paganelli, C [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Kim, T [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: External respiratory surrogates are often used to predict internal lung tumor motion for beam gating but the assumption of correlation between external and internal surrogates is not always verified resulting in amplitude mismatch and time shift. To test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves the correlation between internal and external respiratory motion, in order to improve the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatments for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: In nine lung cancer patients, 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images were acquired across two MRI sessions (pre- and mid-treatment) with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback. External anterior-posterior (AP) respiratory motions of (a) chest and (b) abdomen were simultaneously acquired with physiological measurement unit (PMU, 3T Skyra, Siemens Healthcare Erlangen, Germany) and real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian, Palo Alto, USA), respectively. Internal superior-inferior (SI) respiratory motions of (c) lung tumor (i.e. centroid of auto-segmented lung tumor) and (d) diaphragm (i.e. upper liver dome) were measured from individual cine-MR images across 32 dataset. The four respiratory motions were then synchronized with the cine-MR image acquisition time. Correlation coefficients were calculated in the time variation of two nominated respiratory motions: (1) chest-abdomen, (2) abdomen-diaphragm and (3) diaphragm-lung tumor. The three combinations were compared between FB and AV biofeedback. Results: Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved chest-abdomen correlation by 17% (p=0.005) from 0.75±0.23 to 0.90±0.05 and abdomen-diaphragm correlation by 4% (p=0.058) from 0.91±0.11 to 0.95±0.05. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved diaphragm-lung tumor correlation by 12% (p=0.023) from 0.65±0.21 to 0.74±0.16. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved the correlation of internal and external respiratory motion, thus

  9. Contralaterally Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation Improves Hand Dexterity in Chronic Hemiparesis: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Jayme S; Gunzler, Douglas D; Wilson, Richard D; Chae, John

    2016-10-01

    It is unknown whether one method of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for poststroke upper limb rehabilitation is more effective than another. Our aim was to compare the effects of contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation (CCFES) with cyclic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (cNMES). Stroke patients with chronic (>6 months) moderate to severe upper extremity hemiparesis (n=80) were randomized to receive 10 sessions/wk of CCFES- or cNMES-assisted hand opening exercise at home plus 20 sessions of functional task practice in the laboratory for 12 weeks. The task practice for the CCFES group was stimulation assisted. The primary outcome was change in Box and Block Test (BBT) score at 6 months post treatment. Upper extremity Fugl-Meyer and Arm Motor Abilities Test were also measured. At 6 months post treatment, the CCFES group had greater improvement on the BBT, 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.0), than the cNMES group, 1.8 (95% CI, 0.6-3.0), between-group difference of 2.8 (95% CI, 0.1-5.5), P=0.045. No significant between-group difference was found for the upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (P=0.888) or Arm Motor Abilities Test (P=0.096). Participants who had the largest improvements on BBT were <2 years post stroke with moderate (ie, not severe) hand impairment at baseline. Among these, the 6-month post-treatment BBT gains of the CCFES group, 9.6 (95% CI, 5.6-13.6), were greater than those of the cNMES group, 4.1 (95% CI, 1.7-6.5), between-group difference of 5.5 (95% CI, 0.8-10.2), P=0.023. CCFES improved hand dexterity more than cNMES in chronic stroke survivors. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00891319. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Improved estimation of electricity demand function by integration of fuzzy system and data mining approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Saberi, M.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Gitiforouz, A.; Ebrahimipour, V.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an integrated fuzzy system, data mining and time series framework to estimate and predict electricity demand for seasonal and monthly changes in electricity consumption especially in developing countries such as China and Iran with non-stationary data. Furthermore, it is difficult to model uncertain behavior of energy consumption with only conventional fuzzy system or time series and the integrated algorithm could be an ideal substitute for such cases. To construct fuzzy systems, a rule base is needed. Because a rule base is not available, for the case of demand function, look up table which is one of the extracting rule methods is used to extract the rule base. This system is defined as FLT. Also, decision tree method which is a data mining approach is similarly utilized to extract the rule base. This system is defined as FDM. Preferred time series model is selected from linear (ARMA) and nonlinear model. For this, after selecting preferred ARMA model, McLeod-Li test is applied to determine nonlinearity condition. When, nonlinearity condition is satisfied, preferred nonlinear model is selected and compare with preferred ARMA model and finally one of this is selected as time series model. At last, ANOVA is used for selecting preferred model from fuzzy models and time series model. Also, the impact of data preprocessing and postprocessing on the fuzzy system performance is considered by the algorithm. In addition, another unique feature of the proposed algorithm is utilization of autocorrelation function (ACF) to define input variables, whereas conventional methods which use trial and error method. Monthly electricity consumption of Iran from 1995 to 2005 is considered as the case of this study. The MAPE estimation of genetic algorithm (GA), artificial neural network (ANN) versus the proposed algorithm shows the appropriateness of the proposed algorithm

  11. An enhanced radial basis function network for short-term electricity price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Gow, Hong-Jey; Tsai, Ming-Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposed a price forecasting system for electric market participants to reduce the risk of price volatility. Combining the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) and Orthogonal Experimental Design (OED), an Enhanced Radial Basis Function Network (ERBFN) has been proposed for the solving process. The Locational Marginal Price (LMP), system load, transmission flow and temperature of the PJM system were collected and the data clusters were embedded in the Excel Database according to the year, season, workday and weekend. With the OED applied to learning rates in the ERBFN, the forecasting error can be reduced during the training process to improve both accuracy and reliability. This would mean that even the ''spikes'' could be tracked closely. The Back-propagation Neural Network (BPN), Probability Neural Network (PNN), other algorithms, and the proposed ERBFN were all developed and compared to check the performance. Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed ERBFN to provide quality information in a price volatile environment. (author)

  12. Electric dipole moment function and line intensities for the ground state of carbon monxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua-Jun; Cheng Xin-Lu; Wu Jie; Liu Hao

    2015-01-01

    An accurate electric dipole moment function (EDMF) is obtained for the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule (X 1 Σ + ) by fitting the experimental rovibrational transitional moments. Additionally, an accurate ab initio EDMF is found using the highly accurate, multi-reference averaged coupled-pair functional (ACPF) approach with the basis set, aug-cc-pV6Z, and a finite-field with ±0.005 a.u. (The unit a.u. is the abbreviation of atomic unit). This ab initio EDMF is very consistent with the fitted ones. The vibrational transition matrix moments and the Herman–Wallis factors, calculated with the Rydberg–Klein–Rees (RKR) potential and the fitted and ab initio EDMFs, are compared with experimental measurements. The consistency of these line intensities with the high-resolution transmission (HITRAN) molecular database demonstrates the improved accuracy of the fitted and ab initio EDMFs derived in this work. (paper)

  13. Biofeedback efficacy to improve clinical symptoms and endoscopic signs of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Mojgan; Shekarchizadeh, Masood; Farmanara, Hamedreza; Esfahani, Ahmad Reza Shekarchizadeh; Esfahani, Mansooreh Shekarchizadeh

    2018-01-12

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is often resistant to medical and surgical treatment. This study assessed the effect of biofeedback in decreasing the symptoms and the healing of endoscopic signs in SRUS patients. Before starting the treatment, endoscopy and colorectal manometry was performed to evaluate dyssynergic defecation. Patients were followed every four weeks, and during each visit their response to treatment was evaluated regarding to manometry pattern. After at least 50% improvement in manometry parameters, recipients underwent rectosigmoidoscopy. Endoscopic response to biofeedback treatment and clinical symptoms were investigated. Duration of symptoms was 43.11±36.42 months in responder and 63.9 ± 45.74 months in non-responder group (P=0.22). There were more ulcers in non-responder group than responder group (1.50 ±0.71 versus 1.33±- 0.71 before and 1.30 ± 0.95 versus 0.67 ±0.50 after biofeedback), although the difference was not significant (P=0.604, 0.10 respectively). The most prevalent symptoms were constipation (79%), rectal bleeding (68%) and anorectal pain (53%). The most notable improvement in symptoms after biofeedback occured in abdominal pain and incomplete evacuation, and the least was seen in mucosal discharge and toilet waiting as shown in the bar chart. Endoscopic cure was observed in 4 of 10 patients of the non-responder group while 8 patients in responder group experienced endoscopic improvement. It seems that biofeedback has significant effect for pathophysiologic symptoms such as incomplete evacuation and obstructive defecation. Improvement of clinical symptoms does not mean endoscopic cure; so to demonstrate remission the patients have to go under rectosigmoidoscopy.

  14. Biofeedback efficacy to improve clinical symptoms and endoscopic signs of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Forootan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS is often resistant to medical and surgical treatment. This study assessed the effect of biofeedback in decreasing the symptoms and the healing of endoscopic signs in SRUS patients. Before starting the treatment, endoscopy and colorectal manometry was performed to evaluate dyssynergic defecation. Patients were followed every four weeks, and during each visit their response to treatment was evaluated regarding to manometry pattern. After at least 50% improvement in manometry parameters, recipients underwent rectosigmoidoscopy. Endoscopic response to biofeedback treatment and clinical symptoms were investigated. Duration of symptoms was 43.11±36.42 months in responder and 63.9±45.74 months in non-responder group (P=0.22. There were more ulcers in non-responder group than responder group (1.50±0.71 versus 1.33±-0.71 before and 1.30 ± 0.95 versus 0.67±0.50 after biofeedback, although the difference was not significant (P=0.604, 0.10 respectively. The most prevalent symptoms were constipation (79%, rectal bleeding (68% and anorectal pain (53%. The most notable improvement in symptoms after biofeedback occured in abdominal pain and incomplete evacuation, and the least was seen in mucosal discharge and toilet waiting as shown in the bar chart. Endoscopic cure was observed in 4 of 10 patients of the non-responder group while 8 patients in responder group experienced endoscopic improvement. It seems that biofeedback has significant effect for pathophysiologic symptoms such as incomplete evacuation and obstructive defecation. Improvement of clinical symptoms does not mean endoscopic cure; so to demonstrate remission the patients have to go under rectosigmoidoscopy.

  15. Can biofeedback training of psychophysiological responses enhance athletes' sport performance? A practitioner's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenjak, Nika; Grad, Anton; Tusak, Matej; Leskovsek, Matevz; Schwarzlin, Romina

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, biofeedback has become increasingly popular for its proven success in peak performance training - the psychophysiological preparation of athletes for high-stakes sport competitions, such as the Olympic games. The aim of this research was to test whether an 8-week period of exposure to biofeedback training could improve the psychophysiological control over competitive anxiety and enhance athletic performance in participating subjects. Participants of this study were highly competent athletes, each training in different sport disciplines. The experimental group consisted of 18 athletes (4 women, 14 men), whereas the Control group had 21 athletes (4 women, 17 men). All athletes were between 16 and 34 years old. The biofeedback device, Nexus 10, was used to detect and measure the psychophysiological responses of athletes. Athletes from both groups (control and experimental) were subjected to stress tests at the beginning of the study and once again at its conclusion. In between, the experimental group received training in biofeedback techniques. We then calculated the overall percentage of athletes in the experimental group compared with those in the control group who were able to control respiration, skin conductance, heart rate, blood flow amplitude, heart rate variability, and heart respiration coherence. One year following completion of the initial study, we questioned athletes from the experimental group, to determine whether they continued to use these skills and if they could detect any subsequent enhancement in their athletic performance. We demonstrated that a greater number of participants in the experimental group were able to successfully control their psychophysiological parameters, in comparison to their peers in the control group. Significant results (p biofeedback - psycho-regulation skills. Furthermore, these participants uniformly reported believing that these skills had enhanced their athletic performance and general well-being.

  16. Microsoft kinect-based artificial perception system for control of functional electrical stimulation assisted grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Matija; Kočović, Slobodan; Marković, Marko; Popović, Dejan B

    2014-01-01

    We present a computer vision algorithm that incorporates a heuristic model which mimics a biological control system for the estimation of control signals used in functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted grasping. The developed processing software acquires the data from Microsoft Kinect camera and implements real-time hand tracking and object analysis. This information can be used to identify temporal synchrony and spatial synergies modalities for FES control. Therefore, the algorithm acts as artificial perception which mimics human visual perception by identifying the position and shape of the object with respect to the position of the hand in real time during the planning phase of the grasp. This artificial perception used within the heuristically developed model allows selection of the appropriate grasp and prehension. The experiments demonstrate that correct grasp modality was selected in more than 90% of tested scenarios/objects. The system is portable, and the components are low in cost and robust; hence, it can be used for the FES in clinical or even home environment. The main application of the system is envisioned for functional electrical therapy, that is, intensive exercise assisted with FES.

  17. Functional electrical stimulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles under varying loads in exercising horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Cheetham

    Full Text Available Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVCP is a life threatening condition and appears to be a good candidate for therapy using functional electrical stimulation (FES. Developing a working FES system has been technically difficult due to the inaccessible location and small size of the sole arytenoid abductor, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA muscle. A naturally-occurring disease in horses shares many functional and etiological features with BVCP. In this study, the feasibility of FES for equine vocal fold paralysis was explored by testing arytenoid abduction evoked by electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were determined for innervated PCA muscle. We then tested the hypothesis that direct muscle stimulation can maintain airway patency during strenuous exercise in horses with induced transient conduction block of the laryngeal motor nerve. Six adult horses were instrumented with a single bipolar intra-muscular electrode in the left PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were within the normal range for innervated muscle at 0.55±0.38 v and 0.38±0.19 ms respectively. Intramuscular stimulation of the PCA muscle significantly improved arytenoid abduction at all levels of exercise intensity and there was no significant difference between the level of abduction achieved with stimulation and control values under moderate loads. The equine larynx may provide a useful model for the study of bilateral fold paralysis.

  18. Direct electrical stimulation as an input gate into brain functional networks: principles, advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Winkler, Peter A; Duffau, Hugues

    2010-02-01

    While the fundamental and clinical contribution of direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain is now well acknowledged, its advantages and limitations have not been re-evaluated for a long time. Here, we critically review exactly what DES can tell us about cerebral function. First, we show that DES is highly sensitive for detecting the cortical and axonal eloquent structures. Moreover, DES also provides a unique opportunity to study brain connectivity, since each area responsive to stimulation is in fact an input gate into a large-scale network rather than an isolated discrete functional site. DES, however, also has a limitation: its specificity is suboptimal. Indeed, DES may lead to interpretations that a structure is crucial because of the induction of a transient functional response when stimulated, whereas (1) this effect is caused by the backward spreading of the electro-stimulation along the network to an essential area and/or (2) the stimulated region can be functionally compensated owing to long-term brain plasticity mechanisms. In brief, although DES is still the gold standard for brain mapping, its combination with new methods such as perioperative neurofunctional imaging and biomathematical modeling is now mandatory, in order to clearly differentiate those networks that are actually indispensable to function from those that can be compensated.

  19. Wada-test, functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct electrical stimulation - brain mapping methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, K.; Tanova, R.; Busarski, A.; Penkov, M.; Penev, L.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Modern neurosurgery requires accurate preoperative and intraoperative localization of brain pathologies but also of brain functions. The presence of individual variations in healthy subjects and the shift of brain functions in brain diseases provoke the introduction of various methods for brain mapping. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most widespread methods for brain mapping: Wada-test, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES). This study included 4 patients with preoperative brain mapping using Wada-test and fMRI. Intraoperative mapping with DES during awake craniotomy was performed in one case. The histopathological diagnosis was low-grade glioma in 2 cases, cortical dysplasia (1 patient) and arteriovenous malformation (1 patient). The brain mapping permits total lesion resection in three of four patients. There was no new postoperative deficit despite surgery near or within functional brain areas. Brain plasticity provoking shift of eloquent areas from their usual locations was observed in two cases. The brain mapping methods allow surgery in eloquent brain areas recognized in the past as 'forbidden areas'. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. The precise location of brain functions and pathologies frequently requires combination of different brain mapping methods. (authors)

  20. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. Q.; Jarrige, J.; Cucchetti, E.; Cannat, F.; Packan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  1. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  2. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    2014-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall significant time-of-day effect was observed for all selected COP variables. The greatest change in all COP variables was observed (on average ~15%) between midday (12:30) and the afternoon (16:00), indicating that a systematic time-of-day influence on static postural balance exists in community-dwelling older adults. Consequently, longitudinal (i.e. pre-to-post training) comparisons of postural balance in in older adults with repeated assessments should be conducted at the same time-of-day. In Study II a novel approach for measuring postural balance (using the Nintendo Wii Stillness and Agility tests) was examined for reproducibility and concurrent validity in 30 community-dwelling older adults. While the Nintendo Wii Stillness test showed a high reproducibility, a systematic learning effect between successive sessions was observed for the Agility test. Moderate-to-excellent concurrent validity was seen for the Stillness test. In contrast, the Agility test revealed a poor concurrent validity. In conclusion, the Wii Stillness test seems to represent a low-cost objective reproducible test of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults and appears feasible in various clinical settings. A habituation (familiarization) period is necessary for the Wii Agility test to avoid a systematic learning effect between successive test sessions. Study III investigated the effect of ten

  3. Disintegration of power grid as part of the task of increasing functionality of electric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatov Bekzhan

    2017-01-01

    operation is inevitable with reduced reliability or, otherwise, with incomplete functionality where functionality is the set of functions provided by the power system and the quality of their performance. With the mass input of distributed small generation in grids of almost all voltage classes it is necessary to solve the problem of ensuring stability in previously passive distribution networks. The traditional approach based on the “struggle” to maintain synchronism between power plants in the distribution networks is associated with a number of difficulties, which causes to apply another approach to control modes in distribution networks. Complication of the power grid, automatic devices, increase in possible variations of modes, and tendency to maximize the use of production assets lead to an increase in the complexity of tasks solved by dispatch centers. In this regard, it is important to note that availability of cascade failures in power systems speaks of the urgency of the task of ensuring the survivability of energy supply systems both globally and locally. The paper shows how disintegration of the power grid can solve the task of ensuring the functionality of traditional power systems and help to create favorable conditions for distributed small generation integration into the integrated electric power system.

  4. Effects of somatosensory electrical stimulation on motor function and cortical oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu-Chan, Adelyn P; Natraj, Nikhilesh; Godlove, Jason; Abrams, Gary; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2017-11-13

    Few patients recover full hand dexterity after an acquired brain injury such as stroke. Repetitive somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) is a promising method to promote recovery of hand function. However, studies using SES have largely focused on gross motor function; it remains unclear if it can modulate distal hand functions such as finger individuation. The specific goal of this study was to monitor the effects of SES on individuation as well as on cortical oscillations measured using EEG, with the additional goal of identifying neurophysiological biomarkers. Eight participants with a history of acquired brain injury and distal upper limb motor impairments received a single two-hour session of SES using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Pre- and post-intervention assessments consisted of the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), finger fractionation, pinch force, and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS), along with resting-state EEG monitoring. SES was associated with significant improvements in ARAT, MAS and finger fractionation. Moreover, SES was associated with a decrease in low frequency (0.9-4 Hz delta) ipsilesional parietomotor EEG power. Interestingly, changes in ipsilesional motor theta (4.8-7.9 Hz) and alpha (8.8-11.7 Hz) power were significantly correlated with finger fractionation improvements when using a multivariate model. We show the positive effects of SES on finger individuation and identify cortical oscillations that may be important electrophysiological biomarkers of individual responsiveness to SES. These biomarkers can be potential targets when customizing SES parameters to individuals with hand dexterity deficits. NCT03176550; retrospectively registered.

  5. Impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on functional capacity of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Renata Spósito; Xavier, Vivian Bertoni; Miorin, Luiz Antônio; Magalhães, Andrea Olivares; Sens, Yvoty Alves Dos Santos; Alves, Vera Lúcia Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Literature shows that patients undergoing hemodialysis present poor physical conditioning and low tolerance to exercise. They may also suffer from respiratory dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on pulmonary function and functional capacity of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Forty adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis were prospectively studied and randomized into two groups (control n = 20 and treatment n = 20). The treatment group underwent bilateral femoral quadriceps muscles electrical stimulation for 30 minutes during hemodialysis, three times per week, for two months. The patients were evaluated by pulmonary function test, maximum respiratory pressures, maximum one-repetition test, and six-minute walk test (6MWT), before and after the treatment protocol. The treatment group presented increased maximum inspiratory (MIP) (p = 0.02) and expiratory pressures (MEP) (p grupos (controle n = 20 e tratamento n = 20). O grupo tratamento realizou protocolo com estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em quadríceps femoral por 30 minutos durante a hemodiálise, três vezes por semana, durante dois meses. Todos pacientes realizaram espirometria, pressões respiratórias máximas, teste de uma repetição máxima e teste da caminhada dos seis minutos (TC6), antes e após o período de acompanhamento. O grupo tratamento apresentou aumento da pressão inspiratória máxima com p = 0,02 na comparação entre grupos e p grupo de tratamento com p grupo controle. A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular teve impacto positivo sobre a função pulmonar e a capacidade funcional levando ao melhor desempenho físico em pacientes em hemodiálise.

  6. Recovery of facial expressions using functional electrical stimulation after full-face transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Çağdaş; Uysal, Hilmi; Özkan, Ömer; Özkan, Özlenen; Polat, Övünç; Bedeloğlu, Merve; Akgül, Arzu; Döğer, Ela Naz; Sever, Refik; Çolak, Ömer Halil

    2018-03-06

    We assessed the recovery of 2 face transplantation patients with measures of complexity during neuromuscular rehabilitation. Cognitive rehabilitation methods and functional electrical stimulation were used to improve facial emotional expressions of full-face transplantation patients for 5 months. Rehabilitation and analyses were conducted at approximately 3 years after full facial transplantation in the patient group. We report complexity analysis of surface electromyography signals of these two patients in comparison to the results of 10 healthy individuals. Facial surface electromyography data were collected during 6 basic emotional expressions and 4 primary facial movements from 2 full-face transplantation patients and 10 healthy individuals to determine a strategy of functional electrical stimulation and understand the mechanisms of rehabilitation. A new personalized rehabilitation technique was developed using the wavelet packet method. Rehabilitation sessions were applied twice a month for 5 months. Subsequently, motor and functional progress was assessed by comparing the fuzzy entropy of surface electromyography data against the results obtained from patients before rehabilitation and the mean results obtained from 10 healthy subjects. At the end of personalized rehabilitation, the patient group showed improvements in their facial symmetry and their ability to perform basic facial expressions and primary facial movements. Similarity in the pattern of fuzzy entropy for facial expressions between the patient group and healthy individuals increased. Synkinesis was detected during primary facial movements in the patient group, and one patient showed synkinesis during the happiness expression. Synkinesis in the lower face region of one of the patients was eliminated for the lid tightening movement. The recovery of emotional expressions after personalized rehabilitation was satisfactory to the patients. The assessment with complexity analysis of sEMG data can be

  7. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; O'Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-07-18

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  8. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Sean; O’Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  9. Functioning of the wholesale electricity, CO_2 and natural gas markets. Report 2015-2016 Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    No major tightness was observed in 2015 in the French wholesale electricity and gas markets, against a drop in raw material prices, with another year warmer than usual and a particularly mild winter 2015-2016. The drop in oil prices, which was fast in 2014, continued in 2015, down an average 36 % between the two years. Coal prices dropped. However, raw material prices rebounded in the first months of 2016. Therefore, between the first and second quarter of 2016, oil prices increased 26 % reaching euro-31/barrel. Similarly, the price of coal increased from euro-32.4/t in January to euro-50.1/t at the end of June (+55 %). Developments in supply, and especially in demand, related to growth prospects are responsible in part for these changes. These trends are reflected in the wholesale energy price developments. The price of CO_2 allowances was disconnected from the raw material trends, first with an increase in 2015 exceeding euro-8/ton, followed by a sharp decline early 2016. This fall is due in particular to sales carried out by electricity producers in Europe against a backdrop of excess allowances. In this context, the French government proposed a national minimum price for the ton of CO_2 for thermal power stations. On 11 July 2016, the government announced that this mechanism would be applied only to coal plants. CRE recommends that the effects of such a mechanism should be studied specifically given the potential effects on the functioning of markets. The following in particular should be analysed: - the effects on wholesale electricity prices in France and on border exchanges; - the resulting carbon footprint since the expected rise in French wholesale electricity prices could lead to high-carbon electricity imports from bordering countries according to the periods of the year; - the micro-economic effects for the plants concerned and the macro-economic effects in terms of supply security; - and lastly, how it will link with the European framework, in

  10. The impact of audio-visual biofeedback on 4D PET images: Results of a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaewon; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Cho, Byungchul; Seo, Youngho; Keall, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Irregular breathing causes motion blurring artifacts in 4D PET images. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been demonstrated to improve breathing regularity. To investigate the hypothesis that, compared with free breathing, motion blurring artifacts are reduced with AV biofeedback, the authors performed the first experimental phantom-based quantification of the impact of AV biofeedback on 4D PET image quality. Methods: The authors acquired 4D PET dynamic phantom images with AV biofeedback and free breathing by moving a phantom programmed with AV biofeedback trained and free breathing respiratory traces of ten healthy subjects. The authors also acquired stationary phantom images for reference. The phantom was cylindrical with six hollow sphere targets (10, 13, 17, 22, 28, and 37 mm in diameter). The authors quantified motion blurring using the target diameter, Dice coefficient and recovery coefficient (RC) metrics to estimate the effect of motion. Results: The average increase in target diameter for AV biofeedback was 0.6±1.6mm(4.7±13%), which was significantly (pbiofeedback was 0.90±0.07, which was significantly (pbiofeedback were consistently higher than those for free breathing and comparable to those for stationary targets. However, for RCs the impact of target sizes was more dominant than that of motion. In addition, the authors observed large variations in the results with respect to target sizes, subject traces and respiratory bins due to partial volume effects and respiratory motion irregularity. Conclusions: The results indicate that AV biofeedback can significantly reduce motion blurring artifacts and may facilitate improved identification and localization of lung tumors in 4D PET images. The results justify proceeding with clinical studies to quantify the impact of AV biofeedback on 4D PET image quality and tumor detectability. PMID:22320815

  11. Electric organ discharge diversity in the genus Gymnotus: anatomo-functional groups and electrogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cattáneo, A; Aguilera, P; Cilleruelo, E; Crampton, W G R; Caputi, A A

    2013-04-15

    Previous studies describe six factors accounting for interspecific diversity of electric organ discharge (EOD) waveforms in Gymnotus. At the cellular level, three factors determine the locally generated waveforms: (1) electrocyte geometry and channel repertoire; (2) the localization of synaptic contacts on electrocyte surfaces; and (3) electric activity of electromotor axons preceding the discharge of electrocytes. At the organismic level, three factors determine the integration of the EOD as a behavioral unit: (4) the distribution of different types of electrocytes and specialized passive tissue forming the electric organ (EO); (5) the neural mechanisms of electrocyte discharge coordination; and (6) post-effector mechanisms. Here, we reconfirm the importance of the first five of these factors based on comparative studies of a wider diversity of Gymnotus than previously investigated. Additionally, we report a hitherto unseen aspect of EOD diversity in Gymnotus. The central region of the EO (which has the largest weight on the conspecific-received field) usually exhibits a negative-positive-negative pattern where the delay between the early negative and positive peaks (determined by neural coordination mechanisms) matches the delay between the positive and late negative peaks (determined by electrocyte responsiveness). Because delays between peaks typically determine the peak power frequency, this matching implies a co-evolution of neural and myogenic coordination mechanisms in determining the spectral specificity of the intraspecific communication channel. Finally, we define four functional species groups based on EO/EOD structure. The first three exhibit a heterogeneous EO in which doubly innervated electrocytes are responsible for a main triphasic complex. Group I species exhibit a characteristic cephalic extension of the EO. Group II species exhibit an early positive component of putative neural origin, and strong EO auto-excitability. Group III species exhibit

  12. Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation Lower Extremity Training in Myotonic Dystrophy Type I: A Pilot Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudia, Paola; Weis, Luca; Baba, Alfonc; Kiper, Pawel; Marcante, Andrea; Rossi, Simonetta; Angelini, Corrado; Piccione, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a new rehabilitative approach that combines electrical stimulation with a functional task. This pilot study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of FES lower extremity training in myotonic dystrophy type 1. This is a controlled pilot study that enrolled 20 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 over 2 years. Eight patients (age, 39-67 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four participants performed FES cycling training for 15 days (one daily session of 30 minutes for 5 days a week). A control group, matched for clinical and genetic variables, who had contraindications to electrical stimulation, performed 6 weeks of conventional resistance and aerobic training. The modified Medical Research Council Scale and functional assessments were performed before and after treatment. Cohen d effect size was used for statistical analysis. Functional electrical stimulation induced lower extremity training was well tolerated and resulted in a greater improvement of tibialis anterior muscle strength (d = 1,583), overall muscle strength (d = 1,723), and endurance (d = 0,626) than conventional training. Functional electrical stimulation might be considered a safe and valid tool to improve muscle function, also in muscles severely compromised in which no other restorative options are available. Confirmation of FES efficacy through further clinical trials is strongly advised.

  13. Biofeedback therapy combined with diet to treating ODS (Anismus: 2 years outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhryalsadat Anaraki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Object: The advantages of biofeedback therapy along with diet in patients with constipation are among the issues discussed nowadays. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 years outcome of biofeedback therapy along with diet in patients with obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS (Anismus. Methodology: The focus of this prospective study is a group of 129 patients with ODS constipation, who were referred to two tertiary-care referral academic centers from 2013 to 2016. Patients received biofeedback therapy combined with appropriate diet in cases group and received diet in controls group. Good response was defined as a subject with at least 50 percent improvement from before to after biofeedback therapy on a Cleveland Clinic Florida Constipation Scoring System (CCF. Factors associated with better outcome were analyzed using SPSS 20 software. Results: Out of the 129 patients, 112 patients (86.8% were female. The mean age of patients was 42.44 ± 15.05 years. The mean CCF score of the patients before and after biofeedback therapy was 12.41 ± 4.39 and 6.00 ± 3.28 respectively in case group (p-value < 0.001. In addition, the mean CCF score of the patients before and after diet therapy was 12.82 ± 4.85 and 9.43 ± 3.79 respectively in control group (p-value < 0.001. While CCF score in both case and control groups reduced significantly after therapy, the rate of this reduction was higher in case group (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that biofeedback therapy combined with diet will improve patients outcome in ODS constipation. Prospective clinical trials with larger sample sizes are recommend allowing for causal correlations. Resumo: Objetivo: As vantagens da terapia por biofeedback, juntamente com a dieta, em pacientes com constipação se situam entre os tópicos atualmente em discussão. O objetvo desse estudo foi avaliar os resultados, após 2 anos, da terapia por biofeedback associada à dieta em pacientes com s

  14. Long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation alters small-world brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Yin; Glielmi, Christopher B; Li, Longchuan; Hu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Jisheng; Zhang, Jue; Cui, Cailian; Fang, Jing

    2013-09-01

    Acupuncture, which is recognized as an alternative and complementary treatment in Western medicine, has long shown efficiencies in chronic pain relief, drug addiction treatment, stroke rehabilitation and other clinical practices. The neural mechanism underlying acupuncture, however, is still unclear. Many studies have focused on the sustained effects of acupuncture on healthy subjects, yet there are very few on the topological organization of functional networks in the whole brain in response to long-duration acupuncture (longer than 20 min). This paper presents a novel study on the effects of long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the small-world properties of brain functional networks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to construct brain functional networks of 18 healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) during the resting state. All subjects received both TEAS and minimal TEAS (MTEAS) and were scanned before and after each stimulation. An altered functional network was found with lower local efficiency and no significant change in global efficiency for healthy subjects after TEAS, while no significant difference was observed after MTEAS. The experiments also showed that the nodal efficiencies in several paralimbic/limbic regions were altered by TEAS, and those in middle frontal gyrus and other regions by MTEAS. To remove the psychological effects and the baseline, we compared the difference between diffTEAS (difference between after and before TEAS) and diffMTEAS (difference between after and before MTEAS). The results showed that the local efficiency was decreased and that the nodal efficiencies in frontal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus and hippocampus gyrus were changed. Based on those observations, we conclude that long-duration TEAS may modulate the short-range connections of brain functional networks and also the limbic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of motor imagery combined with functional electrical stimulation on upper limb motor function of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of motor imagery (MI combined with the third generation functional electrical stimulation (FES on upper limb motor function in acute ischemic stroke patients with hemiplegia.  Methods Forty acute ischemic stroke patients, within 48 h of onset, were randomly divided into FES group (N = 20 and combination group (FES combined with motor imagery, N = 20. All patients received basic routine rehabilitation training, for example, good limb positioning, accepting braces, balance training and training in the activities of daily living (ADL. FES group received the third generation FES therapy and the combination group also received motor imagery for 2 weeks. All of the patients were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and active range of motion (AROM of wrist dorsiflexion before and after 2 weeks of treatment.  Results After 2 weeks of treatment, the 2 groups had significantly higher FMA score, ARAT score and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion than that in pre-treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Besides, the FMA score (t = - 2.528, P = 0.016, ARAT score (t = - 2.562, P = 0.014 and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion (t = - 2.469, P = 0.018 in the combination group were significantly higher than that in the FES group. There were interactions of treatment methods with observation time points (P < 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Motor imagery combined with the third generation FES can effectively promote the recovery of upper limb motor function and motion range of wrist dorsiflexion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.008

  16. Cost functions and the electric utility industry. A contribution to the debate on deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Real, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the main articles that estimate cost functions in the electricity utility industry with a view to studying of the initial arguments for proposing competition and vertical disintegration. The works reviewed here, in general terms, confirm the initial arguments in favour of the deregulation process, mainly, the exhaustion of scale economies for moderate size firms in generation and the condition of natural monopoly for transmission and distribution. However, the savings obtained from undertaking different activities together should be kept in mind when restructuring the sector. On the other hand, the improvements in productivity deriving from the reforms have not translated into reductions in the price of electricity in many countries. These last two results suggest the need for appropriate market regulation for the deregulation process to translate into an improvement in how the sector works and into benefits for consumers. There is still insufficient empirical literature on these issues due to the fact that the process is still ongoing in many countries and more time will have to transpire before sufficient data is available

  17. Green Functions for the Radial Electric Component of the Monopole Wake Field in a Round Resistive Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Frank

    1998-01-01

    We compare different approximations to the point-charge Green function for the radial electric monopole field excited by an ultrarelativistic particle propagating through a resistive pipe, and study the applicability of these approximations for calculating the field of a bunch with finite length. It has been speculated that the exact form of the electric field could be important for simulations of the electron-cloud instability. In this paper, we show, however, that the usual approximation of the Green function by a delta function is adequate, except for extremely short bunch lengths

  18. Effect of biofeedback-assisted autogenic training on headache activity and mood states in Korean female migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Park, Joo-Eon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2009-10-01

    Biofeedback with or without combined autogenic training is known to be effective for the treatment of migraine. This study aimed to examine the effect of biofeedback treatment on headache activity, anxiety, and depression in Korean female patients with migraine headache. Patients were randomized into the treatment group (n=17) and monitoring group (n=15). Mood states including anxiety and depression, and psychophysiological variables such as mean skin temperature of the patients were compared with those of the normal controls (n=21). We found greater treatment response rate (defined as > or =50% reduction in headache index) in patients with biofeedback-assisted autogenic training than in monitoring group. The scores on the anxiety and depression scales in the patients receiving biofeedback-assisted autogenic training decreased after the biofeedback treatment. Moreover, the decrease in their anxiety levels was significantly related to the treatment outcome. This result suggests that the biofeedback-assisted autogenic training is effective for the treatment of migraine and its therapeutic effect is closely related to the improvement of the anxiety level.

  19. Efficacy of biofeedback on quality of life in stages I and II pelvic organ prolapse: A Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Tannaz; Taghvadoost, Neda; Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Forogh, Bijan; Bazazbehbahani, Roxana; Raissi, Gholam Reza

    2017-08-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a prevalent disorder which seriously affects the sufferer's quality of life. The main goal of this study was to evaluate biofeedback impact on quality of life in women with mild to moderate POP. 40 females in stages I and II POP were allocated into 2 groups. One group received pelvic floor muscle exercise and lifestyle advice in addition to biofeedback twice a week for 4 weeks, while the other received a lifestyle advice sheet and pelvic floor muscle exercise without biofeedback. A valid Persian version of P-QOL questionnaire was applied to assess the patients̕ quality of life at baseline, 4 weeks and 12 weeks follow up. Pressure biofeedback and Physical examination were also performed in order to determine pelvic floor muscle strength and staging of the prolapse, respectively. Collected data were analyzed by mixed ANOVA test using SPSS 22. Biofeedback improved the quality of life in seven of nine P-QOL domains. However, it had no significant impact either on pelvic floor muscle strength or on the stage of the prolapse. Biofeedback could be considered as a non-invasive treatment leading to quality of life promotion in women with stages I and II POP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing the smoothness of joint motion induced by functional electrical stimulation using co-activation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruppel Mirjana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The motor precision of today’s neuroprosthetic devices that use artificial generation of limb motion using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is generally low. We investigate the adoption of natural co-activation strategies as present in antagonistic muscle pairs aiming to improve motor precision produced by FES. In a test in which artificial knee-joint movements were generated, we could improve the smoothness of FES-induced motion by 513% when applying co-activation during the phases in which torque production is switched between muscles – compared to no co-activation. We further demonstrated how the co-activation level influences the joint stiffness in a pendulum test.

  1. Volatility transmission and volatility impulse response functions in European electricity forward markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sevi, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    Using daily data from March 2001 to June 2005, we estimate a VAR-BEKK model and find evidence of return and volatility spillovers between the German, the Dutch and the British forward electricity markets. We apply Hafner and Herwartz [2006, Journal of International Money and Finance 25, 719-740] Volatility Impulse Response Function(VIRF) to quantify the impact of shock on expected conditional volatility. We observe that a shock has a high positive impact only if its size is large compared to the current level of volatility. The impact of shocks are usually not persistent, which may be an indication of market efficiency. Finally, we estimate the density of the VIRF at different forecast horizon. These fitted distributions are asymmetric and show that extreme events are possible even if their probability is low. These results have interesting implications for market participants whose risk management policy is based on option prices which themselves depend on the volatility level. (authors)

  2. Functional asymmetry between the left and right human fusiform gyrus explored through electrical brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vinitha; Parvizi, Josef

    2016-03-01

    The ventral temporal cortex (VTC) contains several areas with selective responses to words, numbers, faces, and objects as demonstrated by numerous human and primate imaging and electrophysiological studies. Our recent work using electrocorticography (ECoG) confirmed the presence of face-selective neuronal populations in the human fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left or right hemisphere. Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) disrupted the conscious perception of faces only when it was delivered in the right, but not left, FG. In contrast to our previous findings, here we report both negative and positive EBS effects in right and left FG, respectively. The presence of right hemisphere language dominance in the first, and strong left-handedness and poor language processing performance in the second case, provide indirect clues about the functional architecture of the human VTC in relation to hemispheric asymmetries in language processing and handedness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and performance assessment of electrically heating gloves with smart temperature control function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nini; Lu, Yehu; Xu, Fanfei; Dai, Hongqin

    2018-03-27

    A pair of lightweight electrically heating gloves (EHG) with smart temperature control function was developed. To evaluate thermoregulation properties of EHG, human trials were conducted in a climate chamber (2.5 °C, 60% RH). The changes in skin temperature of all fingers and opisthenar and the subjective thermal sensation were recorded in 60 min. The effects of two air velocities (i.e., 0.17 m/s and 0.50 m/s) on the cold protective performance of EHG in scenarios of heating and control were also investigated. For heating scenarios, skin temperature and thermal sensation at all fingers and opisthenar were found significantly higher than those in control conditions. Moreover, the air velocity at 0.50 m/s greatly reduced cold protective performance of the gloves. The research findings can be applied to improve thermal comfort and extend working time for persons in cold environments.

  4. Optogenetic release of norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic neurons alters mechanical and electrical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowski, Anastasia M; Wang, Xin; Tapa, Srinivas; Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Mendelowitz, David; Kay, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic neurons enhances heart rate (HR) and developed force through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, and this sympathoexcitation is a key risk for the generation of cardiac arrhythmias. Studies of β-adrenergic modulation of cardiac function typically involve the administration of exogenous β-adrenergic receptor agonists to directly elicit global β-adrenergic receptor activation by bypassing the involvement of sympathetic nerve terminals. In this work, we use a novel method to activate sympathetic fibres within the myocardium of Langendorff-perfused hearts while measuring changes in electrical and mechanical function. The light-activated optogenetic protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed in murine catecholaminergic sympathetic neurons. Sympathetic fibres were then photoactivated to examine changes in contractile force, HR, and cardiac electrical activity. Incidence of arrhythmia was measured with and without exposure to photoactivation of sympathetic fibres, and hearts were optically mapped to detect changes in action potential durations and conduction velocities. Results demonstrate facilitation of both developed force and HR after photostimulated release of NE, with increases in contractile force and HR of 34.5 ± 5.5 and 25.0 ± 9.3%, respectively. Photostimulation of sympathetic fibres also made hearts more susceptible to arrhythmia, with greater incidence and severity. In addition, optically mapped action potentials displayed a small but significant shortening of the plateau phase (-5.5 ± 1.0 ms) after photostimulation. This study characterizes a powerful and clinically relevant new model for studies of cardiac arrhythmias generated by increasing the activity of sympathetic nerve terminals and the resulting activation of myocyte β-adrenergic receptors. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Characterization of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature in the Mo-Si-B system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, Sarah E.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature from 25 to 1,500 C were conducted on polycrystalline samples in the Mo-Si-B system. Single phase, or nearly single phase, samples were prepared for the following phases: Mo 3 Si, Mo 5 SiB 2 , Mo 5 Si 3 B x , MoB, MoSi 2 , and Mo 5 Si 3 . Thesis materials all exhibit resistivity values within a narrow range(4--22 x 10 -7 Omega-m), and the low magnitude suggests these materials are semi-metals or low density of states metals. With the exception of MoSi 2 , all single phase materials in this study were also found to have low temperature coefficient of resistivity(TCR) values. These values ranged from 2.10 x 10 -10 to 4.74 x 10 -10 Omega-m/degree C, and MoSi 2 had a TCR of 13.77 x 10 -10 Omega-m/degree C. The results from the single phase sample measurements were employed in a natural log rule-of-mixtures model to relate the individual phase resistivity values to those of multiphase composites. Three Mo-Si-B phase regions were analyzed: the binary Mo 5 Si 3 -MoSi 2 system, the ternary phase field Mo 5 Si 3 B x MoB-MoSi 2 , and the Mo 3 Si-Mo 5 SiB 2 -Mo 5 Si 3 B x ternary region. The experimental data for samples in each of these regions agreed with the natural log model and illustrated that this model can predict the electrical resistivity as a function of temperature of multi-phase, sintered samples within an error of one standard deviation

  6. Estimating the cost of improving quality in electricity distribution: A parametric distance function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelli, Tim J.; Gautier, Axel; Perelman, Sergio; Saplacan-Pop, Roxana

    2013-01-01

    The quality of electricity distribution is being more and more scrutinized by regulatory authorities, with explicit reward and penalty schemes based on quality targets having been introduced in many countries. It is then of prime importance to know the cost of improving the quality for a distribution system operator. In this paper, we focus on one dimension of quality, the continuity of supply, and we estimated the cost of preventing power outages. For that, we make use of the parametric distance function approach, assuming that outages enter in the firm production set as an input, an imperfect substitute for maintenance activities and capital investment. This allows us to identify the sources of technical inefficiency and the underlying trade-off faced by operators between quality and other inputs and costs. For this purpose, we use panel data on 92 electricity distribution units operated by ERDF (Electricité de France - Réseau Distribution) in the 2003–2005 financial years. Assuming a multi-output multi-input translog technology, we estimate that the cost of preventing one interruption is equal to 10.7€ for an average DSO. Furthermore, as one would expect, marginal quality improvements tend to be more expensive as quality itself improves. - Highlights: ► We estimate the implicit cost of outages for the main distribution company in France. ► For this purpose, we make use of a parametric distance function approach. ► Marginal quality improvements tend to be more expensive as quality itself improves. ► The cost of preventing one interruption varies from 1.8 € to 69.2 € (2005 prices). ► We estimate that, in average, it lays 33% above the regulated price of quality.

  7. Models of supply function equilibrium with applications to the electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromi, J. Daniel

    Electricity market design requires tools that result in a better understanding of incentives of generators and consumers. Chapter 1 and 2 provide tools and applications of these tools to analyze incentive problems in electricity markets. In chapter 1, models of supply function equilibrium (SFE) with asymmetric bidders are studied. I prove the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium in an asymmetric SFE model. In addition, I propose a simple algorithm to calculate numerically the unique equilibrium. As an application, a model of investment decisions is considered that uses the asymmetric SFE as an input. In this model, firms can invest in different technologies, each characterized by distinct variable and fixed costs. In chapter 2, option contracts are introduced to a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. The uniqueness of the equilibrium in the spot market is established. Comparative statics results on the effect of option contracts on the equilibrium price are presented. A multi-stage game where option contracts are traded before the spot market stage is considered. When contracts are optimally procured by a central authority, the selected profile of option contracts is such that the spot market price equals marginal cost for any load level resulting in a significant reduction in cost. If load serving entities (LSEs) are price takers, in equilibrium, there is no trade of option contracts. Even when LSEs have market power, the central authority's solution cannot be implemented in equilibrium. In chapter 3, we consider a game in which a buyer must repeatedly procure an input from a set of firms. In our model, the buyer is able to sign long term contracts that establish the likelihood with which the next period contract is awarded to an entrant or the incumbent. We find that the buyer finds it optimal to favor the incumbent, this generates more intense competition between suppliers. In a two period model we are able to completely characterize the optimal mechanism.

  8. Electrical stimulation accelerates axonal and functional peripheral nerve regeneration across long gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastert-Talini, Kirsten; Schmitte, Ruth; Korte, Nele; Klode, Dorothee; Ratzka, Andreas; Grothe, Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Short-term low-frequency electrical stimulation (ESTIM) of proximal peripheral nerve stumps prior to end-to-end coaptation or tubular bridging of small distances has been reported to increase preferential motor reinnervation and functional motor recovery in animal models and human patients undergoing carpal tunnel release surgery. We investigated the effects of ESTIM on regeneration across rat sciatic nerve gaps, which exceed distances that allow spontaneous regeneration. Three different reconstruction approaches were combined with ESTIM in the experimental groups. Nerve gaps (13 mm) were bridged using (I) nerve autotransplantation, (II) transplantation of differentially filled silicone tubes, or (III) transplantation of tubular grafts containing fibroblast growth factor-2 overexpressing Schwann cells (SCs) for gene therapy. The regeneration outcome was followed for up to 8 weeks, and functionally as well as histomorphometrically analyzed in comparison to non-stimulated control groups. Combining ESTIM with nerve autotransplantation significantly increased the nerve fiber density in the regenerated nerve, and the grade of functional recovery as detected by electrodiagnostic recordings from the gastrocnemius muscle. The combination of ESTIM with transplantation of naïve SCs increased the regeneration of gap-bridging nerve tissue. Although macroscopic tissue regeneration was not further improved after combining ESTIM with FGF-2(21/23-kD) gene therapy, the latter resulted in a high rate of regenerated nerves that functionally reconnected to the target muscle. Based on our results, brief ESTIM shows high potential to accelerate axonal as well as functional (motor and sensory) outcomes in the clinical setting of peripheral nerve gap reconstruction in human patients.

  9. Language and motor function thresholds during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Vera, Alonso; Aungaroon, Gewalin; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    To examine current thresholds and their determinants for language and motor mapping with extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS). ECS electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine functional thresholds. Predictors of functional thresholds were found with multivariable analyses. In 122 patients (age 11.9±5.4years), average minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were 7.4 (± 3.0), 7.8 (± 3.0), and 7.4 (± 3.1) mA respectively. Average minimum, face, upper and lower extremity motor thresholds were 5.4 (± 2.8), 6.1 (± 2.8), 4.9 (± 2.3), and 5.3 (± 3.3) mA respectively. Functional and after-discharge (AD)/seizure thresholds were significantly related. Minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were higher than AD thresholds at all ages. Minimum motor threshold was higher than minimum AD threshold up to 8.0years of age, face motor threshold was higher than frontal AD threshold up to 11.8years age, and lower subsequently. UE motor thresholds remained below frontal AD thresholds throughout the age range. Functional thresholds are frequently above AD thresholds in younger children. These findings raise concerns about safety and neurophysiologic validity of ECS mapping. Functional and AD/seizure thresholds relationships suggest individual differences in cortical excitability which cannot be explained by clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Análise da resposta ao biofeedback nos pacientes com incontinência fecal Analysis of biofeedback for fecal incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Figueiredo Accetta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Incontinência fecal é uma condição com importante impacto na qualidade de vida, e inúmeras formas de tratamento são descritas. Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta ao tratamento por biofeedback e o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes com incontinência fecal, descrevendo os critérios de seleção e a técnica utilizada. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes tratados em três anos (junho de 2005 a junho de 2008. Resultados: Trinta pacientes, sendo 26 mulheres e 4 homens, com idade média de 66 anos. O número de gestações e partos normais variou de nenhuma a seis e a histerectomia esteve presente em nove casos. Todos os pacientes apresentavam hipotonia na manometria. Dezoito pacientes ficaram satisfeitos com o tratamento proposto, dez ficaram parcialmente satisfeitos, nenhum ficou completamente insatisfeito, e dois abandonaram a terapia. Conclusão: O tratamento clínico associado ao biofeedback pode ser eficaz para a melhoria dos sintomas; entretanto, o entendimento e compreensão do problema por parte do paciente parece ser o efeito mais importante para esses resultados. A presença de diabetes mellitus, cirurgias orificiais e histerectomia podem ter relação com as queixas de incontinência.Fecal incontinence is a disabling condition with relevant social costs. Many therapies are described. Objective: To evaluate the response to biofeedback and epidemiological profile, describing the used technique. Methods: A retrospective study in 3 years (June 2005 - June 2008. Results: Thirty patients, 26 women and 4 men, with an average age of 66. The number of normal pregnancies and births varied from none to six and hysterectomy was present in nine. Hypotonia in manometry was present in all patients. Eighteen patients were satisfied, ten were partially met, none was completely dissatisfied, and two have abandoned the therapy. Conclusion: The clinical therapy to biofeedback can be effective for incontinence, but the comprehension by patient

  11. Modelling altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and electricity tariff charge using data analytics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, W. N. R. A.; Ramli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Energy Commission (EC) had introduced Incentive Based Regulation (IBR) to ensure sustainable Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI), promotes transparent and fair returns, encourage maximum efficiency and maintains policy driven end user tariff. To cater such revolutionary transformation, a sophisticated system to generate policy driven electricity tariff structure is in great need. Hence, this study presents a data analytics framework that generates altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. For the purpose of this study, the power consumption distribution is being proxy using proportion of household consumption and electricity consumed in KwH and the tariff charge function is being proxy using three-tiered increasing block tariff (IBT). The altered revenue function is useful to give an indication on whether any changes in the power consumption distribution and tariff charges will give positive or negative impact to the economy. The methodology used for this framework begins by defining the revenue to be a function of power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. Then, the proportion of household consumption and tariff charge function is derived within certain interval of electricity power. Any changes in those proportion are conjectured to contribute towards changes in revenue function. Thus, these changes can potentially give an indication on whether the changes in power consumption distribution and tariff charge function are giving positive or negative impact on TNB revenue. Based on the finding of this study, major changes on tariff charge function seems to affect altered revenue function more than power consumption distribution. However, the paper concludes that power consumption distribution and tariff charge function can influence TNB revenue to some great extent.

  12. [Electrical stimulation of the facial nerve with a prognostic function in parotid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Losarcos, N; González-Hidalgo, M; Franco-Carcedo, C; Poch-Broto, J

    Continuous electromyography during parotidectomies and direct stimulation of the facial nerve as an intraoperative identification technique significantly lower the rate of post-operative morbidity. To determine the usefulness of intra-operative neurophysiological parameters registered by means of electrical stimulation of the facial nerve as values capable of predicting the type of lesion and the functional prognosis. Our sample consisted of a correlative series of 20 cases of monitored parotidectomies. Post-operative facial functioning, type of lesion and its prognosis were compared with the variations in latency/amplitude of the muscle response between two stimulations of the facial nerve before and after resection, as well as in the absence or presence of muscle response to stimulation after resection. All the patients except one presented motor evoked potentials (MEP) to stimulation after resection. There was no facial damage following the operation in 55% of patients and 45% presented some kind of paresis. The 21% drop in the amplitude of the intra-operative MEP and the mean increase in latency of 13.5% correspond to axonal and demyelinating insult, respectively, with a mean recovery time of three and six months. The only case of absence of response to the post-resection stimulation presented permanent paresis. The presence of MEP following resection does not ensure that functioning of the nerve remains undamaged. Nevertheless, it can be considered a piece of data that suggests a lower degree of compromise, if it is present, and a better prognosis. The variations in latency and amplitude of the MEP tend to be intra-operative parameters that indicate the degree of compromise and functional prognosis.

  13. Characterizing the Learning Effect in Response to Biofeedback Aimed at Reducing Tibial Acceleration during Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. A. van Gelder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased tibial acceleration has been found to be an important risk factor for tibial stress fractures. Interventions aimed at reducing this variable which found a beneficial effect include the use of biofeedback in gait retraining. However, no studies have focused on the time participants take to modify tibial acceleration, therefore we aimed to find the start of a learning plateau in this study. Six participants ran on a treadmill while multisensory feedback was given. A single-subject analysis was used to characterise the learning effects. All participants changed peak tibial acceleration within the first step of running in the feedback condition. Two participants further reduced tibial acceleration to reach a plateau within 120 steps. In four of the six participants a strong effect of the feedback was still present after a week. Further research is needed to optimise the use of biofeedback in reducing the prevalence of tibial stress fractures.

  14. Comparison of sensory modes of biofeedback in relaxation training of frontalis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various sensory modes of EMG biofeedback to relaxation training of the frontalis muscle. 19 male and 29 female subjects were randomly selected from a pool of college volunteers. They were then randomly assigned 12 each to audiofeedback, visual feedback, audiovisual feedback, and no feedback groups. There were 11 20-min. sessions per subject. Subjects in the biofeedback groups were trained to reduce muscle tension voluntarily by utilizing Cyborg J33 EMG portable trainers. The subjects in the three feedback groups exhibited significantly lower muscle tension than did the subjects in the no-feedback control group. There were no significant differences in relaxation among the three feedback groups.

  15. A Robot-Based Tool for Physical and Cognitive Rehabilitation of Elderly People Using Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Samaniego, Leire; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2016-01-01

    This publication presents a complete description of a technological solution system for the physical and cognitive rehabilitation of elderly people through a biofeedback system, which is combined with a Lego robot. The technology used was the iOS’s (iPhone Operating System) Objective-C programming language and its XCode programming environment; and SQLite in order to create the database. The biofeedback system is implemented by the use of two biosensors which are, in fact, a Microsoft band 2 in order to register the user’s heart rate and a MYO sensor to detect the user’s arm movement. Finally, the system was tested with seven elderly people from La Santa y Real Casa de la Misericordia nursing home in Bilbao. The statistical assessment has shown that the users are satisfied with the usability of the system, with a mean score of 79.29 on the System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire. PMID:27886146

  16. BIOFEEDBACK Y DEPORTES: POTENCIALES L͍NEAS DE ACTUACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Godoy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presentan potenciales líneas de integración del biofeedback en el área de la actividad física y deportiva, revisando tres posibles áreas de actuación en el deporte utilizando procedimientos o técnicas de biofeedback: a mejora en el entrenamiento deportivo u optimización del proceso de preparación física del deportista, b mejora de la actuación deportiva u optimización del rendimiento del deportista y c prevención y rehabilitación de lesiones generadas por la práctica deportiva.

     

  17. A wearable biofeedback control system based body area network for freestyle swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui Li; Zibo Cai; WeeSit Lee; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-08-01

    Wearable posture measurement units are capable of enabling real-time performance evaluation and providing feedback to end users. This paper presents a wearable feedback prototype designed for freestyle swimming with focus on trunk rotation measurement. The system consists of a nine-degree-of-freedom inertial sensor, which is built in a central data collection and processing unit, and two vibration motors for delivering real-time feedback. Theses devices form a fundamental body area network (BAN). In the experiment setup, four recreational swimmers were asked to do two sets of 4 x 25m freestyle swimming without and with feedback provided respectively. Results showed that real-time biofeedback mechanism improves swimmers kinematic performance by an average of 4.5% reduction in session time. Swimmers can gradually adapt to feedback signals, and the biofeedback control system can be employed in swimmers daily training for fitness maintenance.

  18. Biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy for obstructive defecation: An effective alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ba-bai-ke-re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang A; Wen, Ni-Re; Hu, Yun-Long; Zhao, Liang; Tuxun, Tuerhongjiang; Husaiyin, Aierhati; Sailai, Yalikun; Abulimiti, Alimujiang; Wang, Yun-Hai; Yang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy (BFT) with the use of oral polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the treatment of obstructive defecation. METHODS: A total of 88 subjects were assigned to treatment with either BFT (n = 44) or oral PEG (n = 44). Constipation symptoms (including difficult evacuation, hard stool, digitation necessity, incomplete emptying sensation, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, and constipation satisfaction), Wexner Scores, and quality of life scores were assessed after 1, 3, and 6 mo. RESULTS: At the 6 mo follow-up, the symptoms of the BFT group patients showed significantly greater improvements compared with the PEG group regarding difficult evacuation, hard stools, digitation necessity, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, constipation satisfaction, Wexner Constipation Score, and quality of life score (P biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise training is superior to oral polyethylene glycol therapy for obstructive defecation. PMID:25083090

  19. Heart-pulse Biofeedback in Playful Exercise using a Wearable device and Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimokakimoto, Tomoya; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    interactive tiles. The system consists of a wearable device that measures heart-pulse via ear-mounted sensor, and modular interactive tiles which are used for physical rehabilitation exercise through playing a game. The wearable devise enables detection of heart pulse in real-time and therefore provides heart...... beat rate during playful activities, even if the heart pulse wave have motion artifacts. The tiles are designed to build flexible structures and to provide immediate feedback based on the users’ physical interaction with the tiles. We combine the two systems to provide users with heart pulse...... biofeedback in playful exercise. We show that using the developed system it is possible for the users to regulate the exercise intensity on their own with biofeedback, and also possible to analyze exercise activity using number of steps on the tiles and heart beat rate....

  20. The electricity exchange. On the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading as seen from the viewpoint of market sociology; Die Stromboerse. Ueber Form und latente Funktionen des boerslichen Stromhandels aus marktsoziologischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovelli, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Electricity exchange trading in Germany has existed since the year 2000. Since this time, the Leipzig electricity exchange, a reference market for off-exchange electricity trading, has operated in an environment marked by both criticism and acceptance. Taking this field of controversy as a point of departure the present empirical study in market sociology undertakes to investigate the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading. The ensuing analysis provides answers to questions as to how prices are formed on the electricity exchange and what officially incommunicable functions are served by price formation on exchanges.

  1. Feasibility of using Lokomat combined with functional electrical stimulation for the rehabilitation of foot drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian B. Laursen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical feasibility of combining the electromechanical gait trainer Lokomat with functional electrical therapy (LokoFET, stimulating the common peroneal nerve during the swing phase of the gait cycle to correct foot drop as an integrated part of gait therapy. Five patients with different acquired brain injuries trained with LokoFET 2-3 times a week for 3-4 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention evaluations were performed to quantify neurophysiological changes related to the patients’ foot drop impairment during the swing phase of the gait cycle. A semi-structured interview was used to investigate the therapists’ acceptance of LokoFET in clinical practice. The patients showed a significant increase in the level of activation of the tibialis anterior muscle and the maximal dorsiflexion during the swing phase, when comparing the pre- and post-intervention evaluations. This showed an improvement of function related to the foot drop impairment. The interview revealed that the therapists perceived the combined system as a useful tool in the rehabilitation of gait. However, lack of muscle selectivity relating to the FES element of LokoFET was assessed to be critical for acceptance in clinical practice.

  2. Feasibility of Using Lokomat Combined with Functional Electrical Stimulation for the Rehabilitation of Foot Drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Christian B; Nielsen, Jørgen F; Andersen, Ole K; Spaich, Erika G

    2016-06-13

    This study investigated the clinical feasibility of combining the electromechanical gait trainer Lokomat with functional electrical therapy (LokoFET), stimulating the common peroneal nerve during the swing phase of the gait cycle to correct foot drop as an integrated part of gait therapy. Five patients with different acquired brain injuries trained with LokoFET 2-3 times a week for 3-4 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention evaluations were performed to quantify neurophysiological changes related to the patients' foot drop impairment during the swing phase of the gait cycle. A semi-structured interview was used to investigate the therapists' acceptance of LokoFET in clinical practice. The patients showed a significant increase in the level of activation of the tibialis anterior muscle and the maximal dorsiflexion during the swing phase, when comparing the pre- and post-intervention evaluations. This showed an improvement of function related to the foot drop impairment. The interview revealed that the therapists perceived the combined system as a useful tool in the rehabilitation of gait. However, lack of muscle selectivity relating to the FES element of LokoFET was assessed to be critical for acceptance in clinical practice.

  3. Aging assessment of Westinghouse PWR and General Electric BWR containment isolation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.S.; Travis, R.; Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.

    1996-03-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Containment Isolation (CI) functions of Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors and General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. Failure data from two national databases, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LERs), as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the CI functions. This study provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  4. The threshold of cortical electrical stimulation for mapping sensory and motor functional areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guojun, Zhang; Duanyu, Ni; Fu, Paul; Lixin, Cai; Tao, Yu; Wei, Du; Liang, Qiao; Zhiwei, Ren

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the threshold of cortical electrical stimulation (CES) for functional brain mapping during surgery for the treatment of rolandic epilepsy. A total of 21 patients with rolandic epilepsy who underwent surgical treatment at the Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery between October 2006 and March 2008 were included in this study. Their clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The thresholds of CES for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production along with other threshold-related factors were investigated. The thresholds (mean ± standard deviation) for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production were 3.48 ± 0.87, 3.86 ± 1.31, and 4.84 ± 1.38 mA, respectively. The threshold for after discharge production was significantly higher than those of both the motor and sensory response (both pstimulation frequency of 50 Hz and a pulse width of 0.2 ms, the threshold of sensory and motor responses were similar, and the threshold of after discharge production was higher than that of sensory and motor response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging assessment of Westinghouse PWR and General Electric BWR containment isolation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.S.; Travis, R.; Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.

    1996-03-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Containment Isolation (CI) functions of Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors and General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. Failure data from two national databases, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LERs), as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the CI functions. This study provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed

  6. A new algorithm to compute conjectured supply function equilibrium in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Cristian A.; Villar, Jose; Campos, Fco Alberto; Rodriguez, M. Angel

    2011-01-01

    Several types of market equilibria approaches, such as Cournot, Conjectural Variation (CVE), Supply Function (SFE) or Conjectured Supply Function (CSFE) have been used to model electricity markets for the medium and long term. Among them, CSFE has been proposed as a generalization of the classic Cournot. It computes the equilibrium considering the reaction of the competitors against changes in their strategy, combining several characteristics of both CVE and SFE. Unlike linear SFE approaches, strategies are linearized only at the equilibrium point, using their first-order Taylor approximation. But to solve CSFE, the slope or the intercept of the linear approximations must be given, which has been proved to be very restrictive. This paper proposes a new algorithm to compute CSFE. Unlike previous approaches, the main contribution is that the competitors' strategies for each generator are initially unknown (both slope and intercept) and endogenously computed by this new iterative algorithm. To show the applicability of the proposed approach, it has been applied to several case examples where its qualitative behavior has been analyzed in detail. (author)

  7. Biofeedback for treatment of awake and sleep bruxism in adults: systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ilovar, Sasa; Zolger, Danaja; Castrillon, Eduardo; Car, Josip; Huckvale, Kit

    2014-01-01

    Background Bruxism is a disorder of jaw-muscle activity characterised by repetitive clenching or grinding of the teeth which results in discomfort and damage to dentition. The two clinical manifestations of the condition (sleep and awake bruxism) are thought to have unrelated aetiologies but are palliated using similar techniques. The lack of a definitive treatment has prompted renewed interest in biofeedback, a behaviour change method that uses electronic detection to provide a stimulus when...

  8. ALTERATION OF MUSCLE FUNCTION AFTER ELECTRICAL STIMULATION BOUT OF KNEE EXTENSORS AND FLEXORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vanderthommen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to study the effects on muscle function of an electrical stimulation bout applied unilaterally on thigh muscles in healthy male volunteers. One group (ES group, n = 10 received consecutively 100 isometric contractions of quadriceps and 100 isometric contractions of hamstrings (on-off ratio 6-6 s induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulations (NMES. Changes in muscle torque, muscle soreness (0-10 VAS, muscle stiffness and serum creatine kinase (CK activity were assessed before the NMES exercise (pre-ex as well as 24h (d+1, 48h (d+2 and 120h (d+5 after the bout. A second group (control group, n = 10 were submitted to the same test battery than the ES group and with the same time-frame. The between-group comparison indicated a significant increase in VAS scores and in serum levels of CK only in the ES group. In the ES group, changes were more pronounced in hamstrings than in quadriceps and peaked at d+2 (quadriceps VAS scores = 2.20 ± 1.55 a.u. (0 at pre-ex; hamstrings VAS scores = 3.15 ± 2.14 a.u. (0 at pre-ex; hip flexion angle = 62 ± 5° (75 ± 6° at pre-ex; CK activity = 3021 ± 2693 IU·l-1 (136 ± 50 IU·l-1 at pre-ex. The results of the present study suggested the occurrence of muscle damage that could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appeared higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles

  9. Functional electrical stimulation: cardiorespiratory adaptations and applications for training in paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Denuziller, Jérémy; Babault, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise can be broadly beneficial to health and quality of life in humans with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, exercises must meet certain criteria, such as the intensity and muscle mass involved, to induce significant benefits. SCI patients can have difficulty achieving these exercise requirements since the paralysed muscles cannot contribute to overall oxygen consumption. One solution is functional electrical stimulation (FES) and, more importantly, hybrid training that combines volitional arm and electrically controlled contractions of the lower limb muscles. However, it might be rather complicated for therapists to use FES because of the wide variety of protocols that can be employed, such as stimulation parameters or movements induced. Moreover, although the short-term physiological and psychological responses during different types of FES exercises have been extensively reported, there are fewer data regarding the long-term effects of FES. Therefore, the purpose of this brief review is to provide a critical appraisal and synthesis of the literature on the use of FES for exercise in paraplegic individuals. After a short introduction underlying the importance of exercise for SCI patients, the main applications and effects of FES are reviewed and discussed. Major findings reveal an increased physiological demand during FES hybrid exercises as compared with arms only exercises. In addition, when repeated within a training period, FES exercises showed beneficial effects on muscle characteristics, force output, exercise capacity, bone mineral density and cardiovascular parameters. In conclusion, there appears to be promising evidence of beneficial effects of FES training, and particularly FES hybrid training, for paraplegic individuals.

  10. The effect of nasopharyngoscopic biofeedback in patients with cleft palate and velopharyngeal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Monika; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika; Pröschel, Ute; Verres, Rolf; Komposch, Gerda

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the immediate, long-term, and carry-over effects of nasopharyngoscopic biofeedback therapy in patients with cleft palate who exhibit velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Pre- versus posttreatment and follow-up comparisons. Cleft palate center of the Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany. Eleven patients with VPD who had received conventional speech therapy without showing significant improvement. A four-stage feedback procedure. The patients watched and evaluated their velopharyngeal (VP) valving during speech by an endoscopic image displayed on a video monitor. Two feedback sessions took place for every target sound. Mean occurrence of VP closure during speech sound production on different linguistic levels. Patients' self-perception was assessed by a questionnaire and speech diary. Significant improvement and stability of VP closure was noted. Mean occurrence of VP closure was 5% before therapy, 91% after two biofeedback sessions, and 86% in the follow-up after 6 months. Velopharyngeal dysfunction associated with compensatory articulation proved to be equally well trained as VPD on sounds with good articulatory placement. No significant difference was observed in the degree of improvement between phoneme-specific VPD and generalized VPD. The transfer to the level of words and sentences was successful and showed significant stability. The stability of VP closure for vowels was less than the stability for fricatives and stop sounds. Patients gained improved auditory and kinesthetic self-perception of their articulation. Nasopharyngoscopic biofeedback therapy proves to be a quick and effective method to change VPD. It shows stable results and carry-over effects.

  11. Effect of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on Sport Performance, a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Morgan, Sergio; Molina Mora, José Arturo

    2017-09-01

    Aim is to determine if the training with heart rate variability biofeedback allows to improve performance in athletes of different disciplines. Methods such as database search on Web of Science, SpringerLink, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, Pubmed/Medline, and PROQUEST Academic Research Library, as well as manual reference registration. The eligibility criteria were: (a) published scientific articles; (b) experimental studies, quasi-experimental, or case reports; (c) use of HRV BFB as main treatment; (d) sport performance as dependent variable; (e) studies published until October 2016; (f) studies published in English, Spanish, French or Portuguese. The guidelines of the PRISMA statement were followed. Out of the 451 records found, seven items were included. All studies had a small sample size (range from 1 to 30 participants). In 85.71% of the studies (n = 6) the athletes enhanced psychophysiological variables that allowed them to improve their sport performance thanks to training with heart rate variability biofeedback. Despite the limited amount of experimental studies in the field to date, the findings suggest that heart rate variability biofeedback is an effective, safe, and easy-to-learn and apply method for both athletes and coaches in order to improve sport performance.

  12. Reducing Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance Through a Biofeedback Relaxation Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritzeta, Aitor; Soroa, Goretti; Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Aliri, Jone

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a biofeedback relaxation training program on anxiety and academic performance. The program consisted of five biofeedback sessions coupled with three training activities focused on deep breathing, guided imagery, and muscle relaxation. The participants were second-year psychology undergraduates from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU, northern Spain). The experimental group comprised 152 students (M age  = 19.6, SD = 0.74; 74% women) and the control group 81 students (M age   = 19.4, SD = 0.92; 71% women). Results showed that after participating in the program, students in the experimental group had lower levels of anxiety and increased academic performance. Furthermore, they scored lower on anxiety and higher on academic performance in comparison with the control subjects. This suggests that the inclusion of biofeedback training programs in educational contexts could be a way of reducing anxiety and improving academic performance. It may also deepen our understanding of the dynamic interplay between psychophysiological, cognitive, and emotional processes.

  13. Biofeedback Therapy Effect on Facial Nerve Palsy and Prevention of Synkinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas ali Pour-Momeny

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Synkiesia is a sequel of facial nerve palsy. It usually begins 3-4 months after axonal regeneration and progressed up to two years afterward. Treatment of synkinesia is very difficult and sometimes impossible.The aim of our study is find a better procedure to treat facial nerve palsy and prevent synkinesia. Materials and Methods: Twenty nine patients with facial nerve palsy were selected by electrodiagnosis tests. They were divided in two groups. The experimental group was treated by biofeedback electromyography and the second group was treated by common physiotherapy. The evaluation of all patients was done by Photoshop assessment and facial grading scale before and after treatment. Result: After the treatment, a significant general improvement was observed in both groups (p<0.05, but in experimental group (biofeedback showed better result than the other one. The number of patients with synkinesia as well as the severity of their synkinesis in experimental group were lesser than the other one. Conclusion: Biofeedback therapy is more efficient than common physiotherapy.By using this approach, control and reducing synkinesia is more feasible. Assessment by Pohotoshop procedure showed better accuracy than facial grading scale.

  14. Response of spinal myoclonus to a combination therapy of autogenic training and biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempuraj Duraisamy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clinical evidence indicates that certain types of movement disorders are due to psychosomatic factors. Patients with myoclonic movements are usually treated by a variety of therapeutic agents. Autogenic training (AT, a recognized form of psychosomatic therapies, is suitable for certain types of neurological diseases. We describe a patient with myoclonus who failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. His symptoms were exaggerated by psychogenic factors, especially anger. Case presentation A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, Preventive Welfare Clinic, for severe paroxysmal axial myoclonus of the left shoulder and abdominal muscles. The initial diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus". The myoclonic movements did not occur during sleep but were aggravated by bathing, alcohol drinking, and anger. Psychological examination indicated hostile attribution. Although considered not to be a case of psychogenic myoclonus, a "psychogenic factor" was definitely involved in the induction of the organic myoclonus. The final diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus accompanied by features of psychosomatic disorders". The patient underwent psychosomatic therapy including AT and surface electromyography (EMG-biofeedback therapy and treatment with clonazepam and carbamazepine. Results AT and EMG-biofeedback resulted in shortening the duration and reducing the amplitude and frequency of the myoclonic discharges. Conclusion Psychosomatic therapy with AT and surface EMG-biofeedback produced excellent improvement of myoclonic movements and allowed the reduction of the dosage of conventional medications.

  15. Response of spinal myoclonus to a combination therapy of autogenic training and biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koreaki; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Conti, Pio

    2007-10-12

    Clinical evidence indicates that certain types of movement disorders are due to psychosomatic factors. Patients with myoclonic movements are usually treated by a variety of therapeutic agents. Autogenic training (AT), a recognized form of psychosomatic therapies, is suitable for certain types of neurological diseases. We describe a patient with myoclonus who failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. His symptoms were exaggerated by psychogenic factors, especially anger. A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, Preventive Welfare Clinic, for severe paroxysmal axial myoclonus of the left shoulder and abdominal muscles. The initial diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus". The myoclonic movements did not occur during sleep but were aggravated by bathing, alcohol drinking, and anger. Psychological examination indicated hostile attribution. Although considered not to be a case of psychogenic myoclonus, a "psychogenic factor" was definitely involved in the induction of the organic myoclonus. The final diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus accompanied by features of psychosomatic disorders". The patient underwent psychosomatic therapy including AT and surface electromyography (EMG)-biofeedback therapy and treatment with clonazepam and carbamazepine. AT and EMG-biofeedback resulted in shortening the duration and reducing the amplitude and frequency of the myoclonic discharges. Psychosomatic therapy with AT and surface EMG-biofeedback produced excellent improvement of myoclonic movements and allowed the reduction of the dosage of conventional medications.

  16. Reagent-Free Quantification of Aqueous Free Chlorine via Electrical Readout of Colorimetrically Functionalized Pencil Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasebi, Amirmasoud; Broomfield, Andrew D; Chowdhury, Tanzina; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi; Kruse, Peter

    2017-06-21

    Colorimetric methods are commonly used to quantify free chlorine in drinking water. However, these methods are not suitable for reagent-free, continuous, and autonomous applications. Here, we demonstrate how functionalization of a pencil-drawn film with phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) can be used for quantitative electric readout of free chlorine concentrations. The functionalized film can be implemented in a simple fluidic device for continuous sensing of aqueous free chlorine concentrations. The sensor is selective to free chlorine and can undergo a reagent-free reset for further measurements. Our sensor is superior to electrochemical methods in that it does not require a reference electrode. It is capable of quantification of free chlorine in the range of 0.1-12 ppm with higher precision than colorimetric (absorptivity) methods. The interactions of PCAT with the pencil-drawn film upon exposure to hypochlorite were characterized spectroscopically. A previously reported detection mechanism relied on the measurement of a baseline shift to quantify free chlorine concentrations. The new method demonstrated here measures initial spike size upon exposure to free chlorine. It relies on a fast charge built up on the sensor film due to intermittent PCAT salt formation. It has the advantage of being significantly faster than the measurement of baseline shift, but it cannot be used to detect gradual changes in free chlorine concentration without the use of frequent reset pulses. The stability of PCAT was examined in the presence of free chlorine as a function of pH. While most ions commonly present in drinking water do not interfere with the free chlorine detection, other oxidants may contribute to the signal. Our sensor is easy to fabricate and robust, operates reagent-free, and has very low power requirements and is thus suitable for remote deployment.

  17. Functioning of the wholesale electricity, CO2 and natural gas markets - 2013-2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2014-11-01

    from renewable energy sources continued to increase, exceeding fossil fuel energy generation during the first half of 2014 in France. Within this context, electricity prices continued to drop, leading to the 'cocooning' of a certain number of new combined cycle power plants. The LNG market remained highly competitive in a context of significant price differences between the different world markets. Asia and South America are the most profitable markets for LNG producers, to the detriment of the European market. This situation creates difficulties for the supply of regions that depend on LNG to function properly, in particular Spain and the south of France. Nevertheless, the first half of 2014 was marked by a closer alignment of prices between the different regions, due however more to conjunctural rather than structural factors. Lastly, the end of 2013 and the first half of 2014 saw the Ukrainian crisis and uncertainty regarding the supply of gas to Europe from Russia. Supply however remained relatively stable in the first half of 2014 and no country declared any potential risks concerning its short-term supply. However, the memory of the Russian crisis in January 2009 lingered and contributed to maintaining gas prices relatively high for winter 2014/2015 even while short-term prices dropped significantly. This CRE's seventh monitoring report contains information concerning the implementation of the REMIT regulation at European level, outlines the economic and geopolitical context of energy markets and gives a detailed presentation of the development of wholesale electricity and gas markets in France in 2013 and the first half of 2014

  18. Sensory nerve cross-anastomosis and electrical muscle stimulation synergistically enhance functional recovery of chronically denervated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willand, Michael P; Holmes, Michael; Bain, James R; de Bruin, Hubert; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    Long-term muscle denervation leads to severe and irreversible atrophy coupled with loss of force and motor function. These factors contribute to poor functional recovery following delayed reinnervation. The authors' previous work demonstrated that temporarily suturing a sensory nerve to the distal motor stump (called sensory protection) significantly reduces muscle atrophy and improves function following reinnervation. The authors have also shown that 1 month of electrical stimulation of denervated muscle significantly improves function and reduces atrophy. In this study, the authors tested whether a combination of sensory protection and electrical stimulation would enhance functional recovery more than either treatment alone. Rat gastrocnemius muscles were denervated by cutting the tibial nerve. The peroneal nerve was then sutured to the distal tibial stump following 3 months of treatment (i.e., electrical stimulation, sensory protection, or both). Three months after peroneal repair, functional and histologic measurements were taken. All treatment groups had significantly higher muscle weight (pstimulation or sensory protection alone. The combined treatment also produced motor unit counts significantly greater than sensory protection alone (p<0.05). The combination treatment synergistically reduces atrophy and improves reinnervation and functional measures following delayed nerve repair, suggesting that these approaches work through different mechanisms. The authors' research supports the clinical use of both modalities together following peripheral nerve injury.

  19. Biofeedback for treatment of awake and sleep bruxism in adults: systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovar, Sasa; Zolger, Danaja; Castrillon, Eduardo; Car, Josip; Huckvale, Kit

    2014-05-02

    Bruxism is a disorder of jaw-muscle activity characterised by repetitive clenching or grinding of the teeth which results in discomfort and damage to dentition. The two clinical manifestations of the condition (sleep and awake bruxism) are thought to have unrelated aetiologies but are palliated using similar techniques. The lack of a definitive treatment has prompted renewed interest in biofeedback, a behaviour change method that uses electronic detection to provide a stimulus whenever bruxism occurs. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of research into biofeedback for bruxism; to assess the efficacy and acceptability of biofeedback therapy in management of awake bruxism and, separately, sleep bruxism in adults; and to compare findings between the two variants. A systematic review of published literature examining biofeedback as an intervention directed at controlling primary bruxism in adults. We will search electronic databases and the grey literature using a predefined search strategy to identify randomised and non-randomised studies, technical reports and patents. Searches will not be restricted by language or date and will be expanded through contact with authors and experts, and by following up reference lists and citations. Two authors, working independently, will conduct screening of search results, study selection, data extraction and quality assessment and a third will resolve any disagreements. The primary outcomes of acceptability and effectiveness will be assessed using only randomised studies, segregated by bruxism subtype. A meta-analysis of these data will be conducted only if pre-defined conditions for quality and heterogeneity are met, otherwise the data will be summarized in narrative form. Data from non-randomised studies will be used to augment a narrative synthesis of the state of technical developments and any safety-related issues. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013006880. Biofeedback is not new

  20. Randomised controlled trial of biofeedback training in persistent encopresis with anismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, T; Catto-Smith, T; Coffey, C; Wells, J

    1998-08-01

    Paradoxical external anal sphincter contraction during attempted defecation (anismus) is thought to be an important contributor to chronic faecal retention and encopresis in children. Biofeedback training can be used to teach children to abolish this abnormal contraction. A randomised controlled trial in medical treatment resistant and/or treatment dependent children with anismus using surface electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training to determine whether such training produces sustained faecal continence. Up to four sessions of biofeedback training were conducted at weekly intervals for each patient. Anorectal manometry was performed before randomisation and six months later. Parents of patients completed the "child behaviour checklist" (CBCL) before randomisation and at follow up. Sixty eight children underwent anorectal manometry and EMG. Of these, 29 had anismus (ages 4-14 years) and were randomised to either EMG biofeedback training and conventional medical treatment (BFT) (n = 14) or to conventional medical treatment alone (n = 15). All but one child were able to learn relaxation of the external anal sphincter on attempted defecation. At six months' follow up, laxative free remission had been sustained in two of 14 patients in the BFT group and in two of 15 controls (95% confidence interval (CI) on difference, -24% to 26%). Remission or improvement occurred in four of 14 patients in the BFT group and six of 15 controls (95% CI on difference, -46% to 23%). Of subjects available for repeat anorectal manometry and EMG at six months, six of 13 in the BFT group still demonstrated anismus v 11 of 13 controls (95% CI on difference, -75% to -1%). Of the four patients in full remission at six months, only one (in the BFT group) did not exhibit anismus. Rectal hyposensitivity was not associated with remission or improvement in either of the groups. Mean CBCL total behaviour problem scores were not significantly different between the BFT and control groups, but there

  1. Randomised controlled trial of biofeedback training in persistent encopresis with anismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, T.; Catto-Smith, T.; Coffey, C.; Wells, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Paradoxical external anal sphincter contraction during attempted defecation (anismus) is thought to be an important contributor to chronic faecal retention and encopresis in children. Biofeedback training can be used to teach children to abolish this abnormal contraction.
METHODS—A randomised controlled trial in medical treatment resistant and/or treatment dependent children with anismus using surface electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training to determine whether such training produces sustained faecal continence. Up to four sessions of biofeedback training were conducted at weekly intervals for each patient. Anorectal manometry was performed before randomisation and six months later. Parents of patients completed the "child behaviour checklist" (CBCL) before randomisation and at follow up.
RESULTS—Sixty eight children underwent anorectal manometry and EMG. Of these, 29 had anismus (ages 4-14 years) and were randomised to either EMG biofeedback training and conventional medical treatment (BFT) (n = 14) or to conventional medical treatment alone (n = 15). All but one child were able to learn relaxation of the external anal sphincter on attempted defecation. At six months' follow up, laxative free remission had been sustained in two of 14 patients in the BFT group and in two of 15 controls (95% confidence interval (CI) on difference, −24% to 26%). Remission or improvement occurred in four of 14 patients in the BFT group and six of 15 controls (95% CI on difference, −46% to 23%). Of subjects available for repeat anorectal manometry and EMG at six months, six of 13 in the BFT group still demonstrated anismus v 11 of 13 controls (95% CI on difference, −75% to −1%). Of the four patients in full remission at six months, only one (in the BFT group) did not exhibit anismus. Rectal hyposensitivity was not associated with remission or improvement in either of the groups. Mean CBCL total behaviour problem scores were not significantly different

  2. High Voltage Hybrid Electric Propulsion - Multilayered Functional Insulation System (MFIS) NASA-GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, M.

    2017-01-01

    High power transmission cables pose a key challenge in future Hybrid Electric Propulsion Aircraft. The challenge arises in developing safe transmission lines that can withstand the unique environment found in aircraft while providing megawatts of power. High voltage AC, variable frequency cables do not currently exist and present particular electrical insulation challenges since electrical arcing and high heating are more prevalent at higher voltages and frequencies. Identifying and developing materials that maintain their dielectric properties at high voltage and frequencies is crucial.

  3. A New system for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of Water as a Function of Admittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haval Yacoob

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new system for measuring water conductivity as a function of electrophysical property (admittance. The system is cheap and its manufacturing is easy. In addition, it dose not require any sort of electrolysis and calibration. The system consists of four electrodes made of silver (Ag 92.5 g to Cu 7.5 g fixed in a plastic tube filled by water which allows the use of two and four electrode setups. The admittance (reciprocal of impedance is measured for different water sources (distilled, rainfall, mineral, river and tap water using different frequencies between 50 Hz and 100 kHz. These measurements were taken twice, once with four electrodes and another with two electrodes of two modes (inner and outer electrodes. The results have shown good correlation between the measured admittance and the conductivity of all the water sources and the best correlation was found at low frequencies between 50 Hz and 20 kHz. The highest efficiency can be achieved by performing the four electrodes system which allows circumventing the effect of the electrode impedance. This result makes the system efficient compared to traditional conductivity meters which usually require high frequencies for good operation. doi:10.5617/jeb.203 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 86-92, 2011

  4. A model for the electrical double layer combining integral equation techniques with quantum density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, N.B.; Woelki, S.; Henderson, D.; Schmickler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · We augment a double-layer model based on integral equations by calculating the interaction parameters with the electrode from quantum density functional theory · Explicit model calculations for Ag(1 1 1) in aqueous solutions give at least qualitatively good results for the particle profiles · Ours is the only method which allows the calculation of capacity-charge characteristics. · We obtain reasonable values for the Helmholtz (inner-layer) capacity. - Abstract: We have complemented the singlet reference interaction site model for the electric double layer by quantum chemical calculations for the interaction of ions and solvents with an electrode. Specific calculations have been performed for an aqueous solution of NaCl in contact with a Ag(1 1 1) electrode. The particle profiles near the electrode show the specific adsorption of Cl - ions, but not of Na + , and are at least in qualitative agreement with those obtained by molecular dynamics. Including the electronic response of the silver surface into the model results in reasonable capacity-charge characteristics.

  5. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Shmuel; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Lipson, Ronit; Wolf, Alon; Laufer, Yocheved

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years) with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis) demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (P hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone. PMID:23097635

  6. Cooperative Control for A Hybrid Rehabilitation System Combining Functional Electrical Stimulation and Robotic Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingguo Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES and robotic exoskeletons are two important technologies widely used for physical rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. We developed a hybrid rehabilitation system (FEXO Knee that combined FES and an exoskeleton for swinging movement control of human knee joints. This study proposed a novel cooperative control strategy, which could realize arbitrary distribution of torque generated by FES and exoskeleton, and guarantee harmonic movements. The cooperative control adopted feedfoward control for FES and feedback control for exoskeleton. A parameter regulator was designed to update key parameters in real time to coordinate FES controller and exoskeleton controller. Two muscle groups (quadriceps and hamstrings were stimulated to generate active torque for knee joint in synchronization with torque compensation from exoskeleton. The knee joint angle and the interactive torque between exoskeleton and shank were used as feedback signals for the control system. Central pattern generator (CPG was adopted that acted as a phase predictor to deal with phase confliction of motor patterns, and realized synchronization between the two different bodies (shank and exoskeleton. Experimental evaluation of the hybrid FES-exoskeleton system was conducted on five healthy subjects and four paraplegic patients. Experimental results and statistical analysis showed good control performance of the cooperative control on torque distribution, trajectory tracking, and phase synchronization.

  7. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (. In conclusion, dual-channel FES may enhance gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone.

  8. Model-based imaging of cardiac electrical function in human atria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modre, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard; Fischer, Gerald; Hanser, Friedrich; Messnarz, Bernd; Schocke, Michael F. H.; Kremser, Christian; Hintringer, Florian; Roithinger, Franz

    2003-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging of electrical function in the human atria is attained by the combination of data from electrocardiographic (ECG) mapping and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An anatomical computer model of the individual patient is the basis for our computer-aided diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias. Three patients suffering from Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, from paroxymal atrial fibrillation, and from atrial flutter underwent an electrophysiological study. After successful treatment of the cardiac arrhythmia with invasive catheter technique, pacing protocols with stimuli at several anatomical sites (coronary sinus, left and right pulmonary vein, posterior site of the right atrium, right atrial appendage) were performed. Reconstructed activation time (AT) maps were validated with catheter-based electroanatomical data, with invasively determined pacing sites, and with pacing at anatomical markers. The individual complex anatomical model of the atria of each patient in combination with a high-quality mesh optimization enables accurate AT imaging, resulting in a localization error for the estimated pacing sites within 1 cm. Our findings may have implications for imaging of atrial activity in patients with focal arrhythmias.

  9. Electromechanical gait training with functional electrical stimulation: case studies in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Werner, C; Bardeleben, A

    2004-06-01

    Single case studies. To describe the technique of intensive locomotor training on an electromechanical gait trainer (GT) combined with functional electrical stimulation (FES). Neurological Rehabilitation Clinic, Berlin, Germany. Four spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients, one tetraparetic, two paraparetic, and one patient with an incomplete cauda syndrome, more than 3 months postinjury, who were unable to walk at all, or with two therapists. They received 25 min of locomotor training on the GT plus FES daily for 5 weeks in addition to the regular therapy. The patients tolerated the programme well, and therapists rated the programme less strenuous compared to manually assisted treadmill training. Gait ability improved in all four patients; three patients could walk independently on the floor with the help of technical aids, and one required the help of one therapist after therapy; gait speed and endurance more than doubled, and the gastrocnemius activity increased in the patients with a central paresis. This combined technique allows intensive locomotor therapy in SCI subjects with reduced effort from the therapists. The patients' improved walking ability confirmed the potential of locomotor therapy in SCI subjects.

  10. Cooperative Control for A Hybrid Rehabilitation System Combining Functional Electrical Stimulation and Robotic Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingguo; Ren, Yong; Gui, Kai; Jia, Jie; Xu, Wendong

    2017-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) and robotic exoskeletons are two important technologies widely used for physical rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. We developed a hybrid rehabilitation system (FEXO Knee) that combined FES and an exoskeleton for swinging movement control of human knee joints. This study proposed a novel cooperative control strategy, which could realize arbitrary distribution of torque generated by FES and exoskeleton, and guarantee harmonic movements. The cooperative control adopted feedfoward control for FES and feedback control for exoskeleton. A parameter regulator was designed to update key parameters in real time to coordinate FES controller and exoskeleton controller. Two muscle groups (quadriceps and hamstrings) were stimulated to generate active torque for knee joint in synchronization with torque compensation from exoskeleton. The knee joint angle and the interactive torque between exoskeleton and shank were used as feedback signals for the control system. Central pattern generator (CPG) was adopted that acted as a phase predictor to deal with phase confliction of motor patterns, and realized synchronization between the two different bodies (shank and exoskeleton). Experimental evaluation of the hybrid FES-exoskeleton system was conducted on five healthy subjects and four paraplegic patients. Experimental results and statistical analysis showed good control performance of the cooperative control on torque distribution, trajectory tracking, and phase synchronization.

  11. Gait phase detection from sciatic nerve recordings in functional electrical stimulation systems for foot drop correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Jun-Uk; Song, Kang-Il; Han, Sungmin; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Choi, Kuiwon; Youn, Inchan; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Dosik

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous afferent activities recorded by a nerve cuff electrode have been used to detect the stance phase in a functional electrical stimulation system for foot drop correction. However, the implantation procedure was difficult, as the cuff electrode had to be located on the distal branches of a multi-fascicular nerve to exclude muscle afferent and efferent activities. This paper proposes a new gait phase detection scheme that can be applied to a proximal nerve root that includes cutaneous afferent fibers as well as muscle afferent and efferent fibers. To test the feasibility of this scheme, electroneurogram (ENG) signals were measured from the rat sciatic nerve during treadmill walking at several speeds, and the signal properties of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for a comparison with kinematic data from the ankle joint. On the basis of these experiments, a wavelet packet transform was tested to define a feature vector from the sciatic ENG signals according to the gait phases. We also propose a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier and investigate whether it could be used successfully to discriminate feature vectors into the stance and swing phases. In spite of no significant differences in the rectified bin-integrated values between the stance and swing phases, the sciatic ENG signals could be reliably classified using the proposed wavelet packet transform and GMM classification methods. (paper)

  12. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials Materials Processing by Using Electric and Magnetic Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    This book is both a course book and a monograph. In fact, it has developed from notes given to graduate course students on materials processing in the years 1989 to 2006. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM), originates from a branch of materials science and engineering developed in the 1980s as a field aiming to create new materials and/or design processes by making use of various functions which appear when applying the electric and magnetic fields to materials. It is based on transport phenomena, materials processing and magnetohydrodynamics. The first chapter briefly introduces the history, background and technology of EPM. In the second chapter, the concept of transport phenomena is concisely introduced and in the third chapter the essential part of magnetohydrodynamics is transcribed and readers are shown that the concept of transport phenomena does not only apply to heat, mass and momentum, but also magnetic field. The fourth chapter describes electromagnetic processing of electrica...

  13. Evaluation of Functional Electrical Stimulation to Assist Cycling in Four Adolescents with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Tokay Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP often have difficulty participating in exercise at intensities necessary to improve cardiovascular fitness. Functional electrical stimulation- (FES- assisted cycling is proposed as a form of exercise for adolescents with CP. The aims of this paper were to adapt methods and assess the feasibility of applying FES cycling technology in adolescents with CP, determine methods of performing cycling tests in adolescents with CP, and evaluate the immediate effects of FES assistance on cycling performance. Materials/Methods. Four participants (12–14 years old; GMFCS levels III-IV participated in a case-based pilot study of FES-assisted cycling in which bilateral quadriceps muscles were activated using surface electrodes. Cycling cadence, power output, and heart rate were collected. Results. FES-assisted cycling was well tolerated (n=4 and cases are presented demonstrating increased cadence (2–43 rpm, power output (19–70%, and heart rates (4-5% and decreased variability (8–13% in cycling performance when FES was applied, compared to volitional cycling without FES assistance. Some participants (n=2 required the use of an auxiliary hub motor for assistance. Conclusions. FES-assisted cycling is feasible for individuals with CP and may lead to immediate improvements in cycling performance. Future work will examine the potential for long-term fitness gains using this intervention.

  14. Early Poststroke Rehabilitation Using a Robotic Tilt-Table Stepper and Functional Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Kuznetsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stroke frequently leaves survivors with hemiparesis. To prevent persistent deficits, rehabilitation may be more effective if started early. Early training is often limited because of orthostatic reactions. Tilt-table stepping robots and functional electrical stimulation (FES may prevent these reactions. Objective. This controlled convenience sample study compares safety and feasibility of robotic tilt-table training plus FES (ROBO-FES and robotic tilt-table training (ROBO against tilt-table training alone (control. A preliminary assessment of efficacy is performed. Methods. Hemiparetic ischemic stroke survivors (age years, days after stroke were assigned to 30 days of ROBO-FES (, ROBO (, or control ( in addition to conventional physical therapy. Impedance cardiography and transcranial doppler sonography were performed before, during, and after training. Hemiparesis was assessed using the British Medical Research Council (MRC strength scale. Results. No serious adverse events occurred; 8 patients in the tilt-table group prematurely quit the study because of orthostatic reactions. Blood pressure and CBFV dipped % during robot training. In 52% of controls mean arterial pressure decreased by %. ROBO-FES increased leg strength by points, ROBO by more than control (, . CBFV increased in both robotic groups more than in controls (. Conclusions. Robotic tilt-table exercise with or without FES is safe and may be more effective in improving leg strength and cerebral blood flow than tilt table alone.

  15. Functional Polymers in Protein Detection Platforms: Optical, Electrochemical, Electrical, Mass-Sensitive, and Magnetic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-in Hahm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of proteomics and related applied sectors in the life sciences demands convenient methodologies for detecting and measuring the levels of specific proteins as well as for screening and analyzing for interacting protein systems. Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability. Polymers can satisfy many of these requirements and are often considered as choice materials in various biological detection platforms. Therefore, tremendous research efforts have been made for developing new polymers both in macroscopic and nanoscopic length scales as well as applying existing polymeric materials for protein measurements. In this review article, both conventional and alternative techniques for protein detection are overviewed while focusing on the use of various polymeric materials in different protein sensing technologies. Among many available detection mechanisms, most common approaches such as optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic methods are comprehensively discussed in this article. Desired properties of polymers exploited for each type of protein detection approach are summarized. Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category. Difficulties facing both quantitative and qualitative protein measurements are also identified. The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements. Finally, future research directions towards further advancements in the field are considered.

  16. Non parametric forecasting of functional-valued processes: application to the electricity load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugliari, J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of predicting a functional valued stochastic process. We first explore the model proposed by Antoniadis et al. (2006) in the context of a practical application -the french electrical power demand- where the hypothesis of stationarity may fail. The departure from stationarity is twofold: an evolving mean level and the existence of groups that may be seen as classes of stationarity. We explore some corrections that enhance the prediction performance. The corrections aim to take into account the presence of these nonstationary features. In particular, to handle the existence of groups, we constraint the model to use only the data that belongs to the same group of the last available data. If one knows the grouping, a simple post-treatment suffices to obtain better prediction performances. If the grouping is unknown, we propose it from data using clustering analysis. The infinite dimension of the not necessarily stationary trajectories have to be taken into account by the clustering algorithm. We propose two strategies for this, both based on wavelet transforms. The first one uses a feature extraction approach through the Discrete Wavelet Transform combined with a feature selection algorithm to select the significant features to be used in a classical clustering algorithm. The second approach clusters directly the functions by means of a dissimilarity measure of the Continuous Wavelet spectra.The third part of thesis is dedicated to explore an alternative prediction model that incorporates exogenous information. For this purpose we use the framework given by the Autoregressive Hilbertian processes. We propose a new class of processes that we call Conditional Autoregressive Hilbertian (carh) and develop the equivalent of projection and resolvent classes of estimators to predict such processes. (author)

  17. Seismic functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical components based on shaking table testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurukovski, D.

    1999-01-01

    The seismic testing for qualification of one sample of the NPP Kozloduy Control Panel type YKTC was carried out under Research Contract no: 8008/Rl, entitled: 'Seismic Functional Qualification of Active Mechanical and Electrical Components Based on Shaking Table Testing'. The tested specimen was selected by the Kozloduy NPP staff, Section 'TIA-2' (Technical Instrumentation and Automatics), however the seismic input parameters were selected by the NPP Kozloduy staff, Section HTS and SC (Hydro-Technical Systems and Engineering Structures). The applied methodology was developed by the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology staff. This report presents all relevant items related to the selected specimen seismic testing for seismic qualification such as: description of the tested specimen, mounting conditions on the shaking table, selection of seismic input parameters and creation of seismic excitations, description of the testing equipment, explanation of the applied methodology, 'on line' and 'off line' monitoring of the tested specimen, functioning capabilities, discussion of the results and their presentation and finally conclusions and recommendations. In this partial project report, two items are presented. The first item presents a review of the existing and used regulations for performing of the seismic and vibratory withstand testing of electro-mechanical equipment. The selection is made based on MEA, IEEE, IEC and former Soviet Union regulations. The second item presents the abstracts of all the tests performed at the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology in Skopje. The selected regulations, the experience of the Institute that has been gathered for the last seventeen years and some theoretical and experimental research will be the basis for further investigations for development of a synthesised methodology for seismic qualification of differently categorized equipment for nuclear power plants

  18. The point-spread function measure of resolution for the 3-D electrical resistivity experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenborger, Greg A.; Routh, Partha S.

    2009-02-01

    The solution appraisal component of the inverse problem involves investigation of the relationship between our estimated model and the actual model. However, full appraisal is difficult for large 3-D problems such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We tackle the appraisal problem for 3-D ERT via the point-spread functions (PSFs) of the linearized resolution matrix. The PSFs represent the impulse response of the inverse solution and quantify our parameter-specific resolving capability. We implement an iterative least-squares solution of the PSF for the ERT experiment, using on-the-fly calculation of the sensitivity via an adjoint integral equation with stored Green's functions and subgrid reduction. For a synthetic example, analysis of individual PSFs demonstrates the truly 3-D character of the resolution. The PSFs for the ERT experiment are Gaussian-like in shape, with directional asymmetry and significant off-diagonal features. Computation of attributes representative of the blurring and localization of the PSF reveal significant spatial dependence of the resolution with some correlation to the electrode infrastructure. Application to a time-lapse ground-water monitoring experiment demonstrates the utility of the PSF for assessing feature discrimination, predicting artefacts and identifying model dependence of resolution. For a judicious selection of model parameters, we analyse the PSFs and their attributes to quantify the case-specific localized resolving capability and its variability over regions of interest. We observe approximate interborehole resolving capability of less than 1-1.5m in the vertical direction and less than 1-2.5m in the horizontal direction. Resolving capability deteriorates significantly outside the electrode infrastructure.

  19. A microcontroller platform for the rapid prototyping of functional electrical stimulation-based gait neuroprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzio de Melo, Paulo; da Silva, Miguel Tavares; Martins, Jorge; Newman, Dava

    2015-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been used over the last decades as a method to rehabilitate lost motor functions of individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and post-stroke hemiparesis. Within this field, researchers in need of developing FES-based control solutions for specific disabilities often have to choose between either the acquisition and integration of high-performance industry-level systems, which are rather expensive and hardly portable, or develop custom-made portable solutions, which despite their lower cost, usually require expert-level electronic skills. Here, a flexible low-cost microcontroller-based platform for rapid prototyping of FES neuroprostheses is presented, designed for reduced execution complexity, development time, and production cost. For this reason, the Arduino open-source microcontroller platform was used, together with off-the-shelf components whenever possible. The developed system enables the rapid deployment of portable FES-based gait neuroprostheses, being flexible enough to allow simple open-loop strategies but also more complex closed-loop solutions. The system is based on a modular architecture that allows the development of optimized solutions depending on the desired FES applications, even though the design and testing of the platform were focused toward drop foot correction. The flexibility of the system was demonstrated using two algorithms targeting drop foot condition within different experimental setups. Successful bench testing of the device in healthy subjects demonstrated these neuroprosthesis platform capabilities to correct drop foot. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Asymptotic behavior of correlation functions for electric potential and field fluctuations in a classical one-component plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    The correlations of the electric potential fluctuations in a classical one-component plasma are studied for large distances between the observation points. The two-point correlation function for these fluctuations is known to decay slowly for large distances, even if exponential clustering holds for

  1. Analysis Of Functional Stability Of The Triphased Asynchronous Generator Used In Conversion Systems Of A Eolian Energy Into Electric Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion VONCILA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the influence of the main perturbation agent over the functional stability of the triphased asynchronous generator (for the two alternative: with coiled and short circuit rotor, used for the conversion systems from a eolian energy into electric energy.

  2. Gait training assisted by multi-channel functional electrical stimulation early after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloemendaal, Maijke; Bus, Sicco A.; de Boer, Charlotte E.; Nollet, Frans; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Beelen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Many stroke survivors suffer from paresis of lower limb muscles, resulting in compensatory gait patterns characterised by asymmetries in spatial and temporal parameters and reduced walking capacity. Functional electrical stimulation has been used to improve walking capacity, but evidence is mostly

  3. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walls, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality.

  4. Suitability of the double Langevin function for description of anhysteretic magnetization curves in NO and GO electrical steel grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Steentjes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the match obtained using the classical Langevin function, the tanh function as well as a recently by the authors proposed double Langevin function with the measured anhysteretic magnetization curve of three different non-oriented electrical steel grades and one grain-oriented grade. Two standard non-oriented grades and a high-silicon grade (Si content of 6.5% made by CVD are analyzed. An excellent match is obtained using the double Langevin function, whereas the classical solutions are less appropriate. Thereby, problems such as those due to propagation of approximation errors observed in hysteresis modeling can be bypassed.

  5. Efficacy of biofeedback therapy via a mini wireless device on sleep bruxism contrasted with occlusal splint: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, WeiPing; Yang, Jie; Zhang, FeiMin; Yin, XinMin; Wei, XiaoLong; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The putative causes of bruxism are multifactorial and there are no definite measures for bruxism management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of biofeedback therapy on sleep bruxism, compared with occlusal splint. Twenty-four volunteers with sleep bruxism were divided into two groups: the GTB group that were treated with biofeedback therapy (n  = 12) and the GTO group that were treated with occlusal splint (n  = 12). A mini pressure sensor integrated with a monitoring circuit by use of a maxillary biofeedback splint was fabricated. To foster the relaxation of the masticatory muscles and the nervous system, the wireless device received signals from bruxism events and vibrations alerted the bruxer when the threshold was exceeded. Total episodes and average duration of bruxism events during 8 hours of sleep were analyzed with the monitoring program (TRMY1.0). After 6 and 12 weeks, the episodes (P  =  0.001) and duration (P 0.05). Furthermore, the episodes had significant differences between the GTB group and the GTO group after the same period of treatment (P  =  0.000). The results suggest that biofeedback therapy may be an effective and convenient measure for mild bruxers, when compared with occlusal splint therapy. The mini wireless biofeedback method may be of value for the diagnosis and management of bruxism in the future. PMID:25859272

  6. Biofeedback as a first-line treatment for overactive bladder syndrome refractory to standard urotherapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebiloglu, Turgay; Kaya, Engin; Köprü, Burak; Topuz, Bahadır; Irkilata, Hasan Cem; Kibar, Yusuf

    2016-10-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and dysfunctional voiding (DV) are subgroups of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). Standard urotherapy is the first-line treatment option of OAB in children. The aim was to investigate the use of biofeedback as a first-line treatment option in OAB refractory to standard urotherapy, and determine the factors affecting efficacy. Between 2005 and 2015, we retrospectively analyzed a total of 136 hospital records of children with OAB who had not previously used any anticholinergics and were refractory to standard urotherapy. Patients with urgency and/or urge incontinence and/or making holding maneuvers to suppress urgency were defined as having OAB symptoms, and resolution of these complaints was defined as successful biofeedback therapy. Seventy-three of 136 OAB patients' urgency recovered by biofeedback therapy with the success rate of 53% (p biofeedback therapies, respectively (p Biofeedback can be thought of as the first-line treatment option when standard urotherapy fails in children with OAB. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Vibrotactile and Plantar Force Measurement-Based Biofeedback System: Paving the Way towards Wearable Balance-Improving Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Zong-Hao Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although biofeedback systems have been used to improve balance with success, they were confined to hospital training applications. Little attempt has been made to investigate the use of in-shoe plantar force measurement and wireless technology to turn hospital training biofeedback systems into wearable devices. This research developed a wearable biofeedback system which detects body sway by analyzing the plantar force and provides users with the corresponding haptic cues. The effects of this system were evaluated in thirty young and elderly subjects with simulated reduced foot sensation. Subjects performed a Romberg test under three conditions: (1 no socks, system turned-off; (2 wearing five layers of socks, system turned-off; (3 wearing five layers of socks, and system turned-on. Degree of body sway was investigated by computing the center of pressure (COP movement measured by a floor-mounted force platform. Plantar tactile sensation was evaluated using a monofilament test. Wearing multiple socks significantly decreased the plantar tactile sensory input (p < 0.05, and increased the COP parameters (p < 0.017, indicating increased postural sway. After turning on the biofeedback system, the COP parameters decreased significantly (p < 0.017. The positive results of this study should inspire future development of wearable plantar force-based biofeedback systems for improving balance in people with sensory deficits.

  8. A Vibrotactile and Plantar Force Measurement-Based Biofeedback System: Paving the Way towards Wearable Balance-Improving Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Wan, Anson Hong-Ping; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun

    2015-12-15

    Although biofeedback systems have been used to improve balance with success, they were confined to hospital training applications. Little attempt has been made to investigate the use of in-shoe plantar force measurement and wireless technology to turn hospital training biofeedback systems into wearable devices. This research developed a wearable biofeedback system which detects body sway by analyzing the plantar force and provides users with the corresponding haptic cues. The effects of this system were evaluated in thirty young and elderly subjects with simulated reduced foot sensation. Subjects performed a Romberg test under three conditions: (1) no socks, system turned-off; (2) wearing five layers of socks, system turned-off; (3) wearing five layers of socks, and system turned-on. Degree of body sway was investigated by computing the center of pressure (COP) movement measured by a floor-mounted force platform. Plantar tactile sensation was evaluated using a monofilament test. Wearing multiple socks significantly decreased the plantar tactile sensory input (p biofeedback system, the COP parameters decreased significantly (p biofeedback systems for improving balance in people with sensory deficits.

  9. Conducting polymer scaffolds for electrical control of cellular functions (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Sahika; Wan, Alwin M.; Williams, Tiffany V.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Fischbach-Teschl, Claudia; Gourdon, Delphine; Owens, Róisín. M.; Malliaras, George G.

    2016-09-01

    Considering the limited physiological relevance of 2D cell culture experiments, significant effort was devoted to the development of materials that could more accurately recreate the in vivo cellular microenvironment, and support 3D cell cultures in vitro. (1) One such class of materials is conducting polymers, which are promising due to their compliant mechanical properties, compatibility with biological systems, mixed electrical and ionic conductivity, and ability to form porous structures. (2) In this work, we report the fabrication of a single component, macroporous scaffold made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) via an ice-templating method. (3) PEDOT:PSS scaffolds offer tunable pore size, morphology and shape through facile changes in preparation conditions, and are capable of supporting 3D cell cultures due to their biocompatibility and tissue-like elasticity. Moreover, these materials are functional: they exhibit excellent electrochemical switching behavior and significantly lower impedance compared to films. Their electrochemical activity enables their use in the active channel of a state of the art diagnostic tool in the field of bioelectronics, i.e., the organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). The inclusion of cells within the porous architecture affects the impedance of the electrically-conducting polymer network and, thus, may be used as a method to quantify cell growth. The adhesion and pro-angiogenic secretions of mouse fibroblasts cultured within the scaffolds can be controlled by switching the electrochemical state of the polymer prior to cell-seeding. In summary, these smart materials hold promise not only as extracellular matrix-mimicking structures for cell culture, but also as high-performance bioelectronic tools for diagnostic and signaling applications. References [1] M. Holzwarth, P. X. Ma, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21, 10243-10251 (2011). [2] L. H. Jimison, J. Rivnay, R. M. Owens, in Organic

  10. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation System for Ankle Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Christine E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many neurological conditions, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury, can cause chronic gait function impairment due to foot-drop. Current physiotherapy techniques provide only a limited degree of motor function recovery in these individuals, and therefore novel therapies are needed. Brain-computer interface (BCI is a relatively novel technology with a potential to restore, substitute, or augment lost motor behaviors in patients with neurological injuries. Here, we describe the first successful integration of a noninvasive electroencephalogram (EEG-based BCI with a noninvasive functional electrical stimulation (FES system that enables the direct brain control of foot dorsiflexion in able-bodied individuals. Methods A noninvasive EEG-based BCI system was integrated with a noninvasive FES system for foot dorsiflexion. Subjects underwent computer-cued epochs of repetitive foot dorsiflexion and idling while their EEG signals were recorded and stored for offline analysis. The analysis generated a prediction model that allowed EEG data to be analyzed and classified in real time during online BCI operation. The real-time online performance of the integrated BCI-FES system was tested in a group of five able-bodied subjects who used repetitive foot dorsiflexion to elicit BCI-FES mediated dorsiflexion of the contralateral foot. Results Five able-bodied subjects performed 10 alternations of idling and repetitive foot dorsifiexion to trigger BCI-FES mediated dorsifiexion of the contralateral foot. The epochs of BCI-FES mediated foot dorsifiexion were highly correlated with the epochs of voluntary foot dorsifiexion (correlation coefficient ranged between 0.59 and 0.77 with latencies ranging from 1.4 sec to 3.1 sec. In addition, all subjects achieved a 100% BCI-FES response (no omissions, and one subject had a single false alarm. Conclusions This study suggests that the integration of a noninvasive BCI with a lower

  11. Brain-computer interface controlled functional electrical stimulation system for ankle movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, An H; Wang, Po T; King, Christine E; Abiri, Ahmad; Nenadic, Zoran

    2011-08-26

    Many neurological conditions, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury, can cause chronic gait function impairment due to foot-drop. Current physiotherapy techniques provide only a limited degree of motor function recovery in these individuals, and therefore novel therapies are needed. Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a relatively novel technology with a potential to restore, substitute, or augment lost motor behaviors in patients with neurological injuries. Here, we describe the first successful integration of a noninvasive electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCI with a noninvasive functional electrical stimulation (FES) system that enables the direct brain control of foot dorsiflexion in able-bodied individuals. A noninvasive EEG-based BCI system was integrated with a noninvasive FES system for foot dorsiflexion. Subjects underwent computer-cued epochs of repetitive foot dorsiflexion and idling while their EEG signals were recorded and stored for offline analysis. The analysis generated a prediction model that allowed EEG data to be analyzed and classified in real time during online BCI operation. The real-time online performance of the integrated BCI-FES system was tested in a group of five able-bodied subjects who used repetitive foot dorsiflexion to elicit BCI-FES mediated dorsiflexion of the contralateral foot. Five able-bodied subjects performed 10 alternations of idling and repetitive foot dorsifiexion to trigger BCI-FES mediated dorsifiexion of the contralateral foot. The epochs of BCI-FES mediated foot dorsifiexion were highly correlated with the epochs of voluntary foot dorsifiexion (correlation coefficient ranged between 0.59 and 0.77) with latencies ranging from 1.4 sec to 3.1 sec. In addition, all subjects achieved a 100% BCI-FES response (no omissions), and one subject had a single false alarm. This study suggests that the integration of a noninvasive BCI with a lower-extremity FES system is feasible. With additional modifications

  12. Electrical Grid Conditioning For First NPP Integration, a Systems Engineering Approach Incorporating Quality Function Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; James, J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear power plant has a high potential to cause serious harm to environment as evidenced by effects of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. A reliable electrical power is required for a NPP to facilitate cooling after a shutdown. Failure of electrical power supply during shutdown increases core damage probability. Research shows that a total of 39% of LOOP related events in US are electrical grid centered. In Korea, 38% and 29% of all events that led to NPP shutdown at Hanul units 3-6 and at Hanbit units 3-6 respectively were electrical related. Electric grids for both operating and new NPPs must therefore be examined and upgraded for reliability improvement in order to enhance NPP safety.

  13. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables...... in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall...... significant time-of-day effect was observed for all s