WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioethics

  1. [Personalist bioethics and utilitarian bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission.

  2. Bioethics for clinicians: 28. Protestant bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    “PROTESTANT” IS A TERM APPLIED TO MANY DIFFERENT Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight conce...

  3. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......., the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  4. Toward a postmodern bioethics.

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    Gibson, David

    2015-04-01

    In this article, postmodernism is presented as posing a challenge to the role of philosophy within bioethics. It is argued that any attempt to develop a postmodern bioethics must respond to arguments concerning power, relational responsibility, and violence. Contemporary work on the topic of relational autonomy and naturalized bioethics is interpreted as engaging with the postmodern challenge. This article proposes that the role of philosophy in bioethics should be not to provide moral guidance but rather to adopt a critical approach to the possible consequences of privileging any position or understanding over others. PMID:25719353

  5. Bioethical pluralism and complementarity.

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    Grinnell, Frederick; Bishop, Jeffrey P; McCullough, Laurence B

    2002-01-01

    This essay presents complementarity as a novel feature of bioethical pluralism. First introduced by Neils Bohr in conjunction with quantum physics, complementarity in bioethics occurs when different perspectives account for equally important features of a situation but are mutually exclusive. Unlike conventional approaches to bioethical pluralism, which attempt in one fashion or another to isolate and choose between different perspectives, complementarity accepts all perspectives. As a result, complementarity results in a state of holistic, dynamic tension, rather than one that yields singular or final moral judgments.

  6. Bioethics for clinicians: 28. Protestant bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C

    2002-02-01

    "Protestant" is a term applied to many different Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight concepts that have emerged from Protestant denominations that are particularly relevant to bioethics. These include the sovereignty of God, the value of autonomy and the idea of medicine as a calling as well as a profession. Most Canadian physicians will find that they share certain values and beliefs with the majority of their Protestant patients. Physicians should be particularly sensitive to their Protestant patients' beliefs when dealing with end-of-life issues, concerns about consent and refusal of care, and beginning-of-life issues such as abortion, genetic testing and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Physicians should also recognize that members of certain Protestant groups and denominations may have unique wishes concerning treatment. Understanding how to elicit these wishes and respond appropriately will allow physicians to enhance patient care and minimize conflict. PMID:11868645

  7. The Bioethics of Music, the Music of Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Bioethics is rarely referenced in the scholarship of performing arts medicine (PAM). This essay argues that bioethical concerns loom far larger in the care of PAM patients than might typically be understood. This essay presents Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of bioethics, with examples pertinent to PAM, drawn from the author's research and personal experience.

  8. Bioethics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinati......This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second...

  9. Bioethics in Catholic Theology and Scientific Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Tomašević, PhD, ScD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Every creature is good and subject to the principle of solidarity that everyone has been blessed and gifted with life by God. Therefore, we cannot have one without the other, and no man exists without an animal.Over the last several decades, our world has been confronted with many ethical problems and ethics is being more and more sought after in spheres of human conduct and profession. Man has acquired enormous power over the world and over life itself, but he has also, willingly or not, become more responsible for 'the threats' against his very life, as well as against the life of other creatures. Within this context a discussion on biocentrism has ensued, which should replace Christian biblical anthropocentrism. At any rate, man has encountered a challenge to expand his moral sphere because nature needs his protection, whereas he no longer needs to protect himself from nature. It is exactly this point that poses a paradox: only man can give protection to nature and the whole of life within it. Having crossed all limits, he has to establish them yet again. Once again, he has to search for these limits within himself, which is exactly what original Christianity demands: to act according to one's pure belief (St. Peter. The aim of this work lies in trying to answer the questions of how to preserve life and healthy environment, how to achieve harmony between the development and modern ideas and trends as well as to establish the right relationship between man and his environment. The author primarily points out to the rising of pastoral medicine in Catholic theology, whose emergence was caused by the development of medical science and which gradually transforms into today's bioethics that is acknowledged by the theology. He then proceeds to discuss the disharmony between man and nature, about the rising of the 'animal rights' movement, and finally, about the beginnings of scientific and global bioethics which has developed in USA and which has

  10. Social responsibilities of bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsen, Albert R.

    2001-01-01

    Urban bioethics can draw on elements of city life and view them under the moral perspective of social responsibility of creating the personal, cultural, social, and economic environment in which persons can be responsible personally as they interpret actions on themselves and creatively respond to them in an ongoing community of agents.

  11. Bioethics and aging

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    Domingo Castillo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.

  12. On feminist engagements with bioethics

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    Drezgić Rada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores two questions: what is feminist bioethics, and how different it is from standard bioethics. Development of feminist bioethics, it is argued, began as a response to standard bioethics, challenging its background values, and philosophical perspectives. The most important contribution of feminist bioethics has been its re-examination of the basic conceptual underpinnings of mainstream bioethics, including the concepts of “universality”, “autonomy”, and “trust”. Particularly important for feminists has been the concept of autonomy. They challenge the old liberal notion of autonomy that treats individuals as separate social units and argue that autonomy is established through relations. Relational autonomy assumes that identities and values are developed through relationships with others and that the choices one makes are shaped by specific social and historical contexts. Neither relational autonomy, nor feminist bioethics, however, represents a single, unified perspective. There are, actually, as many feminist bioethics as there are feminisms-liberal, cultural, radical, postmodern etc. Their different ontological, epistemological and political underpinnings shape their respective approaches to bioethical issues at hand. Still what they all have in common is interest in social justice-feminists explore mainstream bioethics and reproductive technologies in order to establish whether they support or impede gender and overall social justice and equality. Feminist bioethics thus brings a significant improvement to standard bioethics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Bioethical Aspects: Morally Acceptable Within the Biotechnologically and Socially Possible i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  13. Bioethics for clinicians: 25. Teaching bioethics in the clinical setting

    OpenAIRE

    McKneally, Martin F.; Peter A Singer

    2001-01-01

    BIOETHICS IS NOW TAUGHT IN EVERY CANADIAN MEDICAL SCHOOL. Canada needs a cadre of teachers who can help clinicians learn bioethics. Our purpose is to encourage clinician teachers to accept this important responsibility and to provide practical advice about teaching bioethics to clinicians as an integral part of good clinical medicine. We use 5 questions to focus the discussion: Why should I teach? What should I teach? How should I teach? How should I evaluate? How should I learn?

  14. Christian bioethics, secular bioethics, and the claim to cultural authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David

    2005-12-01

    Though the papers in this volume for the most part address the question, "What is Christian about Christian Bioethics", this paper addresses instead a closely related question, "How would a Christian approach to bioethics differ from the kind of secular academic bioethics that has emerged as such an important field in the contemporary university?" While it is generally assumed that a secular bioethics rooted in moral philosophy will be more culturally authoritative than an approach to bioethics grounded in the contingent particularities of a religious tradition, I will give reasons for rejecting this assumption. By examining the history of the recent revival of academic bioethics as well as the state of the contemporary moral philosophy on which it is based I will suggest that secular bioethics suffers from many of the same liabilities as a carefully articulated Christian bioethics. At the end of the paper I will turn briefly to examine the question of how, in light of this discussion, a Christian bioethics might best be pursued. PMID:16423736

  15. Feminism, law, and bioethics.

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    Rothenberg, K H

    1996-03-01

    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.

  16. On nature and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul Silas

    2010-01-01

    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.

  17. Gender, identity, and bioethics.

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    Dietz, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    Transgender people and issues have come to the forefront of public consciousness over the last year. Caitlyn Jenner' very public transition, heightened media coverage of the murders of transgender women of color, and the panicked passage of North Carolina's "bathroom bill" (House Bill 2), mean that conversations about transgender health and well-being are no longer happening only within small communities. The idea that transgender issues are bioethical issues is not new, but I think that increased public awareness of transgender people and the ways that their health is affected by systems that bioethics already engages with offers an opportunity for scholarship that works to improve transgender health in meaningful ways. PMID:27417871

  18. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  19. The development and perspectives of Chinese bioethics.

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    Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali

    2008-12-01

    Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent. PMID:19492719

  20. Epistocracy for online deliberative bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Mameli, Matteo; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The suggestion that deliberative democratic approaches would suit the management of bioethical policymaking in democratic pluralistic societies has triggered what has been called the "deliberative turn" in health policy and bioethics. Most of the empirical work in this area has focused on the allocation of healthcare resources and priority setting at the local or national level. The variety of the more or less articulated theoretical efforts behind such initiatives is remarkable and has been accompanied, to date, by an overall lack of method specificity. We propose a set of methodological requirements for online deliberative procedures for bioethics. We provide a theoretical motivation for these requirements. In particular, we discuss and adapt an "epistocratic" proposal and argue that, regardless of its merits as a general political theory, a more refined version of its normative claims can generate a useful framework for the design of bioethical forums that combine maximal inclusiveness with informed and reasonable deliberation. PMID:26059953

  1. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  2. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  3. Who is buying bioethics research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Richard R; Scott, Angela L; Landy, David C; Kicklighter, Laura A

    2008-08-01

    Growing ties to private industry have prompted many to question the impartiality of academic bioethicists who receive financial support from for-profit corporations in exchange for ethics-related services and research. To the extent that corporate sponsors may view bioethics as little more than a way to strengthen public relations or avoid potential controversy, close ties to industry may pose serious threats to professional independence. New sources of support from private industry may also divert bioethicists from pursuing topics of greater social importance, such as the needs of medically underserved communities. To inform ongoing debates about the financing of bioethics and its transparency to those concerned about potential sources of bias, we examined funding disclosures appearing in original research reports in major bioethics journals. Reviewing research published over a 15-year period, we found little evidence that for-profit corporations are influencing bioethics research directly. Instead, we found evidence that a great number of organizations, both public and private, support bioethics research. These findings suggest that worries about the cooption of bioethics research by a few interested stakeholders are greatly overstated and undersupported by available data. PMID:18802867

  4. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  5. Evolutionary Theology and Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Georgievich Yushchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential theses of evolutional theology are set forth here, which assume biological evolution to be either a technology of the Creator or His own evolution towards understanding His own intentions and attributes. The paradigm of evolutional Christianity is reviwed along with the position and the role of humans in the psychophysical megasynthesis of the Universe and the attibutes of religious and scientifically-atheistic world-view. Biological evolution is interpreted as an ascending row of divine embodiments in biological organisms culminated in the most cephalized  living forms:  human being (terrestrial form and higher dolphins (water form. The establishment of communication between these living forms is considered a necessary stage of integration of Noospheric consciousness. It is suggested to use the ethics of the Creator’s attitude to human beings, as a basis of bio-ethical attitude of humans to animals, especially to higher ones possessing advanced intellect and soul.

  6. Community treatment orders: Bioethical basis

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    José Manuel Bertolín Guillén

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Numerous opinions and medico-legal controversies have arisen up to the date from community treatment orders in Western countries, but underlying bioethical questions have not been specifically studied. The aim of this work is to contribute to further clarify the bioethical conflicts arising from community treatment orders. Methods: The bioethical deliberation of the author is principally based on what can be considered the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm. These principles, as first described by Beauchamp and Childress in 1979, will be applied in this work to the actual situation of involuntary outpatient treatment. Results: The author's deliberation considers that community treatment orders are consistent first with the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm of practical reason, respecting its four general categories of basic principles. It also respects the principles of the medical ethics of virtue, subsumed in the personalism of ontological matrix, in the same way as its ethos affects the intrinsic purpose which is the dignity of the person; and with the consequentialist utilitarianism because it seeks the proportionality of the common good. A community treatment order prescription must ultimately be based on a bioethical exercise of responsibility by the clinician, judiciously weighing up the classic principal prima facie duties which must necessarily be translated into a real duty referring to a specific patient and context. Conclusions: Community treatment orders are seen as a method of therapeutic intervention with a bioethical basis resistant to criticism.

  7. Bioethics and cara sui.

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    Gillett, Grant

    2005-01-01

    Cara sui (care of the self) is a guiding thread in Foucault's later writings on ethics. Following Foucault in that inquiry, we are urged beyond our fairly superficial conceptions of consequences, harms, benefits, and the rights of persons, and led to examine ourselves and try to articulate the sense of life that animates ethical reasoning. The result is a nuanced understanding with links to virtue ethics and post-modern approaches to ethics and subjectivity. The approach I have articulated draws on the phenomenology of Levinas and Heidegger, the Virtue ethics of Baier, and the post-structuralist writing of Michel Foucault. The subject is seen as negotiable, embodied, provisional and able to be transformed in a way that denies essentialism about human beings, their moral status, and the idea of the good. The human being emerges as responsible because, properly, responsive to the context of discourse in which morality becomes articulated. When we import this style of thinking into bioethics we find that it reaches beyond issues of policy or right conduct and allows us to use the biomedical sciences and the clinical world to revise and interrogate our understanding of ourselves and the theoretical foundations of health care ethics.

  8. Accounting for culture in a globalized bioethics.

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    Marshall, Patricia; Koenig, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    How might a global bioethics account for profound cultural difference in a world marked by porous borders? The authors endorse a critical, self-reflexive bioethics, suggesting that bioethics needs to change its fundamental orientation if it is going to remain relevant and intellectually vibrant throughout the twenty-first century. Bioethics must attend to issue of social justice and public health, while seriously considering the implications of social context for medical morality. Negotiating moral consensus across cultural boundaries will be difficult, but is is more likely to succeed if we critically engage with the cultural assumptions underlying bioethics itself.

  9. Towards a bioethics of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Axler, Renata

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine might be beneficial, it also raises serious moral, legal, economic and sociopolitical questions that require further scrutiny. In this article, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be accompanied by a dedicated 'bioethics of innovation' that attends systematically to the goals, process and outcomes of biomedical innovation as objects of critical inquiry. Using the example of personalised or precision medicine, we then suggest a preliminary framework for a bioethics of innovation, based on the research policy initiative of 'Responsible Innovation'. We invite and encourage critiques of this framework and hope that this will provoke a challenging and enriching new bioethical discourse.

  10. On the nature and sociology of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Much has been written in the last decade about how we should understand the value of the sociology of bioethics. Increasingly the value of the sociology of bioethics is interpreted by its advocates directly in terms of its relationship to bioethics. It is claimed that the sociology of bioethics (and related disciplinary approaches) should be seen as an important component of work in bioethics. In this paper we wish to examine whether, and how, the sociology of bioethics can be defended as a valid and justified research activity, in the context of debates about the nature of bioethics. We begin by presenting and arguing for an account of bioethics that does justice to the content of the field, the range of questions that belong within this field, and the justificatory standards (and methodological orientations) that can provide convincing answers to these questions. We then consider the role of sociology in bioethics and show how and under what conditions it can contribute to answering questions within bioethics. In the final section, we return to the sociology of bioethics to show that it can make only a limited contribution to the field.

  11. The European convention on bioethics.

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    de Wachter, M A

    1997-01-01

    Nearly fifteen years after the Council of Europe first called for a pan-European convention on issues in bioethics to harmonize disparate national regulations, in November 1996 the council's Committee of Ministers approved the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine for formal adoption. The draft convention, released in July 1994, provoked strong public, professional, and governmental debate among European nations, particularly regarding provisions for biomedical research with subjects unable to give informed consent. If ratified, the "bioethics convention" will become the first such document to have binding force internationally.

  12. Education for values and bioethics.

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    Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina

    2015-01-01

    "Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences. PMID:25694860

  13. Bioethics in the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  14. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution.

  15. Bioethics and its gatekeepers: does institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Myser, Catherine; De Vries, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    Who are the gatekeepers in bioethics? Does editorial bias or institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals? We analyzed the composition of the editorial boards of 14 leading bioethics journals by country. Categorizing these countries according to their Human Development Index (HDI), we discovered that approximately 95 percent of editorial board members are based in (very) high-HDI countries, less than 4 percent are from medium-HDI countries, and fewer than 1.5 percent are from low-HDI countries. Eight out of 14 leading bioethics journals have no editorial board members from a medium- or low-HDI country. Eleven bioethics journals have no board members from low-HDI countries. This severe underrepresentation of bioethics scholars from developing countries on editorial boards suggests that bioethics may be affected by institutional racism, raising significant questions about the ethics of bioethics in a global context.

  16. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  17. [Interface between bioethics and international relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei

    2016-08-01

    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics. PMID:27599082

  18. [Bioethical language in the law and jurisprudence about bioethical problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral García, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The impact is analyzed that on the Spanish Law relative to questions bioethics--as the Law on artificial reproduction, the Law of biomedical investigation, and the Law on sexual and reproductive health--can have the conception of human embryo enunciated by the Court of Justice of the European Union in his judgment of October 18, 2011, considering it to be any ovum fertilized with independence of the degree of reached development. PMID:24206251

  19. The Philosophical Basis of Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this article, I consider in what sense bioethics is philosophical. Philosophy includes both analysis and synthesis. Analysis focuses on central concepts in a domain, for example, informed consent, death, medical futility, and health. It is argued that analysis should avoid oversimplification. The synthesis or synoptic dimension prompts people to explain how their views have logical assumptions and implications. In addition to the conceptual elements are the evaluative and empirical dimensions. Among its functions, philosophy can be a form of prophylaxis--helping people avoid some commonly accepted questionable theories. Generally, recent philosophy has steered away from algorithms and deductivist approaches to ethical justification. In bioethics, philosophy works in partnership with a range of other disciplines, including pediatrics and neurology. PMID:26358430

  20. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Salzano, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group’s biological and cultural history; however, in their ur...

  1. Integrative Bioethics: A Conceptually Inconsistent Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Viktor; Savić, Lovro

    2016-06-01

    This article provides a critical evaluation of the central components of Integrative Bioethics, a project aiming at a bioethical framework reconceptualization. Its proponents claim that this new system of thought has developed a better bioethical methodology than mainstream Western bioethics, a claim that we criticize here. We deal especially with the buzz words of Integrative Bioethics - pluriperspectivism, integrativity, orientational knowledge, as well as with its underlying theory of moral truth. The first part of the paper looks at what the claims of a superior methodology consist in. The second reveals pluriperspectivism and integrativity to be underdeveloped, hazy terms, but which seem to be underpinned by two theses - the incommensurability and the inclusiveness theses. These theses we critically scrutinize. We then consider strategies the project's proponents might apply to curb these theses in order to acquire minimal consistency for their framework. This part of the article also deals with the conception of moral truth that drives the theory, a position equally burdened with inconsistencies. In the last part of the article, we observe the concept of orientational knowledge, and develop two interpretations of its possible meaning. We claim that, following the first interpretation, Integrative Bioethics is completely descriptive, in which case it is informative and important, but hardly bioethics; if it is normative, following the second interpretation, it is bioethics as we already know it, but merely clad in rhetorical embellishments. We conclude that there is nothing new about this project, and that its inconsistencies are reason enough for its abandonment. PMID:26644388

  2. Online Resources for Introducing Bioethics through Case-Studies and Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan K. Kiely

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative review of: Bioethics 101 https://www.nwabr.org/sites/default/files/NWABR_Bioethics_101_5.13.pdf and Exploring Bioethics https://www.nwabr.org/teacher-center/bioethics-101#overview.

  3. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons. PMID:25575494

  4. Current bioethical issues in parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

    2008-09-01

    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  5. Bioethics: why philosophy is essential for progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    It is the JME's 40th anniversary and my 20th anniversary working in the field. I reflect on the nature of bioethics and medical ethics. I argue that both bioethics and medical ethics together have, in many ways, failed as fields. My diagnosis is that better philosophy is needed. I give some examples of the importance of philosophy to bioethics. I focus mostly on the failure of ethics in research and organ transplantation, although I also consider genetic selection, enhancement, cloning, futility, disability and other topics. I do not consider any topic comprehensively or systematically or address the many reasonable objections to my arguments. Rather, I seek to illustrate why philosophical analysis and argument remain as important as ever to progress in bioethics and medical ethics.

  6. [Contribution of Stein's Anthropology to Personalistic Bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Morejón, Jeannette Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Juan Manuel Burgos proposes ″a challenge″ to whom aims to consolidate the dignity of the human person as the center of a thought structure. Burgos presents a well-founded trilogy, citing Wojtyla, Sgreccia and he himself, as a perfect combination to support personalist bioethics. However, the possibility of giving a solid anthropological support to this bioethics remains open provided that a substantial list of personalistic authors is revised. This research seeks to collate Stein's anthropological proposal to personalist bioethics needs expressed by Burgos. The study aims to prove how Stein's anthropology can be assembled to the characteristics of personalism, and thus infer that more specific levels of the personalist bioethics can be based on this anthropology.

  7. [Reasons for an intercultural perspective of bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Aguilar, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics must have an intercultural perspective. This is based on three facts: The principles and values around which reflection is made are related to world views and traditions, human beings are cultural beings, and current societies are considerably diverse. Based on this, bioethics will seek an adequate balance between ethical universalism and contextualism. This is a fundamental step for unconditional respect for human dignity and mutual recognition, dialogue, correlation and complementarity among diverse cultures. PMID:23338647

  8. Bioethics of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See-Ching; 陳詩正.

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics has been central to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which mandates a high recipient benefit and an acceptably low donor risk. The double equipoise imposes the contextual features of this already technically complex treatment. This research aimed at looking into key bioethical issues of LDLT in the light of the contemporary practice standards. In adult LDLT, in order to provide a partial graft of adequate size, donor right hepatectomy is often required. This procedure...

  9. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. PMID:26847836

  10. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self.

  11. Basic principles of bioethics and orthodox ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The galloping progress in genetic and medical technology has led to the birth of the new science of bioethics. Bioethics examines the ethical dimension of problems arising from the application of the discoveries in the fields of biology and genetics and the effects they may have on nature and people in particular, from the aspect of anthropological teaching of the church Fathers.Aim: The aim of this article is: a the delimitation of the scientific field of bioethics and its historical background, b the emergence of the principles of the science of bioethics, c the determination of the principles of orthodox morality though which the issues arising from the application of genetic engineering in human are faced.Material and Method: The method used to collect material for the writing of this article “principles of bioethics and orthodox morality”, was the widespread review of international and Greek bibliography. For the collection of the English bibliography the electronic database CINAHL was used. The keywords used in combination were Bioethics orthodox ethics. Results: The basic principle of bioethics are: a the principle of autonomy, b the principle of equivalence, c the principle of not causing harm and pain, d the principle of utility or beneficence, e the principle of justice. The orthodox approach to the issues arising from the application of genetics human is based on the Orthodox anthropology, as expressed in the Bible and the texts of the Fathers of the Church. The centerpieces of the Biblical and Patristic anthropology are: a that man was created as the exact replica of the Triune God and b that man is a single psychosomatic entity.

  12. How can we help? From "sociology in" to "sociology of" bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Sociology and bioethics have an uneasy relationship. Bioethicists find sociology helpful for describing and analyzing ethical issues, but they are less enthusiastic when bioethics becomes the subject of sociological scrutiny. After review of different sociological approaches to bioethical topics -- descriptive, evaluative, and analytical -- I explain how bioethics will benefit by using the tools of sociology to answer its questions ("sociology in bioethics") and by allowing sociology to use bioethics to answer sociological questions ("sociology of bioethics").

  13. Moral experience: a framework for bioethics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Carnevale, Franco A

    2011-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical research in bioethics frequently focuses on ethical dilemmas or problems. This paper draws on anthropological and phenomenological sources to develop an alternative framework for bioethical enquiry that allows examination of a broader range of how the moral is experienced in the everyday lives of individuals and groups. Our account of moral experience is subjective and hermeneutic. We define moral experience as "Encompassing a person's sense that values that he or she deem important are being realised or thwarted in everyday life. This includes a person's interpretations of a lived encounter, or a set of lived encounters, that fall on spectrums of right-wrong, good-bad or just-unjust". In our conceptualisation, moral experience is not limited to situations that are heavily freighted with ethically-troubling ramifications or are sources of debate and disagreement. Important aspects of moral experience are played out in mundane and everyday settings. Moral experience provides a research framework, the scope of which extends beyond the evaluation of ethical dilemmas, processes of moral justification and decision-making, and moral distress. This broad research focus is consistent with views expressed by commentators within and beyond bioethics who have called for deeper and more sustained attention in bioethics scholarship to a wider set of concerns, experiences and issues that better captures what is ethically at stake for individuals and communities. In this paper we present our conceptualisation of moral experience, articulate its epistemological and ontological foundations and discuss opportunities for empirical bioethics research using this framework.

  14. Bioethical issues in the development of biopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immunogenicity. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce NHP use in biopharmaceutical drug development, e.g. study design improvements and changes in regulatory policy. In addition, several expert groups are active in this field (e.g. NC3Rs, BioSafe, and Biopharmaceutical Technical Group. Despite that, there is an increasing trend of use of NHP in preclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals, especially regarding monoclonal antibodies. Other potential bioethical issues related biopharmaceutical drug development are their cost/effectiveness ratio, clinical safety assessment, production of biosimilars, and comparison of their efficacy with placebo in countries without intention to market. Identification of the human genome has opened many new bioethical issues. Development of biopharmaceuticals is an important bioethical issue for several reasons. It connects all aspects of contemporary bioethics: bio­medicine (e.g. clinical trials in vulnerable subjects, animal welfare and the most recent ad­vances in biotechnology. In particular, biopharmaceutical drug development is a challenging issue regarding treatment of rare diseases.

  15. Outlining a Serious Moral Games in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Christen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution discusses the possibilities and limits of using video games for apprehending and reflecting on the moral actions of their players. We briefly present the results of an extended study that introduces the conceptual idea of a Serious Moral Game (SMG. Then, we outline its possible application in the domain of bioethics for training medical professionals such that they can deal better with moral problems in medical practice. We briefly sketch major components of a SMG Bioethics. The contribution should demonstrate how such an instrument may improve psychological competences that are needed for dealing with various ethical questions within healthcare. The contribution is an intermediate step of a project that aims at actually creating a SMG for training in moral competences that are needed for putting bioethics in practice.

  16. On the Christian in Christian bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Stephen A

    2005-12-01

    What is Christian about Christian bioethics? And is an authentically Christian bioethics a practical possibility in the world in which we find ourselves? In my essay I argue that personhood and the personal are so fundamental to the Christian understanding of our humanity that body, soul, and spirit are probably best understood as the components of a triune (as opposed to dual) aspect theory of personhood. To confess to a Christian bioethics is to admit that Christians cannot pretend fully to understand either cures or their meaning. However effective and "knowledge-based" contemporary medical interventions are, a Christian must humbly and honestly confess a lack of complete knowledge on both levels. At the same time, a Christian bioethicist must express a total personal commitment to Christian Faith. PMID:16423731

  17. Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics. PMID:26833492

  18. Parental responsibility and the Infant Bioethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, A R

    1990-01-01

    The prognosis is not good for an infant whose entire intestine has been destroyed by necrotizing enterocolitis. An infant bioethics committee is asked to advise whether the parents should be offered the option of total parenteral intravenous nutrition, with its ultimately fatal complications, for their child. Committee members agree that the option of intravenous feeding should be offered, and that it is morally acceptable for the parents to refuse it. Fleischman reviews the issues that an infant bioethics committee must consider when it is asked to help decide what treatment options will be discussed with the family of a seriously ill neonate. PMID:2108103

  19. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  20. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  1. Epigenetics and the environment in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Charles; Ravitsky, Vardit; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2014-09-01

    A rich literature in public health has demonstrated that health is strongly influenced by a host of environmental factors that can vary according to social, economic, geographic, cultural or physical contexts. Bioethicists should, we argue, recognize this and--where appropriate--work to integrate environmental concerns into their field of study and their ethical deliberations. In this article, we present an argument grounded in scientific research at the molecular level that will be familiar to--and so hopefully more persuasive for--the biomedically-inclined in the bioethics community. Specifically, we argue that the relatively new field of molecular epigenetics provides novel information that should serve as additional justification for expanding the scope of bioethics to include environmental and public health concerns. We begin by presenting two distinct visions of bioethics: the individualistic and rights-oriented and the communitarian and responsibility-oriented. We follow with a description of biochemical characteristics distinguishing epigenetics from genetics, in order to emphasize the very close relationship that exists between the environment and gene expression. This then leads to a discussion of the importance of the environment in determining individual and population health, which, we argue, should shift bioethics towards a Potterian view that promotes a communitarian-based sense of responsibility for the environment, in order to fully account for justice considerations and improve public health.

  2. What feminism can do for bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, L M

    2001-01-01

    Feminist criticism of health care and of bioethics has become increasingly rich and sophisticated in the last years of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, this body of work remains quite marginalized. I believe that there are (at least) two reasons for this. First, many people are still confused about feminism. Second, many people are unconvinced that significant sexism still exists and are therefore unreceptive to arguments that it should be remedied if there is no larger benefit. In this essay I argue for a thin, "core" conception of feminism that is easy to understand and difficult to reject. Core feminism would render debate within feminism more fruitful, clear the way for appropriate recognition of differences among women and their circumstances, provide intellectually compelling reasons for current non-feminists to adopt a feminist outlook, and facilitate mutually beneficial cooperation between feminism and other progressive social movements. This conception of feminism also makes it clear that feminism is part of a larger egalitarian moral and political agenda, and adopting it would help bioethics focus on the most urgent moral priorities. In addition, integrating core feminism into bioethics would open a gateway to the more speculative parts of feminist work where a wealth of creative thinking is occurring. Engaging with this feminist work would challenge and strengthen mainstream approaches: it should also motivate mainstream bioethicists to explore other currently marginalized parts of bioethics. PMID:11561992

  3. Accounting for context: future directions in bioethics theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M

    1996-06-01

    Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639

  4. PHENOMENOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF BIOETHICAL REALITY (THE SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina Marina Alekseevna

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of social reality is a classical problem of sociology, which solution helps perception and understanding of social phenomena. In the article phenomenological interpretation of bioethical reality is shown. Phenomenological sociology, being one of the perspective directions of development of social knowledge, it is characterized by aspiration to show «artificial», that is designed, nature of bioethical reality, its semantic structure, and thus, to «humanize» bioethical realit...

  5. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  6. The role of philosophy in global bioethics: introducing four trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Sirkku K

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the relationship between philosophy and culture in global bioethics. First, it studies what is meant by the term "global" in global bioethics. Second, the author introduces four different types, or recognizable trends, in philosophical inquiry in bioethics today. The main argument is that, in order to make better sense of the complexity of the ethical questions and challenges we face today across the globe, we need to embrace the universal nature of self-critical and analytical philosophical analysis and argumentation, rather than using seemingly philosophical approaches to give unjustified normative emphasis on different cultural approaches to bioethics.

  7. Bioethics, Religion, and Public Policy: Intersections, Interactions, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    Bioethics in America positions itself as a totalizing discipline, capable of providing guidance to any individual within the boundaries of a health or medical setting. Yet the religiously observant or those driven by spiritual values have not universally accepted decisions made by "secular" bioethics, and as a result, religious bioethical thinkers and adherents have developed frameworks and rich counter-narratives used to fend off encroachment by policies perceived as threatening. This article uses brain death in Jewish law, the case of Jahi McMath, and vaccination refusal to observe how the religious system of ethics is presently excluded from bioethics and its implications. PMID:26525211

  8. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, la...

  9. Religion and bioethics: toward an expanded understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Macdonald, Arlene

    2013-04-01

    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what "religion" means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion as lived experience as well as a body of doctrine and to see that religious differences and controversies should be welcomed in the public square of a diverse democratic society rather than merely tolerated.

  10. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  11. [Bioethics today: Heidegger’s questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    Bioethics was born not only as an aftermath of medical technological advance but also from underlying philosophical conceptions about man, that determine scientific research. Analyzing occidental ethics, Heidegger showed that animalism was the only human dimension considered and thereby the domain of measurable objectiveness. He postulated that the essence of human existence as being-in-the-world is ethical and revealed through an original consciousness. Unlike moral conscience, original conscience calls to authenticity, to hear his constitutive nihilism as a "Being-referred-to-death". The founding ground of bioethics may be to listen to this primary being-guilty prior to the derived guilts, e.g. faults, deficiencies and shortcomings of specific daily actions. PMID:22286741

  12. Bioethics and the national security state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    2004-01-01

    In previous work, I have described the history and ethics of human experiments for national security purposes during he cold war and developed the bioethical issues that will be apparent in the "war on terror". This paper is an attempt to bring these two previous lines of work together under the rubric of the "national security state," a concept familiar to Cold War historians and political scientists. The founding of the national security state was associated with the first articulations of informed consent requirements by national security agencies. My analysis indicates that strengthened consent standards, though conventionally thought to be antithetical crisis, can be seen as an attempt by the postwar national security state to protect itself from critics of expanded governmental power. During the coming years the renewed mission of the national security state in the war on terror should impel students of bioethics to consider its implications for the field.

  13. Mapping Queer Bioethics: Space, Place, and Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance

    2016-01-01

    This article, which introduces the special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," begins by offering an overview of the analytical scope of the issue. Specifically, the first half of this essay raises critical questions central to the concept of a space-related queer bioethics, such as: How do we appreciate and understand the special needs of queer parties given the constraints of location, space, and geography? The second half of this article describes each feature article in the issue, as well as the subsequent special sections on the ethics of reading literal, health-related maps ("Cartographies") and scrutinizing the history of this journal as concerns LGBT health ("Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality").

  14. Right to health, biopower and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Junges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to health is being more and more affected by the Biopower new configurations, no more only determined by the State, as in Foucault's analyses, but mainly by the symbolic power of the market. The biotechnological enterprises stir up increasing claims for consuming in health. These products are techno-semiotic agencies of the subjectivity in health, rendering their use as a right. In this situation it is important to return to the Right to Health comprehension of the International Conventions and the Alma-Ata Conference, proving the interdependence between Human Rights in general and the Right to Health in particular, mainly aiming at the social determinants of health that define more basic rights. The Human Rights perspective permits the proposal of a public health bioethics, different from the clinical bioethics, more appropriate for considering the collective implications of the right to Health, not reduced to a mere consumption of technologies.

  15. Contemporary Bioethics: The Promethean Challenges of Reprogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Natacha Salomé; Cicovacki, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary bioethics presents to us major challenges in several fields of knowledge. The ever-increasing technological power to interfere with the nature of things (including human nature) demands our increasing ethical awareness and considerations. How are we going to respond to these demands? Our proposal is to address this complex issue by revisiting one of the founding myths of Western civilization, that of Prometheus. Among numerous variations of this myth, we will address in the first...

  16. Bioethics and Emergency Medicine: problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.

  17. Four themes in recent Swedish bioethics debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    A wide variety of bioethical themes have recently been debated and researched in Sweden, including genetic screening, HPV vaccination strategies, end-of-life care, injustices and priority setting in healthcare, dual-use research, and the never-ending story of scientific fraud. Also, there are some new events related to Swedish biobanking that might be of general interest. Here we will concentrate on four themes: end-of-life care, dual-use research, scientific fraud, and biobanking. PMID:21676328

  18. [Cultural background of the Japanese bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, H; Terazawa, K

    1994-09-01

    We attended the 11th Liaison Society of Ethics Committees in Medical Schools in Japan. Three symposiums were held under the themes of quality of life (QOL), stopping medical cure and the Japanese bioethics. Symposists were medical practitioners, teaching staffs in universities and a person of religion. In the first symposium, the definition of QOL, the usage of the term and the method of its evaluation were discussed. In the second symposium, an internist and a neonatologist reported several cases and stated problems and countermeasures in terminal care in cases that they could not maintain QOL. A person of religion made his opinion on the problems. In the final symposium were stated Japanese bioethics from the aspects of ethics and cultural anthropology. They emphasized differences in bioethical view between the Japanese and the Europeans and Americans, and a need to reform medical education in Japan. It is difficult to define QOL and to care patients at terminal stage, because present-day persons have various senses of value. Especially, Japanese have taken Western culture into our traditional social structures with its original style. Therefore, we have dual culture, as recognized in communication. Although it is very important to communicate sufficiently between patients and doctors, we consider that the dual communication has interrupted their mutual understandings. Incidentally, Western medicine had originally dual structure of art and technology. But we have taken only the technological aspect. That is probably the reason why human relations have been getting worse. It would be necessary for us to attend to these two dual structures in order to solve bioethical problems in Japan. PMID:7868050

  19. Thanatophoric dysplasia: case-based bioethical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Abarca López; Alejandra Rodríguez Torres; Donovan Casas Patiño; Esteban Espíndola Benítez

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.

  20. Thanatophoric dysplasia: case-based bioethical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Abarca López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.

  1. Cultivating Synergy in Nursing, Bioethics, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Nursing and bioethics have a lot in common because they share concerns about life and death, illness and health, the rights of individuals and communities, ethical patient care, health care delivery, and public health. Nurses and bioethicists contribute to ethical practice, ethics scholarship, and health policy-making in a variety of ways. Some nurses have bioethics education or experience, some bioethicists study or collaborate closely with nurses, and some of us proudly identify as both bioethicists and as nurses. Despite certain shared and interwoven aims, bioethicists and nurses often accomplish their goals in dissimilar ways, have diverse educational and training trajectories as well as distinct roles and responsibilities, and are viewed differently within health care organizations. Yet the work of bioethics and nursing can be, and in my view should more often be, synergistic. That synergism may be especially critical in the arena of health policy and ethics. Nurses can bring extraordinary insights and real-world experiences to the policy table but are not always considered essential contributors. PMID:27649922

  2. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm. PMID:22033813

  3. [Bioethical arguments in Joseph Ratzinger's thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carbonell López, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In the dense theological thought of Joseph Ratzinger before his election as pope, we find fundamental contributions to contemporary bioethics. Starting from the assumption of the close relationship between faith and science he incorporates a necessary theological dimension in the bioethical dialogue that illuminates and clarifies the answers to the real questions raised in bioethical actions. On the one hand, there is the question of the origin of man that is understood as God's creation as opposed to a purely biological origin to which a modern pseudoscientific stance wants to confine it. On the other hand, there is the question about man's identity, which is understood as the image of God, from which stems the inviolable dignity and sacredness of human life, overcoming scientistic materialism. Finally, we find the question of how to treat the ″other″, even the embryo, as a result of its lofty dignity, analyzing the ethical and legal consequences that exude from their nature and are summarized in the duty to protect and respect the other which the law should protect against the abuse of those who are stronger. PMID:25329412

  4. Geneticization and bioethics: advancing debate and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the role that the concept of geneticization has played in the discussion about health care, bioethics and society. The concept is discussed and examples from the evolving discourse about geneticization are critically analyzed. The relationship between geneticization, medicalization and biomedicalization is described, emphasizing how debates about the latter concepts can inspire future research on geneticization. It is shown how recurrent themes from the media coverage of genetics portray typical traits of geneticization and thus contribute to the process. We look at examples of small-scale studies from the literature where geneticization of medical practice has been demonstrated. Methodological disputes about the relevance of empirical evidence for the geneticization thesis and the normative status of the concept are discussed. We consider arguments to the effect that ideas from mainstream bioethics have facilitated geneticization by emphasizing individualistic notions of autonomy and responsibility while ignoring the role of genetics in the wider social context. It is shown how a concept like geneticization, which can be used to draw the attention of philosophers, social scientists and others to challenges that tend to be neglected by mainstream bioethics, also has the potential to move people's attention away from other pertinent issues. This may happen if researchers become preoccupied with the transformative effects of genetics, and we argue that a wider reading of geneticization should inspire critical analysis of the sociocultural preconditions under which genetics is currently evolving. PMID:17705026

  5. Cultivating Synergy in Nursing, Bioethics, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Nursing and bioethics have a lot in common because they share concerns about life and death, illness and health, the rights of individuals and communities, ethical patient care, health care delivery, and public health. Nurses and bioethicists contribute to ethical practice, ethics scholarship, and health policy-making in a variety of ways. Some nurses have bioethics education or experience, some bioethicists study or collaborate closely with nurses, and some of us proudly identify as both bioethicists and as nurses. Despite certain shared and interwoven aims, bioethicists and nurses often accomplish their goals in dissimilar ways, have diverse educational and training trajectories as well as distinct roles and responsibilities, and are viewed differently within health care organizations. Yet the work of bioethics and nursing can be, and in my view should more often be, synergistic. That synergism may be especially critical in the arena of health policy and ethics. Nurses can bring extraordinary insights and real-world experiences to the policy table but are not always considered essential contributors.

  6. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  7. Hard times, hard choices: founding bioethics today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    1995-07-01

    The discussions of these past twenty years have significantly improved our knowledge about the foundation of bioethics and the meaning of the four bioethical principles with concern to at least three different points: that they are organised hierarchically, and therefore not "prima facie" of the same level; that they have exceptions, and consequently lack of absolute character; and that they are neither strictly deontological nor purely teleological. The only absolute principle of moral life can be the abstract and unconcrete respect of human beings. But when determining the material content of this respect, principles become contingent and relative. Therefore, moral reasoning must have necessarily no less than three moments, one absolute but merely formal, namely respect for all human beings, and the other two relative and material. The first material moment is comprised of the four bioethical principles, divided into two levels, one private, including the principles of autonomy and beneficence, and the other one public, including those of nonmaleficence and justice. The second material moment deals with specific cases, and requires analysis of their context, including their circumstances and consequences. Only when following these steps, and therefore balancing principlism and contextualism, can moral reasoning be correct and complete. PMID:11653036

  8. Freestanding pragmatism in law and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arras, J D

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first installment of a larger project devoted to the relevance of pragmatism for bioethics. One self-consciously pragmatist move would be to return to the classical pragmatist canon of Peirce, James and Dewey in search of substantive doctrines or methodological approaches that might be applied to current bioethical controversies. Another pragmatist (or neopragmatist) move would be to subject the regnant principlist paradigm to Richard Rorty's subversive assaults on foundationalism in epistemology and ethics. A third pragmatist method, dubbed "freestanding pragmatism" by its proponents, embraces a "pragmatist" approach to practical reasoning without discernable moorings either to the classical canon or to Rorty's neopragmatism. This third pragmatist approach to method in practical ethics is the subject of this article. I begin with an examination of freestanding pragmatism in the theory of judicial decision making. I argue that this version of legal pragmatism--so described on account of its commitments to contextualism, instrumentalism, eclecticism, and freedom from grand theory--bears a striking resemblance to much self-described pragmatist work in bioethics today. I further argue that if this is what we mean by "pragmatism," then in a certain sense "we are all pragmatists now." PMID:11437273

  9. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  10. Cognitive Enhancement and Beyond: Recommendations from the Bioethics Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Anita L; Strand, Nicolle K

    2015-10-01

    Media outlets are reporting that cognitive enhancement is reaching epidemic levels, but evidence is lacking and ethical questions remain. The US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has examined the issue, and we lay out the commission's findings and their relevance for the scientific community.

  11. Islamic bioethics: between sacred law, lived experiences, and state authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I

    2013-04-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the field of "Islamic" bioethics within public and professional circles, and both healthcare practitioners and academic scholars deploy their respective expertise in attempts to cohere a discipline of inquiry that addresses the needs of contemporary bioethics stakeholders while using resources from within the Islamic ethico-legal tradition. This manuscript serves as an introduction to the present thematic issue dedicated to Islamic bioethics. Using the collection of papers as a guide the paper outlines several critical questions that a comprehensive and cohesive Islamic bioethical theory must address: (i) What are the relationships between Islamic law (Sharī'ah), moral theology (uṣūl al-Fiqh), and Islamic bioethics? (ii) What is the relationship between an Islamic bioethics and the lived experiences of Muslims? and (iii) What is the relationship between Islamic bioethics and the state? This manuscript, and the papers in this special collection, provides insight into how Islamic bioethicists and Muslim communities are addressing some of these questions, and aims to spur further dialogue around these overaching questions as Islamic bioethics coalesces into a true field of scholarly and practical inquiry.

  12. Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

  13. Philosophy as news: bioethics, journalism and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, K W

    1999-04-01

    News media accounts of issues in bioethics gain significance to the extent that the media influence public policy and inform personal decision making. The increasingly frequent appearance of bioethics in the news thus imposes responsibilities on journalists and their sources. These responsibilities are identified and discussed, as is (i) the concept of "news-worthiness" as applied to bioethics, (ii) the variable quality of bioethics reportage and (iii) journalists' reliance on ethicists to pass judgment. Because of the potential social and other benefits of high quality reporting on ethical issues, it is argued that journalists and their bioethics sources should explore and accommodate more productive relationships. An optimal journalism-ethics relationship will be one characterized by "para-ethics," in which journalistic constraints are noted but also in which issues and arguments are presented without oversimplification and credible disagreement is given appropriate attention.

  14. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F

    2016-01-01

    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions.

  15. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F

    2016-01-01

    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions. PMID:26786036

  16. Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L

    2016-04-19

    Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray. PMID:27089070

  17. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ghaiath MA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries.

  18. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421

  19. The living dead: fiction, horror, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belling, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine. PMID:20639610

  20. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Marian A; Lindemann, Hilde

    2011-02-01

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical resources that are up to the task. This paper identifies four distinct understandings of 'globalised' in the bioethics literature: (1) a focus on global issues; (2) an attempt to develop a universal ethical theory that can transcend cultural differences; (3) an awareness of how bioethics itself has expanded, with new centres and journals emerging in nearly every corner of the globe; (4) a concern to avoid cultural imperialism in encounters with other societies. Each of these approaches to globalisation has some merit, as will be shown. The difficulty with them is that the standard theoretical tools on which they rely are not designed for cross-cultural ethical reflection. As a result, they leave important considerations hidden. A set of theoretical resources is proposed to deal with the moral puzzles of globalisation. Abandoning idealised moral theory, a normative framework is developed that is sensitive enough to account for differences without losing the broader context in which ethical issues arise. An empirically nourished, self-reflexive, socially inquisitive, politically critical and inclusive ethics allows bioethicists the flexibility they need to pick up on the morally relevant particulars of this situation here without losing sight of the broader cultural contexts in which it all takes place. PMID:21109698

  1. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way.

  2. The living dead: fiction, horror, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belling, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine.

  3. The Bioethics and Biosafety technosciences and transcendence of limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioethics as a cultural phenomenon is nowadays presented as a paradigmatic locus of reflection, critical analysis, inquiries and debates about ethical problems and moral dilemmas provoked by scientific researches in the field of Biotechnology, with its innovations and applications. Humanity, since the middle of X X Th Century, lives under uncertainty and fear. Bioethics responds to the need of a ethical reflection which follows such inquiries and technological applications. One of the subjects of Bioethics is the biosafety, which deals with biohazards. In this process, there is a privileged place many questions such as technological evaluation, risk management and, in a special way, the precautionary principle. This study focus on these questions

  4. African Bioethics vs. Healthcare Ethics in Africa: A Critique of Godfrey Tangwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola K

    2016-08-01

    It is nearly two decades now since the publication of Godfrey Tangwa's article, 'Bioethics: African Perspective', without a critical review. His article is important because sequel to its publication in Bioethics, the idea of 'African bioethics' started gaining some attention in the international bioethics literature. This paper breaks this relative silence by critically examining Tangwa's claim on the existence of African bioethics. Employing conceptual and critical methods, this paper argues that Tangwa's account of African bioethics has some conceptual, methodic and substantive difficulties, which altogether do not justify the idea of African bioethics, at least for now. Contra Tangwa, this article establishes that while African bioethics remains a future possibility, it is more cogent that current efforts in the name of 'African bioethics' be primarily re-intensified towards 'Healthcare ethics in Africa'. PMID:25912979

  5. [Reflections for having bioethics involved in the human rights culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussino, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics can be interpreted as a critical reflection on life and health, a new way to make decisions in these fields, a social reform movement, and an academic discipline. In any case, Bioethics implies an interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue. At the same time, human rights, as universal moral guidelines, provide a plausible basis for this intercultural dialogue, for they enable the identification of a core of transcultural values that can work as "moral minima" in the dialogue among different cultures and the search for international consensuses. This article sets forth the triple connection (historical-genealogical, conceptual and practical) between bioethics and human rights, and reflects on some of the conditions that should be taken into account for bioethics to be involved in the human rights culture. PMID:23338646

  6. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-01-01

    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents. PMID:26665351

  7. Theological discourse and the postmodern condition: the case of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Oro, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Bioethics reflects--like many other disciplines--the cultural fragmentation and the complexity of what has come to be known as the postmodern condition. The case of bioethics is particularly acute because of its epistemological indeterminacy and the moral pluralism characterizing postliberal societies. A provisional solution to this situation is the retrieval of a neo-Kantian version of ethical formalism in which concern for a consensus on rules replaces universal dialogue on moral content. The article analyzes the possible consequences of this solution with reference to theological ethics. In particular, the reduction of ethical rationality to a function of political regulation on the one hand, and the implicit legitimization of ethical relativism on the other, push any theological contribution to bioethics to the margins. The central methodological issue for the articulation of theological discourse in bioethics is how to avoid the pitfall of privatism while creating the conditions for ethical dialogue across different traditions.

  8. Applying theological developments to bioethical issues such as genetic screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallia, P.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2005-01-01

    Catholic movements within the centre of Roman Catholic doctrine recently have discussed Trinitarian theology as applied to sciences, arts, economics, health and other social areas. We explore the possibilities Trinitarian theology offers to bioethical debate, concentrating particularly on genetic sc

  9. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-01-01

    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents.

  10. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES OF POTTER'S GLOBAL BIOETHICS AS A BRIDGE BETWEEN CLINICAL (PERSONALIZED) AND PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav

    2015-12-01

    In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other.

  11. TEACHING METHODOLOGY IN THE STUDY OF BIOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna V. Chashina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article discusses significance of use of new technologies in the learning process for realisation of goals of cognitive and affective domain of knowledge. The paper explores the methods of development of educational knowledge, which is achieved by information, reproductive and research means. Based on example of bioethics the paper demonstrates the use of visuals technology (charts, graphs, tables, illustrations, specification, etc., which performs the following tasks: memorising, analysis and synthesis, comparison and differentiation, categorisation and classification, identification of relationships between facts, and for the revision of the material studied, acquisition of the new knowledge, memo risation of educational material. Materials and Methods: on the basis of the dialectical approach the object of research is new technologies in the learning process, in particular the study of bioethics. By using methods of observation, survey, analysis and synthesis in the educational process the authors prove the efficiency of such technologies as the use of visualisation (diagrams, illustrations, problem-based learning (issues, tasks and situations and research tasks (case study method. Results: visual method complements the learning process. It allows a deeper understanding of the subject. This method deals with feelings, emotions and consciousness of students. It encourages creativity. In addition this method of material presentation allows reducing the amount of material of an ordinary lecture. It is underscored that in the study of bioethics it is recommended to use a technology of a problem-based learning, which is able to implement the intellectual activity of students by means of questions¸ case-studies, tasks and situations. The most vivid form of such technology is a case method. The basis for the emergence of technology of problembased learning is a certain contradiction between knowledge and practice. This method can

  12. [Is it possible a bioethics based on the experimental evidence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    For years there are different types of criticism about principialist bioethics. One alternative that has been proposed is to introduce empirical evidence within the bioethical discourse to make it less formal, less theoretical and closer to reality. In this paper we analyze first in synthetic form diverse alternative proposals to make an empirical bioethics. Some of them are strongly naturalistic while others aim to provide empirical data only for correct or improve bioethical work. Most of them are not shown in favor of maintaining a complete separation between facts and values, between what is and what ought to be. With different nuances these proposals of moderate naturalism make ethical judgments depend normative social opinion resulting into a certain social naturalism. Against these proposals we think to make a bioethics in that relates the empirical facts with ethical duties, we must rediscover empirical reality of human action. Only from it and, in particular, from the activity of discernment that makes practical reason, when judged on the object of his action, it is possible to integrate the mere descriptive facts with ethical judgments of character prescriptive. In conclusion we think that it is not possible to perform bioethics a mode of empirical science, as this would be contrary to natural reason, leading to a sort of scientific reductionism. At the same time we believe that empirical data are important in the development of bioethics and to enhance and improve the innate ability of human reason to discern good. From this discernment could develop a bioethics from the perspective of ethical agents themselves, avoiding the extremes of an excessive normative rationalism, accepting empirical data and not falling into a simple pragmatism. PMID:24206254

  13. Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin

    2016-05-01

    Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211

  14. 78 FR 20647 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health... the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its thirteenth meeting on April 30, 2013. At this...

  15. 77 FR 41789 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY... Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its tenth meeting in August. At this meeting,...

  16. 78 FR 46335 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and... Bioethical Issues will conduct its fourteenth meeting on August 19-20, 2013. At this meeting, the...

  17. 77 FR 26012 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health... Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its ninth meeting in May. At...

  18. 77 FR 2298 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues... the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its eighth meeting in February. At this meeting,...

  19. 76 FR 48864 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY... Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its sixth meeting in August. At this meeting,...

  20. Toward a Child Rights Theory in Pediatric Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Mercer, Raul; Webb, Elspeth; Nathawad, Rita; Shenoda, Sherry; Lansdown, Gerison

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics, applying the principles, standards, and norms of child rights, health equity, and social justice to medical and ethical decision-making. We argue that a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics will help pediatricians and pediatric bioethicists analyze and address the complex interplay of biomedical and social determinants of child health. These core principles, standards and norms, grounded in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provide the foundational elements for the theory and a means for better understanding the complex determinants of children's health and well-being. Rights-based approaches to medical and ethical decision-making provide strategies for applying and translating these elements into the practice of pediatrics and pediatric bioethics by establishing a coherent, consistent, and contextual theory that is relevant to contemporary practice. The proposed child rights theory extends evolving perspectives on the relationship between human rights and bioethics to both child rights and pediatric bioethics. PMID:27157347

  1. Globalization of bioethics as an intercultural social tuning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hyakudai

    2005-01-01

    Now, in the beginning of the 21st century, bioethics must be urgently globalized into a Global Bioethics which combines the ongoing Bioethics based on the modern European humanism with the newly arising Environmental Ethics based on the rather communitarian (or Asian) ways of thinking. This does not always mean that the new global bioethics is necessarily universalistic, for we should stand on the recognition of the wide spread variety of value systems in the world, north and south, east and west. However, it is not particularistic either, for in order to establish a post-modern global ethics, we have to accept and harmonize every kind of antagonistic values on the Globe. For this purpose we have to cultivate a new social technology of tuning social disorder of not only international but also inter-ethnic and inter-cultural level of ideology beyond the modern European humanism. Here the concept of "human rights" or the concept of "human dignity" may lose its significance as it has held in the past bioethical thinking in the western world. PMID:16634177

  2. [Biology and ethics of bioethics: an urgent need of realism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Tenets and recommendations of bioethics should be based on a profound knowledge of biological processes and at the same time deeply integrated with their human significance. Integration has been usually distorted by those implied in disciplines involved with human nature. Biology of fertilization and embryo development have been often fodder of science fiction, when considering that techniques can achieve any aim without acknowledging natural limits, and often handling data, and accepting without any critical attitude pseudoscientific dogma. In the middle of that pseudo-biology bioethics has suffered the onslaught of the ideology of man believing himself autonomous and claiming he is the only one who dictates the rules of reality of world and man, and leading development and progress with this technological power in his hands. The profoundly different response to this deep question of whether what is properly human and essential to each man emerges as a consequence of his own construction and development or, on the contrary, is inherent to the constitution of each man, has caused the splitting of bioethics into two really irreconcilable bioethics. And that because of their different reasoning and criteria. The Ethics of Bioethics requires a new thinking on this crucial point allowing it to grow as an unprejudiced Science. Serious consequences derive from taking one perspective or another. Adopting one or another perspective confront us with a serious problem. Is human life disposable? Or should it be elegantly preserved? PMID:24206252

  3. Toward a Child Rights Theory in Pediatric Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Mercer, Raul; Webb, Elspeth; Nathawad, Rita; Shenoda, Sherry; Lansdown, Gerison

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics, applying the principles, standards, and norms of child rights, health equity, and social justice to medical and ethical decision-making. We argue that a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics will help pediatricians and pediatric bioethicists analyze and address the complex interplay of biomedical and social determinants of child health. These core principles, standards and norms, grounded in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provide the foundational elements for the theory and a means for better understanding the complex determinants of children's health and well-being. Rights-based approaches to medical and ethical decision-making provide strategies for applying and translating these elements into the practice of pediatrics and pediatric bioethics by establishing a coherent, consistent, and contextual theory that is relevant to contemporary practice. The proposed child rights theory extends evolving perspectives on the relationship between human rights and bioethics to both child rights and pediatric bioethics.

  4. Moral philosophy in bioethics. Etsi ethos non daretur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I intend to put forward some criticism of the purely procedural model of bioethics, which, in fact, leads to delegating to biopolitics and biolaw the finding of a purely pragmatic solution to the issues for which bioethics was "invented" over forty years ago. This delegating takes place after the transition from the thesis, dear to modernity, whereby in ethics reasoning should avoid any discussion regarding its foundation or ultimate justification (Etsi Deus non daretur) to the contemporary affirmation of a substantial ethical agnosticism, which, in the name of the incommensurability of morals, should construct procedures as if no sole substantial moral were possible (Etsi ethos non daretur) and act as a guarantor of ethical pluralism. These theses will be discussed and an attempt will be made to demonstrate why it is necessary to establish a link between true and good, and how this is possible only by referring to ontology. The conclusion points to the need to propose bioethics explicitly in terms of content that satisfies the presumed axiological neutrality of procedural bioethics, which however, turns out to be theoretically weak and practically unable to protect the ethical pluralism for which it would like to be the guarantor. The conclusion is that only by referring to ontology can bioethics, which is a fully fledged form of moral philosophy, act as a guarantor of pluralism within the truth and oppose the authoritarian tendencies concealed under the liberal guise of ethical agnosticism.

  5. Parental authority and pediatric bioethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Mark J

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, I offer a view beyond that which would narrowly reduce the role of parents in medical decision making to acting as custodians of the best interests of children and toward an account of family authority and family autonomy. As a fundamental social unit, the good of the family is usually appreciated, at least in part, in terms of its ability successfully to instantiate its core moral and cultural understandings as well as to pass on such commitments to future generations. The putative rights of children to expression, information, freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and to freedom of association with others are, in this essay, assessed from the perspective of those conditions necessary for the family to function as a moral community. In so doing, I respond to the move to liberate children from parental authority and to effect the transformation of the family as implied by the United Nations' "Convention on the Rights of the Child" and the pediatric bioethics it supports.

  6. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.

  7. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect. PMID:23912730

  8. Theological Discourse in Bioethics: General and Confessional Differencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basia Nikiforova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to the problem of theological discourse in bioethics. We focus both on general positions shared across major existing religions and substantial confessional differences among them. Among the major categories determining relationship between bioethics and religion we studied the following: “image of God” (imago Dei, casuistry, primacy of procreation, “playing God”, artificial procreation and others. After analyzing Christian, Jewish and Islamic positions on the theological interpretation of the reproductive technologies and human cloning, we came to a conclusion that differences in views depend rather on orthodox, conservative, traditional or liberal viewpoint within a given church than on differences between particular religions. Despite substantial faith-related differences, occasionally, views on reproductive technologies and other problems of bioethics seem closer between liberal Protestants and liberal Judaists than between orthodox and reformist Judaists. 

  9. Contribution of Ayurveda in foundation of basic tenets of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawalare, Kiran A; Nanote, Kalpana D; Gawai, Vijay U; Gotmare, Ashish Y

    2014-01-01

    Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as "principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics. PMID:26195897

  10. Comprehending Bioethics%理解生命伦理学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱仁宗

    2015-01-01

    The author analyzed the peculiarity of bioethics from standardability , rationality , practicability/ap-plicability , evidence/experience , secularity these five five aspects .Based on this , how to understand bioethics was alsodiscussed in this paper from the viewpoints of right path of bioethics , de -ethics trend and building culture brand.%从规范性、理性、实用/应用性、证据/经验知情性、世俗性五个方面分析研究了生命伦理学学科的独特性,并结合生命伦理学的合适进路,去伦理学倾向以及“打文化牌”这三个角度分析探讨了如何理解生命伦理学这一问题。

  11. Applying theological developments to bioethical issues such as genetic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre; ten Have, Henk

    2005-01-01

    Catholic movements within the centre of Roman Catholic doctrine recently have discussed Trinitarian theology as applied to sciences, arts, economics, health and other social areas. We explore the possibilities Trinitarian theology offers to bioethical debate, concentrating particularly on genetic screening and testing. It is important therefore to analyse the philosophical implications of this approach onto the bioethical world, where much disagreement occurs on fundamental issues. It is Catholic basic teaching to recognize and see God's hand in plurality, not merely as a cliche and then doing what we feel is right, but to recognize how to live in a pluralistic world. We recognize, in agreement with these theologians, that in order for a Trinitarian mode of understanding to be used by those doing bioethical debate, there is a need to depart from fundamentalism.

  12. In defence of academic freedom: bioethics journals under siege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2013-05-01

    This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles. PMID:23637435

  13. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  14. The Challenge of Defining Success in Bioethics' Humanist Wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Paul

    2016-09-01

    In "Reason and the Republic of Opinion," Leon Wieseltier bemoaned an age that reduces reason to utilitarian calculation and requires almost ritual genuflection before the altar of numbers. The spirit of this age is at work in the field of bioethics where, as Debra Mathews and colleagues point out in "A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship," researchers and scholars are increasingly "being asked to demonstrate and also forecast the value and impact of their work." Despite the reductionism that typically accompanies the movements imbued with this spirit, the concern for accountability that stands behind the call for measuring success is legitimate. The bioethics community is thus fortunate to have such a distinguished group of scholars wrestling with these matters. Indeed, the effort of Mathews et al. to articulate a framework for determining success in bioethics research and scholarship is especially admirable precisely because they resist the temptation to reduce success to quantitative measures alone. That said, it is also important to say that it is nearly impossible to engage with the task these scholars have set for themselves and not succumb to a kind of data fetishism. It is well and good to talk about the complexity of bioethics as a field, but the language of "metrics," "outputs," "feedback loops," "stakeholders," and the like is not the language of the disciplines of history, literature, philosophy, or religious studies-all fields that Mathews et al. rightly credit with making important contributions to bioethics research and scholarship. PMID:27649830

  15. The bioethics and law paradox: an argument to maintain separateness with a hint of togetherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werren, Julia

    2007-10-01

    This article analyses how bioethics and law interact and work together. The first half of the article provides definitions of both ethics and bioethics. The article then considers a number of different bioethical standpoints to demonstrate the variance of views in relation to bioethics. In addition, the first half of the article focuses on the different regulatory possibilities in regard to bioethical contexts. This demonstrates that law is of central importance to bioethics. This part also shows that even though law and ethics are often used simultaneously to achieve bioethical goals, law and ethics cannot be used interchangeably. Thus, even though it is somewhat inevitable that law will be used in the pursuit of the goals of bioethics, bioethics and bioethical principle should not be merely a vehicle for law-makers to utilise. The second half of the article focuses on the issues of autonomy and consent to demonstrate how law and ethics have developed in one of the foundation areas of bioethics.

  16. Publishing bioethics and bioethics--reflections on academic publishing by a journal editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2011-02-01

    This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories. PMID:21175707

  17. An experience of teaching bioethics at secondary schools in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahjabeen

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics is the "critical analysis of emerging moral issues in health". The term was first used to refer to "the moral problems of the life sciences encompassing medicine, biology, environment, population and social sciences". Teaching bioethics is complex and challenging within multi-system educational program as in Pakistan for secondary schools. The objectives are difficult as bioethics teaching require changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes along with strong improvement in moral reasoning. The objectives of the study were to teach bioethics and evaluate comprehension and skills of ethical reasoning in students of secondary school in Karachi. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two schools (public and private-sector) of Karachi from January 2007 to December 2009. This was a preliminary study and used simple random sampling to recruit one hundred and ten students. The qualitative analysis of comprehension and skills were evaluated on numeric scales. The study found higher comprehension and skills level in females (66%) compared to male students during class-room sessions. PMID:23286632

  18. From bioethics to a sociology of bio-knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Growing recognition of bioethics' shortcomings, associated in large part with its heavy reliance on abstract principles, or so-called principlism, has led many scholars to propose that the field should be reformed or reconceptualised. Principlism is seen to de-contextualise the process of ethical decision-making, thus restricting bioethics' contributions to debate and policy on new and emergent biotechnologies. This article examines some major critiques of bioethics and argues for an alternative normative approach; namely, a sociology of bio-knowledge focussing on human rights. The article discusses the need for such an approach, including the challenges posed by the recent rise of 'the bio-economy'. It explores some potential alternative bases for a normative sociology of bio-knowledge, before presenting the elements of the proposed human rights-focused approach. This approach, it is argued, will benefit from the insights and concepts offered by various fields of critical scholarship, particularly the emergent sociology of human rights, science and technology studies, Foucaultian scholarship, and feminist bioethics.

  19. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics. PMID:18251769

  20. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  1. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach.

  2. The Time Is Now: Bioethics and LGBT Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth

    2014-09-01

    Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating

  3. The Time Is Now: Bioethics and LGBT Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth

    2014-09-01

    Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating

  4. On the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline, as seen from a sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrazábal, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    This article examines the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline from a sociological perspective. This reconstruction helps us to understand on the one hand what is meant by bioethics and what its practices and areas of inquiry are, and on the other to identify various concepts and expert opinions about what the field of study for bioethics should be, opinions which lead in practice to different applications of the discipline in health sciences. This becomes relevant for epistemological discussions about the discipline and for consolidating a sociology of bioethics in the context of Ibero-America. PMID:26625913

  5. Pragmatism, metaphysics, and bioethics: beyond a theory of moral deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamental, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Pragmatism has been understood by bioethicists as yet another rival in the "methods wars," as yet another theory of moral deliberation. This has led to criticism of pragmatic bioethics as both theoretically and practically inadequate. Pragmatists' responses to these objections have focused mainly on misunderstandings of pragmatism's epistemology. These responses are insufficient. Pragmatism's commitment to radical empiricism gives it theoretical resources unappreciated by critics and defenders alike. Radical empiricism, unlike its more traditional ancestors, undercuts the gaps between theory and practice, and subjective and objective accounts of experience, and in so doing provides the metaphysical and epistemological basis for a thoroughgoing empirical naturalism in ethics. Pragmatism's strength as an approach to moral problems thus emerges as a result of a much wider array of resources than contemporary interpreters have acknowledged, which makes it a richer, deeper framework for understanding moral deliberation in general and bioethical decision making in particular. PMID:23878348

  6. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style. PMID:25574290

  7. Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Laura Specker

    2016-03-01

    Much of bioethical discourse now takes place across cultures. This does not mean that cross-cultural understanding has increased. Many cross-cultural bioethical discussions are marked by entrenched disagreement about whether and why local practices are justified. In this paper, I argue that a major reason for these entrenched disagreements is that problematic metaethical commitments are hidden in these cross-cultural discourses. Using the issue of informed consent in East Asia as an example of one such discourse, I analyze two representative positions in the discussion and identify their metaethical commitments. I suggest that the metaethical assumptions of these positions result from their shared method of ethical justification: moral principlism. I then show why moral principlism is problematic in cross-cultural analyses and propose a more useful method for pursuing ethical justification across cultures.

  8. Topics in bioethics: a development of student perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  9. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  10. [The bioethical principlism model applied in pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pessoa, Ana Paula da Costa; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2013-03-01

    An integrative literature review was developed with the purpose to analyze the scientific production regarding the relationships between pain and the principles of bioethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice). Controlled descriptors were used in three international data sources (LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE), in April of 2012, totaling 14 publications categorized by pain and autonomy, pain and beneficence, pain and nonmaleficence, pain and justice. The adequate relief of pain is a human right and a moral issue directly related with the bioethical principlism standard model (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). However, many professionals overlook the pain of their patients, ignoring their ethical role when facing suffering. It was concluded that principlism has been neglected in the care of patients in pain, showing the need for new practices to change this setting.

  11. “Eugenics talk” and the language of bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-01-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most...

  12. The Confucian bioethics of surrogate decision making: its communitarian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2011-10-01

    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician.

  13. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

  14. The Confucian bioethics of surrogate decision making: its communitarian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2011-10-01

    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician. PMID:21858670

  15. [SIBIL: an information tool for the information retrieval on bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracos, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the main features of the website SIBIL (Sistema Informativo per la Bioetica In Linea) implemented within the framework of a research project of the ISS for collecting, indexing and disseminating Italian literature on bioethics since 1995 through an integrated electronic system. The site, addressed to a wide range of people interested at different degrees and levels in bioethics, offers a comprehensive overview of the activities, such as courses and meetings, on the major ethical issues at stake in Italy, as well as a survey of the most important activities both at national and international level. The main feature of SIBIL is a database of a large collection of documents retrieved through sources or exploitation of the most important international electronic databases. A thesaurus of 1,600 terms, available in Italian and English, was created in order to organize documents with standardized criteria currently adopted in the Italian scientific environment. Future trends of the website are also discussed for sharing experiences with other countries and laying the basis for a European portal on bioethics.

  16. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline ALBUQUERQUE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.

  17. Establishing a framework for a physician assistant/bioethics dual degree program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Mark F; Bergman, Brett A

    2014-01-01

    : Numerous medical schools currently offer a master of arts (MA) in bioethics dual degree for physicians. A degree in bioethics enhances the care physicians provide to patients and prepares physicians to serve on ethics committees and consult services. Additionally, they may work on institutional and public policy issues related to ethics. Several physician assistant (PA) programs currently offer a master of public health (MPH) dual degree for PAs. A degree in public health prepares PAs for leadership roles in meeting community health needs. With the success of PA/MPH dual degree programs, we argue here that a PA/bioethics dual degree would be another opportunity to advance the PA profession and consider how such a program might be implemented. The article includes the individual perspectives of the authors, one of whom completed a graduate-level certificate in bioethics concurrently with his 2-year PA program, while the other served as a bioethics program director. PMID:25650878

  18. [BIOETHICS FACED WITH SOCIOCULTURAL DIVERSITY, THE IMPACT OF THE MEANING GIVEN TO AN UNFINISHED CONCEPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal

    2015-10-01

    At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics. PMID:26911078

  19. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mathúna Dónal P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi

  20. La bioéthique sauvage Savage bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Baud

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En Occident, on semble généralement persuadé que ce qui y est appelé la bioéthique peut s’exporter mondialement. En fait les excellentes études qui ont été consacrées aux indiens Hopi montrent que notre bioéthique y serait totalement incompréhensible. Et l’enquête faite chez les Hopis donnerait des résultats très semblables dans d’autres sociétés dites « traditionnelles », dénomination qui signale l’autre aspect du problème. L’Occident, qui prétend étendre la bioéthique, en plus de ce qu’il appelle le droit, la démocratie et d’autres valeurs qui sont en fait une façon d’afficher sa supériorité et sa stratégie de conquête, cet Occident dissimule derrière son discours civilisateur la réalité d’une pensée sauvage qui se perçoit fort bien lorsque le prêche bioéthique dissimule mal les interdits des sacralités primitives.The Western world seems generally convinced that what is labelled as bioethics can be exported throughout the world. In fact the excellent research devoted to Hopi indians shows that our bioethics would be there totally impossible for them to understand. And the study carried out among the Hopis would produce very similar results in other so-called « traditional » societies. When the West claims the extension of bioethics in addition to law, democracy and other values, this may in fact be analyzed as a way of displaying its superiority and its strategy of conquest. It conceals behind its civilizing discourse the reality of a savage mind which is clearly perceptible, for its bioethical sermonising barely hides the taboos of its primitive sacrednesses .

  1. 全球生命伦理学%Global Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henk A M J ten Have; Bert Gordijn; 陈月芹(译)

    2015-01-01

    This paper started the discussion of the origin of bioethics ,demonstrated the opinions of believers of different stories ,and led to the conclusions .Whatever the precise historic provenance of bioethics ,it has currently turned into a truly global phenomenon .It is very important around the world ,because people are not only European or Asian ,but also residents of the world and members of a global moral community .Bioethics is important for everyone everywhere ,not because it is imported or imposed ,but it provides a universal framework to interpret and manage the constantly changes ,in which all countries and cultures are involved currently .However ,the interpretation and application of this framework must respect the local circumstance .Therefore ,modern bioethics must be characterized by both its global nature and local characteristics .%探讨生命伦理学的起源,并阐述了不同理论支持者的观点,发现无论准确的生命伦理学历史起源是什么,目前生命伦理学已经变成了一种真正的全球现象。它在全世界具有重要的意义,因为人类不仅仅是欧洲人或亚洲人,也是世界公民和一个全球道德共同体的成员。生命伦理学对任何地方、任何人都是重要的,并不是因为它是“拿来”的,而是因为它提供了一个普遍的框架去解释和管理正在经历的变化,这个变化包括了目前所有的国家和文化。然而,这个框架的解释和应用必须依据本土环境。因此,现代生命伦理学具有全球性和本土特征的特点。

  2. The 'voice of care': implications for bioethical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carse, A L

    1991-02-01

    This paper examines the 'justice' and 'care' orientations in ethical theory as characterized in Carol Gilligan's research on moral development and the philosophical work it has inspired. Focus is placed on challenges to the justice orientation--in particular, to the construal of impartiality as the mark of the moral point of view, to the conception of moral judgment as essentially principle-driven and dispassionate, and to models of moral responsibility emphasizing norms of formal equality and reciprocity. Suggestions are made about the implications of these challenges, and of the care orientation in ethics, for the ethical theory taught, the issues addressed, and the skills and sensitivities encouraged through bioethical education.

  3. A method of reflexive balancing in a pragmatic, interdisciplinary and reflexive bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of 'empirical' (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but can perhaps best be understood as a substantive attempt to engage with the nature of that interdisciplinarity and to articulate the relationship between the many different disciplines (some of them empirical) that contribute to the field. It can also be described as an endeavour to explain how different disciplinary approaches can be integrated to effectively answer normative questions in bioethics, and fundamental to that endeavour is the need to think about how a robust methodology can be articulated that successfully marries apparently divergent epistemological and metaethical perspectives with method. This paper proposes 'Reflexive Bioethics' (RB) as a methodology for interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics, which utilizes a method of 'Reflexive Balancing' (RBL). RBL has been developed in response to criticisms of various forms of reflective equilibrium, and is built upon a pragmatic characterization of Bioethics and a 'quasi-moral foundationalism', which allows RBL to avoid some of the difficulties associated with RE and yet retain the flexible egalitarianism that makes it intuitively appealing to many. PMID:23444909

  4. A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Debra J H; Hester, D Micah; Kahn, Jeffrey; McGuire, Amy; McKinney, Ross; Meador, Keith; Philpott-Jones, Sean; Youngner, Stuart; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2016-09-01

    While the bioethics literature demonstrates that the field has spent substantial time and thought over the last four decades on the goals, methods, and desired outcomes for service and training in bioethics, there has been less progress defining the nature and goals of bioethics research and scholarship. This gap makes it difficult both to describe the breadth and depth of these areas of bioethics and, importantly, to gauge their success. However, the gap also presents us with an opportunity to define this scope of work for ourselves and to help shape the broader conversation about the impact of academic research. Because of growing constraints on academic funding, researchers and scholars in many fields are being asked to demonstrate and also forecast the value and impact of their work. To do that, and also to satisfy ourselves that our work has meaningful effect, we must understand how our work can motivate change and how that change can be meaningfully measured. In a field as diverse as bioethics, the pathways to and metrics of change will likewise be diverse. It is therefore critical that any assessment of the impact of bioethics research and scholarship be informed by an understanding of the nature of the work, its goals, and how those goals can and ought to be furthered. In this paper, we propose a conceptual model that connects individual bioethics projects to the broader goals of scholarship, describing the translation of research and scholarly output into changes in thinking, practice, and policy. One of the key implications of the model is that impact in bioethics is generally the result of a collection of projects rather than of any single piece of research or scholarship. Our goal is to lay the groundwork for a thoroughgoing conversation about bioethics research and scholarship that will advance and shape the important conversation about their impact. PMID:27649827

  5. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  6. Aging and transplantation - a topic for biomedicine or bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, William J; Dashti, Nassrin

    2011-04-01

    The aged patient stands at the nexus of significant biomedical and bioethical issues in transplantation. This in itself can be seen as a microcosm of an imminent global tempest, stemming from expanding numbers and longer lives of the aged population. As a candidate for receiving organ and tissue transplants, the geriatric patient is challenging because they present unique physiology for medical management. As organ and tissue donors, the aged are perceived of as providing "marginal" organs, which drives the fear that the graft will fail before the recipient. Such difficulties lead inexorably to several unique bioethical considerations for transplantation with this population. The thorny conundrums for society hinge on fairness versus discrimination based on age, played out under the enormous and probably intractable problem of severe donor organ shortages. Fortunately, recent findings offer some rather unexpected new and favorable prospects. Notably, aged donors can provide organs with good, lifesaving function, even though there are nonetheless age-related compromises present. On the other side of the coin, there is less doubt that recipients can have their lives extended with high quality through transplantation. Here they benefit from some (counterintuitively) positive attributes for aging, such as reduced immune function, making immunosuppression less rigorous. Finally, the pressure of organ and tissue shortages plus the lifting of bans on embryonic stem cell research have portents for an explosive alternative to transplantation of adult organs. Stem cells also lend credibility to prospects for realizing regenerative medicine, assuming ethical and religious concerns can be satisfied. PMID:22396872

  7. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Lu, Guangxiu; Döring, Ole; Cong, Yali; Laska-Formejster, Alicja; He, Jing; Chen, Haidan; Gottweis, Herbert; Rose, Nikolas

    2013-12-01

    One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered 'emerging biotech' locations. As a result, cross-continental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal standardisation under the rubric of 'global bioethics'. Such a 'global', 'Western' or 'universal' bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four 'spheres' - deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction - as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges arising from cross-continental research collaborations: (1) ambiguity as to which regulations are applicable; (2) lack of ethical review capacity not only among ethical review board members but also collaborating scientists; (3) already complex, researcher-research subject interaction is further complicated when many nationalities are involved.

  8. Theology and bioethics in the film: Mar adentro, Spain, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Franco Taitson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on euthanasia and its consequences for which seeks to shorten the life of a patient known to be incurable. Film and Literature are equivalent here, being arts narratives that convey a story, and it is natural that the first has appropriated the second to boost its development. Through its own strategy, the two arts narratives met, making a discussion of the privilege of one over the other, which yields fruit until today. This practice can be seen in the Spanish film The Sea Inside, with theological reflections front the valuation of life issues, death, suffering and moral action. In the days of the time today is very rich, due to infinite horizons data by science and technology, which enable the creation and implementation of projects related to the protection and care of the reading of the death. But we know, at the same time that the pathway for degradation and even the establishment of a culture of death is also set. This is exactly why we cannot do without when we talk about death, to make a bioethical exercise and dialogue. Thus, theology, film and literature converge the light of the bioethical studies.

  9. The dual role of human dignity in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorno, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    This paper argues that some of the misunderstandings surrounding the meaning and function of the concept of human dignity in bioethics arise from a lack of distinction between two different roles that this notion plays: one as an overarching policy principle, and the other as a moral standard of patient care. While the former is a very general concept which fulfils a foundational and a guiding role of the normative framework governing biomedical issues, the latter reflects a much more concrete and context-specific understanding of the patient as a "person". The importance of dignity as a policy principle will be described by appealing to the distinction between principles and rules as developed by some legal philosophers. The value of dignity as a standard of patient care will be illustrated with the help of concrete examples and by drawing on the taxonomies of dignity proposed by Jonathan Mann and other scholars. The overall scope of the article is to highlight this double and complementary role of human dignity in bioethics. PMID:22173655

  10. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N; Collins, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (pskills that help prepare an informed citizenry.

  11. Bioethics education for practicing nurses in Taiwan: Confucian-Western clash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey; Chao, Co-Shi Chantal; Lai, Wei-Shu

    2010-07-01

    To understand the gaps between current bioethics education and the requirements of practicing nurses, a semistructured questionnaire was used to invite the directors of nursing departments at all 82 teaching hospitals in Taiwan to participate in this survey. The response rate was 64.6%. Through content analysis we obtained information about previous bioethical training, required themes and content, recommended teaching strategies, and difficulties with education and its application. The results suggest that Taiwanese nursing personnel need to be instilled with both self-cultivation of morality and mental cultivation to acquire nursing virtues and the right attitudes toward bioethical issues. Good communication skills to prevent damage to the harmonious relationships between patients, their families and medical team members, policies that support the provision of systematic formal knowledge of ethics, small group training, and clarification of values were also shown to be important in bioethics education. PMID:20610584

  12. The moral organization of the professions: Bioethics in the United States and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond; Dingwall, Robert; Orfali, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Bioethics is a relatively new endeavor, emerging as a discourse distinct from considerations of moral responsibility occurring within the professions of medicine and science. We use the 'de-centered comparative method' to examine how the emergence and development of bioethics varies across different social and cultural settings. In particular, we look at bioethical work in the United States and France, exploring these different manifestations of the movement toward external oversight of those working in medicine and the life sciences. The study of these varied processes of occupational development allows us to address two important issues. One is the way in which pathways of professionalisation are shaped by contingent cultural and historical factors. The other is the degree to which the increasing prominence of the bioethical occupation is the result of the professional desires of bioethicists and/or a concern for the public good.

  13. Lessons Learned from Undergraduate Students in Designing a Science-Based Course in Bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.

    2013-01-01

    Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre–health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically address these bioethical dilemmas. These courses incorporate innovative pedagogical methods, case studies, and class discussions to stimulate the stu...

  14. Human rights and bioethics: competitors orallies? The role of international law in shaping the contours of a new discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Judit

    2008-03-01

    Bioethical norms that had constituted only a rather short chapter in the medical curricula are now integrated into universal human rights. This paper seeks to demonstrate the normative convergence between the fields of bioethics and human rights by discussing the recently adopted relevant international documents and some applicable cases from international law. Human rights case law relevant in this emerging legal domain is analyzed with the aim to tackle changes that have occurred in the fields of human rights and bioethics due to the convergence and interdependence between them. Bioethics and human rights are two different systems of norms but bioethics can enrich human rights by extending the traditional catalogue of rights in certain new fields. The theory of human rights nevertheless dictates some discipline in formulating new and new rights. Therefore it offers to bioethics, as an exchange, a more sufficient enforcement mechanism and international recognition.

  15. Personal experience narratives by students: a teaching-learning tool in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Radhika H; Shukla, Radha; Gor, Alpa P; Ganguly, Barna

    2016-01-01

    The principles of bioethics have been identified as important requirements for training basic medical doctors. Till now, various modalities have been used for teaching bioethics, such as lectures, followed by a small case-based discussion, case vignettes or debates among students. For effective teaching-learning of bioethics, it is necessary to integrate theory and practice rather than merely teach theoretical constructs without helping the students translate those constructs into practice. Classroom teaching can focus on the theoretical knowledge of professional relationships, patient-doctor relationships, issues at the beginning and end of life, reproductive technologies, etc. However, a better learning environment can be created through an experiencebased approach to complement lectures and facilitate successful teaching. Engaging students in reflective dialogue with their peers would allow them to refine their ideas with respect to learning ethics. It can help in the development both of the cognitive and affective domains of the teaching of bioethics. Real-life narratives by the interns, when used as case or situation analysis models for a particular ethical issue, can enhance other students' insight and give them a moral boost. Doing this can change the classroom atmosphere, enhance motivation, improve the students' aptitude and improve their attitude towards learning bioethics. Involving the students in this manner can prove to be a sustainable way of achieving the goal of deep reflective learning of bioethics and can serve as a new technique for maintaining the interest of students as well as teachers. PMID:27474694

  16. Analysis and critical review of the development of bioethics in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishneuskaya, Yuliya A

    2012-11-01

    The main trends of the bioethics development in Belarus have been analyzed on the basis of the materials collected by the Ethics Documentation Center (ISEU, Minsk, Belarus). A critical review of the most important publications in the field since 2000 suggests that development of bioethics in Belarus has occurred in two parallel directions distantly connected to each other: a theoretical direction and a practical one. Despite there are objective and subjective reasons for introducing bioethics in Belarus as an institutionally-organized system based on liberal values such as individual rights and freedom, a range of essential problems could be identified. Non-equivalent regulation of ethical issues in health care and other fields of biomedical research has been emphasized, as well as the problem of unclear hierarchical relationships among institutions dealing with various aspects of bioethics in the country and low ethical and educational level of the social and professional groups involved in further expansion of bioethical knowledge. The contextual aspects of the development of bioethics in the country such as the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the prevalence of the authoritarian social morality and traditionally paternalistic nature of the relations between physicians and their patients are discussed.

  17. [Building and teaching bioethics in French-speaking countries: at the crossroads of disciplines and practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Moubé, Zéphirin

    2013-01-01

    It is inmportant to emphasize three aspects concerning the construction and teaching of 'French bioethics: the maintenance and promotion ofa multidisciplinary approach; a greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs; positioning a power of attraction and development in French-speaking countries. Bioethics is defined as a field of interdisciplinary studies at the junction of the health sciences and the humanities and, more importantly, directly connected to the reality of the health community, research and public Policy. A greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs is also capital. The danger of being dominated by one discipline involved whether medicine, law, philosophy, theology is real and prevents from promoting methodological approaches that are both theoretical and empirical. Finally, compliance with local and national, but also disciplinary diversity is essential to the construction and teaching of French bioethics. As such, the University of Montreal has positioned itself as a leader in the French-speaking countries: at the junction of North America and European countries, Quebec has developed its own specificity in bioethics, which is a force of attraction for many countries of the French-speaking world. In this context, the Bioethics Programs at the University of Montreal rely heavily on knowledge transfer to other cultures. Moreover, the internationalization of training programs in French bioethics is a major issue in the current context of globalization and transmission of knowledge. PMID:23991544

  18. The historical development of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales: a symbiotic relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2014-04-01

    The paper explores the backward and forward linkage between HCL and bioethics. Indeed, the relationship between the two is so close that it can be considered one of symbiosis. This is particularly the case when an account is taken of how HCL and bioethics positively benefitted from each other in diverse ways during their development into their present status as discrete disciplines. In the first place, the aftermath of the Second World War, such as the Nuremberg trial and unprecedented medical experiment scandals in the 1960s/70s fuelled the increasing participation of lay scholars in exploring and critiquing medical ethics which culminated in the emergence ofbioethics.2 This in turn facilitated the evolution of HCL as a discipline, since academic lawyers involved in early bioethical discourse developed interest in exploring the interface between law and bioethics at the same time that society was waking up to the ethical implications of medical advances. As HCL emerged as a discrete discipline, it consolidated the status of bioethics as a field of inquiry by projecting the relevance of the latter in adjudication of novel cases with significant slippery moral undertones. Thus, the chicken and egg paradox finds a perfect reflection in the emergence of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales. PMID:24946511

  19. [Qualitative research into the scientific production in the field of bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia; Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Un, Julio Wong

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the character and use of qualitative research methods in the field of bioethics. A systematic review of articles published in Latin American countries and selected from the SciELO database was conducted, with special emphasis on articles that employed qualitative research methodology. The set of articles reveals a field of bioethics composed of three distinct vectors. The first refers to the dual characterization of bioethics that can be defined as a social movement or as a discipline; the second differentiates bioethics from other fields of ethics, especially from predominantly deontology-based professional ethics; and the third is related to ethical approaches adopted in the analyses conducted in the research. A relatively insignificant part of these texts result from qualitative research and they can be divided into four categories according to their themes and guidelines: bioethics as a field and/or discourse; training in health; ethics, care, and clinical practice; formulation of health policy. The production shows, on the one hand, a relatively timid approach of social science researchers to the field of bioethics and, on the other hand, little use of qualitative methodologies in research in the field and, in some cases, a certain lack of precision regarding use of the methods. PMID:25014298

  20. The evolving idea of social responsibility in bioethics: a welcome trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies.

  1. [Qualitative research into the scientific production in the field of bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia; Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Un, Julio Wong

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the character and use of qualitative research methods in the field of bioethics. A systematic review of articles published in Latin American countries and selected from the SciELO database was conducted, with special emphasis on articles that employed qualitative research methodology. The set of articles reveals a field of bioethics composed of three distinct vectors. The first refers to the dual characterization of bioethics that can be defined as a social movement or as a discipline; the second differentiates bioethics from other fields of ethics, especially from predominantly deontology-based professional ethics; and the third is related to ethical approaches adopted in the analyses conducted in the research. A relatively insignificant part of these texts result from qualitative research and they can be divided into four categories according to their themes and guidelines: bioethics as a field and/or discourse; training in health; ethics, care, and clinical practice; formulation of health policy. The production shows, on the one hand, a relatively timid approach of social science researchers to the field of bioethics and, on the other hand, little use of qualitative methodologies in research in the field and, in some cases, a certain lack of precision regarding use of the methods.

  2. The significance of the concept of sin for bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievernich, Michael

    2005-08-01

    After a period during which the theological categories of sin and forgiveness were ignored or trivialized, presently these notions are being rediscovered. What could their impact be on bioethics, either in the narrow sense of medical ethics, or in the more encompassing sense of the ethics of the life sciences? This essay begins with describing the processes of transcending and ethitization, which gave rise to the biblical notion of sin. It portrays the theological foundation of sin in terms of a twofold refusal of proper relations to God and other humans. Through the practise of confession in the face of God (coram deo), sin is placed into a horizon of hope for forgiveness and reconciliation. The heuristic and hermeneutical significance of these categories results from their introducing a "surplus value," which transcends biological and ethical considerations. This additional dimension is illustrated in view of care (cura) for the injured, and in view of individual as well as collective willingness to forgive. PMID:16266971

  3. Balancing cultural pluralism and universal bioethical standards: a multiple strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioce, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    If we want to take firm the importance of universal principles in Bioethics, but at the same time we want to take seriously the importance of cultural diversity and pluralism, it is necessary to adopt a multifaceted approach. In the article I argue that a possible way out is a sort of hermeneutic approach, in order to reduce the ambivalence that stems from the dual recognition of cultural diversity and universal value of human rights. Through this approach conflicting principles and traditions can be harmonized within a common framework, at least to some extent. Such an approach, in my perspective, can be implemented as a strategy of interpretation, which can hold together different conceptions and common principles. PMID:26860625

  4. The Hastings Center and the early years of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The Hastings Center was founded in 1969 to study ethical problems in medicine and biology. The Center arose from a confluence of three social currents: the increased public scrutiny of medicine and its practices, the concern about the moral problems being generated by technological developments, and the desire of one of its founders (Callahan) to make use of his philosophical training in a more applied way. The early years of the Center were devoted to raising money, developing an early agenda of issues, and identifying a cadre of people around the country interested in the issues. Various stresses and strains in the Center and the field are identified, and some final reflections are offered on the nature and value of the contributions made by bioethics as an academic field. PMID:22198414

  5. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ting Chowning

    Full Text Available Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001 between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001 in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student

  6. HIV/AIDS and bioethics: historical perspective, personal retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Charles S

    2002-01-01

    Problems posed by HIV/AIDS differ from those of past epidemics by virtue of unique properties of the causative agent, dramatic societal changes of the late 20th century, and the transition of medical practice from a professional ethic to a technology-dependent business ethic. HIV/AIDS struck during the coming-of-age of molecular biology and also of bioethics, and the epidemic stimulated the growth of both disciplines. The number of articles published about AIDS and ethics (as identified by a MEDLINE search) peaked in 1990, just before the peak incidence of AIDS in the United States. The character of ethical dialogue has now shifted from familiar moral quandaries such as civil liberty versus public welfare to concerns about vaccine trials and public policy toward the developing world. Physicians and other health care workers who were involved from the onset endured something of an emotional roller coaster. Their compassion-based work ethic was to a large extent replaced by a competence-based work ethic after the introduction in 1996 of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The abundant recent literature on "professionalism" in medicine makes scant mention of AIDS/HIV. The disruptive effect of AIDS/HIV on society would have been substantially greater had relevant technology such as the ability to isolate retroviruses and potent therapy against tuberculosis not been in place. This sobering consideration, along with such recent events as the use of bioterrorism against civilian populations, suggests new relevance for Potter's definition of "bioethics" as a science of survival in which the biology of ecosystems must be taken into account. PMID:15971565

  7. Artificial nutrition and bioethics issues: medical therapy or basic assistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lesi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial nutrition provides nutrients artificially to those patients who cannot take food by mouth because of their pathological condition. Artificial nutrition is the therapeutical approach in case of protein-energy malnutrition, which is secondary to many conditions which do not allow to take food by mouth. In the last years the use of artificial nutrition has increased, both in hospitals and in the territory, because of the improvement of techniques and of the increasing knowledge of doctors and people and an increasing number of conditions benefit from it. In a temporary or permanent way, artificial nutrition sets important bioethical issues, as it substitutes the function deficit of the gastroenteric system, which is in charge of natural food intake. It is understandable that in human conscience and culture, food and drinking are very strictly related to life more than any other vital function. This concept is stressed by the phrase: ‘‘Give drink to the thirsty and food to the starving’’, that influences the Christian western culture we live in. Materials and methods: The main documents produced by laymen, Italian Catholic Religion institutions, and scientific societies and the medical ethical code have been analyzed with particular attention to whether artificial nutrition should be considered as a medical therapy or as basic assistance, together with the different ethical consequences on its suspension. Conclusions: Even if the doctor is not a specialist of the field and he has to deal with patients subject to artificial nutrition, he must be aware of the bioethical issues that this technique involves, in order to use it in the best way and to develop his own opinion towards it. The review of the documents presented here cannot be considered to be exhaustive, as this topic continuously evolves.

  8. Web-Facilitated Learning for Bioethics Principles on Human Dignity and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapalan Selvadurai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With the advent of globalization and information and communication technology (ICT, web-facilitated learning strategy has taken an important role in the learning and teaching process. This paper examines how bioethics principles on human dignity and human rights can be learned through web-facilitated learning strategies among tertiary level International Relations students. Bioethics is an emerging field that concerns states and inter-state relations. It is about thinking globally about ethics and about our moral judgment about life, the environment and other species. The objective of this study is to provide an assessment on how graduate students of International Relations use web-based tools to gather information about global bioethics principles. Approach: The research data is collected through feedbacks solicited from some 40 post-graduate students of International Relations on (i self-assessment on the learning acquired regarding the bioethics principles using web resources and (ii through a set of pre- and post-tests to test the knowledge acquired on the subject matter. Results: The findings reveal that through the use of web-facilitated learning strategy respondents’ showed increased comprehension and receptiveness towards bioethics principles on human dignity and human rights. Conclusion: Therefore the study concludes that the use of web-facilitated learning strategy can emphasize the importance of bioethics principles in understanding the ethical framework in dealing with human dignity and human rights. The research findings may provide useful information for scholars and researchers developing teaching strategies using bioethics resources.

  9. Negotiating international bioethics: a response to Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    1998-12-01

    Can the bioethical theories that have served American bioethics so well, serve international bioethics as well? In two papers in the previous issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, I contend that the form of principlist fundamentalism endorsed by American bioethicists like Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin will not play on an international stage. Deploying techniques of postmodern scholarship, I argue that principlist fundamentalism justifies neither the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg, nor, as the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) demonstrates, condemnation of Cold War radiation researchers. Principlist fundamentalism thus appears to be philosophy bankrupt. In this issue of the Journal, Beauchamp and Macklin reject this claim, arguing that I have misread the ACHRE report and misunderstood Nazism. They also argue that the form of post-postmodern negotiated human rights theory that I proffer is adequate only insofar as it is itself really fundamentalist; insofar as I take postmodernism seriously, however, I mire international bioethics in relativism. In this response, I reaffirm my anti-fundamentalism, provide further evidence in support of my reading of the ACHRE report, and defend my post-postmodern version of rights theory. I also develop criteria for a minimally adequate theoretical framework for international bioethics.

  10. Don't blame the 'bio'--blame the 'ethics': varieties of (bio)ethics and the challenge of pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Max

    2005-01-01

    We tend to think that the difficulties in bioethics spring from the novel and alarming issues that arise due to discoveries in the new biosciences and biotechnologies. But many of the crucial difficulties in bioethics arise from the assumption we make about ethics. This paper offers a brief overview of bioethics, and relates ethical 'principlism' to 'ethical fundamentalism.' It then reviews some alternative approaches that have emerged during the second phase of bioethics and argues for a neo-Aristotelian approach. Misconceptions about ethical principles and ethical reasoning not only distort our views of the business of bioethics, but they also prevent us from facing up to the formidable problems posed by ethical pluralism in so-called liberal societies.

  11. Bioethical considerations about water fluoridation: a critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Quinteros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the oral pathologies with greater burden of disease in the Chilean population. Fluoridation of drinking water has been used as a caries prevention strategy. However, its application as a public policy has been questioned since its implementation. The aim of this article is to analyze whether fluoridation of drinking water is a justified measure in reducing the incidence and prevalence of caries from the perspective of bioethics, taking into account the current evidence on its effectiveness. The arguments reviewed are based on the belief that water fluoridation is effective and, in general terms, ethically acceptable. A recent systematic review concludes that there is not enough evidence to support fluoridation as a public policy. There is a gap of knowledge that ought to be closed so that public health authorities can assess the significance of the intervention and make a democratic decision on its continuation or suspension based on scientific evidence. This decision should be informed and disseminated within the community.

  12. Rethinking the Bioethics of Pregnancy: Time for a New Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Ashish; Gates, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Within the realm of bioethics, the construction of pregnancy classically has focused on principle-based ethics, essentially separating maternal and fetal interests. Respect for maternal autonomy becomes distinct from an obligation of fetal beneficence, placing practitioners in complicated ethical situations when the goals of pregnant women may be at odds with the best health interests of the fetus as defined by both professional groups and society in general. As a result, clinical care is framed by an ethical "maternal-fetal conflict," with important downstream legal and policy consequences for the well-being of pregnant women. Developments in the social sciences highlight the value of attending to the biosocial realm that a pregnant woman inhabits rather than relating to her and to her fetus as discrete entities. By understanding the needs, concerns, and context within which a woman lives, clinicians can practice an ethics of accompaniment. With a focus on an ethics of accompaniment, assumptions about the maternal moral responsibility to fetal health made by practitioners and society in general can directly affect not only clinical care, but also the way policy surrounding reproductive health is constructed and implemented. PMID:27400011

  13. Towards clinical bioethics (or a return to clinical ethics?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics has traditionally been oriented towards the clinical setting. Since the middle of the last century, however, various circumstances (associated mainly, though not exclusively, with rapid advances in technology and knowledge) have considerably broadened both the field of enquiry and the scope of this discipline. This is due partly to the overlap between medical ethics and bioethics, which in recent decades has acquired its own identity and concerns a multitude of ethical aspects in the biomedical field. Clinical ethics taps into the vast wealth of deontology, so that it has no need for additional criteria or principles, or for the definition of new values: rather, it recognizes the need to apply existing criteria, principles and values to contingent circumstances and contexts. A special role is reserved for ethics committees and, above all, for clinical ethics consultants, although in some countries the former are concerned mainly with authorisations for clinical trials. Clinical ethics consultants, however, may have a more incisive influence in clinical decisions: the special requisites and skills they need have been defined and discussed in various documents which are mentioned briefly in the present article. The presence of these consultants does not exonerate clinical physicians from their responsibilities or from liability for their decisions, in the formation of which they must refer constantly to codes of professional ethics. PMID:24424236

  14. The bioethics of separating conjoined twins in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Gosain, Arun K; Becker, Devra

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of craniopagus twins approximates four to six per 10 million births. Although rare, surgical separation of conjoined twins poses significant technical and ethical challenges. The present report uses the case of craniopagus twins AD and TD to examine the bioethical issues faced by a multidisciplinary medical team in planning the separation of craniopagus twins. AD and TD are craniopagus twins conjoined at the head. TD's head is conjoined to the back of AD's head. Neurologically, AD has the dominant cerebral circulation. TD has two normal kidneys, whereas AD has none. AD depends on TD's renal function and, on separation, will require either a kidney transplant or lifelong dialysis. This case report reviews one approach to analyzing and solving complex ethical dilemmas in pediatric plastic surgery. The principles reviewed are (1) autonomy and informed consent, focusing especially on the role of children in the informed consent process; (2) beneficence and nonmaleficence, two intricately intertwined principles because separation could potentially cause irreversible harm to one twin while improving the quality of life for the other (as separation is not a life-saving procedure, is it ethical to perform a procedure with unknown surgical risk to improve children's quality of life?); and (3) justice (is it fair to allocate excessive medical resources for the twins' separation?). The present report explores the ethics behind such decisions with respect to the separation of conjoined twins.

  15. A sociological analysis of ethical expertise: The case of bioethics

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    Nathan Emmerich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of ethical expertise and does so in the context of bioethics or, more accurately, applied ethics and the ethical governance of the life sciences. This analysis builds on a perspective set out in a previous paper and develops it further such that it relates to democratic processes. I argue that the academic practice of applied ethics exhibits a particular logic, way of thinking or eidos. Drawing on work in the history of science I present the logic of this practice as underpinned by a particular set of values or ethos. This can be contrasted with what Bernstein calls the democratic ethos as well as that of everyday moral agents. Using the framework of expertise developed by Collins and Evan’s—which differentiates between ubiquitous, contributory, and interactional expertise—I suggest that (bioethicists should modulate their expertise depending on the particular nature of the fora—academic, public, and policy-making—they are speaking in.

  16. Initiating palliative care conversations: lessons from Jewish bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2013-03-01

    What are the ethical responsibilities of the medical staff (doctors, nurses, social workers, and chaplains) regarding the preservation of meaningful life for their patients who are approaching the end of life (EOL)? In particular, what is the staff's ethical responsibility to initiate a conversation with their patient regarding palliative care? By subjecting traditional Jewish teachings to an ethical analysis and then exploring the underlying universal principles, we will suggest a general ethical duty to inform patients of the different care options, especially in a manner that preserves hope. The principle that we can derive from Jewish bioethics teaches that the medical staff has a responsibility to help our patients live in a way that is consistent with how they understand their task or responsibility in life. For some patients, the best way to preserve a meaningful life in which they can fulfill their sense of purpose in the time that remains is to focus on palliation. For this reason, although palliative and supportive care are provided from the time of diagnosis, it is critical we make sure our patients realize that they have the opportunity to make a decision between either pursuing additional active treatments or choosing to focus primarily on palliative therapies to maximize quality of life. The Jewish tradition and our experience in spiritual care suggest the importance of helping patients preserve hope while, simultaneously, honestly acknowledging their situation. Staff members can play a vital role in helping patients make the most of this new period of their lives. PMID:23089233

  17. Aboriginal Health Care and Bioethics: A Reflection on the Teaching of the Seven Grandfathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Martin, Gerry

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary bioethics recognizes the importance of the culture in shaping ethical issues, yet in practice, a process for ethical analysis and decision making is rarely adjusted to the culture and ethnicity of involved parties. This is of a particular concern in a health care system that is caring for a growing Aboriginal population. We raise the possibility of constructing a bioethics grounded in traditional Aboriginal knowledge. As an example of an element of traditional knowledge that contains strong ethical guidance, we present the story of the Gifts of the Seven Grandfathers. We note a resemblance of this Ojibway teaching to virtue ethics in European traditions, but we suggest that there are also important differences in how these two traditions are currently presented. We hope that further engagement with a variety of indigenous moral teachings and traditions could improve health care involving Aboriginal patients and communities, and enrich the discipline of bioethics. PMID:27111368

  18. Reframing bioethics education for non-professionals: lessons from cognitive anthropology and education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation. Two of these perspectives have been particularly fruitful in understanding the processes of teaching and learning in a variety of domains. The third perspective has been developed in relation to the formal ethical education of medical students. I examine their relevance for 'non-professional' bioethics education suggesting that if we take seriously the idea that it is part of 'educating for citizenship' then the distinction between 'ethics' and 'politics' is blurred as such programmes aim at the development of student's political subjectivity.

  19. Bioethical aspects of the management of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioethical aspects related with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with AIDS are present in the Cuban strategy to fight the epidemic. Through the revision of the essentials and principles of Bioethics, we analyze the problems that doctors face when treating these patients and aspects related with education for health in the case of this disease. It also outlines the association between these principles and the disposition, manifested or not, of theses patients to be part of some researches. This infection should be the target of permanent analysis by the Bioethics due to the constant challenges that it represent for medical staff and for society, either for the prevention, treatment and care, or for other kids of actions. Cuba has exceptional results in this field.

  20. Reframing bioethics education for non-professionals: lessons from cognitive anthropology and education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation. Two of these perspectives have been particularly fruitful in understanding the processes of teaching and learning in a variety of domains. The third perspective has been developed in relation to the formal ethical education of medical students. I examine their relevance for 'non-professional' bioethics education suggesting that if we take seriously the idea that it is part of 'educating for citizenship' then the distinction between 'ethics' and 'politics' is blurred as such programmes aim at the development of student's political subjectivity. PMID:25344014

  1. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

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    Mendelevich Vladimir D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.

  2. I want to hold your hand: abstinence curricula, bioethics, and the silencing of desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Abby

    2013-06-01

    The abstinence approach to sex education remains influential despite its demonstrated ineffectiveness. One bill forbids the "promotion" of "gateway sexual activity," while requiring outright condemnation of "non-abstinence," defined so loosely as to plausibly include handholding. Bioethics seldom (if ever) contributes to sex-ed debates, yet exploring the pivotal role of medical discourse reveals the need for bioethical intervention. Sex-ed debates revolve around a theory of human flourishing based on heteronormative temporality, a developmental teleology ensuring the transmission of various supposed social goods through heterosexual marriage (Halberstam, 2005). Heteronormative temporality also constitutes a moralized discourse in which the values of health and presumed certainties of medicine serve to justify conservative religious dictates that otherwise would appear controversial as the basis for public policy. Overall, this analysis explores how moralized medical discourses compound existing injustices, while suggesting bioethics' potential contributions to moral and political analysis of sex-ed policies. PMID:23468394

  3. Helen Flanders Dunbar, John Dewey, and clinical pragmatism: reflections on method in psychosomatic medicine and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines the method utilized by physicians and major figures in the founding of Clinical Pastoral Education, Helen Flanders Dunbar, in her work of 1943, Psychosomatic Diagnosis, and relates it to the currently evolving approach in bioethics known as clinical pragmatism. It assesses Dewey's influence on both Dunbar in psychosomatic medicine and clinical pragmatism in bioethics, and illustrates the breadth of influence of the school of philosophical thought known as pragmatism with which Dewey's name and those of William James and Charles Sanders Pierce are most often identified. PMID:12385140

  4. IAB presidential address: bioethics in a globalized world: creating space for flourishing human relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2011-10-01

    Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world. PMID:21929701

  5. The ethics of clinical innovation in psychopharmacology: Challenging traditional bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Frederick K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the scientific and ethical basis for clinical innovation in psychopharmacology. Methods We conducted a literature review, utilizing MEDLINE search and bibliographic cross-referencing, and historical evidence regarding the discovery and development of new medications in psychiatry. Clinical innovation was defined as use of treatments in a clinical setting which have not been well-proven in a research setting. Results Empirical data regarding the impact of clinical innovation in psychopharmacology are lacking. A conceptual and historical assessment of this topic highlights the ethical and scientific importance of clinical innovation. Ethically, it touches a borderline that, in our judgment, is not adequately framed in contemporary mainstream bioethics. Currently, research is viewed as not at all benefiting the patients who participate in it, while clinical care is viewed as being solely for the benefit of patients. Clinical innovation straddles these two worlds, uncomfortably at times. While many argue that clinical innovation should either be avoided or folded into research projects, we argue that clinical innovation is necessary for progress in psychopharmacology research, and that it can prosper best when guided by the following ethical principles: 1. The treatment should be based on a viable hypothesis. 2. Whenever possible, one's clinical observations should be reported so they can be evaluated by the scientific community. 3. One should be willing to report unexpected observations of drug effects. 4. A high standard of informed consent should be maintained. Again, this proposal goes against the standard view among bioethicists that research and clinical care are categorically opposed activities, as made clear by the either-or dichotomy of the Belmont Report on bioethics. This approach has so polarized our profession into clinicians versus researchers, that many clinicians will not apply new knowledge produced by

  6. 76 FR 66720 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... B. Martin Conference Center at Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115... Committee Act of 1972, Public Law 92-463, 5 U.S.C. app. 2, notice is hereby given of the seventh meeting of..., ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advises the President on bioethical issues...

  7. The orthodontist′s responsibility and the bioethical aspects in the current jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The orthodontists usually have to manage patient′s expectations and treatment plans at the same time. Consequently, the civil responsibility and the bioethics involved on orthodontic routine are matters of relevance. Therefore, the importance of adequate conducts is addressed in this research. Aim: The present aim is to analyze the tendency of the courts judging the orthodontists′ responsibility and to observe the bioethical aspects on the current jurisprudence. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 108 lawsuits related to the orthodontist′s civil responsibility, dated from 2003 to 2009. The qualitative data were obtained by the Bardin′s method for detailed reading. The quantitative collection was performed by observing statistical distribution of the following variables: (1 reason of the complaint against the orthodontist, (2 type of obligation designated to the professional, (3 presence of expert′s examination, and (4 jury decision. The correlations between the jury decision and the other variables were verified by applying the Chi-square test. Results: The main reason of the complaints against the orthodontist was the personal dissatisfaction (32%. Subjective and objective obligations had pair incidence (26% and 27%, respectively. The experts′ examination was present in 63, 89%, of the cases, and the jury decision acquitted 57, 78%, of the orthodontists. The passages involving bioethical principles supported properly the qualitative approach. Conclusion: The orthodontists show deviations from the correct daily attitudes. In order to avoid further conflicts, more attention must be given to the principles of bioethics.

  8. [The European Convention of Bioethics. Objectives, guiding principles and possible limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present work a detailed study is given of the European Convention on Bioethics, with discussion of its guiding principles--protection of human beings, their dignity and identity-, its objectives and the limits imposed by the Convention on the exercise of rights and freedoms in the case of the application of biology and medicine.

  9. Identity and status of the Italian National Bioethics Committee: contrasting paradigms (1990-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvati, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    So far the activities of the Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) have been subject to desultory and fragmentary analyses, stuck to the paradigm (in the way Kuhn means it) which claims the division between the issues of "frontier bioethics" and those of "everyday bioethics" (and between the respective types of communication). According to the above mentioned paradigm, bioethics should just deal with the problems coming from the application of technological progress to extreme cases (which imply a type of communication internal to the scientific communities), and only subordinately with other issues, even if of a more general interest and widespread public involvement. Nonetheless, in the last years another paradigm has come out and it is emphasizing the importance of the interaction between the two models of bioethics and of a type of external communication not just limited to the scientific communities in the strict sense of the word, but based on "open opinions ". The present notes are supposed to be an introduction to a historical comprehension of the CNB activity and of its impact, in the light of the rising of the new paradigm and of the Italian adherence to the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe.

  10. 78 FR 71615 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ..., engineering, law, philosophy, theology, or other areas of the humanities or social sciences. The Commission... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY..., Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY:...

  11. 75 FR 16127 - Establishment of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Office of Public Health and Science, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services..., philosophy, theology, and other areas of the humanities or social sciences. Commission members shall...

  12. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  13. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research. PMID:26325424

  14. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Frans W A

    2002-01-01

    respect their integrity. By weighing these prima facie duties, the moral problem of animal experimentation exists in finding which duty actually has to be considered as the decisive duty. It will be argued that these three views, even though they will all justify animal experimentation to some extent, will do so in practice under different conditions. Many current conflicts regarding the use of animals for research may be better understood in light of the conflict between the three bioethical perspectives provided by these views.

  15. Who Guards the Guardians? Ian Kennedy, Bioethics and the ‘Ideology of Accountability’ in British Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Summary This article charts the history of bioethics in Britain through the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy. From the late 1970s, Kennedy claimed that external oversight, which he termed ‘bioethics’, was needed to make medicine accountable to patients and the public. I believe these arguments provide a window onto the historical factors that generated the demand for bioethics, and help us determine why it became influential in recent decades. I detail how Kennedy's argument resonated with the Conservative enthusiasm for audit and consumer choice in the 1980s. Contrary to traditional portrayals of bioethics as a critique of medicine, I also show that Kennedy promised it would benefit doctors by improving decision making and maintaining public confidence. This analysis reframes bioethics as an important constituent of the ‘audit society’: fulfilling the neo-liberal demand for oversight and the medical demand for legitimacy.

  16. Creating the ‘ethics industry': Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as ‘bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the concerns of several groups. My analysis centres on the moral philosopher Mary Warnock, who chaired a government inquiry into human fertilization and embryology between 1982 and 1984, and became a strong advocate of bioethics. I detail how Warnock's promotion of bioethics tallied with the Conservative government's desire for increased surveillance of hitherto autonomous professions – while fulfilling her own belief that philosophers should engage in public affairs. And I also show that Warnock simultaneously promoted bioethics to doctors and scientists as an essential safeguard against declining political and public trust. This stance, I argue, framed bioethics as a vital intermediary between politics, the public, and biomedicine, and explains the growth and endurance of what the Guardian identified as an ethics industry. PMID:22563348

  17. Review of Feminist Bioethics At the Center, On the Margins, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, Petya Fitzpatrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander-Staudt Maureen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anthology, Feminist Bioethics, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, and Petya Fitzpatrick, examines how feminist bioethics theoretically and methodologically challenges mainstream bioethics, and whether these approaches are useful for exploring difference in other contexts. It offers critical conceptual analyses of "autonomy", "universality", and "trust", and covers topics such as testing for hereditary cancer, prenatal selection for sexual orientation, midwifery, public health, disability, Indigenous research reform in Australia, and China's one child policy.

  18. Bioethics education on deliberation--a view of a novel: Blue Gold, by Clive Cussler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Susana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2011-03-01

    Since the focus of Bioethics is the bridge between Humanities and the Life Sciences and bearing in mind that this bridge is often difficult to build, those who believe that this dialogue is important in our days should promote it through Education. By educating in Bioethics it is possible to improve the participation of the citizens in debates on the ethical issues raised by new technologies and scientific research. It is our conviction that literary texts are laboratories of ethical judgment, where the ethical questions concerning specific scientific/ technological issues are addressed in an imaginary world. Therefore our purpose is to present a framework for ethical deliberation through the use of literature. Fiction allows us to "practise" ethical decision making, by focusing on the particular cases of the characters of the story and by checking how the principles/theories working in the background apply to the narrated cases. PMID:21528799

  19. Bioethics and Human Rights in the Constitutional Formation of Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atina Krajewska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “Global health” is an increasingly important area of research and practice, concerned with the profound implications of globalisation for individual and communal health (particularly in developing countries and focused on achieving health equity for all people worldwide. As such, it is often viewed as overlapping with public health and, thus, conceptually distinct from the field of biomedicine and bioethics. Both fields bear an uneasy relationship with the field of human rights, which remains largely unexplored. The paper constructively utilises insight derived from theories of global legal pluralism and global constitutionalism to argue, perhaps controversially, that recent developments in international biomedical law and bioethics, constitute an important phase in the constitutional construction of a global health law system. In doing so, the paper analyses the role of human rights in the growing constitutional autonomy and organization of global health.

  20. Using a Scoring Rubric to Assess the Writing of Bioethics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Labrecque, Cory A; Schonfeld, Toby

    2016-04-01

    Educators in bioethics have struggled to find valid and reliable assessments that transcend the "reproduction of knowledge" to target more important skill sets. This manuscript reports on the process of developing and grading a minimal-competence comprehensive examination in a bioethics master's degree program. We describe educational theory and practice for the creation and deployment of scoring rubrics for high-stakes performance assessments that reduce scoring inconsistencies. The rubric development process can also benefit the program by building consensus among stakeholders regarding program goals and student outcomes. We describe the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy as a mechanism for rubric design and provide an example of how we applied that taxonomy to define pass/fail cut scores. Details about domains of assessment and writing descriptors of performance are also presented. Despite the laborious work required to create a scoring rubric, we found the effort to be worthwhile for our program.

  1. Using a Scoring Rubric to Assess the Writing of Bioethics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Labrecque, Cory A; Schonfeld, Toby

    2016-04-01

    Educators in bioethics have struggled to find valid and reliable assessments that transcend the "reproduction of knowledge" to target more important skill sets. This manuscript reports on the process of developing and grading a minimal-competence comprehensive examination in a bioethics master's degree program. We describe educational theory and practice for the creation and deployment of scoring rubrics for high-stakes performance assessments that reduce scoring inconsistencies. The rubric development process can also benefit the program by building consensus among stakeholders regarding program goals and student outcomes. We describe the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy as a mechanism for rubric design and provide an example of how we applied that taxonomy to define pass/fail cut scores. Details about domains of assessment and writing descriptors of performance are also presented. Despite the laborious work required to create a scoring rubric, we found the effort to be worthwhile for our program. PMID:26957455

  2. Informed consent under the European Convention on Biomedicine and the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, Solomon E

    2011-03-01

    The desirability of obtaining freely given consent is universally accepted. The point, however, is that there is no unanimity on the definition of informed consent or its application in bioethics. Whether informed consent is based on principalism or casuistry or the virtue theory, the problem is how to handle the ethically complex situation created in the interface between informed consent and social justice under international biomedical instruments. This article will proceed by offering detailed historical and critical analyses of informed consent under the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine 1997 and The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights 2005. Three conceptions of justice will be utilised to show that the doctrine of informed consent has driven the ethos of research on human beings and shaped the physician-patient relationship; and that casuistry and virtue theory are consistent with and not rivals of a principle-based account of informed consent.

  3. [The bioethics of protection and the state's role: moral problems in unequal access to drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Carlos Antonio Alves; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine unequal access to drinking water as a public health problem in terms of normative and analytical tools in the bioethics of protection. Therefore, we analyze both the moral implications of unequal treatment of primary needs, such as situations of vulnerability and threat to population groups, and the public sector's responsibility in supplying safe water. In addition, solutions are proposed for the protection of public health and the promotion of legitimate personal development projects. The bioethics of protection reaffirms the state's role in maintaining the drinking water supply and recommends avoiding a policy of privatization of this public good, meanwhile justifying public policies to correct situations of social injustice.

  4. Bioethics and its dimensions in the actions of the health professional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sánchez Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is made a historical recount of the evolution of Bioethics from the origins of this discipline in the United States of North America, by Van Rensselaer Potter, medical oncologist of the University of Wisconsin, and their ulterior development in the Latin America as well as their development in Cuba... Emphasis is made in the necessity of contributing, decisively, to the reinforcement of the national identity, the social commitment, the love to the university, and the invigoration of social ethical values, the construction of values ethical professionals evidenced in acting with bigger civic responsibility and professional. Some reflections are exposed about the dimensions of the Bioethics that should characterize the doctor's professional formation in their performance contexts whose mission is the preparation of professionals able to assure the historical continuity of the Cuban system of health.

  5. Clinical bioethics integration, sustainability, and accountability: the Hub and Spokes Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, S; Chidwick, P; Berry, S; Secker, B; Hébert, P; Shaul, R Zlotnik; Faith, K; Singer, P A

    2005-05-01

    The "lone" clinical bioethicist working in a large, multisite hospital faces considerable challenges. While attempting to build ethics capacity and sustain a demanding range of responsibilities, he or she must also achieve an acceptable level of integration, sustainability, and accountability within a complex organisational structure. In an effort to address such inherent demands and to create a platform towards better evaluation and effectiveness, the Clinical Ethics Group at the Joint Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto is implementing the Hub and Spokes Strategy at seven hospitals. The goal of the Hub and Spokes Strategy is to foster an ethical climate and strengthen ethics capacity broadly throughout healthcare settings as well as create models in clinical bioethics that are excellent and effective.

  6. Bioethics as a second-order discipline: who is not a bioethicist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2006-12-01

    A dispute exists about whether bioethics should become a new discipline with its own methods, competency standards, duties, honored texts, and core curriculum. Unique expertise is a necessary condition for disciplines. Using the current literature, different views about the sort of expertise that might be unique to bioethicists are critically examined to determine if there is an expertise that might meet this requirement. Candidates include analyses of expertise based in "philosophical ethics," "casuistry," "atheoretical or situation ethics," "conventionalist relativism," "institutional guidance," "regulatory guidance and compliance," "political advocacy," "functionalism," and "principlism." None succeed in identifying a unique area of expertise for successful bioethicists that could serve as a basis for making it a new discipline. Rather expertise in bioethics is rooted in many professions, disciplines and fields and best understood as a second-order discipline.

  7. Interpretation and implementation of UNESCO's Universal declaration on bioethics and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Todorovska, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Th e beginning of the 21 century imposes the need of synchronising the practical and the academic approach in the interpretation of bioethical problems and the implications of their solving. Some of the goals of the Declaration are the education of health-care professionals, the creation the infrastructure necessary for biomedical research and the education of the scientists involved in it, and the foundation of ethical committees. Th e Declaration provides with a legal and political guidelin...

  8. Bioethical perspectives for ageing: the documents produced by the Ethics Councils

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Lucília

    2015-01-01

    Aging attracted keen interest in research, health, education as well as cross-sectors approaches. We researched what has been produced by the National Bioethics/Ethics Councils in the form of opinions or other documents, relating to aging and elderly people. In the websi-tes of the 28 EU councils and 12 other countries, we identified 4 documents relating to aging and 8 opinions, which we analyse. The Councils have proposed to draw the attention and reflection of public opinion ...

  9. Developing a bioethics curriculum for medical students from divergent geo-political regions

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Rebecca A.; Kim, Celine; Stolte, Helen; Hellmann, Jonathan; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Valani, Rahim; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization calls for stronger cross-cultural emphasis in medical training. Bioethics education can build such competencies as it involves the conscious exploration and application of values and principles. The International Pediatric Emergency Medicine Elective (IPEME), a novel global health elective, brings together 12 medical students from Canada and the Middle East for a 4-week, living and studying experience. It is based at a Canadian children’s hospital and,...

  10. Bioethics of life programs: Taking seriously moral pluralism in clinical settings

    OpenAIRE

    Niebroj, L

    2010-01-01

    Background In the more and more globalized world, the experience of moral pluralism (often related to, or based upon, religious pluralism) has become a common issue which ethical importance is undeniable. Potential conflicts between patients' and therapeutic teams' moral views and between moral beliefs of the particular member of this team are being resolved in the light of bioethical theories, among which principlism remains the mainstream approach to biomedical ethics. The question arises, ...

  11. LA BIOÉTICA EN LOS ESPACIOS DE APRENDIENCIA (BIOETHICS IN THE LEARNING SPACES

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    Segura Castillo Mario

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo pretendo presentar concepciones a cerca del abordaje de la bioética, desde las teorías del caos y del pensamiento complejo. La bioética es un modo de estar en el dominio del consenso, de coordinaciones de sentires, que requiere de una gran plasticidad, desde lo humano, comprometido con su historia y las futuras generaciones. Además, concibo la aprendiencia como un proceso bioético de vida, en la convivencia, en ese lenguajear perpetúo, que permite la aceptación del otro y la otra. En ese sentido, todos los seres, que crecemos en el lenguaje, somos capaces de aprender y de reconocer nuestros propios errores, como los que hemos cometido con la naturaleza, en todas sus formas. Por lo tanto, una idea personal de la bioética es aprehender los sentires y los pensamientos, con compromiso, en el devenir sostenible de la Tierra.Abstract:In this essay I try to present conceptions which deal with bioethics, from the chaos theories and complex thinking. Bioethics is a mode of being dominated by consensus, the coordination of feelings, which require great flexibility from the human, committed to its history and future generations. Furthermore, I conceive learning as a bioethical process of life, within coexistence, in this perpetual language which permits the acceptation of the other. In this sense, all beings, we who grow up with language, are capable of learning and recognizing our own mistakes, and those which we have committed in nature, and in all forms. Therefore, a personal idea of bioethics is to seize feelings and thoughts, with commitment, in order for earth’s sustainability to come about.

  12. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in...

  13. Bioethics methods in the ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair

    2014-11-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations).

  14. In the Context of Bioethics and Biopolitics with Keeping Track of the Helsinki Declaration

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    Ümit Yaşar Öztoprak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethics and biopolitics derive from ethics, which con­stitutes their denominator but their choice and the appli­cation of the moral principles ranges from being simply different to being outright contradictory. In order to under­stand the interaction between bioethics and biopolitics, which has been repeatedly mentioned, we believe that it is important to examine the Declaration of Helsinki. When the revisions of the declaration are analyzed thoroughly, especially when the differences between the 2008 and 2013 revisions are examined, it is possible to see how bioethics and politics contradict and/or overlap each other in the world of clinical research. In 1952 ethics commission was established under WMA (World Medical Association, in 1961 an outline of text about use of human subjects and researches on human being was created to be a guideline for physicians. This text has been declared at the 18th General Assembly of the WMA (Helsinki 1964. In our study, in the light of this document, we will evaluate with a critical perspective, the revision in 2013 and the WMA’s biopolitics concerns relating to reserch on human subject. We will scent out the traces of the capitalism on the health and health care era. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 111-119

  15. Bioethics methods in the ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair

    2014-11-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  16. Dealing with bioethical dilemmas: A survey and analysis of responses from ministers in the Reformed Churches in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena (Leentie C. de Lange

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements in Bioethics have been rapid and incremental, leaving little time for Christian ethicists to reflect or develop a coherent methodological approach. To assess the situation in the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA, a bioethical questionnaire was developed and administered during the synod in 2009. Three practical questions served as point of departure, viz. which bioethical issues confronted ministers in their work environment, which value judgement trends are evident when counselling members of their congregations and what theoretical frameworks or resources do they call upon when reflecting on these difficult situations? The survey consisted of 19 questions with several subquestions that sought demographic information to determine the population and information about bioethical issues confronting them, methodological strategies they apply and how they think they can contribute to the resolution of any such bioethical dilemmas. The results were tabulated and it was concluded that recent advancements in biotechnology cannot be ignored or dealt with in a piecemeal fashion any longer, either by the RCSA or its ministers. The need for clarity and analysis of the principles underlying those theories that guide or should guide their decision-making and pastoral care in dealing with bioethical dilemmas was emphasised. The findings highlighted the need for appropriate courses in Bioethics to be taught during initial theological training, as well as the need to keep the debate alive by offering workshops, seminars and short courses for practicing ministers to enhance awareness and allay fears and uncertainties in this very dynamic and morally challenging field of human and scientific endeavour.

  17. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics.

  18. Patient Autonomy in Talmudic Context: The Patient's "I Must Eat" on Yom Kippur in the Light of Contemporary Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Zackary; Cahan, Rabbi Joshua

    2016-10-01

    In contemporary bioethics, the autonomy of the patient has assumed considerable importance. Progressing from a more limited notion of informed consent, shared decision making calls upon patients to voice the desires and preferences of their authentic self, engaging in choice among alternatives as a way to exercise deeply held values. One influential opinion in Jewish bioethics holds that Jewish law, in contradistinction to secular bioethics, limits the patient's exercise of autonomy only in those instances in which treatment choices are sensitive to preferences. Here, we analyze a discussion in the Mishna, a foundational text of rabbinic Judaism, regarding patient autonomy in the setting of religiously mandated fasting, and commentaries in the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds, finding both a more expansive notion of such autonomy and a potential metaphysical grounding for it in the importance of patient self-knowledge. PMID:27357582

  19. Pragmatic principles--methodological pragmatism in the principle-based approach to bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Felzmann, Heike

    2003-01-01

    In this paper it will be argued that Beauchamp and Childress' principle-based approach to bioethics has strongly pragmatic features. Drawing on the writings of William James, I first develop an understanding of methodological pragmatism as a method of justification. On the basis of Beauchamp's and Childress' most recent proposals concerning moral justification in the fifth edition of their Principles of Biomedical Ethics (2001), I then discuss different aspects that the principle-based approach and methodological pragmatism have in common. PMID:14972762

  20. [Science fiction and the Brave New World: predictions fulfilled in our century and bioethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Carolina Clemente Dos; Amorim Neto, Thomaz Pereira de; Goes, Andrea Carla de Souza

    2013-06-01

    The speed with which science generates results in modern society requires reflection on the limits of scientific progress. This is the foundation of Brave New World, a book published by Aldous Huxley in 1932 that portrays a future technological society along the lines of Fordism. This article establishes a relationship between our current technocratic society and that described by Huxley, discussing the viability of the technical and biological aspects of the manipulations narrated in the book in light of current knowledge. Some bioethical considerations with respect to the procedures 'invented' by the author - and which are already or could be developed in modern society - will also be addressed.

  1. [Science fiction and the Brave New World: predictions fulfilled in our century and bioethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Carolina Clemente Dos; Amorim Neto, Thomaz Pereira de; Goes, Andrea Carla de Souza

    2013-06-01

    The speed with which science generates results in modern society requires reflection on the limits of scientific progress. This is the foundation of Brave New World, a book published by Aldous Huxley in 1932 that portrays a future technological society along the lines of Fordism. This article establishes a relationship between our current technocratic society and that described by Huxley, discussing the viability of the technical and biological aspects of the manipulations narrated in the book in light of current knowledge. Some bioethical considerations with respect to the procedures 'invented' by the author - and which are already or could be developed in modern society - will also be addressed. PMID:23739805

  2. IS THE ETHICS OF ECONOMIES ADAPTED OR NOT TO THE IMPERATIVE OF BIOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Donev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethics in economy is not only a corrector, but also must be initiator if we want to achieve essence of our existence - the human being as “Homo ethicus”, as well as, which is more important for mankind - to achieve a human being as “Homo homine ethica ethicus est”. This remark points on two things. First: we came to the stage where we become aware about the fact that our economies are dehumanized. The second: that’s the reason why we must return to ethics and pull out from it that universal values which will make the managers of natural recourses more ethically awarded, so they will be able to start managing production without endangering bio potentials anymore. Previous remark lead us to conclusion that, no matter if the idiom “business ethics” is oxymoron or not, the present ethics is more a list of rules of conduction or, more precisely, etiquette. This clearly points that this kind of ethics of economy and in economy is not adoptive to the imperative of Bioethics: Don’t misuse recourses if you want to feed yourself and those for which you create the existence! This is so because always when we talk about ethics and ethicizing of those which managing the base of existence, de facto, are discussions about choosing the appropriate model of capitalism. The problem of these “discussions” is that we almost always forget to explain: is the chosen model of capitalization of society applicable considering the local specifics and needs of community? Therefore, the imperative of Bioethics, in this context, is to teach the ethics how to think about bio resource and bio heritage, even if we stop talk of some kinds of ethics and ethicizing of economies and of those which managing with it, because if we reconsider the reactions of the population, it is clear that they are seek of talking about it. But also, it’s recognizable the fact that they who talks just show that the essential thinking about Bioethics is absent and that the

  3. Following the Yellow Brick Road: Next Steps in the Synthesis of Pediatric Bioethics and Child Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The Symposium on "The Interface of Child Rights and Pediatric Bioethics in the Clinical Setting" brought together a diverse group of pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates to explore how the junction of these disciplines could inform their respective work. In retrospect, it is clear how the diversity of personal histories, professional disciplines, knowledge, experience, language, culture, and politics of the participants influenced the outcomes of the Symposium and provided both challenges and opportunities for further collaboration. Several themes emerged from the meeting, including the relevance of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the role of the family, and consideration of the best interests of the child to complex medical decision-making; research ethics; and the applicability of the principles of bioethics and child rights to the social determinants of health. This essay poses questions related to each of these themes that can serve as a framework for further collaboration. It concludes with a statement by Da Silva and his coauthors that the CRC and the principles of child rights can provide "increased conceptual clarity and a widely endorsed language that can assist pediatric bioethicists in clinical, organizational, and international consultations, as well as in education and policy development." PMID:27157356

  4. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Badulescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services, and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.

  5. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.

  6. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Faria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists′ and the Nazi doctors′ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ′collective′ or ′greater good.′ Thus in the 20 th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  7. Bioethical responsibilities of the health authority in health care and biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflection on bioethical contents of health policies and their effects on the demands for social justice has been a preferred concern of those who have driven the health reforms that were behind the creation of the National Health Service and, more recently, the regime of health guarantees. In the course of the years, the concern for the vindication of individual rights in the context of health care and research has joined to citizen demands for equitable access to health actions. For this purpose, in 2006 and 2012, specific laws addressing these matters were enacted and in the last year, regulations that make them operative emerged and are being implemented. The wording of the articles of both laws, in the effort to rescue individual rights, raises an imbalance in some respects, with regard to the social impact of their implementation. In certain subjects, its provisions run counter to existing codes of professional ethics in the country and in others; its implementation allows the privatization of the process of ethical review of pharmacological research, which was restricted to public health services. The absence of starting up of the National Bioethics Commission, pending since 2006, has prevented the creation of a pluralistic spaTce for deliberation on these issues and others as provided by law.

  8. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market. PMID:17146900

  9. Are gay and lesbian people fading into the history of bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    In many ways, we live in propitious times for gay and lesbian people. In 1996, the Supreme Court struck down Colorado law prohibiting any kind of protected status based on sexual orientation. In 2003, the Supreme Court held that states may not criminalize sexual conduct between consenting adults of the same sex in private, so long as no money changes hands. In 2010, the Congress repealed the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy that excluded openly gay men and lesbians from military service. In 2013, the Supreme Court struck down key elements of the Defense of Marriage Act that prohibited any federal recognition of same-sex marriage. Most states do not allow same-sex marriage, but more and more states are joining the fold. Likewise, most U.S. states do not forbid discrimination based on sexual orientation, but the number that does is increasing. Arguably, no other social minority has made as much legal progress in so short a time. Despite these advances, the story of gay and lesbian people and the law is not yet finished, and the meaning of homosexuality for bioethics is still being written too. Concerns about gay and lesbian people remain important to bioethics in key domains, especially in seeing to the conferral of optimal health care benefits and in sorting through the priorities and social effects of research. Progress in these domains still involves lifting certain burdens of medical and social misjudgments about same-sex attraction. PMID:25231791

  10. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  11. Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross-Cultural Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, we do not want to backslide into a form of cultural relativism that is unable to critically appraise cultural practices that are harmful, unjust, or oppressive. I examine two prominent attempts - the principlism of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress and the Contractarianism of Robert Baker - to frame cross-cultural bioethics between these two extremes and argue that both approaches have significant flaws. The principlist approach fails to provide a non-question begging way to identify cross-cultural norms that does not already assume the universal legitimacy of moral principles dominant in North American society. Baker's contractarianism cannot grapple with the realities of political power imbalances that often characterize cross-cultural moral disputes. I suggest that a naturalized feminist framework, though not free of its own theoretical difficulties, provides the best alternative for approaching moral diversity respectfully and critically. PMID:24750579

  12. Brain death: the challenges of translating medical science into Islamic bioethical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Basser, Taha A

    2012-09-01

    Islamic ethico-legal assessments of brain death are varied and controversial. Some Islamic ethico-legal bodies have concluded that brain death is equivalent to cardiopulmonary death; others regard it as an intermediate state between life and death, and a few opine that it does not meet the standards for legal death according to Islamic law. Yet this translation of the concept of brain death into the Islamic ethico-legal domain has generated multiple ethical complexities that receive insufficient attention within the extant medical and fiqh literature. How do Islamic legists understand brain death as a clinical phenomenon? How does the Islamic ethico-legal system treat medical uncertainty? What Islamic ethico-legal principles should apply to bioethical questions about life and death? In this paper, we analyze the arguments for, and against, the acceptance of brain death within the context of the deliberation of a representative juridical council. In our discussion we focus on areas in which the legists' ethico-legal reasoning hinges upon clinical conceptions of the state of the individual when diagnosed as brain dead. As Islamic ethics continues to engage scientific and technological advancements in these areas, such exploration of internal workings is necessary if we wish to better understand how Islamic ethical principles can contribute to bioethical deliberation. PMID:23248843

  13. Bioethical – Theological and Legal approach in genetic testing of adult persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thorough genetic testing gives possibility's diagnosis of genetic diseases or identity individuals, who genetic predisposed for disease outbreak Aims: To present/identify the ethical and religious issues, which arise from the application of genetic testing in humans. Furthermore, the principles from the European and Greek legislation regarding genetic testing will be discussed. Materials & Methods: A literature review based on both review and research literature, conducted during the period of (1993-2010, derived from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ΙΑΤΡΟΤΕΚ databases using as key words: Bioethics, genetic testing, bioethics, access, genetic information, orthodox ethics, Legislation. Results: Genetic testing for disease prevention is of primary importance. The main ethical concerns however, are related to the dissemination/ disclosure and use of this information from insurance companies, healthcare authorities, scientists, forensic departments/services and employers. Similarly, the orthodox religion accepts the use of genetic testing for the prevention and treatment of diseases as long as there is no break of confidentiality. Finally, considering the legal issues, it is apparent that genetic information is regarded as personal information and as such it is protected from the national (Greek and international law. Conclusions: It is necessary to ensure that the public authorities protect the rights of their citizens regarding genetic testing and all insurance companies, employers, schools etc. should not be allowed to have access to genetic information. Such an approach will ensure that social discrimination, obstructions or other inequalities between people on the basis of genetic information is avoided.

  14. The Evolving Ethics of Dialysis in the United States: A Principlist Bioethics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Catherine R; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Tonelli, Mark R; Lam, Daniel Y

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the history of dialysis, four bioethical principles - beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice - have been weighted differently based upon changing forces of technologic innovation, resource limitation, and societal values. In the 1960s, a committee of lay people in Seattle attempted to fairly distribute a limited number of maintenance hemodialysis stations guided by considerations of justice. As technology advanced and dialysis was funded under an amendment to the Social Security Act in 1972, focus shifted to providing dialysis for all in need while balancing the burdens of treatment and quality of life, supported by the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. At the end of the last century, the importance of patient preferences and personal values became paramount in medical decisions, reflecting a focus on the principle of autonomy. More recently, greater recognition that health care financial resources are limited makes fair allocation more pressing, again highlighting the importance of distributive justice. The varying application and prioritization of these four principles to both policy and clinical decisions in the United States over the last 50 years makes the history of hemodialysis an instructive platform for understanding principlist bioethics. As medical technology evolves in a landscape of changing personal and societal values, a comprehensive understanding of an ethical framework for evaluating appropriate use of medical interventions enables the clinician to systematically negotiate and optimize difficult ethical situations. PMID:26912540

  15. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  16. Medical Tourism: Between Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Bioethics Boundaries: Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    BADULESCU, Daniel; BADULESCU, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  17. Localized past, globalized future: towards an effective bioethical framework using examples from population genetics and medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Heather

    2011-02-01

    This paper suggests that many of the pressing dilemmas of bioethics are global and structural in nature. Accordingly, global ethical frameworks are required which recognize the ethically significant factors of all global actors. To this end, ethical frameworks must recognize the rights and interests of both individuals and groups (and the interrelation of these). The paper suggests that the current dominant bioethical framework is inadequate to this task as it is over-individualist and therefore unable to give significant weight to the ethical demands of groups (and by extension communal and public goods). It will explore this theme by considering the inadequacy of informed consent (the 'global standard' of bioethics) to address two pressing global bioethical issues: medical tourism and population genetics. Using these examples it will show why consent is inadequate to address all the significant features of these ethical dilemmas. Four key failures will be explored, namely, • That the rights and interests of those related (and therefore affected) are neglected; • That consent fails to take account of the context and commitments of individuals which may constitute inducement and coercion; • That consent alone does not have the ethical weight to negate exploitation or make an unjust action just ('the fallacy of sufficiency'); • That consent is a single one-off act which is inappropriate for the types of decision being made. It will conclude by suggesting that more appropriate models are emerging, particularly in population genetics, which can supplement consent. PMID:21175711

  18. The value and pitfalls of speculation about science and technology in bioethics: the case of cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Martin Rubio, Tristana; Chandler, Jennifer; Forlini, Cynthia; Lucke, Jayne

    2014-08-01

    In the debate on the ethics of the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals for cognitive performance enhancement in healthy individuals there is a clear division between those who view "cognitive enhancement" as ethically unproblematic and those who see such practices as fraught with ethical problems. Yet another, more subtle issue, relates to the relevance and quality of the contribution of scholarly bioethics to this debate. More specifically, how have various forms of speculation, anticipatory ethics, and methods to predict scientific trends and societal responses augmented or diminished this contribution? In this paper, we use the discussion of the ethics of cognitive enhancement to explore the positive and negative contribution of speculation in bioethics scholarship. First, we review and discuss how speculation has relied on different sets of assumptions regarding the non-medical use of stimulants, namely: (1) terminology and framing; (2) scientific aspects such as efficacy and safety; (3) estimates of prevalence and consequent normalization; and (4) the need for normative reflection and regulatory guidelines. Second, three methodological guideposts are proposed to alleviate some of the pitfalls of speculation: (1) acknowledge assumptions more explicitly and identify the value attributed to assumptions; (2) validate assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) adopt a broad perspective to promote more comprehensive reflection. We conclude that, through the examination of the controversy about cognitive enhancement, we can employ these methodological guideposts to enhance the value of contributions from bioethics and minimize potential epistemic and practical pitfalls in this case and perhaps in other areas of bioethical debate.

  19. FORMATION AND USE OF ILLUSTRATIVE IMAGES IN THE “BIOETHICS AND QUESTIONS OF BIO SAFETY” COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the experience of formation and creating illustrative images for the course called «Bioethics and questions of bio safety». The peculiarity of this course is to review bioethical problems in the context of concrete scientific activities of the biologist – research, experimental work. The part of the course issues related to Bio safety, is revealed as an interdisciplinary area of knowledge focusing on the identification, study and understanding of biological practice and biological research associated with broad philosophical and moral component. The main blocks have been identified, which form visual resources: animals in the experiment, the questions of bioethics in the media; the metamorphosis of the human body; chimeras in works of art. In the selection of illustrative images we have taken into account several aspects: illustration, as an information resource for the analysis of the studied phenomenon; illustration, as a form of motivation to seek information, the answer to the question; illustration, as an element of ethical education of the student to different issues of bioethics. For each semantic unit collected 20-30 illustrative images within two years. They are used both when reading a lecture course and as material for independent work of students. It is shown that the presented visual resources for the course reflect the basic components of visual thinking: linear; structural; combinatorial and functional

  20. Localized past, globalized future: towards an effective bioethical framework using examples from population genetics and medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Heather

    2011-02-01

    This paper suggests that many of the pressing dilemmas of bioethics are global and structural in nature. Accordingly, global ethical frameworks are required which recognize the ethically significant factors of all global actors. To this end, ethical frameworks must recognize the rights and interests of both individuals and groups (and the interrelation of these). The paper suggests that the current dominant bioethical framework is inadequate to this task as it is over-individualist and therefore unable to give significant weight to the ethical demands of groups (and by extension communal and public goods). It will explore this theme by considering the inadequacy of informed consent (the 'global standard' of bioethics) to address two pressing global bioethical issues: medical tourism and population genetics. Using these examples it will show why consent is inadequate to address all the significant features of these ethical dilemmas. Four key failures will be explored, namely, • That the rights and interests of those related (and therefore affected) are neglected; • That consent fails to take account of the context and commitments of individuals which may constitute inducement and coercion; • That consent alone does not have the ethical weight to negate exploitation or make an unjust action just ('the fallacy of sufficiency'); • That consent is a single one-off act which is inappropriate for the types of decision being made. It will conclude by suggesting that more appropriate models are emerging, particularly in population genetics, which can supplement consent.

  1. Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Sylvester C; Mduluza, Takafira; Kipkemboi, Julius

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we

  2. An integrated ethical approach to bioethical decision-making: A proposed model for ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena C. de Lange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined a model for guidance in ‘doing’ bioethics in a Reformed context. The proposed model suggested that in order to arrive at responsible ethical decisions, one must refer to both contextual elements and theory. The theoretical grounding for this model was based on the integration of a deontological and virtue ethics approach, arguing that virtue enables persons to know and desire the right moral ends and motivates them to carry out appropriate action toward achieving these ends. An integrative model opens up the possibility whereby bioethics as a systematic tool provides the individual decision-maker with the critical-reflective skills and justification for the ultimate choice that is lacking in the general decision-making processes. This could lead to clearer thinking and increased confidence in the justification of decisions within the Reformed tradition. The proposed hermeneutical perspective on ethical decision-making represents a shift in views about the nature of knowledge and the process of how we come to know. The key to this hermeneutical approach is to acknowledge the dialectic between the universal and the subjectivity of human relations. Working in specific religious communities, one needs to take cognisance of the fact that knowledge is situated in the context of human relationships in which the interpreter participates when articulating the meaning of bioethical experiences. Another aspect that is anticipated lies in the realisation that people struggling with bioethical dilemmas should not be viewed as isolated individuals, but as members of a broader faith community.‘n Geïntegreerde etiese benadering tot bioetiese besluitneming: Voorgestelde model vir predikante. Hierdie artikel het ‘n model geskets wat moontlike riglyne aantoon vir die  beoefening  van  bioetiek  binne  ‘n  Gereformeerde  konteks.  Die  voorgestelde  model argumenteer dat verwysing na beide kontekstuele elemente en teorie

  3. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Telles de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.

  4. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J L; Schramm, F R

    1999-01-01

    Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care) beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.

  5. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups. PMID:22984748

  6. Law and bioethics in Israel: between liberal ethical values and Jewish religious norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Amos

    2006-01-01

    In Israel, the bulk of the population leads an essentially secularist, liberal, and permissive individual lifestyle. At the same time, certain cultural-religious values, institutions, practices, and injunctions are formally woven into the Israeli communal fabric. Consequently, the bioethical discourse in Israel has evolved in a sociocultural context which manifests a unique mix of orthodoxy and secularism, of communal paternalism and assertive individualism, of proscription and permissiveness, of religious norms and liberal ethical values. There can be no denying of the impact of Jewish religious tenets, and the political groups that champion them, on the shaping of Israeli biomedical jurisprudence. Yet it would be wrong to assume that such impact invariably has been prohibitive and restrictive. To illustrate the diverse influence of religious attitudes on normative postures regarding biomedical dilemmas in Israel, I will focus on end-of-life medical decision making, on the one hand and on embryonic stem cells research, on the other.

  7. Clinical use of amyloid-positron emission tomography neuroimaging: Practical and bioethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Michael M; Foster, Norman L; Fleisher, Adam S; Williams, Monique M; Quaid, Kimberly; Wasserman, Michael; Hunt, Gail; Roberts, J Scott; Rabinovici, Gil D; Levenson, James L; Hake, Ann Marie; Hunter, Craig A; Van Campen, Luann E; Pontecorvo, Michael J; Hochstetler, Helen M; Tabas, Linda B; Trzepacz, Paula T

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, estimation of β-amyloid plaque density as a key element for identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as the cause of cognitive impairment was only possible at autopsy. Now with amyloid-positron emission tomography (amyloid-PET) neuroimaging, this AD hallmark can be detected antemortem. Practitioners and patients need to better understand potential diagnostic benefits and limitations of amyloid-PET and the complex practical, ethical, and social implications surrounding this new technology. To complement the practical considerations, Eli Lilly and Company sponsored a Bioethics Advisory Board to discuss ethical issues that might arise from clinical use of amyloid-PET neuroimaging with patients being evaluated for causes of cognitive decline. To best address the multifaceted issues associated with amyloid-PET neuroimaging, we recommend this technology be used only by experienced imaging and treating physicians in appropriately selected patients and only in the context of a comprehensive clinical evaluation with adequate explanations before and after the scan. PMID:27239516

  8. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  9. Why would medical publishers not incorporate core bioethical values into their Ethics Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watine, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    It is quite universally acknowledged by bioethicists, at least in the western world, that respect for the patients' autonomy, non-malevolence, beneficence, and justice (also called equity) are four core ethical values in medicine. The Ethics Guidelines of key journals in laboratory medicine are not explicit about the first three of these values, and even implicitly, they seem to miss values of justice. Health equity being one of the main objectives of public health policy across the world, we suggest that values of equity explicitly become part of the Ethics Guidelines of laboratory medicine journals. Biochemia Medica could show the way to other medical publishers by incorporating into its Ethics Guidelines these very important core bioethical values.

  10. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MORAL, ETHICS, BIO-ETHICS AND WHAT IS IN BETWEEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Daniella; Yagoda, Arie

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the study of emotions has broadened its scope and established its standing as a new scientific discipline. Humanity has become increasingly conscious of the seminal role played by the emotional components in both intrapersonal and interpersonal behavior. A deeply rooted and inherent correlation exists between emotional intelligence (E.I. - Emotional Intelligence) and positive social results: social adaptation, quality social relationships, the capacity for healthy social behaviors, caring, altruism, empathy, enlightened communication and the efficacy and personal coherence essential to moral and ethical behavior, including its manifestation in the sphere of bio-ethics. The importance of the personal relationship between the doctor and the patient is especially fundamental in the current era of immense and accelerated scientific-technological development, forcing doctors to cope with an increasingly complicated technical environment. Precisely because of this reality, it is essential that a doctor's actions and interpersonal relationship with the patient proceed from an ethical base, grounded in both professional and emotional responsibility. Emotional responsibility is one of the central elements underlying bioethical conduct and is the element that provides the guideposts for the treatment of others. The symbiotic connection between emotional intelligence and the sphere of ethics and morals is what delineates human beings. Human beings, by definition and in essence, bear responsibility for their actions. The beginning of ethics is in the human being's consciousness of choice in relation to self and to others. An individual's choices integrate emotion and cognition. That ability to integrate alongside the capacity for choice enables the human race to act in accordance with ethical and moral codes. At work, on a daily basis, a doctor is positioned opposite to the physical, emotional, cognitive and ethical entirety of the patient. Beyond the doctor

  11. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  12. Bioethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  13. Problems related to the use of animals for therapeutic and care purposes: the document of the National Committee for Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Santori

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Ministry of Health, in 2002, instructed the National Committee for Bioethics to carefully review and ultimately provide evidence for future legislative bills in various aspects. One such matter was that of the subject of "Pet Therapy", generically viewed as a "man-animal" relationship, with the purpose of proving beneficiary to both human health and welfare. The necessity of a bioethical approach was deemed important in establishing the concrete benefits for mankind (and the research required to demonstrate this whilst also considering any possible malaise inflicted on those animals participating. The final recommendations decided upon, took into consideration effectiveness, cost, suitable alternatives, discussion of the intervention with the patient.

  14. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dedi Afandi; Yuli Budiningsih; Oktavinda Safitry; Agus Purwadianto; Dwi Novitasari; Ivan R. Widjaja

    2009-01-01

    Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with pa...

  15. Transplants: bioethics and justice Transplantes: bioética e justiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cohen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethics, as a branch of philosophy that focuses on questions relative to health and human life, is closely tied to the idea of justice and equality. As such, in understanding the concept of equality in its original sense, that is, in associating it to the idea to treat "unequals" (those who are unequal or different, in terms of conditions or circumstances unequally (differentially, in proportion to their inequalities (differences, we see that the so-called "one-and-only waiting list" for transplants established in law no. 9.434/97, ends up not addressing the concept of equality and justice, bearing upon bioethics, even when considering the objective criteria of precedence established in regulation no. 9.4347/98, Thus, the organizing of transplants on a one-and-only waiting list, with a few exceptions that are weakly applicable, without a case by case technical and grounded analysis, according to each particular necessity, ends up institutionalizing inequalities, condemning patients to happenstance and, consequently, departs from the ratio legis, which aims at seeking the greatest application of justice in regards to organ transplants. We conclude, therefore, that from an analysis of the legislation and of the principles of bioethics and justice, there is a need for the creation of a collegiate of medical experts, that, based on medical criteria and done in a well established manner, can analyze each case to be included on the waiting list, deferentially and according to the necessity; thus, precluding that people in special circumstances be treated equal to people in normal circumstances.A bioética, como ramo da filosofia que enfoca as questões relativas a saúde e a vida humana, está intimamente ligada à idéia de justiça e igualdade. Desta forma, entendendo o conceito de igualdade em sua acepção original, ou seja, associando-o à idéia de tratar desigualmente os desiguais na medida de suas desigualdades, observamos que a denominada

  16. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  17. Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation

  18. Tattoos, piercings and re-configuration of the body. A path between bioethical and educational profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Bianco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos and piercings can become a mask to hide behind? Everything can become a mask if we use it for masquerading. The tattoo is the anthropological roots of ancient and modern makeup that refers to the mask understood as that which creates the face, which gives it its social being. The tattoo is also an artistic decoration that should be born by the deep desire to communicate yourself to others. Tattoos must be able to "tell" the people who wear them, but if the latter decorate their body with a message or image that does not belong, it can cause the destruction of individuality. The tattoo is immortal. It can be a permanent dress, a way to resist the unwanted transformations using a piece of subjective identity, non-imitable, from which one cannot be excluded. Along with careful identification of psycho-sociological motivations that drive a young man to want a tattoo, you need to traverse an education that not only form a personality, teaches the knowledge of his own body. Getting a tattoo means not only change the morphology of the body but the risk of jeopardizing their health. Responsibility for their own health also means being aware that a tattoo can procure mild side effects or more severe depending on the initial state of health of the subject. Then a tattoo only after a careful history following the favorable opinion of the doctor and after a personal assessment aware. These initial objectives of a path bioethical-pedagogical significant.

  19. The 'four principles of bioethics' as found in 13th century Muslim scholar Mawlana's teachings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenik Ali

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been different ethical approaches to the issues in the history of philosophy. Two American philosophers Beachump and Childress formulated some ethical principles namely 'respect to autonomy', 'justice', 'beneficence' and 'non-maleficence'. These 'Four Principles' were presented by the authors as universal and applicable to any culture and society. Mawlana, a great figure in Sufi tradition, had written many books which not only guide people how to worship God to be close to Him, but also advise people how to lead a good life to enrich their personality, as well as to create a harmonious society and a peaceful world. Methods In this study we examined the major works of Mawlana to find out which of these 'Four Principles of Bioethics' exist in Mawlana's ethical understanding. Results We have found in our study that all these principles exist in Mawlana's writings and philosophy in one form or another. Conclusions We have concluded that, further to Beachump and Childress' claim that these principles are universal and applicable to any culture and society, these principles have always existed in different moral traditions in different ways, of which Mawlana's teaching might be presented as a good example.

  20. Knowledge and positions on bioethical dilemmas in a sample of Spanish nursing students: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Palacios Ceña, Domingo; Fuentes, Paloma Salvadores

    2011-01-01

    This study, performed in Madrid, Spain, evaluates nursing students' understanding and attitudes about bioethical dilemmas that they will likely confront as health care providers. We asked 86 juniors in the King Juan Carlos University Nursing baccalaureate program about their knowledge of and personal attitudes on five biomedical advances: eugenics, experimentation with unimplanted embryos, human cloning, abortion, and euthanasia. Students reported being most knowledgeable about abortion and euthanasia and least familiar with eugenics. Examining the data for a correlation between the two phenomenon (knowledge and position) with respect to each of these five biomedical issues, the students reported significantly Conversely, they held significantly neutral positions on eugenics, a virtually unfamiliar topic for them (r = 0.618, p < 0.0001). The data also revealed a significantly direct correlation between knowledge and position for experimentation with non-implanted embryos (correlation coefficient = 0.380, p < 0.0001), that is, little knowledge and neutral attitudes. The trend findings for abortion and cloning were not significant. Based on these data, we concluded that the nursing program would benefit from additional biomedical curriculum.

  1. Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1977-07-15

    Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation.

  2. [Cesarean section on request because of labor pain--bioethical and legal views].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frković, Aleksandra; Bosković, Zvonko

    2010-03-01

    Non-medical reasons that influence the decision to perform cesarean section are the subject of numerous medical and bioethical debates. The questions to be answered are: can a pregnant woman demand cesarean section based on her right to make decisions, i.e. on patient rights? Do such a request and permission given by the woman justify the physician to perform the procedure without clear medical indication, knowing that cesarean section is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality rate than vaginal delivery? Among the numerous reasons stated by pregnant women or their families when demanding cesarean section, this paper is focused on labor pain. The experience of pain during delivery is the result of many complex physiologic and psychosocial factors that act on the woman's personal interpretation of the nociceptive delivery stimuli. A mother's request for cesarean section should not be motivated by the lack of efficiency of pain management. Such motivation points to inadequate prenatal care and patient education offered by the obstetrician and anesthesiologist. Decisions to perform cesarean section upon request are not in accordance with the guidelines of declarations and codes of medical ethics, and have no legal basis in our country.

  3. [Individual versus collective protection: bioethical analysis of the national program of mass child vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Sérgio de Castro; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is considered one of the most efficient and cost-effective public health policies most used in the control and prevention of disease. However, it is also one of the most polemic and controversial biomedical techniques, making it difficult to avoid an ethical dilemma, especially when vaccination is compulsory for the entire population. Indeed, since vaccines are not totally effective and safe, there is an ethical conflict between the individual and the collective interest, because children effectively carry the burden of vaccination for the benefit of public health when they are affected with serious adverse reactions and do not benefit from the care that should be offered by the government. The objective of this article was to demonstrate that the tools of bioethics are relevant in this discussion to understand and analyze these dilemmas critically by providing convincing arguments to underpin the development of biopolitics that consider prevention not only rigorously, but also the joint responsibility of all as fundamental for individual and collective protection.

  4. Systemic Negligence: Why It Is Morally Important for Developing World Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chhanda

    2015-12-01

    In the context of clinical and non-clinical biomedical practices, negligence is usually understood as a lapse of a specific professional duty by a healthcare worker or by a medical facility. This paper tries to delineate systemic negligence as another kind of negligence in the context of health systems, particularly in developing countries, that needs to be recognized and addressed. Systemic negligence is not just a mere collection of stray incidences of medical errors and system failures in a health system, but is proposed in this paper as a more pervasive kind of neglect. Several non-medical factors, such as lack of social and political will, also contribute to it and hence is more difficult to address in a health system. This paper argues that recognizing systemic negligence and including it research agenda have special moral importance for researchers in developing world bioethics, public health ethics and for health activists in the developing world. For, it can be a potent health system barrier, and can seriously impair efforts to ensure patient safety, particularly in the weaker health systems. As it erodes accountability in a health system, addressing it is also important for the twin goals of ensuring patient safety and improving health system performance. Above all, it needs to be addressed because the tolerance of its persistence in a health system seems to undervalue health as a social good. PMID:24761790

  5. A philosophical and critical analysis of the European convention of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottois, G

    2000-04-01

    The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine is now one of the most important bioethics texts from the point of view of international policy and law. It is the result of five years of discussions and negotiations between the different instances of the Council of Europe. In this article I analyze several problems. First, there are problems of articulation between the Convention and the joint Explanatory Report. The oriented exegesis of the Explanatory Report raises suspicion about the Convention, which appears as a smooth facade for an instrument actually serving ideological positions many people do not share. Second, there are problems of formulation within the Convention. These are mainly problems with articles that state prohibitions without any distinction, relativization, contextualization or sense of evolution. Finally, there are problems of substance, leading to the conclusion that the Convention is not a good illustration of the human rights philosophical tradition in the name of which it has been proclaimed. This tradition is the one of Enlightenment. And when Kant summarizes the motto of Enlightenment, the injunction is "Sapere Aude!": "Dare to know!" It is difficult to hear such a message through the Convention, and the Explanatory Report includes too many passages and sentences that mean the opposite.

  6. The West's dismissal of the Khabarovsk trial as 'communist propaganda': ideology, evidence and international bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2004-01-01

    In late 1949 the former Soviet Union conducted an open trial of eight Japanese physicians and researchers and four other military servicemen in Khabarovsk, a city in eastern Siberia. Despite its strong ideological tone and many obvious shortcomings such as the lack of international participation, the trial established beyond a reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that Japanese researchers had conducted cruel experiments on living human beings. However, the trial, together with the evidence presented to the court and its major findings--which have proved remarkably accurate--was dismissed as communist propaganda and totally ignored in the West until the 1980s. This paper reviews the 1949 Khabarovsk trial, examines the West's dismissal of the proceedings as mere propaganda and draws some moral lessons for bioethics today. As an important historical case, set in the unique socio-political context of the Cold War, the West's dismissal of the trial powerfully illustrates some perennial ethical issues such as the ambivalence of evidence and power of ideology in making (or failing to make) cross-national and cross-cultural factual and moral judgments.

  7. [The terminal patient: Jewish religious law, the Steinberg report and the bioethical discourse in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2003-07-01

    This article surveys key texts in contemporary orthodox Jewish law (Halakha) with regard to end-of-life decision making. The author proposes twelve principles that govern Jewish law in that matter. The article proceeds to examine the Steinberg report in the light of Halakha. Orthodox Judaism regards human life as a prime value, which is always beyond consideration of economical means or quality of life. The avoidance of suffering is the only justification to shorten the life of the sufferer, provided that the acts performed do not fall within the Halakhic definition of murder, namely active and direct action that shortens life. It is argued that the main challenge of bioethics in Israel is the bridging between the positive law of Halakha whose fundamental value is submission to God's will as manifested in Halakha, and the rationalism, universalism, and egalitarianism which constitute naturalistic ethics. This challenge may produce ideas such as the "clock machine". It is too early to know if this is a trickery, or genuine ethical creativity.

  8. 试论健康伦理对生命伦理的拓新%Analysis of the innovation of health ethics to bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉美

    2012-01-01

    健康伦理以健康利益为关注支点,拓展了生命伦理的研究对象、研究内容和价值维度,补充、丰富了其原则内涵,展露出新的生命力。健康伦理是在医学发展新阶段对医学伦理、生命伦理的延续和提升。%Taking health interest as its focus, health ethics develops research object, content and value dimension of bioethics. It enrichs bioethics principle and connotation, and shows new vitality. Health ethics lasts and upgrades medical ethics and bioethics at the new stage of medicine development.

  9. 我国生命伦理学研究现状探讨%Discussion on the Status of Bioethics Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳; 张忠元; 范菲菲; 雷虹艳; 郑红朝; 李恩昌

    2013-01-01

    As an emerging discipline imported Irom the west, Chinese bioethics has achieved great development in the last three decades. Experts introduced the new progress of the foreign Bioethics, and combined with China's national conditions. Chinese Bioethics should look for her own direction actively, should have a close connection with the development of society, medical technology, and thehot focus on bioethics, and should pay attention to the organic combination of local and western culture, combine the Bioethics and the medical ethics alucation. It's useful the development of the bioethics in China.%生命伦理学作为一门新兴学科,从西方引入中国已有三十多年的时间,在我国取得了巨大的发展.我国相关学者的论文不仅介绍国外生命伦理学研究的新进展,而且紧密结合中国的国情促进了生命伦理学的发展.中国生命伦理学在发展过程中,应当紧密结合社会、医学技术的发展而研究相关生命伦理学的热点问题,同时也应当将中国传统医德文化与生命伦理学有机结合,有利于我国生命伦理学的发展.

  10. Novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas: bioética e controvérsias New reproductive conception technologies: bioethics and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de alguns dos múltiplos aspectos éticos/bioéticos e de gênero no campo das novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas (NTRc. A literatura nele apresentada aponta para a pluralidade de situações e abordagens possíveis em um campo multidimensional e controvertido. Explicita alguns princípios éticos/bioéticos do agir biomédico encontrados durante pesquisa com casais heterossexuais que fizeram reprodução assistida e com médic@s especialistas em reprodução humana no Sul do Brasil.1 Apresenta os pressupostos éticos/bioéticos sancionadores do agir médico e da continuidade dos chamados tratamentos para engravidar, e analisa os mecanismos utilizados para reerguer as expectativas dos casais em situação de desconfiança ou de insucesso.This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  11. Child Rights and Clinical Bioethics: Historical Reflections on Modern Medicine and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Why might pediatric bioethicists in the United States reject the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as a framework for resolving ethical issues? The essays in this issue present arguments and counterarguments regarding the usefulness of the CRC in various clinical and research cases. But underlying this debate are two historical factors that help explain the seeming paradox of pediatric bioethicists' arguing against child's rights. First, the profession of clinical bioethics emerged in the 1970s as one component of modern medicine's focus on improving health through the application of technologically sophisticated treatments. The everyday work of U.S. bioethicists thus usually involves emerging technologies or practices in clinical or laboratory settings; the articles of the CRC, in contrast, seem better suited to addressing broad policy issues that affect the social determinants of health. Second, U.S. child health policy veered away from a more communitarian approach in the early 20th century for reasons of demography that were reinforced by ideology and concerns about immigration. The divide between clinical medicine and public health in the United States, as well as the relatively meager social safety net, are not based on a failure to recognize the rights of children. Indeed, there is some historical evidence to suggest that "rights language" has hindered progress on child health and well-being in the United States. In today's political climate, efforts to ensure that governments pledge to treat children in accordance with their status as human beings (a child right's perspective) are less likely to improve child health than robust advocacy on behalf of children's unique needs, especially as novel models of health-care financing emerge. PMID:27157355

  12. Bioethics committee%生命伦理学委员会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国英; 邹和建; 伍蓉

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics committee is a decision-making and consulting organization which mainly reviews the studies and trials involved human participants and protects the welfare of participants according to Declaration of Helsinki. It is generally composed of the members whose disciplines are law, ethics, medicine and pharmacology. Recently, more and more ethics committees have been set up. However, the review quality is not uniform. To promote benign development of ethics committees in China, continuous training for the members of ethics committees and supervisor for the ethics committees are needed by related administrations.%生命伦理学委员会是从伦理学角度审查人体试验研究,保护受试者权益的决策咨询组织.该委员会一般由来自法学、伦理学、医学、药学等领域的专家学者组成,其审查遵循的重要依据是世界医学会制订的《赫尔基辛宣言》.近年来,伦理委员会快速发展,但各伦理委员会审查质量参差不齐.因此,相关部门尚需加强对伦理委员会成员的培训,并加强对伦理委员会的监管,方能促进我国伦理委员会的良性发展.

  13. Bioethics of Universal Knowledge: How Space Science is Transforming Global Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kala

    A new universal culture is championing the human race; never before has immersion in the cosmological environment been so clearly presented nor invited as revolutionary a sense of participatory identity to the human race. We are delving into the awareness of a complex relatedness with the expanse of spatial architectures and life that astrophysics and cosmology are revealing. History is marked by waves of interest and inquiry into the possibilities of the existence of other worlds. Since the Renaissance, building of telescopes has been pursued in their quest; now Kepler and other space missions are leading us into direct apprehension of these worlds, scattered across the cosmological landscape. This affords a unique repertoire of dimensionalities in which to re-construe our global cultural evolution and identity. Spatial education, with related social science and humanities, are facilitating the actualization of a universal culture, redefining the collective global heritage, with infinity as our home. The potential significance of space sciences to the human cognitive environment is yet to be fully ascertained. We now understand that the entire history of the universe informs each and every particle and spin of the fabric of existence. The implications of this knowledge have the power to facilitate our overcoming many social diseases such as racism, nationalism and the ideological delusions that tolerate such activities as warfare. Space sciences may help to purge the human cognitive atmosphere of those ills and ignorance that sap global resources, challenging global sustainability, from the economic to the psychosocial. Were the full implications of our united origins and destiny as a cosmic organism to be applied to how we live as a species on the Earth, there would be adequate funds for all manner of science and education such as to transform the global human and ecological landscape in ways as yet only dreamt or fictionalized. The bioethics of universal

  14. Razones para una perspectiva intercultural en bioética Reasons for an intercultural perspective of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Chávez Aguilar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La bioética debe tener una perspectiva intercultural. Ello se fundamenta en tres hechos: los principios y valores sobre los que reflexiona pertenecen a cosmovisiones y tradiciones, el ser humano es en sí mismo un ser cultural y las sociedades actuales son enormemente diversas. Para ello, la bioética ha de buscar un adecuado equilibrio entre el universalismo ético y el contextualismo. Esto es un fundamento necesario para el respeto incondicionado a la dignidad humana y para el mutuo reconocimiento, el diálogo, la correlación y la complementariedad entre las diversas culturas.Bioethics must have an intercultural perspective. This is based on three facts: The principles and values around which reflection is made are related to world views and traditions, human beings are cultural beings, and current societies are considerably diverse. Based on this, bioethics will seek an adequate balance between ethical universalism and contextualism. This is a fundamental step for unconditional respect for human dignity and mutual recognition, dialogue, correlation and complementarity among diverse cultures.

  15. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child: Relevance and Application to Pediatric Clinical Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Lundy, Laura; Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the relevance and import of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) to child health practice and pediatric bioethics. We discuss the four general principles of the CRC that apply to the implementation of all rights contained in the document, the right to health articulated in Article 24, and the important position ascribed to parents in fulfilling the rights of their children. We then examine how the CRC is implemented and monitored in law and practice. The CRC and associated principles of child rights provide strategies for rights-based approaches to clinical practice and health systems, as well as to policy design, professional training, and health services research. In light of the relevance of the CRC and principles of child rights to children's health and child health practice, it follows that there is an intersection between child rights and pediatric bioethics. Pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates should work together to define this intersection in all domains of pediatric practice.

  16. The Effects of Decision-Making Activities about Bioethical Issues on Students' Rational Decision-Making Ability in High School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Bok; Kim, Young-Shin; Chung, Wan-Ho

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of decision-making activities on improving decision-making abilities to meet bioethical issues in everyday situations. Uses worksheets for decision making that consists of six steps. Concludes that the resulting scores on decision-making were increased by the activities of the worksheets. (Contains 31 references.)…

  17. Conflicts Between Parents and Health Professionals About a Child's Medical Treatment: Using Clinical Ethics Records to Find Gaps in the Bioethics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind; Notini, Lauren; Phillips, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child's medical treatment. We identified, analysed, and compared cases of this type from the clinical ethics records with cases of this type discussed in bioethics journals. While the cases from journals tended to describe situations involving imminent risk to the child's life, a significant proportion of the clinical ethics records cases involved different stakes for the child involved. These included distress, poorer functional outcome, poorer psychosocial outcome, or increased risk of surgical complications. Our analysis suggests that one type of case that warrants more detailed ethics research is parental refusal of recommended treatment, where the refusal does not endanger the child's life but rather some other aspect of the child's well-being.

  18. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  19. Bioethics in popular science: evaluating the media impact of The Immortal Llife of Henrietta Lacks on the biobank debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The global expansion of biobanks has led to a range of bioethical concerns related to consent, privacy, control, ownership, and disclosure. As an opportunity to engage broader audiences on these concerns, bioethicists have welcomed the commercial success of Rebecca Skloot’s 2010 bestselling book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. To assess the impact of the book on discussion within the media and popular culture more generally, we systematically analyzed the ethics-related themes emphasized in reviews and articles about the book, and in interviews and profiles of Skloot. Methods We conducted a content analysis of a population of relevant English-language articles and transcripts (n = 125) produced by news organizations and publications in the U.S., Canada, Great Britain/Ireland, and Australia/New Zealand. We scored each article for the emphasis and appearance of 9 ethics-related themes. These were informed consent, welfare of the vulnerable, compensation, scientific progress, control/access, accountability/oversight, privacy, public education, and advocacy. Results The informed consent theme dominated media discussion, with almost 39.2 percent of articles/transcripts featuring the theme as a major focus and 44.8 percent emphasizing the theme as a minor focus. Other prominent themes and frames of reference focused on the welfare of the vulnerable (18.4 percent major emphasis; 36.0 percent minor emphasis), and donor compensation (19.2 percent major; 52.8 percent minor). Ethical themes that comprised a second tier of prominence included those of scientific progress, control/access, and accountability/oversight. The least prominent themes were privacy, public education, and advocacy. Conclusions The book has been praised as an opportunity to elevate media discussion of bioethics, but such claims should be re-considered. The relatively narrow focus on informed consent in the media discussion generated by Skloot’s book may limit the ability of

  20. Ética y moral en la bioética || Ethics and Moral at the Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús López Baroni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La bioética es un campo del conocimiento con un difuso poso ideológico en el que coexisten con no pocas tensiones las religiones y las corrientes de pensamiento político clásicas. A la hora de defender argumentos, la expresión que se ha impuesto es la de “ética”, probablemente por el sesgo pretendidamente objetivo y paracientífico de dicha expresión. Pues bien, estudiaremos en el presente artículo qué relación hay entre las diferentes corrientes del pensamiento y la forma en que emplean los conceptos de “ética” y de “moral”. Para ello, hemos creado cuatro modelos con los que pretendemos recoger todas las posibilidades existentes. El objetivo último es clarificar qué queremos decir en bioética cuando se afirma que algo es ético o moral, qué relación hay entre las ideologías y los enunciados axiológicos y cómo influye en la composición ideal de los comités de bioética. Abstract: Bioethics is a field of knowledge with a widespread ideological background in which religions and current classic political thoughts coexist with tension. At the moment of defending arguments, the expression that has been imposed is "ethics", probably for the alleged objective and parascientific bias of the expression mentioned above. Well then, we will study in the present article the relation between the different currents of thought and the form in which they use the concepts of "ethics" and of "moral". For this, we have created four models with which we try to gather all the existing possibilities. The last aim is to clarify what we want to say in bioethics when one affirms that something is ethical or moral, what relation is between the ideologies and the terms of axiological references and how it influences the ideal composition of the committees of bioethics.

  1. Bioética e as diretrizes curriculares nacionais do curso de medicina Bioethics and national medical school curriculum guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise dos aspectos bioéticos contidos nas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN do curso de medicina, documento aprovado em 2001 pelos Ministérios da Educação e da Saúde e que propõe diretrizes para a formação do profissional médico. O campo da Bioética permeia todas as diretivas das DCN do curso de Medicina. Isso credita à disciplina um status de eixo integrador no processo de formação de médicos. Considerando as observações que reforçam a tese de que a sociedade é que conforma a educação, esse novo paradigma contribui para efetivação do sistema de saúde brasileiro, o Sistema Único de Saúde, com todos os nuances e hibridizações de modelos de atenção. A Bioética está legitimada nas DCN. Resta ao aparelho formador garantir que ela se consolide na academia, enquanto ciência propositiva imprescindível para se alcançar a necessária prudência ao conhecimento biológico, associando aos valores humanos a ética da vida.The article discusses various bioethical issues addressed by the National Curriculum Guidelines (DCN for medical schools, a document approved in 2001 by the Ministries of Health and Education, which sets out guidelines for medical training. Bioethics permeates all the DCN guidelines for medical schools. This means that the discipline performs an integrating role in the medical training process. In view of observations backing the hypothesis that education is determined by society, this new paradigm helps to instill the new Brazilian health system, the Unified Health System, with its nuanced and mixed models of health care. Bioethics is given legitimacy by the DCN. It remains for the teaching profession to ensure that it is consolidated in academic circles, as an indispensible discipline, if biological knowledge is to be pursued in a prudent fashion promoting humane values and an ethics of life.

  2. Nonegalitarian Social Responsibility for Health: A Confucian Perspective on Article 14 of the UNESCO: Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2016-06-01

    This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level.

  3. Educação: nova fronteira da bioética Education: new frontier of bioethics

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    Jansen Ribeiro Pires

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a opinião de professores quanto à introdução de conteúdo sobre bioética no currículo do ensino médio. Foram selecionadas seis escolas: três públicas e três particulares da principal região administrativa de Brasília. De um universo de 340 professores, 150 aderiram à pesquisa. Foi apresentado um questionário com alternativas versando sobre a existência ou não de conteúdo relacionado com a construção de valores nos estudantes. O segundo momento contou com 140 dos professores que participaram da primeira fase. Foi-lhes entregue um texto que resumia o que era a bioética. Ao final, havia um espaço à pergunta se uma nova disciplina de bioética preencheria a lacuna curricular na formação de valores e atitudes éticas nos estudantes. A análise dos dados demonstrou que: (a a escola não tem cumprido a função de instrumentar a formação da consciência ética; (b na opinião dos docentes, isto vem acontecendo em razão da inexistência de uma disciplina que se responsabilize pela abordagem destas questões; (c 51% dos entrevistados se posicionaram a favor da introdução de uma disciplina que trate da bioética na estrutura curricular do ensino médio, por acreditarem que ela poderia contribuir à construção de valores morais e atitudes afirmativas dos estudantes.This study analyses the opinion of teachers regarding the inclusion of contents on Bioethics in the curricular structure of high school. Six schools were selected: three public and three private in the main administrative region of Brasília. In a universe of 340 teachers, 150 joined the research. They were given a questionnaire with answers about the existence or not of curricular contents related to the construction of values in the students. The second phase counted with 140 teachers out of those who joined the first part of the research. These teachers received a text briefly explaining what Bioethics is with a closed space for answering if

  4. Nonegalitarian Social Responsibility for Health: A Confucian Perspective on Article 14 of the UNESCO: Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2016-06-01

    This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level. PMID:27477196

  5. 什么是生命伦理学?——从历史发展的视角%What is bioethics: from perspective of historical development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡林英

    2012-01-01

    生命伦理学是20世纪60年代兴起于美国的一门新兴学科,旨在应对生命科学和生物技术的发展或医疗保健的演变使人类面临的种种伦理难题.生命伦理学的兴起有着特殊的社会历史背景.它在发展过程中出现的一些里程碑式的案例,对生命伦理学的发展产生了深远的影响.从其发展特征上看,生命伦理学和医学伦理学紧密联系,有着更为广泛的研究内容和独特的专业特性.生命伦理学要有效回应现代医学和生命科学的发展给人类带来的伦理难题,既要准确地界定伦理问题,又要以适当的方式将伦理学基础理论应用到具体问题当中.对生命伦理学的基本理论进行概述.%Bioethics is an emerging discipline originating in America of the 1960s, aiming to bridge between life science, biomedical technology, health care and ethics. Bioethics originated under particular social historical contexts; Some events or cases which happened as the cornerstone in the history have profound influences on the development of bioethics. With respect to its developmental features, even though bioethics historical linked with medical ethics, it owns broader contents and unique characteristics. In order to answer ethical dilemmas caused by the developments of contemporary medicine and life science, bioethics firstly needs to define ethical issues correctly, then apply fundamental theories of ethics to concrete scenarios in appropriate ways. This paper also makes a briefly introduction of the basic theories of bioethics.

  6. Whose dignity? Resolving ambiguities in the scope of "human dignity" in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald

    2007-10-01

    In October 2005, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR). A concept of central importance in the declaration is that of "human dignity". However, there is lack of clarity about its scope, especially concerning the question of whether prenatal human life has the same dignity and rights as born human beings. This ambiguity has implications for the interpretation of important articles of the delcaration, including 2(c), 4, 8, 10 and 11. The paper applies relevant provisions of the UDBHR to specific cases, addresses problems of internal consistency and considers attempts at clarifying the scope of "human dignity" by the negotiating parties. An analysis of the important relationship between the UDBHR and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to which the UDBHR refers in its title and elsewhere, shows that because of a crucial emphatic asymmetry, a broad reading according to which the UDBHR must be understood to ascribe human rights and dignity to prenatal life is untenable. However, the view that the UDBHR confers human rights and dignity on humans from the moment of birth onwards is robust and defensible. This conclusion is important for a proper understanding of the declaration and its use, as stated in Articles 1(2) and 22, the latter urging states ".. to give effect to the principles .. in this declaration". Similarly, it has implications for the use of the declaration in the wider context of bioethics-related law and policy, as well as in academic and other discussions where increasing reference to the UDBHR is likely.

  7. Reflexiones para una bioética implicada en la cultura de los derechos humanos Reflections for having bioethics involved in the human rights culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Brussino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La Bioética puede entenderse como una reflexión crítica sobre la vida y la salud, como una nueva forma de tomar decisiones en esos ámbitos, como un movimiento de reforma social y también como una disciplina académica. En cualquiera de los casos, la Bioética implica un diálogo interdisciplinario e intercultural. A su vez, los derechos humanos, como pautas morales universales, proporcionan una base plausible para el diálogo intercultural, permitiendo identificar un núcleo de valores transculturales que funcionen como “mínimos morales” en las arenas del diálogo entre culturas diversas y la búsqueda de consensos internacionales. En este trabajo se plantea la triple vinculación (histórico-genealógica, conceptual y práctica de la bioética y los derechos humanos y se reflexiona sobre algunas condiciones que deberían tomarse en cuenta para una bioética implicada en la cultura de los derechos humanos.Bioethics can be interpreted as a critical reflection on life and health, a new way to make decisions in these fields, a social reform movement, and an academic discipline. In any case, Bioethics implies an interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue. At the same time, human rights, as universal moral guidelines, provide a plausible basis for this intercultural dialogue, for they enable the identification of a core of transcultural values that can work as “moral minima” in the dialogue among different cultures and the search for international consensuses. This article sets forth the triple connection (historical-genealogical, conceptual and practical between bioethics and human rights, and reflects on some of the conditions that should be taken into account for bioethics to be involved in the human rights culture.

  8. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-12-01

    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm.

  9. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-12-01

    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm. PMID:24750562

  10. Preliminary Report of a Pilot Tele-Health Palliative Care and Bioethics Program for Residents in Skilled Nursing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O’Mahony

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently about 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, many with poorly controlled pain and other symptoms, with minimal provisions for psychosocial support. New models are necessary to lessen structural and process barriers to give effective end-of-life care in nursing homes. Objectives: 1 To extend hospital-based Bioethics Consultation Services (BCS and Palliative Care Services (PCS at Montefiore Medical Center (MMC in the Bronx to two local Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs, Morningside House Aging in America (MSH using direct face-to-face consultations and Beth Abraham Health Systems (BAHS via video consultations (VC; 2 Achieve improvements in quality of life and comfort for elderly residents and their families; 2a Improve the level of practice and increase staff satisfaction with palliative care content-related knowledge and bioethical analysis. Methods: We report preliminary findings of this two group quasi experimental project with results of pre- and post- tests rating content-related knowledge in aspects of end-of-life care for staff. Select pre-test and post-test questions were given to physicians and other staff, but were re-configured for, registered and licensed practice nurses, social workers, and certified nursing assistants from the End-of-Life Physician Education Resource Center (EPERC. Patient, family, and staff ratings of the quality of palliative care were measured with a Palliative Outcomes Scale (POS one week prior to and post consultation. Results: 72 staff attended in-services; 53 completed pre-tests and 49 post-tests. Overall knowledge scores increased for 9 of the 16 items that were analyzed. There were improvements in knowledge scores in 12 of 16 items tested for staff content related knowledge which were statistically significant in regard to management of cancer pain from 63.8% to 81.5% (p = 0.03 and a trend to significance for assessment and management of delirium from 31.6% to 61.9% (p = 0.073. Seventy five POS

  11. Bioética de la actividad pericial médica Bioethics of Medical Expert-Witness Activity

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    J. Aso Escario

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La Bioética implica hoy en día a toda la actividad médica, habiéndose convertido en un factor crucial a la hora de orientar la acción en muchas situaciones clínicas y evaluar materias médicas tales como publicaciones, artículos y conferencias. Sin embargo, hasta el momento, la Bioética ha prestado poca atención a la actividad pericial médica. Ello a pesar de los importantes problemas que surgen en los peritajes ante los Tribunales. Factores como la cualificación del perito, sesgo, error, confidencialidad, conflictos entre actividad asistencial y pericial, están entre las principales materias potenciales de discusión ética. En España, en particular, hay una falta de regulación de estos aspectos, causando importantes consecuencias sobre todo en casos de litigación por cuestiones de responsabilidad médica. El presente trabajo intenta revisar la situación en España, comparada con las posiciones en el extranjero, y enfatizar la necesidad de una regulación legal, profesional pero sobre todo ética de la actividad pericial médica ante los Tribunales.Bioethics involves the entire medical activity, becoming, in recent years, a crucial factor in evaluating medical matters such as publications, conferences, articles, and clinical cases analysis. Nevertheless, expert-witness testimony is sheldomly included in Bioethic discussions, despite the important problems that arise from medical testimonies in tribunals. Factors as expert qualification, bias, error, confidentiality, conflict between clinical and expert activities, are among the main potential subjects of Ethical discussion. In Spain in particular, there is a lack of regulation in these matters, determining important consequences mainly in professional responsability judgement cases. The present paper tries to review the Spanish situation, compared to abroad positions, and enphasize the need of a more extensive legal, professional but mainly ethical regulation of medical expert

  12. Explaining the emergence of euthanasia law in the Netherlands: how the sociology of law can help the sociology of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Heleen

    2006-09-01

    The debate over the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia is most often seen to be the result of three changes in society: individualisation, diminished taboos concerning death and changes in the balance of power in medicine. The fact that these changes occurred in many western countries but led to legalisation in only a few makes this claim problematic. I examine whether socio-legal propositions, with respect to the emergence of laws which focus on social control, offer a better approach to understanding the development of rules allowing and governing euthanasia. After a short sketch of the history of the Dutch law regulating euthanasia, I discuss these three societal changes in the light of shifts in the social control of medical behaviour that shortens life. I show that the Dutch relaxation of the prohibition of euthanasia goes together with new forms of social control: doctors' self control is complemented with second-party control (by patients), professional third-party control and governmental control. My work calls attention to the fact that bioethics is part of larger systems of social control. PMID:17184419

  13. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists' management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping.

  14. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23445524

  15. In vitro fertilization (IVF) in mammals: epigenetic and developmental alterations. Scientific and bioethical implications for IVF in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Irarrázaval, Isabel; Rolle, Augusto J; Gutiérrez, Juan I; Moreno, Ricardo D; Santos, Manuel J

    2015-12-18

    The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in animals and humans implies an extraordinary change in the environment where the beginning of a new organism takes place. In mammals fertilization occurs in the maternal oviduct, where there are unique conditions for guaranteeing the encounter of the gametes and the first stages of development of the embryo and thus its future. During this period a major epigenetic reprogramming takes place that is crucial for the normal fate of the embryo. This epigenetic reprogramming is very vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions such as the ones implied in IVF, including in vitro culture, nutrition, light, temperature, oxygen tension, embryo-maternal signaling, and the general absence of protection against foreign elements that could affect the stability of this process. The objective of this review is to update the impact of the various conditions inherent in the use of IVF on the epigenetic profile and outcomes of mammalian embryos, including superovulation, IVF technique, embryo culture and manipulation and absence of embryo-maternal signaling. It also covers the possible transgenerational inheritance of the epigenetic alterations associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including its phenotypic consequences as is in the case of the large offspring syndrome (LOS). Finally, the important scientific and bioethical implications of the results found in animals are discussed in terms of the ART in humans.

  16. [Ethical problems experienced by dentists: dealing with bioethics to wide the view on the daily professional practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Adriana Gomes; Souza, Elizabethe Cristina Fagundes de

    2010-05-01

    Bioethics strives for humanization in health services along with promoting the rights of patients. In view of the lack of dental research dealing with this topic, the present study was undertaken to identify, from the viewpoint of dental surgeons, ethical problems experienced in dental practice. It is a descriptive exploratory investigation within a qualitative approach. Empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews performed with 15 dental surgeons in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The results indicate that many of the ethical problems coincide with infringements of the norms and rules of the Dental Code of Ethics, confirming a dental ethic acquired during professional formation and therefore, inadequate for solving the problems that emerge in professional practice. We concluded that the ethical problems identified in professional practice need to be understood beyond the dental dimension, towards a human approach. It is therefore necessary to incorporate health care management technologies into health practices which imply recognizing the different dimensions that surround individuals and their health needs.

  17. Ecumenical in spite of ourselves: a Protestant assessment of Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican Catholic approaches to bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Darrel W; Mandahl, Otto W

    1995-09-01

    A Christian approach to the issues that constitute bioethics is inevitable for us who cherish the truth of historic, creedal, trinitarian Christianity. Scripture teaches and the Greek and Latin Church Fathers as well as the Reformers aver that man, created in the image of God, has an inherent, if vestigial, sense of right and wrong and a conscience however marred by the fall and by rebellion. We must believe that we share this most basic ecumenism with all humanity, not because of rational observation and analysis of nature, but because Scripture reveals it. We who are convinced of the truth of historic, creedal, trinitarian Christianity have a high view of Scripture and hold it to be infallible and utterly trustworthy irrespective of the importance we assign to our specific post-biblical traditional distinctives. This is a narrower but much more vital ecumenism than the first. Faithful adherence to Scripture inevitably manifests itself in remarkably similar priorities and values, often, lamentably, not because of, but in spite of, ourselves. PMID:11654508

  18. Bioethical common factors amidst Krause masonry and Saint Francis of Assisi systems of thought appeal to respectful dialogue, nature and understanding: the Jahr’s dialogue beyond the age of "enlightment" and the metadisciplinary "dark" ages

    OpenAIRE

    Roa-Castellanos, Ricardo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    It has been known that the fi rst reference of the word Bioethics in the twentieth century was due to German theologist Fritz Jahr in 1927. In that surprising paper Jahr, a protestant Lutheran university professor, proposes humble catholic deacon, Saint Francis of Assisi (1181-1226), as the first discoverer of Bioethics in Western Civilization. At the same time, Jahr quotes K.C.F Krause, a Masonic mathematics and philosophy doctor, who is referred within this manuscript because of his ideas o...

  19. The Right of Life under the Perspective of Bioethics%生命伦理视野下的生命权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯改

    2012-01-01

    生命权是生命伦理学中的主要概念.生命权在生命伦理学中存在的问题主要表现为:把生命权简单地理解为生的权利和死的权利;不同文化对生命权的理解不同;生命权与其他权利之间存在冲突.为了更好地实现对生命权的尊重与保障,需要大力弘扬社会主义核心价值观,树立以人为本的理念;促进生命伦理学的跨文化交流;加强对生命权的法律研究与制度建设.%Right of life is the main concept of Bioethics. Problems of the right of life in bioethics mainly are: the right of life is simply understood as right of living and right of death; different culture has different understanding of right of life; conflicts exist between right of life and other rights. In order to realize the respect and safeguard for right to life, it needs to carry forward the socialist core values t and set up the people - oriented idea; to promote cross - cultural communication of Bioethics; to strengthen the legal research on right of life and system construction.

  20. Abortamento provocado na adolescência sob a perspectiva bioética Abortion among adolescents: a bioethical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Belmino Chaves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever características sócio-demográficos, comportamentais, clínicos, analise anatomopatológica, e o tipo de abortamento em adolescentes, de modo a discuti-los bioeticamente. MÉTODOS: aplicou-se questionário estruturado no atendimento a 201 adolescentes com abortamento incompleto submetidas à curetagem uterina, em uma maternidade pública no nordeste do Brasil. RESULTADOS: idade média de 16,1 anos; parceiro estável; mulatas; não usavam preservativos nas relações sexuais; média de idade de início de atividade sexual de 15 anos; não planejaram a gestação; desejavam a gravidez; idade gestacional média de 13,2 semanas. O desfecho da gravidez, quanto ao tipo de abortamento 1,99% abortamento espontâneo e 81,59% certamente provocados, dados obtido através da classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Tecidos embrionários e maternos no anatomopatológico 88,56% e 11,44%, respectivamente. Entre os abortamentos certamente provocados, um caso de mola hidatiforme. CONCLUSÕES: recomenda-se urgência nos programas estratégicos de planejamento familiar; realização do anatomopatológico no material proveniente de aborto; a bioética refletindo pró-ativamente se apresenta como instrumento para diretrizes mínimas de proteção e assistência a adolescente, e auxilio ao profissional de saúde.OBJECTIVES: to describe the socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and anatomical-pathological characteristics and the type of abortion in adolescents as a way of discussing the subject from a bio-ethical perspective. METHODS: a structured questionnaire was applied to 201 adolescent girls receiving treatment for incomplete abortion and being subjected to uterine curretage, at a public maternity unit in the Northeast region of Brazil. RESULTS: the mean age was 16.1 years; most girls had a stable partner, were of mixed race, and were not accustomed to using condoms during sexual intercourse. The mean age for initiation of

  1. Transplant of bone marrow and cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in pediatric practice, revisited according to the fundamental principles of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, G R; Locatelli, F

    1997-06-01

    The two most widely used sources of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplants in pediatric practice are bone marrow (BM) and cord blood (CB). While bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is reaching its 30th year of application, human umbilical cord blood transplantation (HUCBT) is approaching its 10th. Although these procedures have basically the same purpose, a number of biological differences distinguish them. In particular, the intrinsically limited quantity of CB stem cells and their immunological naiveté confer peculiar characteristics to these hematopoietic progenitors. From a bioethical point of view, the problems which have repeatedly been raised when the BM donor is a child are well-known. Different but no less important ethical problems are raised when one considers HUCBT; in this regard the most important issues are the easier propensity of programming a CB donor in comparison with a BM donor (clearly due to the shorter time interval needed to collect the hematopoietic progenitors); the in utero HLA-typing; the implication of employing 'blood belonging to a neonate' for a third party; the need to perform a number of investigations both on the CB of the donor and on the mother and the implications that the discovery of disease may have for them, but also the need to establish banks for storing CB, with the accompanying administration and management problems. All these different aspects of UCBT will be discussed in the light of the four fundamental and traditional principles of bioethics, namely autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. PMID:9208108

  2. Retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI Challenges of bioethics in twenty-first century medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para plantear posibles retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI es necesario considerar que existieron algunos retos en el pasado (en el origen de esa nueva disciplina llamada bioética; que los retos se han ido modificando con el avance científico, biomédico y humanístico; considerando que los retos que pueden plantearse para el futuro serán, de diferentes maneras, resultado de este devenir histórico. Se plantean como grandes retos: los problemas no resueltos de justicia, equidad y pobreza; los retos que plantea la introducción de nuevas tecnologías con el paradigma de la nanomedicina y los retos que plantea el avance de las neurociencias con el paradigma de la neuroética.In order to propose possible challenges of bioethics in the twenty-first century medicine, it is necessary to consider that there were some past challenges (at the origin of this new discipline called bioethics, that the challenges have been modified with scientific, biomedical and humanistic breakthroughs, considering at the same time that challenges that may arise in the future will be, in different ways, a result of this historical evolution. The major challenges would be in the future: the unsolved problems of justice, equity and poverty; the challenges posed by the introduction of new technologies with the nanomedicine paradigm; and finally, the challenges driven by breakthroughs in neurosciences with the neuroethics paradigm.

  3. Ethics and Bioethics. Bases for Informed Consent in Orthodontics La ética y la bioética. Bases del consentimiento informado en Ortodoncia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledys Mary Herrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality and scientific development of health assistance in Cuba are reflected in its health index which is an expression of respect for all those who give and receive health services in the country. Thus human dignity, which is widely represented in the informed consent should be a premise while practicing a high quality health service according to the principles of Bioethics, constituting it an ethical challenge for all the health staff. This paper reviews the principles of Bioethics with regards to informed consent in Orthodontics. La calidad que se ha logrado en la atención médica y el desarrollo científico alcanzado por Cuba, se reflejan en nuestros indicadores de salud, lo cual se manifiesta en el respeto a quien recibe los servicios y a quienes lo ofertan, por lo que el cuidado de la dignidad humana representada ampliamente en el consentimiento informado debe ser una premisa para ofrecer servicios de salud con calidad según los principios de la bioética, lo cual constituye un reto ético de primer orden para los profesionales del sector de la salud. En este trabajo se hace una revisión sobre el consentimiento informado en Ortodoncia.

  4. On the Law Policy of Bioethics: from the Angle of Luhmann's Systems Theory%生命伦理的法政策论析——以卢曼的社会系统论为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑荣; 王玉柱

    2012-01-01

    运用卢曼系统论原理;将医疗、法律、政治等作为分析对象对生命伦理的法律政策问题进行探讨;把生命伦理问题与政治法律系统置于系统论中进行阐释;通过生命伦理、法、政策系统关联性;找出生命伦理与政治、法律系统的切合点;为生命伦理的法政策论题可持续研究提供了新的切入点.%This paper discusses the law and policy problems on bioethics from the angle of Luh-mann's systems theory; it tries to interpret the problems of bioethics in the systematology. This article intends to find the relevancy between the bioethics and law policy, and tries to provide a new angle on the study of the problem of law policy on bioethics.

  5. 中国传统文化视野下对西方生命伦理学的批判性反思%Critical Reflection on Western Bioethics Under View-field of Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    峗怡; 任正安; 贺加

    2011-01-01

    H.Tristram Engelharts The Foundations of Bioethics is the classic representative of western bioeth-ics, in which he attempt to sets up "procedure morals" for the moral practice of secular ethics with poly element vision field of post mordernity, to find a channel to communicate for " stranger". However, there are somewhat biases in the western bioethics based on cognition of "the rational person". This paper presents a critical scrutiny, in the perspective of Chinese traditional culture, on the western bioethics advocated view, of "People" as the centre, the moral construction and the lap between Chinese and western culture circumstances.%恩格尔哈特的《生命伦理学基础》是西方生命伦理学的经典之作,他用后现代的多元视域,尝试为俗世伦理学的道德实践构建“程序道德”,为道德“异乡人”找到沟通渠道.但是,基于“理性人”认知下的西方的生命伦理学仍有偏颇,以中国传统文化为视阈,对西方生命伦理以“人”为中心的视角、道德的建构以及中西医文化落差境遇予以批判性审视.

  6. Psicoterapia e bioética: aproximando conceitos, aperfeiçoando práticas Psychotherapy and bioethics: linking concepts, improving practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Wallig Brusius Ludwig

    2007-12-01

    rmino de Consentimiento Libre y Aclarado (TCLA en el proceso psicoterápico, la formación profesional y otros. Se pretende, con este artículo, presentar algunos cuestionamientos poco trabajados, haciendo una contribución reflexiva, pero no determinante.Issues on the link between Psychology, therapy, training and Bioethics are provided and discussed. Current discussion is justified due to the fact that Bioethics has become an important subject in the context of contemporary technological and scientific improvements as a whole. It is thus essential to discuss Bioethics in all its specialties, taking the human being as its focus and center. Since Psychology deals with human beings, it may be highly contribute towards the solution of dilemmas in Bioethics and its importance may be highlighted within this area. Consequently, the manner bioethical principles may be transposed to the psychotherapeutic process is of paramount importance. Current essay reflects on the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist may face, on the use of the Term of Free and Clear Consent (TCLE in the psychotherapeutic process, professional training, among others. It shall also shed some light on less discussed issues for reflective, albeit not determinant, contributions.

  7. Estratégias de enfrentamento dos dilemas bioéticos gerados pela violência na escola Coping strategies to bioethical dilemmas generated by school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Pedro dos Anjos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A violência na escola é um problema social que perpassa o âmbito da educação e da saúde pública, envolve aspectos bioéticos e requer mecanismos de enfrentamento, a partir da educação em saúde. Este estudo objetiva discutir estratégias fundamentadoras da educação em saúde, sobre aspectos bioéticos no domínio da violência escolar. Consiste em uma revisão bibliográfica crítico-reflexiva por meio do acesso a banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS, utilizando os descritores "violência and bioética" e "violência na escola", considerando os estudos publicados no período de 2004 a 2009. Realizamos também levantamento das obras de Paulo Freire e Pedro Demo, teóricos da Educação Libertadora. A leitura do material conduziu-nos a definição e discussão de três eixos temáticos: 1 bioética como instrumento reflexivo para a retomada dos valores morais na sociedade; 2 escola como formadora ética e de exercício de cidadania; 3 educação em saúde como instrumento para o enfrentamento da violência na escola. Acreditamos que a violência escolar envolve questões bioéticas que devem ser alvo de intervenções educativas na perspectiva libertadora, no intuito de gerar reflexões sobre o caráter negativo da violência escolar, tanto para o ensino-aprendizagem, como para o adoecimento dos atores envolvidos nessa problemática. Os profissionais da saúde poderão estabelecer a intersetorialidade com a educação e contribuir na prevenção da violência na escola, por meio de ações educativas em saúde, mobilizando cidadãos para uma sociedade comprometida em promover a vida; e que os profissionais da educação sejam receptivos e coparticipantes do processo intersetorial de educação e saúde.School violence is a social problem that pervades the educational and public health context, involving bioethical issues and requires coping mechanisms from health education. This study aims to discuss strategies that

  8. Bioética e pesquisa na Fisioterapia: aproximação e vínculos Bioethics and research in physical therapy: approximation and bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Viero Badaró

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bioética, como campo disciplinar, teve um avanço significativo nas últimas décadas. A América Latina e principalmente o Brasil seguiram essa tendência mundial, com edição expressiva de publicações na área da saúde. Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar como questões éticas e bioéticas foram incorporadas à prática e à pesquisa na área da Fisioterapia. Este estudo exploratório procedeu à revisão sistemática das bases de dados MedLine/PubMed, SciELO, ProQuest, Scopus, Lilacs, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde e Google acadêmico, sites de periódicos de Fisioterapia, recorrendo a uma bibliografia bioética brasileira editada em 2002 e a contato com autores, em busca de artigos publicados a partir de 2000 que abordassem temas relacionados às questões éticas e bioéticas na fisioterapia. Excluíram-se livros, comentários e/ou resenhas de livros, artigos em revistas não-indexadas e textos com enfoque comercial ou de divulgação. Foram selecionados 23 artigos, 2 editoriais e uma seção de revista. Verificou-se que a evolução da pesquisa bioética na fisioterapia é crescente no cenário internacional, mas há carência desses estudos no âmbito nacional. Isso demonstra a necessidade premente de incluir essa temática na formação e nas discussões dos fisioterapeutas, como forma de contribuir para o fortalecimento da identidade profissional.The bioethics discipline has had a significant advancement in the last decades. Latin America, and mainly Brazil, have followed this world trend, showing a good number of publications by health care professionals. This study aims at verifying how the themes of bioethics and ethics were incorporated into practice and research in the physical therapy field. This systematic literature review has drawn on MedLine/PubMed, SciELO, ProQuest, Scopus, Lilacs, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde and Scholar Google databases, on physical therapy journal websites, also resorting to a Brazilian bioethics

  9. 中国传统文化中朴素生命伦理思想的启示%Analysis of Simple Bioethics in the Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋菊

    2015-01-01

    This article started with the different views to death in Confucianism , Taoism, and Buddhism .And then explore the simple bioethics spirit in Chinese traditional culture , such as cherishing life , equal spirit , the spir-it of benevolence .Finally the research significance is summarized .In the bioethics development era background , researching naive ethics thought in the Chinese traditional culture has important significance to tamp multicultural foundation of bioethics , promote the development of bioethics in China , transform the ancient Chinese bioethics wisdom into the common wealth of mankind and perfectly handle ethical confusion in the development of biology and medicine.%从发掘传统文化中儒家、道家、佛家对生、死的基本态度入手,通过探寻、提炼中国传统文化中珍视生命、众生平等、仁爱精神等朴素的生命伦理思想的分析,总结该领域研究的现实意义:传统文化中蕴涵的生命伦理思想是中国生命伦理学发展创新的文化渊源,传统文化中的朴素生命伦理智慧可以为解决现实伦理问题提供思想启迪,对我国传统文化中生命伦理思想的梳理有利于中国生命伦理学的发展。

  10. 论中国生命伦理学发展的本土化要求%Bioethics Development Research of Concise Principles, Local Roots and Focus on Real

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2012-01-01

      Vigorously development of the Chinese localization of bioethics is not only the Chinese bioethics of their native development needs of today's cultural construction, and further the need to promote socialist cultural progress and prosperity. To develop localization bioethics theoretical system with Chinese characteristics, there must be a high degree of awareness on the methodology, it is necessary to pay attention to the absorption of Western ethical culture, refining the principles of Bioethics, also based on Chinese cultural traditions, to seek the basis of theoretical logic, but it must also be departed from China's actual bioethical issues.%  大力发展中国本土化生命伦理学不仅是中国生命伦理学自身发展的需要,也是当今中国进行文化建设,进一步推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣的需要。而发展具有中国特色的本土化生命伦理学理论体系,必须有方法论上的高度自觉,既要注意吸收西方伦理文化,提炼生命伦理原则,也要立足中国文化传统,寻求理论逻辑基础,同时还必须从中国实际生命伦理问题出发。

  11. Vulnerabilidade e vida nua: bioética e biopolítica na atualidade Vulnerability and bare life: bioethics and biopolitics today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arán

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a noção de vulnerabilidade utilizada pela bioética para debater as pesquisas com seres humanos na atualidade, a partir de uma reflexão acerca da biopolítica na cultura contemporânea. Para isto, partiu-se da leitura de Giorgio Agamben dos modelos de poder foucaultianos - Soberania e Biopolítica - para, em seguida, analisar a noção de vida nua - "vida sem nenhum valor". Se os dispositivos de poder nas democracias modernas conjugam estratégias biopolíticas com a emergência da força do poder soberano que transforma a vida em vida nua, é fato que a bioética deve ser um instrumento de proteção das pessoas vulneradas. No entanto, além do território do estado do direito, a bioética também deve poder penetrar nas zonas de indiferenciação, onde soberania e técnica se misturam, profanando a fronteiras biopolíticas e problematizando a própria condição de vulnerabilidade.The study had the objective of analyzing the notion of vulnerability that is used by bioethics to debate research involving human beings today, from reflections on biopolitics in contemporary culture. For this, the starting point was Giorgio Agamben's reading of Foucault's model of power (Sovereignty and Biopolitics, with the aim of subsequently analyzing the notion of bare life: "life without any value". If the devices of power in modern democracies conjoin biopolitical strategies with the emergence of the strength of sovereign power that transforms life into bare life, in fact bioethics must be an instrument for protecting people who have become vulnerable. Nevertheless, beyond the territory of the rule of law, bioethics must also penetrate the undifferentiated zones where sovereignty and techniques become mixed, disrespecting the frontiers of biopolitics and questioning the condition of vulnerability itself.

  12. O preparo bioético na graduação de Fisioterapia Bioethical education in physical therapy undergraduate course

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    Fernanda Degilio Alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento da Fisioterapia, aliado às mudanças na educação e na saúde, faz com que a autonomia e os dilemas éticos do fisioterapeuta sejam maiores a cada dia, expandindo seu papel no cuidado do paciente. Para além do Código de Ética, as noções de Bioética são centrais no preparo de graduandos para os desafios profissionais. Este estudo verificou a capacidade de tomar decisões éticas de alunos no último ano de Fisioterapia de duas universidades na cidade de São Paulo, das quais uma oferece no currículo a disciplina Bioética e a outra não. Cinqüenta alunos de cada universidade responderam a um questionário sobre dilemas éticos correspondentes a artigos do Código de Ética; cada questão oferecia três alternativas de resposta: uma bioética, outra referente ao Código e uma não-ética. As respostas foram analisadas estatisticamente. Os resultados mostraram um bom preparo ético em pouco mais de metade dos alunos das duas universidades, sugerindo que ambas oferecem preparo ético similar aos graduandos, independente da diferença curricular. No entanto, os alunos da universidade que oferece Bioética tiveram resultados significantemente melhores nos quesitos referentes à relação com outros profissionais da saúde, sugerindo que essa disciplina oferece melhores condições para o relacionamento interprofissional, fator importante tanto na prática clínica quanto para elevar o status da Fisioterapia.Physical therapy recent expansion, along with changes in education and health, enhance physical therapists' role in patient care, while increasing both their autonomy and the ethical challenges they face in daily clinic. In addition to knowledge of the professional ethical code, notions of Bioethics are thought to be central to students training. This study analysed the ability to make ethical decisions among 100 physical therapy undergraduate students at two universities in São Paulo, of which only one offers the

  13. Cooperação em saúde na perspectiva bioética Cooperation in health from the bioethical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paranaguá de Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo considera o cenário das relações internacionais na transição para o Século XXI como pano de fundo para uma reflexão sobre a perspectiva bioética da cooperação internacional em saúde. Apresenta uma análise exploratória sobre a produção científica interdisciplinar da bioética com a saúde pública no contexto internacional, revelando que o enfoque de ambas, ou mesmo das articulações entre esses dois temas, tem parca abordagem do ponto de vista das relações diplomáticas. Descreve a metodologia que permitiu selecionar publicações catalogadas nessa área interdisciplinar em duas fontes bibliográficas disponíveis na Web (93 artigos na BVS/Bireme e 161 na PubMed, apontando dificuldades na recuperação dessa literatura. Advoga o potencial da vertente epistemológica que floresceu na América Latina sob a designação da Bioética de Intervenção na abordagem dos desafios que afrontam o sistema de cooperação internacional, acenado como referencial de análise da cooperação sul-sul em saúde. Conclui propondo a sistematização e o aprofundamento do conhecimento na interseção da bioética com a saúde pública e a diplomacia, cuja projeção no âmbito político-institucional poderá contribuir para a redução das desigualdades das condições de saúde entre as nações.This study considers the scenario of international relations in the transition to the twenty-first century as a backdrop for reflection on the bioethical perspective of international cooperation in health. It presents an exploratory analysis of the interdisciplinary scientific production in bioethics and public health in the international context, revealing that the focus and confluence of both issues has scant coverage in terms of diplomatic relations. It describes the methodology used to select publications cataloged in this interdisciplinary area from two bibliographic sources available on the web (93 articles in BVS/BIREME and 161 in Pub

  14. How Bioethics is Complementing Human Rights in Realizing Health Access for Clinical Trial Participants: The Case of Formative PrEP Access in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome

    2015-06-11

    Following the demise of apartheid, human rights in South Africa are now constitutionally enshrined.The right to health in South Africa's Constitution has been credited with transforming the lives of millions of people by triggering programmatic reforms in HIV treatment and the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV.However, a constitutionally enshrined right to health offers no guarantee that clinical trial participants will enjoy post-trial access to beneficial interventions. Using access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in South Africa as an example, this paper argues that adherence to bioethics norms could realize the right to health for trial participants following the end of a clinical trial.

  15. Health care ethics consultation: an update on core competencies and emerging standards from the American Society For Bioethics and Humanities' core competencies update task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzian, Anita J

    2013-01-01

    Ethics consultation has become an integral part of the fabric of U.S. health care delivery. This article summarizes the second edition of the Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation report of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. The core knowledge and skills competencies identified in the first edition of Core Competencies have been adopted by various ethics consultation services and education programs, providing evidence of their endorsement as health care ethics consultation (HCEC) standards. This revised report was prompted by thinking in the field that has evolved since the original report. Patients, family members, and health care providers who encounter ethical questions or concerns that ethics consultants could help address deserve access to efficient, effective, and accountable HCEC services. All individuals providing such services should be held to the standards of competence and quality described in the revised report.

  16. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Dove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science; and consortia ethics (Big Ethics. These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  17. 克隆技术引发的伦理之争%Bioethical argument by cloning technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔中东; 王莲芸

    2012-01-01

    Since Dolly was born, the ethical argument of the human cloning keeps chackling. Almost all of political organisms as well as governments worldwide clearly claimed their opposite opinions to clone a person for the reproductive purpose; moreover, scientists delivered their qualm about faultiness of the clone technique. In order to overcome the technical obstruction and ethical limitation, scientists developed heterogenetical nuclear transfer and induced pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells could develop into tissues, or even an individual, which avoids destroying embryo. Although the technique of cloning has been ameliorated, the puzzlement about cloning human still exists. This review discussed the possibility of cloning human from four major principles of bioethics. In spite that human cloning would not confuse the balance of relationship of people, would not deliver a next Hitler, and would not reduced the genetic polymorphism, it would deprive the autonomy of the cloned individual, bring physical and mental damages to them, and naturally violate the principles of beneficence and justice. Hence, in ethics, there are many problems to be solved in future.%自从克隆羊多莉诞生以来,有关克隆人的伦理学争论就一直喋喋不休.世界上的各种政治组织和各国政府都明确反对生殖性克隆,而科学家们则对克隆技术的不完善心存疑虑.为了克服克隆过程中的伦理学障碍和技术缺陷,科学家们在核移植技术的基础上,又发展了异种核移植技术、诱导多能干细胞技术等.诱导的多能干细胞可以分化成各种组织,甚至能发育成个体,这些方法使克隆技术不再破坏胚胎,避免了伦理学纠纷.尽管科学技术在进步,但是人们对克隆人仍有很多不解和困惑.从自主、不伤害、行善和公正等四大生命伦理学原则着手,在技术层面上提出了尽管克隆人不会搞乱人际关系,不会减少人类基因多样性,也不

  18. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  19. Bioethics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese civilization has a long history of 5,000years. It is China's fine tradition to attach importance to ethics and morality, that is "All must regard self-cultivation as the root." Confucius once said that "Benevolence means love of people." He advocated respecting people, concerning about people and caring for people.

  20. Eight years of bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que significó el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la investigación biomédica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile (2003–2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integración de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comités de ética y programas académicos de ética de investigación. Asimismo, en la elaboración de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluación ética y científica. PMID:23172984

  1. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  2. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence. PMID:22830450

  3. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

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    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  4. Bioethics in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2016-07-01

    This article examines ethical issues debated in Iceland concerning population genetic research, specifically methods of collecting biosamples and ways to return clinically relevant results to participants. Also discussed are scientific research in the health sector, a bill on surrogacy, and a policy on consent for organ donation. PMID:27348827

  5. Bioethics and caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, S

    1996-04-01

    The author agrees with the critiques of moral theory offered by such writers as Bernard Williams and Alasdair MacIntyre, and uses ideas from Heidegger and Levinas to argue that caring is an ontological structure of human existence which takes two forms: caring about on self (which he calls our "self-project") and caring-about-others. This dual form of caring is expressed on four Aristotelian levels of human living which the author describes and illustrates with reference to the phenomenon of pain. It is concluded from this analysis that traditional notions of morality as imposing obligations should give way to an understanding of ethics as the social forms given to our caring for ourselves and for others. A number of implications for ethical theory are sketched out with the conclusion that virtue theory should be preferred and that the model could be worked out more fully to show that virtue theory can be internalist, particularist, pluralist, personalist and objectivist. PMID:8731533

  6. Center for Practical Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TPOPP Transportable Physician Orders for Patient Preferences Compassion Sabbath Life Sciences Events & Education Events & Education Dinner and ... TPOPP Transportable Physician Orders for Patient Preferences Compassion Sabbath Life Sciences Events & Education Dinner and Symposium Flanigan ...

  7. 对当代学者恩格尔哈特俗世生命伦理学的中国化解读%The Chinese Reading to the Contemporary Scholar Engelhardt's Secular Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉宇

    2012-01-01

    对当代美国生命伦理学家恩格尔哈特的俗世生命伦理学思想进行中国化解读:对文化背景之差异性解读和对人伦关系的历史理解之差异性解读.在此基础上;认识允许原则及其恩氏俗世生命伦理学在中国应用中的有限性.其对中国生命伦理学的发展具有重要的启示作用.%The article makes a Chinese reading to the contemporary scholar Engelhardt' s secular bioethics: the reading to the difference of the cultural background and the reading to the difference of the history understanding to the human relations. And, on the basis of the cognition, the limitation of the permission principle and the secular bioethics in the Chinese application are known. They have the important enlightenment to the Chinese bioethics.

  8. Confucian Ethics in the Vision of Bioethics and Its Contemporary Value%生命伦理学视野中的儒家伦理及其当代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步臻

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Confucian ethics can provide profound cultural foundation for bioethics.From the perspective of bioethics, this paper discusses Confucian ethics including view of life and death, the overall concept of heaven and human, the principle of human relations and orders, and Confucian principle of getting the profit by the right way, aiming to absorb the essence of traditional Confucian culture, discard the dross, and provide reference for contemporary bioethical study.%中国传统儒家伦理可以为生命伦理学提供深厚的文化根基.从生命伦理学的视野探讨儒家的生死观、天人整体现、人伦秩序原则和儒家的见利思义原则,吸取儒家传统文化中的有益成分,剔除其糟粕,为当代生命伦理学研究提供借鉴.

  9. On the Bioethical Implications in the Traditional Chinese Medical Culture%略论中医药文化中的生命伦理意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫华; 樊民胜

    2012-01-01

    中医药文化发扬了中国传统文化中敬畏自然、遵循规律的原则,又从“医”之独特视角将人文情怀与科学精神相结合,嬗变出具有中医药特征的文化模式.在这种文化模式下,既有对自然生命之发展的透视,又有对生命价值和人性完美的引导.在中医药文化背景下开展生命伦理教育,需要在课程设置上加大医学人文教育课程的比重;挖掘中医药文化中的生命伦理教育资源,使中医药生命文化渗透于教学之中;将中医药文化纳入中医入学教育,培养学生中医药文化的认同感.%The culture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) not only developed the principles of fearing the nature, following the law of nature in Chinese traditional culture, but also combined the humanistic feelings with scientific spirits from the viewpoint of " Medicine" , forming a cultural pattern with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. This culture pattern, not only had the understanding of the development of natural life, but also had perfect guide for the value of life and perfect of human nature. Under the background of traditional Chinese medicine culture, the bioethical education needs to increase the proportion of medical humanistic education courses in the curriculum; to discover the bioethical education resources in the traditional Chinese medicine culture, make the life culture permeate in the teaching; to bring traditional Chinese medicine culture into entrance education of Chinese medicine, and cultivate students'sense of approval for traditional Chinese medicine culture.

  10. 中国生命伦理学应立足本土文化%The Development of Chinese Bioethics Should Be Based on Native Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恩格尔哈特; 张颖

    2013-01-01

    All kinds of historical background and the cultural change of the United States has led to a moral vacuum,traditional moral belief and moral experts are marginalized,and bioethics has been treated and supported as western post-Christianity and secular society moral guidelines.Fuzziness of the "Four Principles" make none of them could be used for providing normative ethical contents.Confucianism has the special moral consciousness which was rooted in the Chinese history,and also associated with its universal moral considerations.Facing current dual crisis,economy and culture,in western secular society,Confucian morality appears more convincing theoretical basis.The development of Chinese bioethics requires this native culture and the “Four Principles" should be reconsidered and repositioned.%各种历史背景及美国的文化变迁导致了道德真空,传统的道德信仰以及道德专家都被边缘化,生命伦理学在被当作西方后-基督教、世俗社会的道德指南而普遍受到拥护.而四原则的模糊性大大降低了四原则中的任何一项原则提供规范性伦理内容的可能性.儒家思想既有特殊的、植根于中国历史的道德意识,也有伴随它的普世的道德考量.面对当今西方世俗社会所遭遇的经济与文化双重危机,用儒家道德作为道德-理论基础显得更具有说服力,中国生命伦理学的发展则需要立足于本土文化,对四原则进行重新考虑和定位.

  11. Bioethics and why I hope to live beyond age 75 attaining wisdom!: A rebuttal to Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel′s 75 age limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available American bioethicists have been providing persuasive arguments for rationing medical care via the theory of the necessary "rational allocation of finite health care resources." Anticipating the need for the drastic rationing of medical care in the U.S. with the implementation of ObamaCare and assisted by various sectors of organized medicine in league with the State, bioethicists have deduced that more ingenious approaches are necessary to convince Americans who have been accustomed to receiving the best medical care that third-party payers are willing to pay for. It is in this context that the individual-based, patient-oriented ethics of Hippocrates, including his fundamental dictum, "First Do No Harm," have to be supplanted by the utilitarian approach promoted by the bioethicists. And today′s foremost proponent of the bioethics movement is Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel. This editorial proposes a rational rebuttal to Dr. Emanuel′s proposal to limit life expectancy to age 75 as a rational paradigm to a better life.

  12. A Modern Twist on the Beaumont and St. Martin Case: Encouraging Analysis and Discussion in the Bioethics Classroom with Reflective Writing and Concept Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C. Goller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont's experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course's structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas.

  13. Bioethics and why I hope to live beyond age 75 attaining wisdom!: A rebuttal to Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel's 75 age limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    American bioethicists have been providing persuasive arguments for rationing medical care via the theory of the necessary "rational allocation of finite health care resources." Anticipating the need for the drastic rationing of medical care in the U.S. with the implementation of ObamaCare and assisted by various sectors of organized medicine in league with the State, bioethicists have deduced that more ingenious approaches are necessary to convince Americans who have been accustomed to receiving the best medical care that third-party payers are willing to pay for. It is in this context that the individual-based, patient-oriented ethics of Hippocrates, including his fundamental dictum, "First Do No Harm," have to be supplanted by the utilitarian approach promoted by the bioethicists. And today's foremost proponent of the bioethics movement is Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel. This editorial proposes a rational rebuttal to Dr. Emanuel's proposal to limit life expectancy to age 75 as a rational paradigm to a better life. PMID:25789197

  14. A modern twist on the beaumont and st. Martin case: encouraging analysis and discussion in the bioethics classroom with reflective writing and concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Carlos C

    2014-12-01

    Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont's experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course's structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas.

  15. Bioethical aspects of the management of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Aspectos bioéticos relacionados con los pacientes que padecen el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioethical aspects related with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with AIDS are present in the Cuban strategy to fight the epidemic. Through the revision of the essentials and principles of Bioethics, we analyze the problems that doctors face when treating these patients and aspects related with education for health in the case of this disease. It also outlines the association between these principles and the disposition, manifested or not, of theses patients to be part of some researches. This infection should be the target of permanent analysis by the Bioethics due to the constant challenges that it represent for medical staff and for society, either for the prevention, treatment and care, or for other kids of actions. Cuba has exceptional results in this field.Aspectos éticos relacionados con la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento a los pacientes con SIDA, están presentes en la estrategia cubana para el enfrentamiento de la epidemia. A través de una revisión de los estatutos o principios de la Bioética, se analizan los problemas que enfrenta el médico al tratar a estos pacientes y los aspectos relacionados con la educación para la salud en el caso de la enfermedad; también se destaca la relación con estos principios y el deseo expreso o no de los pacientes de someterse a determinadas investigaciones. El VIH/sida tiene que constituir una situación de análisis permanente de la Bioética por los desafíos constantes del personal de salud y la sociedad, tanto para la prevención, cuidado y tratamiento como para otras acciones. Cuba exhibe resultados excepcionales, diferentes al resto del mundo.

  16. 生命伦理的差序性与治疗性克隆伦理困境的破解%The Differentiation of Bioethics and Solutions to the Dilemma of Therapeutic Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘代军; 龙艺

    2015-01-01

    生命伦理的差序性是指生命伦理观念的差异性和生命伦理地位的等级性、顺序性。由于治疗性克隆涉及对人类早期胚胎的破坏和利用,人们对胚胎能否享有人的道德主体地位,或是否享有与患者同等的道德权利产生了分歧,这种分歧源于是否承认生命伦理的差序性。因而,只有从生命伦理的差序性出发,以后现代伦理思想为指导,积极开展伦理辨析,进行生命伦理思想的交流、调适,采取伦理宽容态度,并经历长期交互对话与协调的伦理实践过程,治疗性克隆伦理的困境才能在短期内缓和,在长期内逐渐趋于消解。%The differentiation of bioethics refers to the difference of ethic notions as well as the hierarchy and sequentiality of bioethics .As therapeutic cloning concerns the damage and use of human early embryos ,there are contentious arguments on whether embryos have the same moral rights as human beings or whether they share the same moral rights as patients . This dispute comes from whether the differentiation of bioethics should be acknowledged .Therefore ,the solution to the dilemma of therapeutic cloning lies in the active discussion ,communication and adaptation of bioethical thoughts as well as the adoption of the ethical tolerance and the guidance of postmodern ethics thought .The dilemma of therapeutic cloning will be moderated in short terms and solved in long terms through the long‐term practice of ethical discourse and coordination .

  17. A Bioética e a psicologia da saúde: reflexões sobre questões de vida e morte Bioethics and health psychology: reflecting upon life and death questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma da Costa Torres

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho focaliza os fatores impulsionadores do surgimento da Bioética, destacando: a a revolução científica e tecnológica, e b a revolução social dos anos 1960. Descreve o desenvolvimento histórico da Bioética desde sua definição inicial como ciência da sobrevivência humana até seu estágio atual - o da Bioética Global, e suas fronteiras com os vários campos do saber. A psicologia da saúde integra esse contexto multidisciplinar principalmente por sua reflexão sobre temas desafiadores da Bioética, entre os quais são aqui discutidos aqueles decorrentes da medicina intensiva (eutanásia e distanásia e aqueles derivados da medicina substitutiva (transplantes. Questões básicas como definição de morte, consentimento livre e informado são analisadas como ainda polêmicas e controvertidas. Conclui-se com as indagações sobre as quimeras da ciência para triunfar sobre a doença e os problemas da ordem canibal que se espera diminuam na medida em que as terapêuticas etiológicas e fisiológicas progridamThe present work focus on factors that contributed to the emerging field of Bioethic. Among, those, we point out: a technological and scientific revolution; b social revolution of the 60's. It describes the historical development of Bioethic, from its former definition as a science of human survival to its current stage - Global Bioethic and its boundaries with different fields of knowledge. Health Psychology takes part in this multidisciplinary context, mainly due to its reflection upon challenging themes that involve Bioethics; among these themes, we discuss here those brought about by intensive medicine (euthanasia and disthanasia and the ones that are a consequence of substitutive medicine (transplants. Basic questions, such as death definition, free and informed consent, are analysed as still polemic and controversial. The article is concluded raising questions upon the chimeras of science to triumph over

  18. 中国安乐死合法化问题的生命伦理学审视%A Bioethical Perspective on the Legalization of Euthanasia in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昶达; 韩跃红

    2015-01-01

    This article is about the legalization of euthanasia in China from the perspective of bioethics.On the one hand,euthanasia is basically in line with the four cardinal bioethical principles of Respecting for Autono-my,Nonmaleficence,Beneficence and Justice,which at the same time ensures the protection of human dignity.So euthanasia can be reasonably defended by bioethics.On the other hand,the legalization of euthanasia is subject to the limited conditions of the real world in China.The implied moral hazard of euthanasia cannot be ignored. Only through deepening reform to improve social security system,to narrow the social gap,and to prevent the a-buse of euthanasia,can the legalization of euthanasia truly meet the spirit and principles of bioethics.%从生命伦理学的视角审视安乐死在我国的合法化问题可知,一方面,安乐死合法化基本符合生命伦理不伤害、有利、尊重、公正四项基本原则,同时又是对人生命尊严与人格尊严的重要保障,因而可以获得伦理辩护;另一方面,受我国现实社会条件所限,安乐死又有潜在的社会道德风险,存在着被滥用和因外在压力而“自愿安乐死”的可能。只有通过深化改革使社会保障体制趋于完善、社会差距趋于缩小、预防滥用的措施趋于完备,安乐死合法化被提上议事日程才真正符合生命伦理的精神和原则。

  19. Pessoas com deficiência e políticas de saúde no Brasil: reflexões bioéticas Persons with disabilities and Brazilian healthcare policies: thoughts about bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cristina Gonçalves Bernardes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe reflexões, à luz da bioética, acerca do dilema da alocação de recursos públicos para a assistência à saúde das pessoas com deficiência no Brasil. Para tanto, o conceito de deficiência e o marco legal brasileiro de assistência às pessoas com deficiência são apresentados; faz-se uma análise sobre a escassez de recursos; discutem-se referenciais teóricos atinentes e destaca-se o aporte da bioética de proteção e da bioética de intervenção. Conclui-se que, em razão de sua vulnerabilidade, as pessoas com deficiência devem ser protegidas pelo Estado e recursos devem ser empregados para garantir seu acesso aos serviços de saúde. Enfatiza-se, também, que apesar da previsão legal já existente, a efetiva destinação de recursos depende de outros fatores, tais como a participação sociopolítica das pessoas com deficiência na " pactuação" das políticas de saúde.The purpose of this article is to analyze the dilemma of allocation of public funds to the healthcare of people with disabilities in Brazil from a bioethical standpoint. The concept of disability and the legal framework are presented; the question of budgetary constraints and theoretical bioethics references about this issue are discussed; and the role of Bioethics of Protection and Bioethics of Intervention is stressed. It is concluded that, because of their vulnerability, people with disabilities should be protected by the state and funds must be allocated to guarantee their access to healthcare services. However, in spite of the existing legal basis, the actual destination of public funds to people with disabilities still depends on other factors, among others social and political participation of the disabled persons themselves in the negotiation of healthcare policies.

  20. On the Ontological Foundation of Bioethics Research%生命伦理学研究的存在论基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐代兴

    2016-01-01

    The bioethics exploring the life from ethics should first make sure where the foundation of bioeth-ics lies in,which is related to whether or not there exists the original ethical relationship between the Life and the World.The mutual creation and transference between the World and the Life not only indicate the dual transference between the world becoming life and life becoming the world,but also mean that the changing world is rooted in the endless life.The inherent logic it follows is bio -logic:it is pro -life when it opens to the world,which demands Life to exists in the way of presence or absence;it is a limited existence and self-growth when it opens itself up to the Life,while the former indicates the Life should always exist with death, and the latter opens as the demands of self-organization,self-growth,self-production and self-repairing, and reveals the health of life comes from Life itself.When it opens up to others or the crowd,it means growing, benefiting and love.The self-growth of Life origins from growing others,the self-benefit comes from altru-ism,and self-respect comes from respecting others,because whether in the life world or the human world,the most urgent thing to human can be nothing but human.%从伦理切入理解生命的生命伦理学,首先必须解决生命伦理的依据何在,这就涉及生命与世界之间是否具有本原性的伦理关联。世界与生命互为创化,既意味着世界生命化和生命世界化,更表明世界变动不居根源于生命的生生不息。它所遵循的内在逻辑是生命逻辑,它向世界敞开,就是亲生命性,它要求人的生命必以在场或退场的方式而存在;它向生命自身敞开,就是限度生存和自生生,前者表明生命始终向死而生,后者敞开为生命的自组织、自生长、自繁殖、自修复诉求,揭示生命健康源于生命本身;它向他人或群敞开,就是生利爱:生命的自生源于生他,自利源于

  1. Bioética en la relación equipo de salud-paciente Bioethics in the Health Team - Patient Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV Espinosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años sesenta, paralelamente a la revolución técnicocientífica, se observan cambios en la relación entre los profesionales de la salud y los pacientes, ya que estos son cada vez más conscientes de sus derechos como tal y hacen valer su autonomía. Esto afecta la tradicional postura paternalista del médico. A su vez, la relación ha mutado de un esquema personal a la relación multidisciplinaria, donde todos los miembros del equipo de salud participan con igual consideración. Los cambios contemporáneos han llevado a que los profesionales de la salud trabajen hoy bajo distintas presiones, observándose en consecuencia, una deshumanización en la relación. El artículo plantea la situación actual de la relación profesional de la salud - paciente, analizando desde una perspectiva bioética los cambios y factores que intervienen en dicha relación.Since the decade of the '60s, along with the technical and scientific revolution, changes can be seen in the relationship between health professionals and patients, as the latter are increasingly more aware of their rights as such and vindicate their autonomy. This also affects the traditional paternalistic attitude of the physician. Additionally, the relationship has turned from a personal scheme to a multidisciplinary approach, where all members of the health team are involved with equal responsibility. Contemporary changes have led health professionals to work under different pressures, which has resulted in a dehumanization of the relationship. This article describes the current situation of the health professional- patient relationship, analyzing the changes and factors involved in said relationship from a bioethical perspective.

  2. 美国生命伦理学的重镇--肯尼迪伦理学研究所研究访问记%A Key Place for American Bioethical Study:Kennedy Institute of Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延光

    2014-01-01

    通过记述在美国乔治城大学肯尼迪伦理学研究所做高访研究的整个经历:在那里不仅仅有世界第一大生命伦理学图书馆,更有一批热爱生命伦理学研究的专家教授,他们对待自己的工作研究兢兢业业,对待来访问学习的学者更是全心辅导,以此展示了美国生命伦理学的重镇---肯尼迪伦理学研究所。%The author described the experience at Kennedy Institute of Ethics during her visit and learning as a senior visiting scholar .The author also introduced Kennedy Institute of Ethics to China .In that institute , they not only have the largest library of bioethics in the world but also have a group of research experts and professors who love bioethics and treat their work diligently , show their enthusiasm and warm care to new learning scholars , etc.

  3. Strange bedfellows: the Bundestag’s free vote on pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD reveals how Germany’s restrictive bioethics legislation is shaped by a Christian Democratic/New Left issue-coalition

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    Kai Arzheimer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s bioethical legislation presents a puzzle: given structural factors, the country should be at the forefront of reproductive medicine, but its embryology regime remains one of the strictest in Western Europe. Past research has linked this fact to an unusual coalition of Christian and New Left groups, which both draw a connection from modern embryology to eugenics under the Nazis. In this article, the workings of this alleged alliance are demonstrated at the micro-level for the first time. The behaviour of individual MPs in a crucial free vote on pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is modelled using data on their political, sectoral and religious affiliations. Identifying as a Catholic and membership in Christian organisations are strong predictors of resistance to PGD. Even more importantly, net of religious and professional ties, affiliation with either the Christian Democrats or the left-libertarian Green party is closely linked to restrictive bioethical preferences. The modest liberalisation in 2011 was contingent on external factors and the overwhelming support of the historically unusually large FDP delegation. With the FDP no longer represented in parliament and the Christian Democratic/New Left issue coalition even stronger than before, further liberalisation is unlikely.

  4. Le droit musulman en pratique : genre, filiation et bioéthique Islamic Jurisprudence in Practice: Gender, Filiation and Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Fortier

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Les modifications récentes des Codes de statut personnel ou pénal de certains pays musulmans qui touchent en particulier au mariage, au divorce, à l’adultère et aux crimes d’honneur réinterrogent les notions fondamentales que sont la dot, le lien conjugal, l’autorité des hommes, le contrôle de la sexualité des femmes. De plus, les réformes législatives liées à « l’adoption », aux procréations médicalement assistées, au désaveu et à la reconnaissance de paternité, à l’usage de tests ADN, font apparaître le rapport du biologique et du social dans la détermination de la filiation en islam. Par ailleurs, les nouvelles questions de bioéthique comme la contraception, l’avortement, ou encorele don d’organes, ont amené les juristes musulmans à émettre des avis juridiques (fatâwâ sur ces questions inédites en puisant leurs réponses dans l’esprit des textes de droit musulman classique. Le droit musulman (fiqh loin d’être intangible et immuable, comme on a tendance à le penser, se situe dans une dynamique pragmatique et évolutive permanente ainsi que le montre la diversité des avis juridiques produits par les juristes musulmans sur des questions sans cesse renouvelées.Recent modifications of personal status and of penal codes in some Muslim countries question fundamental patriarchal ideas and practices about marriage such as bridewealth, conjugal relations, male authority and sexual control of women. These modifications specifically concern weddings, divorce, adultery, and honor crimes. Furthermore, legislative reforms connected to «adoption», medically assistedprocreation, denial or recognition of paternity, use of genetic tests, illustrate the relation of biological and social in the determination of filiation in Islam. Besides, new questions of bioethics such as contraception, abortion, or organ donation, have led Muslim jurists to express legal opinions (fatâwâ on these new questions while

  5. Sobre a correlação entre a bioética e a psicologia médica About correlation between bioethics and medical psychology

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    José Alvaro Marques Marcolino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizam um estudo a respeito de uma correlação entre a bioética e a psicologia médica. Dividem o trabalho em duas partes. A primeira discute os conceitos filosóficos sobre a distinção entre moral e ética, trata da ética ligada à medicina e dedica-se à bioética, procurando definir o que se compreende por essa disciplina, descrevendo seus três princípios básicos: a autonomia, a beneficência, não-maleficência e a justiça. Portanto, traça nesta parte do trabalho, uma trajetória que partiu da ética em sua vertente filosófica até chegar à ética em sua aplicação à medicina. A segunda parte é dedicada a definição do campo da psicologia médica, estudando aspectos da relação emocional do indivíduo doente com a sua doença, da relação do médico com a medicina e enfoca o relacionamento do médico com seu paciente. Discutem algumas situações clínicas em que se observa essa correlação. No final, buscam elaborar algumas conclusões.The authors make a study about the correlation between bioethics and medical psychology. They divide the study in two parts. The first part they discuss the philosophical concepts about the distinction between morals and ethics, they deal with ethics applied to medicine and they are trying to define what is meant by subject and describe its three basic principles: autonomy, beneficence, non maleficence and justice. Consequently in this part they trace route that started from ethics in its philosophical origins and moved on to ethics in its application to medicine. The second part is dedicated to the definition of the field of study of medical psychology, they study some aspects of the emotional relation of the patient with his illness, the relation of the doctors of his medicine and the relacionship between doctor and his patient. They discusse some clinical issues where they observe this correlation. At last, they try to draw some conclusions.

  6. Análise bioética do Código de Ética Odontológica brasileiro Bioethical analysis of the Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics

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    Monique Pyrrho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Código de Ética Odontológica (CEO brasileiro, Resolução CFO-71 de maio/2006, é um instrumento elaborado para orientar a conduta dos cirurgiões-dentistas sobre os aspectos éticos da prática profissional. O objetivo do estudo é analisar o CEO comparando os enfoques deontológico e bioético. Para tal, realizou-se a análise interpretativa do CEO e de doze textos selecionados, seis sobre bioética e seis sobre deontologia, por meio da classificação metodológica das unidades de contexto, parágrafos textuais e itens do código, nas seguintes categorias: os referenciais do principialismo bioético - autonomia, beneficência, não-maleficência e justiça -, aspectos técnicos e virtudes morais relacionados à profissão. Os quatro princípios somados representaram 22,9%, 39,8% e 54,2% do conteúdo do CEO, dos textos deontológicos e dos bioéticos, respectivamente. No CEO, 42% dos itens referiam-se às virtudes, 40,2%, a aspectos técnicos e apenas 22,9%, aos princípios. As virtudes relacionadas aos profissionais e os aspectos técnicos juntos representam 70,1% do código. O CEO, em vez de centrar-se no paciente como sujeito do processo de atenção à saúde bucal, focaliza o profissional, sendo predominantemente voltado para aspectos legalistas e corporativistas.The Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics (DCE, Resolution CFO-71 from May 2006, is an instrument created to guide dentists' behavior in relation to the ethical aspects of professional practice. The purpose of the study is to analyze the above mentioned code comparing the deontological and bioethical focuses. In order to do so, an interpretative analysis of the code and of twelve selected texts was made. Six of the texts were about bioethics and six on deontology, and the analysis was made through the methodological classification of the context units, textual paragraphs and items from the code in the following categories: the referentials of bioethical principlism - autonomy

  7. Oversight framework over oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer: comparative analysis of the Hwang Woo Suk case under South Korean bioethics law and U.S. guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the current regulatory regime instituted in South Korea and the United States would have prevented Hwang's potential transgressions in oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer, we compare the general aspects and oversight framework of the Bioethics and Biosafety Act in South Korea and the US National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and apply the relevant provisions and recommendations to each transgression. We conclude that the Act would institute centralized oversight under governmental auspices while the Guidelines recommend politically-independent, decentralized oversight bodies including a special review body for human embryonic stem cell research at an institutional level and that the Guidelines would have provided more vigorous protection for the women who had undergone oocyte procurement for Hwang's research than the Act. We also suggest additional regulations to protect those who provide oocytes for research in South Korea.

  8. Influence Factors of the Cognition of Genetic Technology and Bioethics Among Physicians in Shanghai%影响上海市临床医师对基因技术与生命伦理认知的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 周萍; 薛迪; 达庆东; 纪洁

    2013-01-01

    通过上海市临床医师问卷调查,应用Logistic模型分析临床医师对基因技术与生命伦理的认知的影响因素.结果显示,临床医师的性别、年龄、学历和职称等人口学因素主要影响对基因技术优势的认知.基因工作经历、伦理委员会任职经历、对伦理与相关法规的知晓度主要影响对基因技术风险的认知.建议加强基因伦理与相关法规教育,重视部属或市属综合性医院基因技术研究与应用的管理.%After a survey of physicians in Shanghai, the factors that influence the cognition of genetic technology and bioethics were analyzed through using Logistic model. The results indicated that demographic factors of physicians, such as gender, age, education and professional titles, mainly affected their cognition of the advantages of genetic technology, while experience in genetic work and ethics committees as well as knowledge of ethics and related regulations mainly affected their cognition of the risks of genetic technology. It is suggested that education and training on bioethics and related regulations should be reinforced and the management of clinical genetic trials, and services in the general hospitals subordinated to Ministry of Health or Municipal Health Bureau should be paid more attention to.

  9. Educação em biossegurança e bioética: articulação necessária em biotecnologia Education on biosafety and bioethics: necessary articulation in biotechnology

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    Marcos De Bonis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A educação científica tem sido debatida em alguns segmentos da sociedade e organizações internacionais têm estimulado as nações a investirem nessa área tão estratégica. Nesse contexto, a educação em biossegurança e bioética explora um conteúdo rico em prevenção, normas e princípios éticos, que servem para nortear os caminhos trilhados pela biotecnologia. A valorização da biossegurança e da bioética como parte de uma política educacional científica, efetiva e consistente, pode estimular a formação de indivíduos com uma consciência científica e cidadã, em condições de participar das questões de natureza ética e tecnológica produzidas pela biotecnologia.Science education has been discussed in some segments of the society and, international organizations have encouraged nations to invest in this strategic area. In this context, education in bioethics and biosafety explores a rich content on prevention, standards and ethical principles which serve to guide the paths track by biotechnology. The recovery of bioethics and biosafety, as part of an educational policy scientific, effective and consistent, can stimulate the formation of individuals with a scientific and citizen awareness, in a position to participate on ethical and technological issues produced by biotechnology.

  10. Strengthen Prevention and Intervention for the Suicide in College Students Community from the Perspective of Bioethics%从生命伦理学视角加强高校学生社区自杀预防与干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伟琼; 陈庆健

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the causes of some student suicide events in college students community, then put forward some prevention and intervention countermeasures based the viewpoints of Bioethics according to the discipline characteristics and the attributes of college students community. These countermeasures included: building a warm harmonious community living environment, leading the students set up a correct value of life; carrying out the life education according to the characteristics of students and the content of bioethics; implementing the ideal education in order to guide students to set up the positive value of life; beginning with moral education and helping them realize their individual value of life.%针对发生在高校学生社区的大学生自杀事件,从伦理学角度分析高校学生社区自杀事件的起因,根据生命伦理学的学科特点与高校学生社区的属性,从生命伦理学的视角提出预防与干预高校学生社区自杀的措施:营造温馨和谐的社区生活环境,引导学生树立正确的生活观;根据学生特点,结合生命伦理的内容开展生命价值教育;开展理想教育,引导学生树立积极的生命观;以伦理道德教育为突破口,帮助学生实现个体生命价值.

  11. Bioética e avaliação tecnológica em saúde Bioethics and health care technology assessment

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    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A vigência simultânea do paradigma biotecnocientífico (que incentiva a incorporação tecnológica e da cultura dos limites (que seleciona as tecnologias constitui um grande desafio aos sistemas sanitários atuais, suscitando debates éticos e políticos sobre as escolhas a serem feitas. A avaliação tecnológica em saúde diz respeito à análise das conseqüências dos cuidados em saúde e das políticas de saúde, e apresenta pontos de interseção com a bioética, apesar de serem campos distintos. A importância das implicações éticas e sociais da avaliação tecnológica é cada vez mais reconhecida, mas a maioria das publicações tem enfatizado apenas os aspectos metodológicos e científicos. Existem vários tipos de interesses envolvidos na incorporação tecnológica, fontes de conflitos de valores. As implicações éticas incluem aquelas relativas aos ensaios clínicos para aferir sua eficácia; à avaliação da boa ou má prática médica; à forma de incorporar as novas tecnologias e à sua efetividade; ao acesso e à alocação de recursos disponíveis. A incorporação da dimensão ética na avaliação tecnológica possibilitará melhor compreensão da prática de saúde e um avanço em direção ao seu aprimoramento.The simultaneous existence of a biotechnoscientific paradigm (which emphasizes technological incorporation and a culture of limits (which selects technologies challenges current health systems, raising ethical and political discussions as to the choices to be made. Health care technology assessment is mainly concerned with the consequences of health care and health care policies. Thus, there is significant overlap between this activity and bioethics, even though they are different fields of knowledge. Although the importance of ethical and social issues arising in technology assessment has been recognized, most publications emphasize only methodological and scientific aspects. There are different interests

  12. Análise bioética da propaganda e publicidade de medicamentos Bioethical analysis of drugs advertisement and publicity

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    Maria José Delgado Fagundes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sob a perspectiva da "ética da proteção" e da "bioética de intervenção", a pesquisa analisa a influência das peças publicitárias de medicamentos veiculadas à classe médica na prescrição de medicamentos. Estuda, ainda, a qualidade das informações nas propagandas de medicamentos de venda sob prescrição, antes e depois da Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada da Anvisa - RDC 102/2000, que regulamenta a propaganda de medicamentos no país, bem como discute o papel regulador do Estado na área. Primeiramente, foram entrevistados 50 médicos de Brasília, a fim de examinar como percebem os efeitos da propaganda sobre sua atividade profissional. Em seguida, foram avaliadas 10 peças publicitárias, 5 veiculadas antes e 5 depois da RDC 102/2000. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: a 98% dos médicos recebem visitas regulares de representantes comerciais; b 86% recebem brindes; c 68% crêem na influência direta da propaganda sobre a prescrição; d 14% disseram prescrever medicamentos em função do recebimento de prêmios; e 68% acreditam existir inverdades nas informações das peças publicitárias; f antes da RDC, as informações (contra-indicações, indicações, precauções, cuidados e advertência nas propagandas representava 28% dos casos; após a RDC, foram encontradas informações em 79% dos casos.This study investigates how advertising campaigns for drugs influence drug prescription practices among physicians from a point of view of "protection ethics" and of "intervention bioethics". It also analyzes information quality in advertisements for prescription drugs before and after the ANVISA (National Agency for Sanitary Protection RDC 102/200 Resolution wich regulates drugs advertising as well as discusses the regulating role of the state in this area. A first approach was to interview 50 physicians in Brasília/DF (25 general physicians and 25 surgeons in order to examine how they perceive the effects of advertisement on

  13. Bioethics, theology, and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lisa Sowle

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a concern among theological bioethicists that secular debate has grown increasingly "thin," and that "thick" religious traditions and their spokespersons have been correspondingly excluded. This essay disputes that analysis. First, religious and theological voices compete for public attention and effectiveness with the equally "thick" cultural traditions of modern science and market capitalism. The distinctive contribution of religion should be to emphasize social justice in access to the benefits of health care, challenging the for-profit global marketing of research and biotechnology to wealthy consumers. Second, religion and theology have been and are still socially effective in sponsoring activism for practical change, both locally and globally. This claim will be supported with specific examples; with familiar concepts like subsidiarity and "middle axioms"; and with recent analyses of "participatory democracy" and of emerging, decentralized forms of global governance. PMID:14986639

  14. Is there an Aboriginal bioethic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, G; Towney, P; McPhee, J R; Little, M; Kerridge, I H

    2004-12-01

    It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate. In doing so the authors consider how the ethics, values, and beliefs of the dominant white Australian culture have framed the treatment and delivery of services that Aboriginal people receive, and whether sufficient effort has been made to understand or acknowledge the different ethical predispositions that form the traditions and identity of Aboriginal Australia(ns). PMID:15574447

  15. Emergency contraception: different bioethical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraceptives, in this case post-morning pills, are contraceptive methods used to avoid an unwanted pregnancy after an unprotected sexual intercourse. Their use is feeding a strong ethical debate between subjects for and against their prescription and leading some health professionals to conscientious objection. Among people contrary to prescription some oppose to it because of a general refuse of all contraceptive methods, others considering post-morning pills as abortive. Among people supporting prescription, some consider emergency contraception necessary to assure fundamental women’s rights, in particular the right to sexual auto-determination, while others prescribe emergency contraception only to avoid a greater demand for abortion. It is up to the Italian National Health Service warranting a correct balance between the two opposite positions, that can protect women’s right of access to health services.

  16. Bioethics for clinicians: 8. Confidentiality

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, I; Baylis, F; Rodgers, S; P. Singer

    1997-01-01

    Physicians are obliged to keep information about their patients secret. The understanding that the physician will not disclose private information about the patient provides a foundation for trust in the therapeutic relationship. Respect for confidentiality is firmly established in codes of ethics and in law. It is sometimes necessary, however, for physicians to breach confidentiality. Physicians should familiarize themselves with legislation in their own province governing the disclosure of ...

  17. Modern medical research ethics - bioethics

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    Vásquez Abanto J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For today, the medical association came to common opinion, that a doctor-scientist cannot be higher than the universal values. At a decision-making, equally with the scientific interests, which, undoubtedly, will bring to development of the theoretical and practical medicine, a doctor must take into account moral values. The doctrine of the informed consent of patient that is examined as a necessary condition of any medical interference became ethic basis of experiment with participation of human. An observance of confidentiality of the results of the studies is also very important. The present development of the biomedical knowledge supposes realization of human research in a good cause, after the conducted tests on the animals and the other models. A clinical test on human must take place only then, when the risk does not exceed the benefit. Carrying out of the biomedical studies is considered as illegal, unconscionable, amoral and even criminal action. If the regulations and the norms of the law are not observed, it entails penal offence. This article provides the basic foundations of medical activities rather moral standards of medical and research activity, which in the different periods underwent the changes dictated by moral requirements of an era and society are analyzed.

  18. Education for values and bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina

    2015-01-01

    “Education for Values and Bioethics” is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010–2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, pr...

  19. A ética médica, a bioética e os procedimentos com células-tronco hematopoéticas Medical ethics, bioethics and procedures with hematopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Q. Oliveira Junior

    2009-05-01

    , visa encartar o profissional no campo seguro da ética e do pensamento bioético. O comprometimento médico assume uma postura social direcionada para a melhor realização do ser humano, ofertando a ele não só o tratamento adequado, mas contando com sua colaboração para atingir os resultados pretendidos. Uma verdadeira simbiose, que busca a concretização do princípio da dignidade humana.Cell therapy has been gaining more and more attention in medical procedures providing acceptable results and thereby efficiently satisfying the mission entrusted by specialists in hematology. The moral principles, together with the professional ethical conduct, demand new positions. The evolution of biotechnology and biotechnoscience carries a considerable amount of human knowledge, but requires the development and refinement of ethical concepts, bringing together social approval and bioethics. More than ever the doctor is geared to conduct an analysis and take into consideration the patient or his guardian. The purpose of this present study is to discuss the main roots of ethics, since its birth, its transformation in philosophical thought, its suitability in the professional field, the materialization of the Code of Medical Ethics and the severance of the new life science, named bioethics. This is in fact an effort to raise undervalued ethical principles again, reassess them in the Code of Medical Ethics, a status it deserves, and open space for bioethical thought. Bioethics emerges as a two-way science, because it involves doctors, researchers, patients and volunteers. The objectives of medical intervention should be explained, discussed and approved by interested parties. The hematologist has to put himself in the shoes of his patient, show him the clinical situation, pointing out the options for conduct and await the "placet". The proposal, therefore, aims to raise the professional to the safety of ethics and bioethical thought. The doctor takes an attitude better targeted

  20. Aspectos bioéticos e médico-legais do implante coclear em crianças Bioethics and medical/legal considerations on cochlear implants in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Implante coclear é a melhor forma de correção da surdez profunda nas formas congênitas. As crianças "implantáveis" são tidas como "vulneráveis", recaindo a decisão de se implantar sobre os responsáveis. Pelo Código Penal Brasileiro, o surdo-mudo pode ter sua imputabilidade reduzida. Existem controvérsias bioéticas a respeito do implante, pois parcela dos representantes da chamada "comunidade de surdos" vê nele uma maneira de "dizimar" sua cultura e valores intrínsecos. OBJETIVOS: Discutir em termos bioéticos a validade de se realizar implante coclear em criança, analisando a sua vulnerabilidade e os aspectos socioculturais do problema, e discutir aspectos médico-legais a respeito da imputabilidade do surdo-mudo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Forma de estudo: pesquisou-se o tema nas bases de dados Medline e Lilacs e a análise ética foi baseada na Bioética Principialista. RESULTADOS: O implante coclear é a melhor opção terapêutica para correção da surdez profunda, estando moralmente justificado. Quanto à imputabilidade penal do surdo-mudo é necessário analisar seu grau de entendimento e autodeterminação à época dos fatos a ele imputados. CONCLUSÕES: O implante coclear é moralmente válido. Sua aplicação deverá ser analisada em cada caso, cabendo ao otorrinolaringologista a responsabilidade ética pela indicação, após assinatura de termo de consentimento pelos responsáveis pela criança.Cochlear implants are the best treatment for congenital profound deafness. Pediatric candidates to implantation are seen as vulnerable citizens, and the decision of implanting cochlear devices is ultimately in the hands of their parents/guardians. The Brazilian Penal Code dictates that deaf people may enjoy diminished criminal capacity. Many are the bioethical controversies around cochlear implants, as representatives from the deaf community have seen in them a means of decimating their culture and intrinsic values. OBJECTIVE: This

  1. 生命伦理视野下幼儿教师培训理念的创新路径探析%Analysis on the Path of Innovation of Preschool Teacher Training Philosophy from the Perspective of Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰

    2014-01-01

    思想是行动的先导,幼儿教师培训首先要理念培训先行。幼儿教师培训理念源于教师成长的社会生活实践,当今,人们的社会生活实践发生了深刻变化,幼儿教师培训理念要紧跟实践的脚步,不断地进行创新。从生命伦理的视角,结合生命伦理所倡导的“关爱生命、尊重生命和尊重病人自主”思想,重新审视幼儿教师培训理念,笔者认为,培训中要使幼儿教师树立尊重生命的教育观,这有利于幼儿教育向生命的本质回归;要确立视每个儿童为目的的教育价值观,这有利于幼儿教育回到育人为本的方向;培训者要增强主体性培训理念,使幼儿教师培训回归其“为人”的本真意旨。%Thought is the guide of action. Preschool teachers training should put the training of concept in advance.Training philosophy of preschool teacher originates from the practice of social life of teacher growth. Nowadays, profound changes have taken place in people's social life practice, so preschool teacher training idea needs constantly innovate for keeping up with the pace of practice. From the perspective of Bioethics, combined with the ideas of the "care for life, respect for life and respect for patient autonomy" advocated by Bioethics, re-examining the preschool teacher training philosophy, we should set up the educational concept of respecting for human life, which helps to return childhood education to the essence of life;we should establish the educational value of taking every child as educational objective, which helps to make early childhood education return to the direction of human-centered education;we should enhance subjectivity philosophy of training trainers, which helps to make preschool teacher training back to its true human-centered intent.

  2. Hacia una mejor comprensión del papel de la naturaleza en los debates bioéticos To a better understanding of the role of nature in bioethical debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Feito Grande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En los debates bioéticos actuales es frecuente encontrar apelaciones a la naturaleza como modo de justificar determinadas opciones morales. Así, la llamada a una presunta «naturaleza» del ser humano, o la aparentemente incuestionable «ley natural» se convierten en baluartes de una ética poco dispuesta a renunciar a ese sustrato inamovible y fiable. Sin embargo, este planteamiento exige ser revisado. Más que de naturaleza humana es preciso hablar de capacidades o elementos que posibilitan las opciones humanas.In the present bioethical debates is usual finding appeals to nature as a way to justify certain moral options. Therefore, the invocation of a supposed “nature” of human beings, or the seemingly unquestionable “natural law” turn into bastions of an ethics not willing to abandon a fixed and reliable substratum. Nonetheless this approach must to be revised. Instead of human nature is required to deal with capacities of elements which make possible the human options.

  3. Encuesta sobre bioética en un historial de pediatría: Bases para futuras estrategias Survey on bioethics in a pediatric hospital: Basis for new strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Lynch Pueyrredon

    2004-02-01

    ños Ricardo Gutiérrez was carried out to determine a the knowledge of basic concepts of bioethics bthe place and function of the committee. A total of 150 surveys were given out, 90 responses were obtained (60%. Basic concepts of bioethics (definition of bioethics, end of life, autonomy, justice, beneficence, and informed consent were correctly answered by 75.2%; 97.8% knew of the existence of the committee in the hospital, it had been consulted by 61.1%. From the group that had consulted the recommendations suggested by the committee to solve the ethical dilemma was considered: useful by 23.6%, partially useful by 45.5% and not useful by 27.3%; 37.8% had never consulted the committee. Of these, 64.7% had never had a dilemma, 11.7% considered not useful any possible answer of the committee, and 11.7% did not give a reason. The majority of the responders had appropriate information of the basic bioethical concepts. Both the index of consultation to the committee and the assessment of its judgements as totally or partially useful (69.1% guarantee its presence. It is peculiar that the principal argument for not consulting the committee was the absence of dilemmas. Both the committee in the hospital and the universities should intensify the teaching of medical ethics (mainly practical ethics, in order to facilitate the detection of ethical dilemmas by the health team.

  4. Bioética y asignación de recursos para la atención odontológica del adulto mayor en Chile Bioethics and dental health care resource allocation for elderly people in Chile

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    I Espinoza Santander

    2011-08-01

    . This requires ethical considerations that support these policies more than demographic and epidemiological data. This article outlines the oral health of older adults in Chile and subsequently, bioethical considerations that may limit or support health care resource allocation in this group. Finally, it can be concluded that Justice in Health and Protection Bioethics must be applied to the discussion about resources allocation in dental health care program for elderly people and other susceptible groups that should be the focus of protection.

  5. Desigualdades na distribuição da cárie dentária no Brasil: uma abordagem bioética Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries in Brazil: a bioethical approach

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    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou analisar a problemática da cárie dentária, enquanto uma questão de saúde pública de relevância epidemiológica, tendo como suporte analítico a visão da Bioética da Proteção. Trata-se de estudo de caso realizado a partir de análise documental dos inquéritos epidemiológicos em saúde bucal, de base nacional, 1986, 2003 e 2010. Os levantamentos apontam desigualdades entre grupos populacionais. Essa desigualdade foi analisada, com relação à redução da doença na população mais jovem, no acesso ao atendimento, e na perda dentária, pior desfecho para a cárie dentária. Os bons resultados apresentados, nos levantamentos, não atinge toda a população, apresentando desigualdades por renda familiar e região brasileira. Constatou-se a partir de 2003 intervenções do Estado em ações protetoras, como adoção de critérios de equidade na destinação dos recursos na saúde e inclusão de populações em vulneração, contribuindo para redução da cárie. No entanto, considera-se necessário avançar mais nos modelos assistenciais em saúde bucal usando a Epidemiologia como uma ferramenta estruturante, já que as diferenças regionais ainda permaneceram marcantes, em interface com uma bioética protetora e socialmente responsável.The scope of this paper was to analyze the problem of dental caries as a public health issue of epidemiological relevance. It is a case study based on documentary analysis of national epidemiological surveys on oral health in the years 1986, 2003 and 2010, with the Bioethics of Protection as an analytical support. The surveys revealed inequalities between population groups; and such inequalities were analyzed with respect to the reduction of the disease in the younger population, access to oral health care, and tooth loss, which is the worst outcome for tooth decay. The good results presented in the surveys have not reached the whole population; data have shown inequalities

  6. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD GENÉTICA AL CÁNCER: ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES BIOÉTICAS BAJO EL MARCO LEGAL VENEZOLANO GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO CANCER: SOME BIOETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN VENEZUELAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK

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    Carlos JG Flores-Angulo

    environmental conditions, the base of carcinogenesis is the non lethal genetic damage. In this sense, the study of genetic susceptibility markers acquires capital importance, because it allows the identification of high genetic risk individuals, estimate their prognosis and their answer to treatment, obtaining a more predictive and preventive position of the medical practice. None the less this could unleash a great deal of ethical problems, especially difficult to solve in a society without an adequate legal context. That is why it is important to carry out an analysis of the Venezuelan Legal System (VLS that protects the information of human genome and its bioethical repercussions. For that, a search and interpretation of the valid Venezuelan normative was made, concerning publications about cancer, its susceptibility and technological diagnosis. The conclusions that were obtained were that 1 Their massive offer is not recommended because of its psychosocial and labor repercussions, 2 The normative of the VLS about the genome protection is quite limited, and 3 The adaptation of the VLS is necessary to the imminent scientific development, in order to control the bioethical impact of the obtained information and guarantee the access to a genetic, psychological and legal advisement so that the context of responsibilities can be established.

  7. O modelo bioético principialista aplicado no manejo da dor El principialismo bioético modelo aplicado en el tratamiento del dolor The bioethical principlism model applied in pain management

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    Layz Alves Ferreira Souza

    2013-03-01

    regarding the relationships between pain and the principles of bioethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. Controlled descriptors were used in three international data sources (LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, in April of 2012, totaling 14 publications categorized by pain and autonomy, pain and beneficence, pain and nonmaleficence, pain and justice. The adequate relief of pain is a human right and a moral issue directly related with the bioethical principlism standard model (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. However, many professionals overlook the pain of their patients, ignoring their ethical role when facing suffering. It was concluded that principlism has been neglected in the care of patients in pain, showing the need for new practices to change this setting.

  8. Ensaio sobre a cegueira (hipermoderna: aspectos bioéticos das cirurgias plásticas estéticas/ Blindness (hyper modern: bioethical aspects of aesthetic plastic surgery

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    Gabriel Ferreira Da Fonseca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente trabalho procura, mediante premissas da teoria da hipermodernidade de Gilles Lipovetsky, estudar as cirurgias plásticas estéticas no estágio atual da modernidade. Faz breve revisão bibliográfica sobre o consumo, que se volta, cada vez mais, para o corpo humano, como forma de alcançar a felicidade e o sucesso pessoal. Assim, em meio à eterna ansiedade, incentivada pelo mercado, os avanços técnico-científicos propiciam uma busca sem fim da inalcançável boa forma. Portanto, numa sociedade da moda, em que imperam as técnicas do efêmero, da renovação e da sedução permanentes, não se pode deixar de questionar os conflitos éticos, que decorrem de tais intervenções cirúrgicas estéticas.   Palavras-chave: Cirurgia plástica. Bioética. Narcisismo.   Abstract This paper seeks, through some assumptions of the theory of hyper modernity Gilles Lipovetsky, to study the plastic surgeries in the current stage of the modernity. In this sense, it was done a brief review of the literature about the consumption, which turns, in creasingly, to the human body as a way to achieve happiness and personal success. Thus, in the midst of perpetual anxiety, encouraged by the market, the technical-scientific advances provide an endless pursuit of the unattainable "good shape". Therefore, a "society of fashion" in which reign the techniques of short-lived, seduction and permanent renewal, we must question the ethical conflicts that arise from such aesthetic surgeries. Key words: Plastic Surgery. Bioethics. Narcissism.  

  9. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics Transição paradigmática, metamorfose da ética médica e emergência da bioética

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    José Luiz Telles de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.A crescente incorporação de tecnologia médica e as novas demandas sociais, inclusive de saúde, que tiveram início nos anos 60, impuseram importantes transformações na prática médica. Tal situação tem estimulado crescente debate filosófico em torno de problemas de ética prática que não mais encontram respostas no âmbito do modelo ético hipocrático. Para os autores, a crise da ética hipocrática poderia ser caracterizada como um período de transição paradigmática em que se estaria formando um novo conjunto de valores. A partir do movimento da bioética, os autores apresentam as diferentes teorias éticas aplicadas à prática médica, concluindo que a abordagem principialista seria mais adequada à resolução dos novos dilemas morais postos à prática clínica.

  10. Anemia Falciforme: Um Problema Nosso. Uma abordagem bioética sobre a nova genética Sickle Cell Anaemia: A Brazilian Problem.A bioethical approach to the new genetics

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    Debora Diniz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa uma das ações educativas adotadas pelo Ministério da Saúde no campo das hemoglobinopatias: o folheto informativo Anemia Falciforme: Um Problema Nosso. O objetivo é discutir as premissas e os valores morais que se encontram associados a iniciativas no campo da educação genética, tendo as políticas públicas sobre anemia falciforme no Brasil como estudo de caso. A análise mostra que o conteúdo do folheto oscila entre políticas de prevenção para doenças e promoção de direitos fundamentais, uma característica da nova genética. Além disso, o excesso de informação biomédica especializada no folheto dificulta sua divulgação em massa. Os resultados encontrados foram discutidos à luz do debate bioético contemporâneo sobre a nova genética.This article analyzes one of the educational initiatives of the Brazilian Ministry of Health on hemoglobinopathies: the leaflet entitled Sickle Cell Anaemia: A Brazilian Problem. The purpose is to discuss the moral values associated with initiatives in genetics education, and the case study focuses on public policies related to sickle cell anaemia in Brazil. The analysis shows that the topics in the leaflets fluctuate between disease prevention policies and human rights protection, a basic characteristic of the new genetics. In addition, the leaflet’s excessive biomedical information hinders understanding by lay readers. The results are analyzed in the light of the contemporary bioethical debate on the new genetics.

  11. On industrialization of transgenic crops from the perspective of bioethics%生命伦理学视野下的转基因作物产业化问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新志; 李俊

    2012-01-01

    转基因作物的产业化作为当前生命伦理学的重要问题之一日益受到我国学术界、政府和广大公众的关注.转基因作物产业化不仅关涉到我国13亿人的吃饭问题,也与我国公众的身心健康、基本权利密切相关.转基因作物产业化的生命伦理意蕴主要体现在:转基因作物产业化的基础是确保公众健康与生命安全,关键是尊重公众权利,核心是促进社会公正.%As one of the significant issues of bioethics, the industrialization of transgenic crops has been paid more attention by the academia, the government and the public. The industrialization of transgenic crops is not only related with the food problem of 1.3 billion people in China, but also with the public's physical and mental health as well as basic rights. The ethical significance of the industrialization of transgenic crops are mainly embodied as follows: the foundation is to ensure safety of the health and safety of the public, the key is to respect the rights of the public, and the core is to promote social justice.

  12. 解读“美国少年的精彩16秒”--跨文化交际视角下的中美生命伦理价值观差异及原因%Interpretation of American Teenager Wonderful 16 Seconds--On Different Values and Backgrounds of Bioethics in the Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雪莲

    2015-01-01

    本文以美国少年精彩的16秒为案例,阐述了生命伦理的普世价值,通过比较中美家庭教育和学校教育的不同,分析了中美生命伦理价值的差异。外语教学的重要意义在于实现跨文化交际并构建跨文化的生命伦理平台,培养尊重生命和热爱生命的意识。%The paper bases on the case . It expounds the universal value of bioethics, analyzes the differences of it between China and America and explores their respective origins by comparing family education and school education. The purpose is to build the bioethical dialogue platform to promote cross-cultural communication for college students and their respect and love of life.

  13. Por uma vida não colonizada: diálogo entre bioética de intervenção e colonialidade For a not colonized life: dialogue between intervention bioethics and coloniality

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    Wanderson Flor do Nascimento

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir algumas noções desenvolvidas pelos estudos sobre colonialidade originadas por um conjunto de pensadores(as da América Latina acerca do modo como a Modernidade surgiu estruturada como uma maneira de arranjar o poder, o saber e o ser de modo que uma hierarquia entre centro e periferia, instalados em uma perspectiva colonial, organize nossa maneira de lidar com a política, com as ciências e - esse é o ponto principal que o trabalho sustentará - com a própria vida. A Bioética de Intervenção (BI, que tem como proposta politizar de modo ético e aplicado o modo de lidar com os conflitos biotecnocientíficos, sanitários, sociais e ambientais a partir da realidade latino-americana, desenvolve uma linha de pesquisa que pode acolher as críticas e contribuições advindas dos estudos sobre a colonialidade, sobretudo no que diz respeito às bases conceituais relacionadas com as teorias éticas e epistemológicas que a sustentam. Entre estas, especificamente, o estudo discute as relações existentes entre o utilitarismo aceito pela BI por meio de um consequencialismo solidário e suas inter-relações com a ideia de colonialidade.This paper aims to discuss some concepts - developed within the Coloniality Studies by a group of thinkers in Latin America - about how Modernity emerged structured as a way to dispose power, knowledge and being, so that a hierarchy between center and periphery, installed in a colonial perspective, organizes our way of dealing with politics, with science and - this is the main focus of this paper - with life. Intervention Bioethics (IB, whose proposal is to politicize in an ethical manner the method of dealing with biotechnoscientific, sanitary, social and environmental conflicts from the Latin American reality, develops a line of research that can accommodate the contributions, as well as the criticisms, from Coloniality Studies, particularly with regard to conceptual frameworks

  14. Bioética, violência e desigualdade: as biociências e a constituição do biopoder Bioethics, violence and inequality: the biosciences and the conquest of biopower

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    Hélder Boska de Moraes Sarmento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade contemporânea está atravessada por contradições e paradoxos, dentre os quais vale destacar a relação entre a alta tecnologia e, a pior situação humana, a miséria. Resultado das escolhas éticas e políticas desta era tecnológica, vive-se em situações de fronteira, nas quais as biociências desempenham papel central, tanto no volume de conhecimentos gerados, como na utilização de seus resultados, que, sem controle social, ampliam desigualdades. O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar o quanto as biociências articulam-se com o desenvolvimento científico dos países inovadores de tecnologia, criando uma nova relação de poder, violento e desigual para os que apenas a consomem, denominado de biopoder. Daí a necessidade de uma bioética crítica capaz de empreender reflexões sobre os procedimentos técnicos, os fundamentos da atividade científica, sua aplicabilidade e relação com o mercado, oportunizando uma 'ponte' na tomada de decisões para que a própria ciência não se torne um obstáculo à democracia.Contemporary society is rife with contradictions and paradoxes, among which stand out the relationship between high technology and the worst human situation, poverty. The result of ethical and political choices of this technological era, we experience frontier situations, in which the biosciences play a central role, both in the volume of knowledge generated, as well as in the use of their results which, without social control, broaden inequalities. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the degree to which the biosciences are articulated with the scientific development of the countries that innovate technologies, creating a new relationship of power, which is violent and unequal for those who only consume, denominated biopower. This creates a need for a critical bioethics that is capable of reflecting on the technical procedures, the bases of scientific activity and their applicability and relation with

  15. Bioética: aspectos de interesse do anestesiologista Bioética: aspectos de interés del anestesiólogo Bioethics: issues regarding the anesthesiologist

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    Artur Udelsmann

    2006-06-01

    observados durante el ejercicio de la Anestesiología. CONTENIDO: Después de la introducción histórica y la definición de bioética como una ciencia de sello filosófico, se demuestran sus interconexiones con el Derecho. Los principios de la beneficencia, de la no maldad, del respeto a la autonomía y a la justicia se presentan como puntos esenciales de la práctica de la Anestesiología, cuyo objetivo es, primordialmente, la preservación de la dignidad del ser humano. La observación de esos principios protege al paciente de resultados inesperados, indeseables y también al anestesiólogo de implicaciones en la esfera ética o jurídica frente a complicaciones fortuitas. CONCLUSIONES: La bioética se hizo inseparable en el ámbito de las discusiones de la salud; para el progreso de la Anestesiología y de la investigación hacen necesarios conocimientos de esa área en la práctica de la especialidad. Aunque de sello filosófico, de una cierta manera un poco lejos de la especialidad que prima por una atención aguda al paciente, los anestesiólogos tienen todo el interés en conocer esa nueva ciencia que cada día más, seguramente, influirá en la práctica de la especialidad, para proteger sus pacientes y evitar más trastornos en la práctica de una especialidad ya bastante difícil en el país.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medical evolution requires from health professionals the exercise of ethical reflections faced to daily situations, to avoid transgressing moral, ethical and legal rules. This article aimed at addressing bioethics principles to be observed during the Anesthesiology practice. CONTENTS: After bioethics historical introduction and definition as a philosophic science, its interface with Law is demonstrated. Beneficence, non-malfeasance, respect to autonomy and justice principles are presented as critical points for the anesthetic practice, the primary objective of which is to preserve human dignity. The adherence to these principles protects patients

  16. Ensino da Bioética na formação do enfermeiro: interface com a bibliografia adotada La enseñanza de la Bioética en la formación del enfermero: relación con la bibliografía adoptada The teaching of Bioethics in the education of nurses: interface with the adopted literature

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    Nildo Batista Mascarenhas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e descrever as fontes bibliográficas, utilizadas pelos docentes no ensino da Ética/Bioética em Enfermagem nos cursos de graduação em Enfermagem de Salvador-BA. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, quanti-qualitativo. A análise dos dados teve três momentos e foi guiada pelas temáticas da Ética, Bioética e Exercício Profissional. RESULTADOS: A análise dos dados de cinco cursos, mostrou que os docentes adotam obras que contemplam aspectos relacionados à deontologia, exercício da enfermagem, fundamentos da Bioética e da Ética. CONCLUSÃO: O ensino da Ética/Bioética nos cursos de graduação em Enfermagem de Salvador não se restringe a uma abordagem deontológica e fornece os subsídios básicos para a reflexão crítica e moral dos futuros enfermeiros.OBJETIVO: Identificar y describir las fuentes bibliográficas, utilizadas por los profesores en la enseñanza de la Ética/Bioética en Enfermería en los cursos de graduación de Enfermería en Salvador, Bahía. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio exploratorio, cuantitativo y cualitativo. El análisis de los datos fue realizado en tres etapas y fue guiado por los temas: Ética, Bioética y Práctica Profesional. RESULTADOS: El análisis de los datos de cinco cursos, mostró que los profesores adoptan obras que incluyen aspectos relacionados con la deontología, con la práctica de la enfermería, con los fundamentos de la Bioética y de la Ética. CONCLUSIÓN: La enseñanza de la Ética/Bioética en cursos de graduación en Escuelas de Enfermería, en Salvador, no se limita a un enfoque deontológico y proporciona los medios básicos para el pensamiento crítico y el desarrollo moral de las futuras enfermeras.OBJECTIVE: To identify and to describe the bibliographic sources used by professors in the teaching of Ethics/Bioethics in nursing undergraduate courses, in nursing schools, in Salvador, Bahia. METHODS: This is an exploratory and quantitative study

  17. The Sociolist Core Value System and Medical Ethics——Research on Medical Ethics and Bioethics Development in China( 3rd)%社会主义核心价值体系与医学伦理学——中国医学伦理学与生命伦理学发展研究之三

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    李恩昌; 徐玉梅

    2012-01-01

    The socialist core value system is the essence of socialist ideology, is the spirit guide for social trends. Medical ethics in fact includes medical professional ethics and bioethics, for medical professional ethics, the socialist core value system has a leading role to it. And its leading role in bioethics, some are reflected in the i-deological content, some are in thought methods, or both of them. According to the different content specifics, two methods, namely taking absorption, innovation and dynamic integration, improvement by enriching can be used.%社会主义核心价值体系是社会主义意识形态的本质体现,是引导社会思潮的精神导向.医学伦理学实际上包括医疗职业道德和生命伦理学两个部分,对于医疗职业道德,社会主义核心价值体系对其的主导引领作用十分明显.而对生命伦理学的引领作用,有些体现在思想内容方面,有些体现在思想方法方面,或者二者兼而有之.具体可依据不同的内容,采取借鉴吸收、改造创新和有机结合、充实提升两种方法.

  18. 运动生理学研究中的道德伦理与困境——基于生命伦理学视阈的研究%Ethics and Moral Dilemma in the Study on Physiology of Sport and Exercise --On the Perspective of Bioethics

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    赵金岭; 张淑香

    2012-01-01

    Exercise physiology has some distinct features such as intercross and so on, research methods of medical and other related disciplines are introduced by many researchers of contemporary exercise physiology, which lead to the research field of exercise physiology is broadened as well as the content of it is enriched contin- uously. It is just the application of new science and technology, combined with intervention and application of ways and means in medical, triggering a series of new ethical issues. Ensuing moral and ethical issues have caught our exercise physiology researchers in a dilemma. Based on the issues talked above, study ron the ethics and dilemma produced in the research of exercise physiology from the Perspective of bioethics is one of the social responsibilities which a sport scientist must take of. In this paper, by means of literature review, field survey, interview, etc. , the evolution of bioethics and research status in China are described. After that, the study on many problems of moral and ethical dilemma exercise physiology researcher faced has been conducted. And final- ly, some constructive suggestions were put forward in the paper.%运用文献资料、专家访谈法等研究方法,对生命伦理学的演进及其在我国的研究状况进行了阐述。在此基础上,对我国运动生理学研究中的道德伦理与面临的困境进行了深入剖析,最后,针对存在的问题提出了一些富有建设性的对策与意见。

  19. A Study on Dignity Issues of the Compulsory Isolation Detoxification Personnel Based on Bioethics%生命伦理视域下我国强制隔离戒毒人员的尊严问题

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    韩跃红; 龙昆平

    2013-01-01

    当前,我国实行强制隔离戒毒的效果并不理想。从生命伦理学的视角看,强制隔离戒毒长期限制戒毒人员的人身自由,戒毒人员的人身安全和医疗救治得不到保障,有偿劳动难以落实,从而严重伤害了戒毒人员的心理尊严、生命尊严和劳动尊严。进行有尊严的戒毒改革,需变强制性、大规模隔离戒毒为自愿的、社区服务治疗为主的小规模隔离戒毒,变劳动康复与社区戒毒就业安置为行为治疗及与社会接轨的职业技能培训,并发放最低生活保障金,鼓励其参与正常就业竞聘、实现自我价值,以保护戒毒人员“做人”的尊严和生命尊严,重塑戒毒人员的社会尊严和人格尊严。有尊严的戒毒将成为未来社会戒毒的主导模式和戒毒改革的努力方向。%At present,China’s compulsory isolation detoxification is not very effective from the perspective of bioethics in that compulsory isolation detoxification restricts the personal freedom of the addicts for so long a time that the personal safety and medical treatment of the patients abstained from drugs cannot be guaranteed and it is difficult to implement the system of paid laboring,thus seriously injuring their psychological dignity, life dignity and labor dignity.In order to reform the current detoxification system,it is necessary to change the large-scale isolation detoxification for the small-scale voluntary and mandatory community-oriented service treatment,to change the laboring rehabilitation and community rehabilitation of job -providing to behavioral therapy and society-adaptation-oriented vocational skill training,and to offer the minimum living allowance to them so as to encourage their participation in employment competition and the realization of self value after they are released.In this way,the "human"dignity and life dignity of the patients abstained from drugs can be maintained,and their social dignity and

  20. Bioética clínica: contribuições para a tomada de decisões em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais Clinical bioethics: contributions to decision-making in neonatal intensive care units

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    Carlos Dimas Martins Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo oferece uma reflexão sobre a tomada de decisão nas UTI neonatais levando-se em conta o princípio da justiça distributiva, tendo como referenciais teóricos complementares a bioética de proteção, elaborada por Schramm e Kottow, e a teoria das capacidades ("capability", formulada por Nussbaum e Sen. Em um primeiro momento, apresenta-se a abordagem das capacidades e a bioética de proteção, caracterizando-se, dentro da concepção de justiça sanitária adotada neste trabalho, quais são as necessidades essenciais dos cidadãos que o Estado tem o dever de satisfazer para que haja justiça. Em seguida, discute-se a questão de quem deve ser beneficiado na UTI neonatal - e de que maneira - com os recursos públicos disponíveis, considerando-se três grupos de recém-nascidos que, de forma geral, compõem a demanda pelo atendimento nestes serviços. Conclui-se que a decisão ética será também mais qualificada quanto melhor for a informação clínica que estiver disponível, sendo necessário desenvolver mais estudos que amparem a construção de evidências razoáveis, inclusive relativas ao prognóstico, para que se possa esclarecer de forma ainda mais apropriada às famílias envolvidas. E, especialmente, a importância de envolver os pais da criança na tomada de decisões clínicas.This article presents a reflection about decision-making in Neonatal Intensive Care Units based on the principle of distributive justice and considering the theoretical approaches of the Bioethics of Protection, formulated by Schramm and Kottow, and the Theory of Capabilities developed by Nussbaum and Sen. Within the concept of justice in the health area adopted in this study, we characterize the essential needs of the citizens that must be satisfied by the State. Then we discuss the question of who should be benefited in the neonatal intensive care units- and in which way - given the scarce public resources available, considering three groups of

  1. The bioethics and biosafety of gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    universally adopted principles on which risk assessments are based. Despite this focus on risk prevention, genetically modified (GM) crops have given rise to controversies over the last 10–15 years. It is argued that one reason for this is that the early regulatory frameworks did not adequately address......From the early stages of genetic engineering legal frameworks were set up to ensure the safe development of this technology. These regulatory frameworks focus primarily on risks to human health and the environment, and the concepts of substantial equivalence and familiarity seem to be the two...... the concerns that seem to underlie public resistance to GM crops. Some of these concerns are about risks which lie beyond the issues addressed by the authorities who approve GM crops. Awareness of these concerns has led to a tightening of the regulatory requirements in the European Union where, among other...

  2. Development and perspectives of theological bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašević, Luka

    2013-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century is marked by a great revolution supported by science, which is called biothechnological revolution and our century a biotechnological century (1). Enormous advances in biology, especially in genetics have led to homological and heterological procreation in laboratory, human genome manipulation, genetic engineering, animal but also human cloning, and scientific research on human embryos for therapeutic or eugenic purposes.

  3. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Marian A.; Lindemann, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical re

  4. Ethics and bioethics in health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELOISA BENEVIDES DE C. CHIATTONE

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone una discusión sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos que envuelven la prácticadel psicólogo de la salud en la atención a la población. Enfatiza los conflictos y las polémicas en losmodelos de salud vigentes, y las complicaciones que tienen los avances en las ciencias de la salud en lasprácticas cotidianas, como por ejemplo la dicotomización de la persona enferma; el sesgo de mirar laenfermedad y no a quien la padece, y las complejas y difíciles relaciones que surgen de una propuesta depráctica transdisciplinar y humanizada frente a los modelos propios del paradigma biomédico que aúnse mantiene como fuente de referencia para la atención en salud.

  5. Bioethics in the vision of Orthodox Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniu-Cătălin Păştin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The metamorphose of the european world from the medieval to the modern era or, the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century entailed the considerable mutations on the European culture scene. From God it was passed to the man, from the theology to the science, and from the spiritual values the society passed to the material values, like so many expressions of the globalization.

  6. Ethics and bioethics in health psychology

    OpenAIRE

    HELOISA BENEVIDES DE C. CHIATTONE; RICARDO WERNER SEBASTIANI

    2002-01-01

    El presente artículo expone una discusión sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos que envuelven la prácticadel psicólogo de la salud en la atención a la población. Enfatiza los conflictos y las polémicas en losmodelos de salud vigentes, y las complicaciones que tienen los avances en las ciencias de la salud en lasprácticas cotidianas, como por ejemplo la dicotomización de la persona enferma; el sesgo de mirar laenfermedad y no a quien la padece, y las complejas y difíciles relaciones que surgen...

  7. Right to health, biopower and bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    José Roque Junges

    2010-01-01

    The right to health is being more and more affected by the Biopower new configurations, no more only determined by the State, as in Foucault's analyses, but mainly by the symbolic power of the market. The biotechnological enterprises stir up increasing claims for consuming in health. These products are techno-semiotic agencies of the subjectivity in health, rendering their use as a right. In this situation it is important to return to the Right to Health comprehension of the International Con...

  8. Bioethical Issues of Nanotechnology at a Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aala

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is considered as an industrial revolution of the third millennium. Advances have a remarkable impact on differ¬ent fields such as medicine, engineering, economy and even politics. However, a wide range of ethical issues has been raised by this innovative science. Many authorities believe that these advancements could lead to irreversible dis¬asters if not lim¬ited by ethical guidelines. Involvement of developing countries in new fields of science could be as¬sociated with substan¬tial advantages. In this paper, we intend to review main ethical issues of nanotechnology, taking into account the surge of interests in this field and the ever-increasing advances of nanotechnology in Iran. The issue of safety, considering envi¬ronmental and ecological impacts of nanoparticles (smart dust, and standards of customer aware¬ness are important de¬bates. The ‘Grey-goo' scenario and the concerns about ‘post-humanism' are also discussed by bioethicists. There are further con¬cerns about justice, intellectual property rights, accountability, and the probability of military and security misuse.

  9. 儒家思想与当代生命伦理现实间穿越历史的时代性对话——范瑞平《当代儒家生命伦理学》一书评介%Dialogue: A Timely Historical Dialogue between Confucian Thought and Contemporary Bioethics——A Comment on Fan Ruiping's Contemporary Confucian Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边林

    2011-01-01

    一书,是香港学者范瑞平博士多年潜心研究成果的集中体现.全书在"重构主义儒学"思想原则的导引下,重新审视现代西方生命伦理学的思想基础及其传播的有限性,力求通过探寻儒家思想与当代生命伦理现实问题间的本质关联,努力把中国乃至东方世界的生命伦理学建构在自己的根系上.%Fan Ruiping's book is an intellectual product generated through many years' research.The book attempts to establish "Reconstructionist Confucianism" to direct contemporary Chinese biomedical practice, while reflecting on the limits of the foundations of modern Western bioethics as well as its illegitimate application to the other parts of the world.Fan intends to disclose essential connections between Confucian thought and Chinese medical reality and health care policy, attempting to build a Chinese bioethics on its own culture.

  10. The attitudes of nurses from an intensive care unit in the face of errors: an approach in light of bioethics Postura de los enfermeros de una unidad de terapia intensiva frente al error: un abordaje utilizando referenciales bioéticos Postura dos enfermeiros de uma unidade de terapia intensiva frente ao erro: uma abordagem à luz dos referenciais bioéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pires Coli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the attitudes of nurses concerning the occurrence of errors in nursing procedures carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU based on the bioethics framework. This descriptive study with qualitative approach was carried out with 14 nurses from a private hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Results were analyzed according to Bardin’s proposal of content analysis. The resulting themes were: acknowledging one’s fallibility; acknowledging and reporting errors; hiding errors. The nurses’ reports are based on considerations through the lens of bioethics: taking responsibility for an error implies acknowledging one’s own vulnerabilities; acknowledging an error with responsibility implies ethical conditions in the relationships among those involved; and errors are in the context of a particular environment. This study enables re-thinking nursing practice based on bioethics, resorting to the analysis of errors focusing on the relationships between those involved.El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, a partir de referenciales de la bioética, la postura de los enfermeros delante de la ocurrencia de errores en procedimientos de enfermería, en una unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI. Se trata de investigación descriptiva, bajo abordaje cualitativo, realizado con 14 enfermeros de una UTI, en un hospital privado de Sao Paulo. El análisis de los resultados fue realizado según la propuesta de análisis de contenido de Bardin. Los resultados evidenciados fueron: reconociendo ser falible, reconociendo y comunicando el error, y omitiendo el error. Los relatos de los enfermeros formaron la base para las consideraciones apuntadas a la luz de los referenciales bioéticos; la responsabilidad delante del error supone el reconocimiento de las propias vulnerabilidades, asumir el error con responsabilidad supone condiciones éticas en las relaciones entre las personas envueltas y el error tiene un ambiente. Este estudio propicia

  11. Ética mundial e cultura da paz: desafios da Bioética (World-wide ethics and culture of the peace: dialleenges of the Bioethics - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n14p31

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    Mário Antonio Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O projeto de ética mundial, desenvolvido pelo teólogo ecumênico Hans Küng, propõe que somente por meio de um diálogo inter-religioso é possível estruturar princípios básicos que sejam válidos globalmente e que proporcionem a construção de uma cultura da paz. Essa possibilidade no campo da ética estabelece um amplo diálogo com diferentes autores. No entanto, como o próprio autor assume, o projeto possui limitações, sendo que uma delas é a exclusão de temas que envolvem questões de Bioética que são importantes para as relações em sociedade. Os temas hoje avaliados na área de Bioética são de difícil consenso, entre eles: aborto, uso de embriões, reprodução assistida, questão de gênero. Desse modo, novas frentes de diálogo se fazem necessárias, principalmente no tocante às ciências biológicas, ou seja: a relação entre religião e ciência e cultura e ciência. Para que esse diálogo se torne possível, é necessário reconhecer as possibilidades e os limites do diálogo, numa exigente proposta de transcendência do individualismo, das culturas e da própria religião. Por isso é necessário aprofundar a reflexão começando pela identificação dessas novas questões para se buscar novos espaços de diálogo. Palavras-chave: Ética mundial; Cultura da paz; Bioética; Ética da transcendência. AbstractThe world ethics project, developed by the ecumenical teologian Hans Küng, indicates that only by a inter-religious dialogue is possible to built basic principles that would be wordly accepted and helpfull in the building of a culture of peace. This possibility on ethics research brings a large dialogue with several thinkers. Although, as the author himself accepts, the project has some limitations, being one of them the exclusion of themes that are discussed in Bioethics and are important to relationship in society. The issues that are studied in Bioethics are of rare consensus, like: abortion, utilization

  12. Saúde mental, mudança social e discurso bioético: uma face da desinstitucionalização revelada em uma notícia de jornal Mental health, social change and bioethical discourse: a view of deinstitutionalization revealed in a newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andrade Pinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na contemporaneidade, desafios e dilemas bioéticos em saúde mental estão exigindo estudos e reflexões. Este trabalho pretende contribuir com a discussão sobre a atual política de saúde mental, especialmente a questão da reinserção social de portadores de transtornos mentais. É importante que essa construção na comunidade e na cultura avance em sintonia com uma "rede" de saúde mental que possa responder por essa assistência e, assim, afrontar o risco de uma mera desospitalização irresponsável, pois, caso contrário, estaremos diante de um quadro de desassistência. Por acreditar que o discurso jornalístico possibilita uma compreensão mais abrangente de certos aspectos acerca dos significados, recursos e práticas que vêm sendo utilizadas no cotidiano, propõe-se aqui analisar um texto jornalístico, tendo como referencial a Análise do Discurso Crítico que, juntamente com os conceitos bioéticos, permitirá o entendimento da forma pela qual esse processo vem ocorrendo.Nowadays, challenges and bioethical dilemmas in mental health are demanding studies and reflections. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the current mental health policy, especially the issue of social reintegration of people with mental disorders. It is important that this construction in community and culture go in line with a mental health "network" able to account for such assistance and thus face the risk of a mere irresponsible dehospitalization; otherwise, we will face a situation of lack of assistance. Believing that media discourse provides a more comprehensive understanding of certain aspects about the meanings, practices and resources that have been used in everyday life, it is proposed here to analyze a journalistic text, taking in consideration the Critical Discourse Analysis which, together with the bioethical concepts, would allow the understanding of the way in which this process is occurring.

  13. Bioética da proteção e papel do Estado: problemas morais no acesso desigual à água potável The bioethics of protection and the state's role: moral problems in unequal access to drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Alves Pontes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo examinar o problema de saúde pública representado pelo acesso desigual à água potável, do ponto de vista das ferramentas analítica e normativa da bioética da proteção. Para tanto, por um lado, analisam-se as implicações morais do atendimento desigual de necessidades primárias, quais sejam, as situações de fragilidade e ameaça de grupos populacionais e as responsabilidades públicas para com o abastecimento de água; e, por outro, propõem-se soluções comprometidas com a proteção da saúde pública, bem como com a promoção dos legítimos projetos de desenvolvimento pessoal. Considera-se que a aplicação da bioética da proteção permite reafirmar o papel do Estado como responsável pela prestação dos serviços de abastecimento de água, pois, ao mesmo tempo em que desaconselha as políticas de privatização não comprometidas com o bem público, justifica moralmente políticas públicas protetoras capazes de corrigir situações de injustiça social.The aim of this study is to examine unequal access to drinking water as a public health problem in terms of normative and analytical tools in the bioethics of protection. Therefore, we analyze both the moral implications of unequal treatment of primary needs, such as situations of vulnerability and threat to population groups, and the public sector's responsibility in supplying safe water. In addition, solutions are proposed for the protection of public health and the promotion of legitimate personal development projects. The bioethics of protection reaffirms the state's role in maintaining the drinking water supply and recommends avoiding a policy of privatization of this public good, meanwhile justifying public policies to correct situations of social injustice.

  14. UNA MIRADA HERMENÉUTICA A LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS CURRICULARES DE LA FORMACIÓN HUMANA Y BIOÉTICA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE SAN BUENAVENTURA.(A HERMENEUTIC LOOK AT THE CURRICULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HUMAN AND BIOETHICAL FORMATION AT SAINT BONAVENTURE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Moreno L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Campo temático que se presenta está direccionado hacia la descripción y sistematización de los desarrollos curriculares, (formativos e identitarios de las instituciones de educación Superior franciscana del siglo XXI. Recoge los avances hermenéuticos y resultados investigativos en torno a la formación socio – humanista de la Universidad de San Buenaventura (USB, que se han liderado desde su unidad de apoyo académico “Formación humana y Bioética.”AbstractThe thematic field which is introduced here is directed towards the description and the systematization of curriculum development -formative and identitarian- of the Franciscan Higher Education of the 21st century institutions. It collects research results and hermeneutical advances around the socio-humanistic formation at Saint Bonaventure University (SBU, which have been promoted from the "Human Formation and Bioethics,” its academic support unit.

  15. Desafios históricos da enfermagem à luz do pensamento bioético Desafíos históricos de la enfermería a la luz del pensamiento bioético Historical challenges of nursing through bioethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane Viana Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão teórica sobre a bioética do cuidar, a partir da perspectiva histórica do cuidado em saúde e suas contribuições para a ampliação da produção de conhecimentos em Enfermagem, como proposta de intervenção mais humana e democrática no exercício do cuidar; através de conceitos baseados no respeito à pessoa humana, na formação de profissional comprometido com realidade social. A enfermagem como profissão priorizou os avanços técnico-científicos, em detrimento ao cuidado humanizado, decorrentes das demandas impostas pelo mundo capitalista. Neste sentido, se coloca como desafio a sistematização do cuidado, o que possibilitará a melhoria da qualidade de vida da clientela, sendo necessário para isto o estabelecimento de interlocuções de saberes com outros profissionais, consolidando a legitimidade da enfermagem como profissão.Reflexión teórica sobre la bioética del cuidar, a partir de la perspectiva histórica del cuidado en salud y sus contribuciones para la ampliación de la producción de conocimientos en Enfermería, como propuesta de intervención más humana y democrática en el ejercicio del cuidar, a través de los conceptos basados en el respeto de la persona humana en la formación del profesional comprometido con la realidad social. La enfermería como profesión priorizó los avances técnico-científicos en detrimento al cuidado humanizado, como consecuencia de las demandas impuestas por el mundo capitalista. En este sentido, se coloca como desafío la sistematización del cuidado, lo que posibilita la mejoría de la calidad de vida de la clientela siendo necesario para esto el establecimiento de interlocutores de saberes con otros profesionales, consolidando la legitimidad de la enfermería como profesión.This is a theoretical discussion of the bioethics of care from the historical perspective of health care and its contribution to the expansion of knowledge roduction in Nursing, which is presented

  16. Collection of main international documents on the ethical principles of research and the main regulations on bioethics of the United States and of European Community; Raccolta sui principali documenti internazionali sui principi etici della ricerca e dei principali documenti legislativi degli Stati Uniti e della Comunita` Europea sulla bioetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuderi, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Immunologia

    1998-12-31

    The collection includes an Italian translation of the main international documents on ethical principles of scientific research (the Nuremberg Code, the Helsinki Declaration, the Belmont Report) as well as the regulatory text of the United States (the Code of Federal Regulation Title 45, Part 46, that is the 45 Cfr 46) and the regulations of the European Community (the Good Clinical Practice and the Convention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being regards to the application of biology and medicine: convention on human rights and biomedicine). The informed consent and the human rights of human subjects involved in a clinical trial are discussed. Moreover, in the regulatory texts, legal rights of particular subjects, i.e. pregnant women, minors, fetuses, embrions, prisoners, are discussed; as well as the bioethics of organ transplantations. [Italiano] Contiene una traduzione in lingua italiana dei principali documenti internazionali sui principi etici della ricerca scientifica: il Codice di Norimberga, la dichiarazione di Helsinki e il rapporto Belmont; il testo legislativo degli Stati Uniti Code of Federal Regulation, capitolo 45 parte 46 (detto il 45 CFR 46) e la normativa della Comunita` Europea relativa alle norme di Good Clinical Practice e alla Convenzione per la protezione dei diritti dell`uomo e la dignita` dei soggetti umani relativamente alle applicazioni della biologia e medicina: Convenzione sui diritti dell`uomo e la biomedicina. Vengono trattati il consenso informato e i diritti umani delle persone che sono coinvolte in una sperimentazione clinica. Inoltre, nei testi normativi ci si riferisce anche ai diritti legali di soggetti particolari, ad esempio: donne in stato di gravidanza, minori, feti, embrioni, prigionieri; viene trattata, infine, l`etica dei trapianti d`organo.

  17. 老人长期关怀中的“尊严”——例谈生命伦理学在中国的发展问题%Dignity in Long-Term Care for Aged Persons: Views on the Development of Bioethics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴硕; 孔凡青

    2012-01-01

    In order to make up the defect of interpreting "dignity" in terms of autonomy principle, learning from other cultural systems especially Confucian thought is necessary. However, this requires firstly a comprehensive, correct understanding of Confucianism, in particular, should avoid exaggerating its theoretical advantages at the expense of its theoretical defects. The most important point is that development of bioethics in China should focus on solving ethical issues in China, rather than just providing a theoretical interpretation model in Chinese discourse system. When using "life ethics" , the western imported product, to solve the problems in China, two points should be made clear, one is " China and West" , and another is "Ancient and Modern ".%为解决自律原则在诠释人类生命尊严方面的理论不足,从其他文化体系,尤其中国儒家思想中寻找佐证是必要的.然而,这需要首先对儒家思想有一个全面、正确的认识,尤其应避免夸大其理论优点而忽视其理论缺陷.生命伦理学的发展是要解决中国现实中的伦理问题,而不仅仅是为之提供一套中国化的理论诠释模式.用“生命伦理”这一西方舶来品解决中国现实社会问题最为关键的是要理清两个问题,一是“中西问题”,一是“古今问题”.

  18. Selecionar quem deve viver: um estudo bioético sobre critérios sociais para microalocação de recursos em emergências médicas To choose who should live: a bioethical study of social criteria to microallocation of health care resources in medical emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO ANTONIO DE CARVALHO FORTES

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OJETIVO: Estudo, de caráter exploratório, que trata de dilemas de natureza ética de microalocação de recursos escassos de saúde, objetivando-se, com base em referenciais bioéticos, deontológicos e utilitaristas, analisar critérios sociais considerados nas escolhas para seleção de pacientes no atendimento de emergências médicas por parte de parcela da opinião pública. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas 395 pessoas, na cidade de Diadema/SP, que responderam a nove situações que versaram sobre os seguintes critérios sociais: idade, sexo, responsabilidade social, condição econômica e local de residência. RESULTADOS: Significativa parcela dos pesquisados parece aceitar que o uso de critérios sociais seja válido em situação de escassez de recursos. Mostrou a presença de elementos identificadores de correntes éticas deontológicas (justiça como eqüidade como de correntes utilitaristas de tomada de decisão. CONCLUSÕES: Demonstrou-se uma expressiva opção pelas pessoas que se encontram em situação de "maior desfavorecimento", ou seja, se favorecem "os mais desafortunados", em detrimento de situações que pudessem levar a um maior custo/benefício social.OBJECTIVE: To analyze ethical dilemmas about microallocation of health care scarce resources, based on deontological and utilitarian bioethical basis. It analyzes some criteria considered in the choices and justifications for patients selection in medical emergencies.METHODS: 395 subjects were interviewed in the city of Diadema/SP, about dilemmas among two people needing a place in a public hospital of emergency service. The presented situations dealed with the following social criteria: age, sex, social responsibility and economical condition.RESULTS: They pointed that significant portion of those researched seems to consider that the use of social criteria is valid and that the people lives can have unequal value in situations of scarce resources, accepting social variables

  19. Deficiência, políticas públicas e bioética: percepção de gestores públicos e conselheiros de direitos Disability, public policies and bioethics: the perception of public administrators and legal counselors

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    Liliane Cristina Gonçalves Bernardes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base reflexões bioéticas sobre direitos humanos, realizou-se um estudo descritivo e exploratório sobre a percepção de conselheiros e gestores públicos acerca da deficiência. Para tanto, foi conduzido um survey com 50 participantes, distribuídos em dois grupos: 29 conselheiros de direitos da pessoa com deficiência e 21 especialistas em políticas públicas e gestão governamental. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva. De modo geral, os resultados apontaram que, para os conselheiros, a deficiência é uma questão social que deve ser compartilhada em sociedade; ao passo que, para os gestores, trata-se sobretudo de uma tragédia pessoal circunscrita à esfera individual e familiar. Hipotetiza-se que tal visão diferenciada decorre de perspectivas diferentes em relação à alocação dos recursos públicos. Destaca-se, também, a importância da vivência da deficiência, ou a convivência com pessoas com deficiência, para fundamentar a avaliação da qualidade e a satisfação com a vida experimentada pelas pessoas com deficiência e contribuir para a elaboração de políticas públicas. Recomendam-se estudos semelhantes com amostras mais abrangentes e diversificadas, assim como a adoção de metodologias qualitativas e participativas.A descriptive study of the perception of public administrators and counselors regarding disability was conducted on the basis of bioethical reflections on human rights. The survey involved 50 participants, divided into two groups: 29 counselors on the rights of disabled people and 21 specialists in public policies and government administration. The data obtained was submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. In general, the results showed that for counselors disability is a social issue and should be shared by society, whereas for public administrators it is predominantly a personal tragedy limited to the individual and family sphere. It is considered that

  20. Problemas éticos vivenciados por dentistas: dialogando com a bioética para ampliar o olhar sobre o cotidiano da prática profissional Ethical problems experienced by dentists: dealing with bioethics to wide the view on the daily professional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gomes Amorim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A bioética busca a humanização dos serviços de saúde e a promoção dos direitos dos usuários. Na odontologia, são poucos os estudos que tratam dessa temática, o que justificou a realização da pesquisa que apresentamos neste artigo. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar, a partir da visão dos cirurgiões-dentistas, os problemas éticos vivenciados na prática odontológica. Trata-se de uma investigação qualitativa de caráter exploratório descritivo. O material empírico foi coletado através de entrevistas semiestruturadas, realizadas com quinze cirurgiões-dentistas que atuam no estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Os resultados apontam que muitos dos problemas éticos coincidem com infrações ao Código de Ética Odontológica, confirmando uma noção de ética deontológica adquirida na formação profissional e, portanto, insuficiente para solucionar os problemas que emergem na prática profissional. Concluímos que os problemas éticos identificados na prática profissional precisam ser compreendidos para além da dimensão deontológica em direção aos aspectos da produção do trabalho. Torna-se preciso, então, incorporar nas práticas de saúde, incluindo as de saúde bucal, as tecnologias da gestão do cuidado, o que implica o reconhecimento de diferentes dimensões que produzem os sujeitos e suas necessidades de saúde.Bioethics strives for humanization in health services along with promoting the rights of patients. In view of the lack of dental research dealing with this topic, the present study was undertaken to identify, from the viewpoint of dental surgeons, ethical problems experienced in dental practice. It is a descriptive exploratory investigation within a qualitative approach. Empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews performed with 15 dental surgeons in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The results indicate that many of the ethical problems coincide with infringements of the norms

  1. A construção do direito à saúde na Itália e no Brasil na perspectiva da bioética cotidiana The construction of the right to health in Italy and in Brazil under the perspective of everyday bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca percorrer as políticas de saúde italiana e brasileira em um recorte histórico das conjunturas econômicas e políticas do século XVIII ao século XX, na perspectiva de identificar elementos sinalizadores de aproximações e distanciamentos para compreender o processo de materialização do direito à saúde. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva com abordagem qualitativa, tendo como fonte de dados documentos oficiais e revisão de literatura, numa perspectiva histórica. A análise dos dados é feita com base na bioética cotidiana. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, em ambos os Estados, a origem da concretização do direito à saúde é fruto da iniciativa dos trabalhadores com o propósito de satisfazer uma de suas dimensões: o direito à assistência à saúde. Percebem-se similaridades nos modelos de proteção social, a importância da Itália no processo brasileiro de construção do direito à saúde, distanciamento entre as novas ações estatais instituídas após as reformas sanitárias e a necessidade de se enfrentar, valendo-se de um sistema político de regras, o histórico conflito ético entre os direitos individuais e a garantia dos direitos sociais, especialmente o direito à saúde, nas duas realidades.This article approaches the Italian and Brazilian health policies based on a historical overview of the economic and political conjunctures from the 18th century to the 20th century, so as to identify elements that signal similarities and differences in order to understand the materialization process of the right to health. The present study is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The data source includes official documents and a literature review in a historical perspective. The data analysis is carried out based on Everyday Bioethics. The results show that in both States the right to health is rendered concrete as a result of the workers' initiative, with the aim of satisfying one of its

  2. Clashing Views on Controversial Bioethical Issues. Third Edition. Taking Sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Carol, Ed.

    The student who has thoughtfully examined opposing viewpoints on an issue should perceive what other position can be occupied on that issue and should learn to carefully consider antithetical viewpoints. The development of this critical approach is the purpose of this book. An introduction, postscript summary, and two articles or published…

  3. Chimpanzees in AIDS research: A biomedical and bioethical perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van den Akker (Ruud); M. Balls; J.W. Eichberg; J. Goodall; J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.M. Prince; I. Spruit

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present article represents a consensus view of the appropriate utilization of chimpanzees in AIDS research arrived at as a result of a meeting of a group of scientists involved in AIDS research with chimpanzees and bioethicists. The paper considers which types of studies are scientif

  4. Bioethics for clinicians: 5. Substitute decision-making.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, N M; Greiner, G G; Robertson, G; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    Substitute decision-making is a means of making health care decisions on behalf of people who are incapable of making these decisions for themselves. It is based on the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. Substitute decision-making poses two main questions: Who-should make the decision for the incapable person, and, How should the decision be made? Because the applicable statutory and common law varies across Canada, clinicians should become familiar with the legal requirements of thei...

  5. [Dignity of human beings as regulatory principle in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J

    2000-01-01

    New discoveries and advances in biotechnology are producing new social realities which must be appraised properly from the ethical point of view. Vitally important in this task is the principle of human dignity, which is examined here by the author. Human dignity is crucial in seeking to resolve the conflicts that might arise as a result of the new possibilities opened up by modern biotechnology, such as embryo research, predictive diagnosis, gene therapy, human cloning or the issue of xenotransplants. PMID:11284123

  6. [Bioethics: a proposal for decision making. Towards a weighed syncretism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala Blanco, Jaime; Seco García, Raquel

    2008-09-01

    The professional nursing business bears with it ethical problems related to scientific and technical development, the ethical-cultural plurality in our society and changes in clinical relationships. This situation has generated a crisis in classical decision-making models which has led to a point where we confront a new reality that requires an adequate adjustment not only to technical criteria but, moreover, to moral criteria. The challenge we undertake implies a search for concrete solutions to concrete problems in concrete instances, and what is most important, related to concrete persons. The procedures for decision making which have been proposed up until now should not be viewed as exclusive rather as complementary and enriching ones in the quest to find the best possible solutions; along this line we propose, from a weighed syncretism aspect, a procedure not thought of only for use in great conflicts but rather and mainly, to resolve daily problems.

  7. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret;

    2013-01-01

    One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered ‘emerging biotech’ locations. As a result, crosscontinental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal...... with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four ‘spheres......’ e deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction e as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges...

  8. Ethics and bioethics concerning challenges in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo De Freitas Drumond

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world is characterized by a formidable accumulation of scientific knowledge, which is responsible for developing the technology that permeates all latitudes of the planet and is incorporated, so virtually irreplaceably, to the daily life of human beings. However, the world is in a borderline: serious responsibilities determined by the process of increasingly aggressive human intervention in the biosphere (accelerating its deterioration and the very human biology, reaching its genetic identity. Humanity is wrapped in a moral dilemma, since it is found that most of the benefits offered by human knowledge —the whole set of scientific and technological progress of humanity— remains inaccessible to most of the universal family. A recurring issue in today’s society is to establish the boundaries between normal and abnormal, between natural and artificial. Is the human being willing, once again, to transgress the parameters established by her concerning what is normal, anatomically and physiologically? Will she not be satisfied by merely making her biological structure sufficiently adapted to the current practices of the species? Will she want more? In the singular historical transition experienced by contemporary society, the emergence of a new ethical reflection to modulate human behavior has become imperative, so that the actions of men and women can converge to the achievement of universal benefits, so as not to endanger the very survival of human beings on the planet.

  9. Genetic Engineering--A Lesson on Bioethics for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kerri; Weber, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    A unit designed to cover the topic of genetic engineering and its ethical considerations is presented. Students are expected to learn the material while using a debate format. A list of objectives for the unit, the debate format, and the results from an opinion questionnaire are described. (KR)

  10. Pharmacogenetics: the bioethical problem of DNA investment banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Oonagh P; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2006-09-01

    Concern about the ethics of clinical drug trials research on patients and healthy volunteers has been the subject of significant ethical analysis and policy development--protocols are reviewed by Research Ethics Committees and subjects are protected by informed consent procedures. More recently attention has begun to be focused on DNA banking for clinical and pharmacogenetics research. It is, however, surprising how little attention has been paid to the commercial nature of such research, or the unique issues that present when subjects are asked to consent to the storage of biological samples. Our contention is that in the context of pharmacogenetic add-on studies to clinical drug trials, the doctrine of informed consent fails to cover the broader range of social and ethical issues. Applying a sociological perspective, we foreground issues of patient/subject participation or 'work', the ambiguity of research subject altruism, and the divided loyalties facing many physicians conducting clinical research. By demonstrating the complexity of patient and physician involvement in clinical drug trials, we argue for more comprehensive ethical review and oversight that moves beyond reliance on informed consent to incorporate understandings of the social, political and cultural elements that underpin the diversity of ethical issues arising in the research context. PMID:16980194

  11. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Markus

    2010-08-01

    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question. PMID:20411338

  12. MORAL PHILOSOPHY IN BIOETHICS. ETSI ETHOS NON DARETUR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pessina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo quisiera poner de manifiesto algunas críticas al modelo puramente procedimental de la bioética que, de hecho, la lleva a encomendar a la biopolítica y al bioderecho una solución meramente prag- mática de las problemáticas por las cuales ésta fue “instituida”, hace más de cuarenta años. Este cometido acontece después de que se ha producido el paso de la tesis, apreciada por la modernidad, por la que, en ética se deba razonar prescindiendo de cualquier discurso acerca de sus fundamentos o justificación última (Etsi Deus non daretur a la afirmación contemporánea de un sustancial agnosticismo ético que, en nombre de la inconmensurabilidad de las morales, debería construir procedimientos como si fuera imposible una moral sustancial única (Etsi ethos non daretur y hacerse garante del pluralismo ético. Estas son las tesis que se discutirán y se intentará demostrar por qué es necesario establecer una relación entre verdad y bien, y cómo esto es posible haciendo referencia solamente a la ontología. La conclusión remite a la necesidad de proponer una bioética explícitamente contenutística que dé respuestas a la presunta neutralidad axiológica de la bioética procedimental, que entre otras cosas resulta ser teoréticamente débil y prácticamente incapaz de proteger ese pluralismo ético del que debería ser garante. La conclusión es que, haciendo sólo referencia a la ontología, la bioética, que es con justa razón una forma de filosofía moral, puede garantizar un pluralismo al interior de la verdad, oponiéndose a las derivas autoritarias que se ocultan bajo la máscara liberal del agnosticismo ético.

  13. A bioethical perspective on radiation protection and ''safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three problems of major concern to policymakers whose task it is to protect public health by setting standards for ''safe'' radiation management are reviewed. The first problem is to decide if current conceptual tools for assessing basic harms to valued living systems are ethically adequate. The second is how to set safety standards on the basis of informed consent to scientific evidence presented by experts who disagree in interpreting that evidence. The third problem is how to resolve conflicting philosophies about radiation protection. Principles which might serve as guidance in the formulation of social policies for radiation health protection are suggested. (H.K.)

  14. [Bioethics from a social perspective: European Biopolitics Conference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Canela López, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The European Congress on biopolitics entitled "Connecting civil society implementing basic values" was held in March 2006 in Berlin. It was organised by the Heinrich Böll foundation and the Institut Mensch, Ethik und Wissenschaft. The aim of the Congress was to provide a forum for discussion on the ethical and social aspects derived from biotechnology and genetics on human beings. This work summarises some of the aspects that reveal the international interest and relevance of this meeting.

  15. Conflict of interersts in scientific study and bioethics as professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hee

    2013-12-01

    Science in the 21st century does not consider participants' welfare, safety and human rights in clinical studies, but modern science puts economic profits in its priority. This leads to a growing concern about social responsibility and professionalism ethics of companies, sponsors and scientists. Specifically, there is no way to control conflicts of participants' welfare with economic profits, leading to simply relying on individual ethics, social responsibilities and audit. This paper helps relevant agencies and people involved understand conflict of interest. Also this study presents the guidelines as well as independence, autonomy, ethical imagination and phronesis required for scientists. PMID:25949165

  16. Curricular aspects of the Fogarty bioethics international training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Amal; Garner, Sam; Millum, Joseph; Sina, Barbara; Silverman, Henry

    2014-04-01

    The curriculum design, faculty characteristics, and experience of implementing masters' level international research ethics training programs supported by the Fogarty International Center was investigated. Multiple pedagogical approaches were employed to adapt to the learning needs of the trainees. While no generally agreed set of core competencies exists for advanced research ethics training, more than 75% of the curricula examined included international issues in research ethics, responsible conduct of research, human rights, philosophical foundations of research ethics, and research regulation and ethical review process. Common skills taught included critical thinking, research methodology and statistics, writing, and presentation proficiency. Curricula also addressed the cultural, social, and religious context of the trainees related to research ethics. Programs surveyed noted trainee interest in Western concepts of research ethics and the value of the transnational exchange of ideas. Similar faculty expertise profiles existed in all programs. Approximately 40% of faculty were female. Collaboration between faculty from low- and middleincome countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs) occurred in most programs and at least 50% of HIC faculty had previous LMIC experience. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24782069

  17. Bioethics and pain: which is Medicine's role in comforting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available There are different types of pain, and the various civil institutions are forms with which mankind combats pain. Unlike those who believe western civilisation to be in decline because it is no longer able to give a meaning to pain and distinguish its “saving value”, the author observes that medicine is gradually making available new institutions to fight pain. This task is of fundamental importance for civil progress, on a par with that of important scientific discoveries.

  18. Enhancing who? Enhancing what? Ethics, bioethics, and transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tom

    2010-12-01

    Transhumanists advance a "posthuman" condition in which technological and genetic enhancements will transform humankind. They are joined in this goal by bioethicists arguing for genetic selection as a means of "enhancing evolution," improving if not also the species then at least the potential lives of future individuals. The argument of both, this paper argues, is a new riff on the old eugenics tune. As ever, it is done in the name of science and its presumed knowledge base. As ever, the result is destructive rather than instructive, bad faith promoted as high ideal. The paper concludes with the argument that species advancement is possible but in a manner thoroughly distinct from that advanced by either of these groups.

  19. From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies. [Commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back

  20. Human cloning: category, dignity, and the role of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Evelyne

    2003-10-01

    Human cloning has been simultaneously a running joke for massive worldwide publicity of fringe groups like the Raelians, and the core issue of an international movement at the United Nations in support of a treaty to ban the use of cloning techniques to produce a child (so called reproductive cloning). Yet, even though debates on human cloning have greatly increased since the birth of Dolly, the clone sheep, in 1997, we continue to wonder whether cloning is after all any different from other methods of medically assisted reproduction, and what exactly makes cloning an 'affront to the dignity of humans.' Categories we adopt matter mightily as they inform but can also misinform and lead to mistaken and unproductive decisions. And thus bioethicists have a responsibility to ensure that the proper categories are used in the cloning debates and denounce those who try to win the ethical debate through well-crafted labels rather than well-reasoned argumentations. But it is as important for bioethicists to take a position on broad issues such as human cloning and species altering interventions. One 'natural question' would be, for example, should there be an international treaty to ban human reproductive cloning?

  1. Motivations and experiences of ethics/bioethic subjects in nursing Motivaciones y experiencias de la enseñanza de la ética/bioética en enfermería Motivações e experiências do ensino da ética/bioética em enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALHANO DE MELO THAYSE APARECIDA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    his paper deals with a research on the discourse of ethics in the nurse education process.

    Objective: this study sought to characterize professors in terms of their teaching experiences and motivations in nursing courses.

    Methodology: case study with a documentary stage and a focus group with 50 professors from 6 courses of Santa Catarina (Brazil.

    Results and discussion: Despite the precarious conditions, nurses seem to be willing to dedicate themselves to teaching career paths since they wish to contribute to change and develop the profession or because of the professional perspectives and nature of the teaching career. In spite of the different experiences in teaching ethics, professors perceive themselves as stakeholders in the ethics formation of nurses, especially as they consider the daily academic and welfare life as a venue for ethical formation, as well as the values, positions, and example as the expression of the influence of teaching performance on ethics formation.

    Conclusions: the reflection over ethics formation should not confine to the discussion of the pedagogical contents and strategies involved in teaching ethics and bioethics, hence, the importance of discussing about ethics in educational experience and envisage the speech being built by these professors.

    El artículo trata de un pasaje de una investigación sobre el discurso de la ética en el proceso de formación del enfermero.

    Objetivo: este estudio buscó caracterizar a los profesores en cuanto a sus experiencias y motivaciones en la enseñanza de la ética y bioética en las carreras de enfermería.

    Metodología: Se desarrolló como estudio de caso, con etapa documental y grupo focal con 50 profesores de 6 programas de Santa Catarina (Brasil.

  2. Posicionamento dos enfermeiros relativo à revelação de prognóstico fora de possibilidade terapêutica: uma questão bioética Posicionamiento de enfermeros respecto a la revelación del pronóstico fuera de posibilidad terapéutica: un asunto bioético Nurses' attitude towards revealing the prognosis of no treatment possibility: a matter of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vivas dos Santos

    2004-10-01

    did not take a stand when informing about a prognosis of no treatment possibility; 56% did not take any part in the decision of informing the patient about the prognosis of no treatment possibility. This disclosed the need for nurses to consider bioethical matters, which can be of help in the analysis of dilemmas.

  3. Aspectos medicolegales y bioéticos de la cirugía instrumentada de la columna lumbar degenerativa: Implicaciones en el manejo del dolor crónico Medico-legal and bioethical aspects of fusion surgery in degenerative lumbar spine: Implications in pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Robaina Padrón

    2009-10-01

    some companies that would like to associate it with their products. Continuing medical training is another area that can involve conflicts of interest, since every dollar invested returns a benefit of almost four-fold. Patients generally leave decisions on surgery and the technique to be used in the hands of their physicians, overestimating the results that will be obtained. Wide variability in medical practice in fusion surgery has been detected among similar countries and among regions within the same country. Patients older than 65 years can sometimes accept high surgical risk, either because of the type of intervention proposed, without using the new technologies of minimally-invasive surgery and without taking full advantage of interventionist antialgic techniques. Likewise, patients also accept a high risk of complications resulting from the long-term use of opioids when surgery is not performed. Medico-legal and bioethical conflicts are proliferating both in the media and in specialized journals with free online access. An avalanche of lawsuits can be expected against the health service that employs us. These lawsuits will affect not only physicians but also the institutions where we work and, subsidiarily, our private insurance policies. Fraudulent marketing in the field of pain is generating multimillion fines. The results of this type of surgery in terms of occupational recovery are highly discouraging. Very few patients recover minimal capacity to work or report a high level of physical functioning after the intervention. Research in this field should focus on the creation or organisms or national consortiums to control and fund research, which should be free of the direct involvement of industry. Because of the increase in health expenditure, mechanisms for the evaluation of health technologies are important. To rationalize and perform cost accounting of funding in public health services for this disorder and surgical techniques, new diagnosis

  4. Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW, listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ, listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud

  5. Avant-propos. Ce que la bioéthique veut dire Foreword: What bioethics mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Baud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lorsque Mary Shelley publie en 1818 son célèbre Frankenstein, le mot bioéthique n’existe pas. Pourtant c’est de l’éthique propre à la recherche biologique qu’il y est question. Quelle faute a commise l’étudiant en médecine Victor Frankenstein ? L’immense majorité de ceux qu’on interrogerait sur ce point répondrait qu’il s’agit du fait d’avoir fabriqué un être humain. Mais cette immense majorité n’a jamais lu l’œuvre de Mary Shelley et bien peu savent qu’elle était sous-titrée Le Prométhée mod...

  6. Assessing the public's views in research ethics controversies: deliberative democracy and bioethics as natural allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y H; Wall, Ian F; Stanczyk, Aimee; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    In a liberal democracy, policy decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a longstanding research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Bioethics, culture and infanticide in Brazilian indigenous communities: the Zuruahá case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.

  8. A bioethical j’accuse: analysis of the discussion around thiomersal in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El Poder Legislativo chileno propone una ley que elimine el timerosal como preservante de las vacunas parenterales del Programa Nacional de Inmunizaciones, proyecto que el Poder Ejecutivo se ha propuesto vetar. El mundo científico informa mayoritariamente que la sospecha de neurotoxicidad atribuida al timerosal es infundada. Pese a ello, las autoridades médicas han oscilado entre sostener que la precaución sugiere apoyar la ley y en otros momentos han manifestando que es más precautorio mantener los programas de vacunación actualmente vigentes. Estas contradicciones y oposiciones ilustran que materias que conciernen a la ciudadanía, requieren una reflexión bioética acabada sobre las políticas públicas sanitarias. Han quedado claro las deficiencias de la deliberación política y la falta de participación social en decisiones que, dado el grado de incertidumbre involucrada en temas como inmunización, requieren no sólo la inclusión de la ciudadanía sino el respeto de la autonomía individual para aceptar o rechazar la inclusión en los programas de vacunación propuestos por las políticas sanitarias. La participación ciudadana en nuestro país se ve severamente limitada por la falta de instrumentos sociales como el plebiscito, el ombudsman y, especialmente, la desidia en crear la Comisión Nacional de Bioética exigida por la Ley 20.120 de 2006, una de cuyas funciones más importantes es mediar deliberativamente entre legos, expertos y políticos en la generación de políticas sanitarias legitimadas por la participación ciudadana.

  9. [Bioethics and nutrition in adult patients with cancer in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroz, Monica de Oliveira; Faillace, Giovanna Borges Damião; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto

    2009-09-01

    Cancer constitutes a major group of chronic diseases and is the second leading cause of death in the developed countries. Palliative care proposes to offer comprehensive support to control symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and their families. Nutrition is an important tool in palliative care, helping patients with their physical, psychological, and social issues and promoting comfort and quality of life. However, in the context of palliative care, nutritional support rarely achieves its role of fully recovering and assuring nutritional status. At this point, the nutritionist must consider the individual patient's needs, preferences, and eating habits, which are essential both for controlling symptoms and assuring satisfaction and comfort. The impossibility of conventionally applying established management and the development of a new perception of the patient often raise dilemmas for professional nutritionists. PMID:19750375

  10. Stem cell research in China: an intertwinement of international finances, ambition, and bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Sleeboom, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Stem cell research promises remedies to widespread diseases ranging from diabetes to paralysis. ‘Stem cell’ is a term used to refer to a range of cells that have the ability to divide into specialized body cells, such as blood cells or new tissue. By studying the processes in which stem cells grow and differentiate, biologists study the causes of many diseases, and hope to use them for therapeutic uses in the repair of damaged tissue and organs for a wide range of currently incurable di...

  11. Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Liras Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases). Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ la...

  12. Bioethical Biobanks: Three Concerns in Designing and Using Law Enforcement DNA Identification Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.H. Kaye

    2006-10-19

    Federal and state law enforcement authorities have amassed large collections of DNA samples and the identifying profiles derived from them. These databases help to identify the guilty and to exonerate the innocent, but as the databanks grow, so do fears about civil liberties. The research reported here discusses three legal and social policy issues that have been raised in regard to these biobanks—the choice of loci to type for identifying individuals, the indefinite retention of DNA samples, and the use of the DNA samples or the identifying profiles for research purposes. It also considers the possible value of the databases for research into the genetics of human behavior and the ethics of using them for this purpose. It rejects the broad claim that such research is inherently unethical but proposes procedures for ensuring that the value of the proposed research justifies any psychosocial or other risks to the subjects of the research.

  13. Violence and compassion: a bioethical insight into their cognitive bases and social manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E; Arias, Nallely A

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the social problem of violence and the alternative of resolution through cooperation and compassion from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience. Violence is a social problem, the manifestations of which have a biological basis reflected in the development of aggression and the neural mechanisms that regulate it. Cooperation and compassion are two forms of behaviour with similar developmental, cognitive and cerebral regulatory bases to the mechanisms activated in violence, even though they result in radically different forms of behaviour. The article examines violence and compassion as two mechanisms that lead to moral action that depends on whether sociocultural contexts are adverse or favourable to human well-being. It concludes that the neuro-cognitive system is a flexible and adaptable mechanism that regulates behaviour directly, according to the sociocultural context in which individuals live. Against that background, the UNESCO Declarations on the culture of peace refer to concepts relating to cognition or the human mind. Cognitive neuroscience therefore provides tools for creating and changing mental concepts that could eventually enable human beings to live together in peace. PMID:21898942

  14. 75 FR 66378 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... meeting, the Commission will continue discussing the emerging science of synthetic biology, including its... public of the ] emerging science of synthetic biology, the challenges and risks, and the...

  15. 76 FR 7569 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Commission will discuss genetics, neuroscience, and neuroimaging for testing, research, diagnosis, risk... actions as appropriate. The main agenda items for this fourth meeting involve genetics, neuroscience, and... exploring social and ethical issues involving genetics, neuroscience, and neuroimaging used for...

  16. Status of national research bioethics committees in the WHO African region

    OpenAIRE

    Wambebe Charles; Kirigia Joses M; Baba-Moussa Amido

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2001 expressed concern that some health-related studies undertaken in the Region were not subjected to any form of ethics review. In 2003, the study reported in this paper was conducted to determine which Member country did not have a national research ethics committee (REC) with a view to guiding the WHO Regional Office in developing practical strategies for supporting those countries. Methods Thi...

  17. Status of national research bioethics committees in the WHO African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambebe Charles

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO in 2001 expressed concern that some health-related studies undertaken in the Region were not subjected to any form of ethics review. In 2003, the study reported in this paper was conducted to determine which Member country did not have a national research ethics committee (REC with a view to guiding the WHO Regional Office in developing practical strategies for supporting those countries. Methods This is a descriptive study. The questionnaire was prepared and sent by diplomatic pouch to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region, through the WHO country representatives, for facilitation and follow up. The data were entered in Excel spreadsheet and subsequently exported to STATA for analysis. A Chi-Squared test (χ2 for independence was undertaken to test the relationship between presence/absence of Research Ethics Committee (REC and selected individual socioeconomic and health variables. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 61% (28/46; 64% (18/28 confirmed the existence of RECs; 36% (10/28 of the respondent countries did not have a REC (although 80% of them reported that they had in place an ad hoc ethical review mechanism; 85% (22/26 of the countries that responded to this question indicated that ethical approval of research proposals was, in principle, required; and although 59% of the countries that had a REC expected it to meet every month, only 44% of them reported that the REC actually met on a monthly basis. In the Chi-Squared test, only the average population in the group of countries with a REC was statistically different (at 5% level of significance from that of the group of countries without a REC. Conclusion In the current era of globalized biomedical research, good ethics stewardship demands that every country, irrespective of its level of economic development, should have in place a functional research ethics review system in order to protect the dignity, integrity and safety of its citizens who participate in research.

  18. [Bioethics of Sigmund Freud´s death: euthanasia or appropriation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    The death of Freud raises the ethical dilemma about euthanasia. It can be characterized as indirect active euthanasia according to the rule of double effect, or terminal sedation, or palliated death. The primacy of the principle of autonomy over non maleficence, conditioned the physician's attitude toward his patient Freud. The physician assisted death was and remains punishable in western medicine. Therefore, a fundamental tradition was infringed. In contrast, the present study attempts to characterize the final position of Freud himself to his death and called it appropriation of his finitude; he assumes his being-unto-death, that is, he now projects his being not as a being-at-his-end but as a being-unto-end, indicating thereby that he understood that the end always penetrated his whole existence.

  19. Infusing Bioethics into Biology and Microbiology Courses and Curricula: A Vertical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jagger, Kathleen S.; Jack Furlong

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of biomedicine and biotechnology, there has been a corresponding growth in the need for better understanding of consequent ethical questions. Increasingly, biologists are being asked not only to offer technical clarifications but also to venture ethical opinions, for which most feel poorly equipped. This expectation puts pressure on biology instructors at the university level to provide biology majors the skills and experience to discuss with some confidence and competence bioet...

  20. 77 FR 76042 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... of the nation's leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission... science and technology. The Commission seeks to identify and promote policies and practices that...

  1. 76 FR 21369 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... possibilities for useful international collaboration on these issues; and recommend legal, regulatory, or policy... special assistance, such as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should also... personally identifiable or confidential business information that they contain. Trade secrets should not...

  2. Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia, and Christian bioethics: moral controversy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Arnd T

    2003-01-01

    Discussions in Germany regarding appropriate end-of-life decision-making have been heavily influenced by the liberalization of access to physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia in the Netherlands and Belgium. These discussions disclose conflicting moral views regarding the propriety of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, threatening conflicts within not only the medical profession, but also the mainline churches in Germany, whose membership now entertains views regarding end-of-life decision-making at odds with traditional Christian doctrine. On the surface, there appears to be a broad consensus supporting the hospice movement and condemning physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. The German Supreme Court has held that treatment decisions should, in absence of known patients' wishes, be made in light of commonly shared values, unless these violate the principle of "in dubio pro vita". The Roman Catholic church and the Evangelical Lutheran church in Germany have developed an advance directive for treatment choices at the end of life, while condemning physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. This stance is in tension with the strong emerging support for physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, a development that promises to open up foundational disagreements within mainline German Christianity regarding the appropriate approach to intentionally terminating human life.

  3. Individuals are inadequate: recognizing the family-centeredness of Chinese bioethics and Chinese health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Jue

    2012-12-01

    This paper is aimed at a critical assessment of the moral framework of the current Chinese health system from a Confucian perspective, by focusing on the debate between the individual directed approach and the family-oriented approach to a health care system. Concerned with the nature and status of the family in communal life, the paper deals with the following questions: to cope with the frailties of material life (including susceptibility to disease), what good is presupposed by human existence and flourishing; why it is the family that serves as the primary locus of bearing and realizing this unique good; and what kind of society might possess the structures necessary to achieve the good thus conceived. All these questions lead to a revision of the theory of justice required in health care, in favor of family health saving accounts as an important institutional guarantee. PMID:23175794

  4. A Web-Based Platform for Educating Researchers About Bioethics and Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehovic, Ivana; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy D; Sodeke, Stephen; Pentz, Rebecca; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2016-06-01

    Participation in biobanking among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer (IFRs) and underserved/minority populations is vital for biobanking research. To address gaps in researcher knowledge regarding ethical concerns of these populations, we developed a web-based curriculum. Based on formative research and expert panel assessments, a curriculum and website was developed in an integrative, systematic manner. Researchers were recruited to evaluate the curriculum. Public health graduate students were recruited to pilot test the curriculum. All 14 researchers agreed the curriculum was easy to understand, adequately addressed the domains, and contained appropriate post-test questions. The majority evaluated the dialgoue animations as interesting and valuable. Twenty-two graduate students completed the curriculum, and 77 % improved their overall test score. A web-based curriculum is an acceptable and effective way to provide information to researchers about vulnerable populations' biobanking concerns. Future goals are to incorporate the curriculum with larger organizations.

  5. The value of human life and the attitude towards abortion A christian and bioethic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI Gabriela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abortion, the cruel reality of the contemporary mankind, bites with no mercy our life and lacerates the humanity face, relativizing life’s ultimate value. We fight for the animal’s lives and rights, but we kill our children in womb. We are confused and living up to the rules imposed by us, and we fail, because we do not see the „Light of the world” (John 8,12 - Jesus Christ, losing sight of the reference frame – the divinity. We have declared God dead [1], the fountain of life , and we put ourselves in His place. We lost indiscriminatingly the values of “as Gods” ( Genesis 3,5 and “as God’s image” (Genesis 1, 27 drifting on the gradient of big fails, as big as God we have chased but never listened. So, that, from the survival outlook and lacking of love in our life, the fight for survival targets against the somebody ‘s else life, and no illustration is more eloquent and tragic as the mothers, families and society’s fight against the procreation generally, and particularly against the unborn child.

  6. Ethical models in bioethics: theory and application in organ allocation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2010-12-01

    Policies for allocating organs to people awaiting a transplant constitute a major ethical challenge. First and foremost, they demand balance between the principles of beneficence and justice, but many other ethically relevant principles are also involved: autonomy, responsibility, equity, efficiency, utility, therapeutic outcome, medical urgency, and so forth. Various organ allocation models can be developed based on the hierarchical importance assigned to a given principle over the others, but none of the principles should be completely disregarded. An ethically acceptable organ allocation policy must therefore be in conformity, to a certain extent, with the requirements of all the principles. Many models for organ allocation can be derived. The utilitarian model aims to maximize benefits, which can be of various types on a social or individual level, such as the number of lives saved, prognosis, and so forth. The prioritarian model favours the neediest or those who suffer most. The egalitarian model privileges equity and justice, suggesting that all people should have an equal opportunity (casual allocation) or priority should be given to those who have been waiting longer. The personalist model focuses on each individual patient, attempting to mesh together all the various aspects affecting the person: therapeutic needs (urgency), fairness, clinical outcomes, respect for persons. In the individualistic model the main element is free choice and the system of opting-in is privileged. Contrary to the individualistic model, the communitarian model identities in the community the fundamental elements for the legitimacy of choices: therefore, the system of opting-out is privileged. This article does not aim at suggesting practical solutions. Rather, it furnishes to decision makers an overview on the possible ethical approach to this matter. PMID:21196904

  7. Bioethics and transnational medical travel: India,"medical tourism," and the globalisation of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Turner, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Health-related travel, also referred to as "medical tourism" is historically well-known. Its emerging contemporary form suggests the development of a form of globalised for-profit healthcare. Medical tourism to India, the focus of a recent conference in Canada, provides an example of the globalisation of healthcare. By positioning itself as a low-cost, high-tech, fast-access and high-quality healthcare destination country, India offers healthcare to medical travellers who are frustrated with waiting lists and the limited availability of some procedures in Canada. Although patients have the right to travel and seek care at international medical facilities, there are a number of dimensions of medical tourism that are disturbing. The diversion of public investments in healthcare to the private sector, in order to serve medical travellers, perversely transfers public resources to international patients at a time when the Indian public healthcare system fails to provide primary healthcare to its own citizens. Further, little is known about patient safety and quality care in transnational medical travel. Countries that are departure points as well as destination countries need to carefully explore the ethical, social, cultural, and economic consequences of the growing phenomenon of for-profit international medical travel.

  8. Challenges of traditional bioethical principles in the implementation of contemporary standards of medical law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on issues of development dimensions of Medical Law and its ongoing process of standardization and harmonization on one hand, versus the traditionally rooted and available principles of biomedical ethics, on the other. The collision of new legal institutes and the spread of human rights protections is evident. This paper follows the theory and practice of medical ethics and medical law. The theoretical aspect points out medical ethics as one of the sources of medical law. Legal theory makes a distinction between formal and autonomous sources of medical law. Even though ethics is morally much higher, law prevails because it has stronger sanctions and legal power. In its practical aspect, this paper gives examples of different situations of medical decision-making processes. Ethical rules are of the utmost relevance in the domain of confidentiality and options of medical treatment. But, in concrete medical procedures, where legal positions of patients are evidently very significant, law has a more distinct function. Therefore, explaining particular cases from medical malpractice, such as cases of penal, civil or professional liability have an ethical dimension as well. Members of medical professions in Serbia often find these cases unfair. Mostly this is the consequence of ignorance in this kind of medical law and ethics relations. A discussion about practical cases has in that sense a self-learning component, which could be developed to strengthen ethical reasoning and judgment.

  9. Beyond Bioethics: A Child Rights-Based Approach to Complex Medical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine; Melamed, Irene; Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This analysis adopts a child rights approach-based on the principles, standards, and norms of child rights and the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)-to explore how decisions could be made with regard to treatment of a severely impaired infant (Baby G). While a child rights approach does not provide neat answers to ethically complex issues, it does provide a framework for decision-making in which the infant is viewed as an independent rights-holder. The state has obligations to develop the capacity of those who make decisions for infants in such situations to meet their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill their rights as delineated in the CRC. Furthermore, a child rights approach requires procedural clarity and transparency in decision-making processes. As all rights in the CRC are interdependent and indivisible, all must be considered in the process of ethical decision-making, and the reasons for decisions must be delineated by reference to how these rights were considered. It is also important that decisions that are made in this context be monitored and reviewed to ensure consistency. A rights-based framework ensures decision-making is child-centered and that there are transparent criteria and legitimate procedures for making decisions regarding the child's most basic human right: the right to life, survival, and development. PMID:27157351

  10. The End of the HIPAA Privacy Rule? Currents in Contemporary Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    The HIPAA Privacy Rule is notoriously weak because of its incomplete coverage, numerous exclusions and exemptions, and limited rights for individuals. The three areas in which it provides the most protection are fundraising, marketing, and research. Provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act, pending in Congress, and the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to amend the federal research regulations (Common Rule), awaiting final regulatory action, would weaken the privacy protections for research. If these measures are adopted, the HIPAA Privacy Rule would have so little value that it might not be worth the aggravation and burden. PMID:27338610

  11. Reflections on bioethics: consolidation of the principle of autonomy and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Segre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the importance of emotions in all ethical reflections. He describes the most common positions of ethicists employing duties and rights as the basis for ethical thought. The author, goes to Freudian theory as viewed by the utilitarians, stating that the 'quest for pleasure' is not necessarily egocentric, especially for adults. For example, the feeling of solidarity emerges 'from the inside out', making irrelevant all the emphasis laid on obedience to duty (from the outside in. The article questions the essence of Kantian theory, based exclusively on 'reason' with disregard for feelings, by establishing what he considers a 'positivist' view of rational thought. It emphasizes the principle of autonomy, which it seen as basically opposing the principles of beneficence and fairness. It is proposed that the latter should be seen as what he calls heteronomy (a concept different from that of the rational ethicists. In theory, autonomy is not assigned to anyone on the basis of an external assessment. Any intervention in individual autonomy must be made (by the intervenor when it becomes imperative in the defense of social or cultural values. The article distinguishes between ethics and morals and states that the sole acceptable ethical principle is that ethics (theoretically has no principle.

  12. IS THE ETHICS OF ECONOMIES ADAPTED OR NOT TO THE IMPERATIVE OF BIOETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Donev

    2012-01-01

    The ethics in economy is not only a corrector, but also must be initiator if we want to achieve essence of our existence - the human being as “Homo ethicus”, as well as, which is more important for mankind - to achieve a human being as “Homo homine ethica ethicus est”. This remark points on two things. First: we came to the stage where we become aware about the fact that our economies are dehumanized. The second: that’s the reason why we must return to ethics and pull out from it that univers...

  13. The Right Way Through the Region of Sin: Islam, Bioethics and New Reproductive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pišev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s numerous debates were held in the House of Lords on the scientific research of embryos, with certain participants attempting to point out the difference between two styles of thought, namely, religious and scientific thought. Yet was the conflict in the House of Lords between two styles of thinking, or rather between the proponents of the scientific approach, on the one hand, and the proponents of religious thought, on the other, for intellectual and moral domination in society? Clearly, these debates hinted at something beyond and something more complex than a mere concern about embryos. What was actually being problematized? Or, to put it differently, to what extent does the use of bioreproductive technologies call into question the notions and issues of ethics, procreation and kinship, regardless of the religious dogma that considers the possibilities of their application? This paper will be confined to an analysis of Islamic dogma and any correspondences between this dogma and certain aspects of the new reproductive technologies. Still, in order to be able to discuss the relation between the new reproductive technologies and Islamic ethics, it is necessary to devote the greater part of this paper to an interpretation of how man is perceived in the context of the Koran.

  14. Tattoos, piercings and re-configuration of the body. A path between bioethical and educational profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Carmela Bianco

    2014-01-01

    Tattoos and piercings can become a mask to hide behind? Everything can become a mask if we use it for masquerading. The tattoo is the anthropological roots of ancient and modern makeup that refers to the mask understood as that which creates the face, which gives it its social being. The tattoo is also an artistic decoration that should be born by the deep desire to communicate yourself to others. Tattoos must be able to "tell" the people who wear them, but if the latter decorate their body w...

  15. Argumentation Based Bioethics Education: Sample Implementation on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer Keskin, Melike; Keskin Samanci, Nilay; Yaman, Hale

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a need in science education to consider scientific research and its applications alongside ethical consensus. Even though classroom debates of value issues have been demonstrated to significantly contribute to the raising of social consciousness and awareness, research shows that neither academics in higher education nor…

  16. Ethics literacy and 'ethics university'. Two intertwined models for public involvement and empowerment in bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel eStrech; Irene eHirschberg; Antje eMeyer; Annika eBaum; Tobias eHainz; Gerald eNeitzke; Gabriele eSeidel; Marie-Luise eDierks

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informing lay citizens about complex health-related issues and their related ethical, legal and social aspects (ELSA) is one important component of democratic health care/research governance. Public information activities may be especially valuable when they are used in multi-staged processes that also include elements of information and deliberation. Objectives: This paper presents a new model for a public involvement activity on ELSA (ethics university) and evaluation data for a...

  17. Beyond Bioethics: A Child Rights-Based Approach to Complex Medical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine; Melamed, Irene; Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This analysis adopts a child rights approach-based on the principles, standards, and norms of child rights and the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)-to explore how decisions could be made with regard to treatment of a severely impaired infant (Baby G). While a child rights approach does not provide neat answers to ethically complex issues, it does provide a framework for decision-making in which the infant is viewed as an independent rights-holder. The state has obligations to develop the capacity of those who make decisions for infants in such situations to meet their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill their rights as delineated in the CRC. Furthermore, a child rights approach requires procedural clarity and transparency in decision-making processes. As all rights in the CRC are interdependent and indivisible, all must be considered in the process of ethical decision-making, and the reasons for decisions must be delineated by reference to how these rights were considered. It is also important that decisions that are made in this context be monitored and reviewed to ensure consistency. A rights-based framework ensures decision-making is child-centered and that there are transparent criteria and legitimate procedures for making decisions regarding the child's most basic human right: the right to life, survival, and development.

  18. 75 FR 52533 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... challenges and risks, and the ethical boundaries that may be important to formulation of public policy with... and risks, and appropriate ethical boundaries and principles. DATES: The meeting will take...

  19. Autonomy, subject-relativity, and subjective and objective theories of well-being in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    Among the different approaches to questions of biomedical ethics, there is a view that stresses the importance of a patient's right to make her own decisions in evaluative questions concerning her own well-being. This approach, the autonomy-based approach to biomedical ethics, has usually led to the adoption of a subjective theory of well-being on the basis of its commitment to the value of autonomy and to the view that well-being is always relative to a subject. In this article, it is argued that these two commitments need not lead to subjectivism concerning the nature of well-being.

  20. Ethical Issues in Canadian Gastroenterology: Resluts of a Survey of Canadian Gastroenterology Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Malhotra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specialty-specific bioethical education is a mandated component of gastroenterology training programs in Canada, but no gastroenterology-specific bioethical curriculum is available.

  1. Bioética clínica: ciência e humanidade = Clinical bioethics: science and humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista, Cristiano Corrêa

    2005-01-01

    Resultados e conclusão: Nossa conclusão é de a medicina não ser apenas uma ciência, mas também uma arte. Ela exige, em situações particulares, elaborar julgamentos de valor. A Bioética Clínica, surge para guiar caminhos combinando o conhecimento técnico- científico das ciências biomédicas com o conhecimento filosófico. Por meio da Bioética Clínica é possível resgatar os aspectos humanos da arte da medicina

  2. Anorexia nervosa: the diagnosis. A postmodern ethics contribution to the bioethics debate on involuntary treatment for anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Sacha

    2014-03-01

    This paper argues that there is a relationship between understandings of anorexia nervosa (AN) and how the ethical issues associated with involuntary treatment for AN are identified, framed, and addressed. By positioning AN as a construct/discourse (hereinafter "AN: the diagnosis") several ethical issues are revealed. Firstly, "AN: the diagnosis" influences how the autonomy and competence of persons diagnosed with AN are understood by decision-makers in the treatment environment. Secondly, "AN: the diagnosis" impacts on how treatment and treatment efficacy are defined and the ethical justifiability of paternalism. Thirdly, "AN: the diagnosis" can limit the opportunity for persons with AN to construct an identity that casts them as a competent person. "AN: the diagnosis" can thus inherently affirm professional knowledge and values. Postmodern professional ethics can support professionals in managing these issues by highlighting the importance of taking responsibility for professional knowledge, values, and power and embracing moral uncertainty. PMID:24366443

  3. Bioethics: Facing Public Health's Challenge%遭遇公共健康的生命伦理学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史军

    2008-01-01

    由于传统的生命伦理学是建基于个人主义的价值观之上,它强调个人权利的优先性,而在公共健康实践中却经常会为了全体人口的健康对个人的自由、隐私等权利进行干预或限制.公共健康对公共善而非个人权利的强调对传统的生命伦理学构成了挑战.公共健康的这一挑战促使生命伦理学向多元化的方向发展.

  4. Fidelity to the healing relationship: a medical student's challenge to contemporary bioethics and prescription for medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Blake C; Brandt, Lea; Fleming, David A; Gu, Chris N

    2016-04-01

    As a medical  student, I observed that different physicians had strikingly different attitudes and approaches when caring for patients. The care of one patient in particular continues to challenge my understanding of illness and moral responsibility in the practice of medicine. In this paper, I illustrate the care of this patient in order to evaluate the dominant ethics I was taught in medical school, in theory and in practice, and argue neither principlism nor the ethics of care fully captures the moral responsibility of physicians. Emphasising fidelity to the healing relationship, a core principle derived from Pellegrino's virtue theory, I conclude that this approach to clinical ethics fully explains physician responsibility. Pellegrino deconstructs the practice of medicine to clarify the moral event within the clinical encounter and offers a sufficiently useful and justified approach to patient care.

  5. The Logic of Capital and Bioethics%资本逻辑与生命伦理学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜治政

    2008-01-01

    在当今全球走向市场、走向世界、走向世界不同文明对接的时代,资本、利益已成为现代的关键词.生命伦理学应当把握现代伦理学的特殊性和个性.在当代,资本与生命伦理学有着内在的必然联系,生命伦理学的对手是资本,生命伦理学困局难解的焦点也在于资本.生命伦理学面临的种种问题,正是资本逻辑演绎的结果.因此生命伦理学应当研究超越资本逻辑的伦理课题.

  6. Improving resource allocation decisions for health and HIV programmes in South Africa: Bioethical, cost-effectiveness and health diplomacy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Benatar, Solomon R; Fleischer, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The escalating expenditure on patients with HIV/AIDS within an inadequately funded public health system is tending towards crowding out care for patients with non-HIV illnesses. Priority-setting decisions are thus required and should increasingly be based on an explicit, transparent and accountable process to facilitate sustainability. South Africa's public health system is eroding, even though the government has received extensive donor financing for specific conditions, such as HIV/AIDS. The South African government's 2007 HIV plan anticipated costs exceeding 20% of the annual health budget with a strong focus on treatment interventions, while the recently announced 2012-2016 National Strategic HIV plan could cost up to US$16 billion. Conversely, the total non-HIV health budget has remained static in recent years, effectively reducing the supply of health care for other diseases. While the South African government cannot meet all demands for health care simultaneously, health funders should attempt to allocate health resources in a fair, efficient, transparent and accountable manner, in order to ensure that publicly funded health care is delivered in a reasonable and non-discriminatory fashion. We recommend a process for resource allocation that includes ethical, economic, legal and policy considerations. This process, adapted for use by South Africa's policy-makers, could bring health, political, economic and ethical gains, whilst allaying a social crisis as mounting treatment commitments generated by HIV have the potential to overwhelm the health system. PMID:23651436

  7. Culture Diversity, Relativism & Bioethics%文化差异、相对主义与生命伦理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广宽

    2005-01-01

    多元文化是当今世界的一个重要特征,不同的文化在道德观上的差异很容易在生命伦理学领域导致一种伦理相对主义:根据不同的文化传统,人们对同一境况下的同一行为所作的不同道德判断都同样是正确或有效的.通过对伦理相对主义三个命题(差异、相对性和宽容)的深入分析,本文认为这种伦理相对主义并不能得到有力的论证,而且会在生命伦理学领域产生许多不好的后果;面对生命伦理中的文化差异,一种温和的客观主义立场更为可取.

  8. Explaining the emergence of euthanasia law in the Netherlands : how the sociology of law can help the sociology of bioethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyers, Heleen

    2006-01-01

    The debate over the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia is most often seen to be the result of three changes in society: individualisation, diminished taboos concerning death and changes in the balance of power in medicine. The fact that these changes occurred in many western countries but led to l

  9. Biochemistry in an undergraduate writing-intensive first-year program: Seminar courses in drugs and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kenneth V

    2015-01-01

    The College of the Holy Cross offers a universal first-year program called Montserrat, in which first-year students participate in a living-learning experience anchored by a yearlong seminar course. The seminar courses are part of a thematic cluster of four to eight courses; students in the cluster live together in a common dormitory and participate in shared co-curricular events designed to engage the entire cluster in intellectual discourse related to the theme. A two-semester seminar within the "Natural World" cluster was offered using biochemical principles as the underlying content. In the first semester, students were introduced to drug design, activity and abuse via student presentations and guided readings on ethnobotany, drug laws, drug use in religion, and prescription drug costs. In the second semester, students discussed primary readings in ethics followed by case study analyses of assisted reproduction technologies, informed consent, genetic privacy, performance enhancing drugs and genetically modified organisms. Student learning outcomes were evaluated via rubrics and a College-facilitated survey.

  10. Ethics Literacy and “Ethics University”: Two Intertwined Models for Public Involvement and Empowerment in Bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Strech, Daniel; Hirschberg, Irene; Meyer, Antje; Baum, Annika; Hainz, Tobias; Neitzke, Gerald; Seidel, Gabriele; Dierks, Marie-Luise

    2016-01-01

    Background Informing lay citizens about complex health-related issues and their related ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) is one important component of democratic health care/research governance. Public information activities may be especially valuable when they are used in multi-staged processes that also include elements of information and deliberation. Objectives This paper presents a new model for a public involvement activity on ELSA (Ethics University) and evaluation ...

  11. [Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G

    2014-08-01

    Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service can make a significant contribution to preventative ethics in reducing the number of emerging ethical problems to the satisfaction of all parties involved.

  12. Principios bioéticos en salud pública: limitaciones y propuestas Bioethical principles in public health: limitations and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta caracterizar la especificidad de los problemas morales en salud pública y analizar la aplicabilidad del modelo principialista como padrón para dirimir sus conflictos. Aunque considerado pertinente para la bioética clínica, este modelo no es aplicable sin más a los dilemas en salud pública, puesto que se fundamenta en la moral de las interrelaciones médico-paciente. Se analiza la pertinencia de los principios de "solidaridad", de "responsabilidad óntica" según Jonas, y de "responsabilidad diacónica" según Lévinas, destacando la inaplicabilidad del primero y la posible adaptación de los otros dos a la salud pública. A ese respecto se discute la posibilidad de vincular la preocupación ontológica de Jonas y la trascendental de Lévinas, proponiendo un principio de protección que sería más adecuado a los propósitos de una ética de la salud pública, permitiendo identificar claramente los objetivos y los actores implicados en una implementación de políticas públicas moralmente correctas y pragmáticamente efectivas.We propose to analyze the specificity of ethical problems in public health issues and to elucidate the applicability of principlism as a problem-solving strategy in this realm. Although well-established in clinical ethics, principlism is not an adequate model to be used in public health, since it is basically intended to serve as a moral guide in the physician-patient encounter. We discuss the possible adequacy of principles like "solidarity", "ontic responsibility" (as proposed by Jonas, and "caring or diaconal responsibility" as presented by Lévinas. Solidarity appears to be insufficiently specified, whereas the other two perspectives may be adapted to public health issues by bringing together Jonas´ ontological and Lévinas´ transcendental concerns to form a principle of protection that might better serve the purposes of such an ethics. This principle would help to identify more clearly the goals and agents involved in the implementation of public policies that are expected to be both morally correct and pragmatically effective.

  13. Learning qualitative aspects of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics, University of Chile1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre la experiencia de 10 años en procesos de aprendizaje grupal y adquisición de competencias, de los participantes en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera el papel de la bioética en la formación en su carácter transdisciplinario. PMID:22833694

  14. Retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI Challenges of bioethics in twenty-first century medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Para plantear posibles retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI es necesario considerar que existieron algunos retos en el pasado (en el origen de esa nueva disciplina llamada bioética); que los retos se han ido modificando con el avance científico, biomédico y humanístico; considerando que los retos que pueden plantearse para el futuro serán, de diferentes maneras, resultado de este devenir histórico. Se plantean como grandes retos: los problemas no resueltos de justicia, equidad y ...

  15. Disputing the ethics of research: the challenge from bioethics and patient activism to the interpretation of the Declaration of Helsinki in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Simon; McCormack, Pauline

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we argue that the consensus around normative standards for the ethics of research in clinical trials, strongly influenced by the Declaration of Helsinki, is perceived from various quarters as too conservative and potentially restrictive of research that is seen as urgent and necessary. We examine this problem from the perspective of various challengers who argue for alternative approaches to what ought or ought not to be permitted. Key themes within this analysis will examine these claims and argue they have implications for the interests of the research subject, research governance and regulation. Using our work with TREAT-NMD, the neuromuscular clinical trials network, we posit that there is a place for advancing the discourse of moral rights and moral duties in the context of research, especially from the perspective of patients and their families, and for including the politics of patient activism and empowerment. At the same time we remain vigilant to the danger that the therapeutic misconception and other serious vulnerabilities for the patient population in clinical trials, are at risk of being overlooked.

  16. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious traditions are thus unknown. These effects are interesting on two accounts. First, even if underdeveloped countries cannot replicate the technical aspects of research, their influence on social practices is not kept within geographical or language barriers. The way they are handled in developed countries may become part of resistances to “ethical imperialism”. Second, these advances have economic consequences. Their full understanding and the creation of a scientific literacy essential for sound ethical analysis demand the creation of “receptive capacity” in developing countries. The morality of genomics research and its applications can be analyzed from two main vantage points. Some traditions stress the ethics of convictions (in Max Weber´s terms, Gesinnungsethik) while others rely on the ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik). In different forms, the latter deals with the consequences of social action, scientific research in this case, and may or may not be related to utilitarian considerations. It may be hypothesized that convictions, mostly of a religious nature, dominate the argumentative preferences in Latin countries and continental European traditions which rely on virtues while responsibility is associated with a discourse based on rights prevalent in countries following the Anglo-Saxon pattern of thought. This finds expression in different legal systems (common law versus codes) and in the language used for deliberation and moral reasoning. Although results of US-based ELSI research may not be transferable to other cultural and economic contexts, they impact other societies and serve as models. Rarely do they apply completely in other settings. In a globalized world, both appropriate understanding of the scientific enterprise and its ethical or economic sustainability demand empirical analysis of the patterns of thought, main beliefs, and reactions toward the new knowledge and its applications. Anecdotal accounts show that expectations may be misleading and inadequate knowledge prevents appropriate appraisal of burdens and benefits in dif

  17. Reflections on Egg Bank and Its Bioethical Issues%卵子库及其生命伦理问题思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭飞; 张洪江

    2013-01-01

    人类卵子库的建立主要用于解决不孕不育问题,促进了辅助生殖技术的发展,具有重要的医学与社会意义.回顾卵子库及其相关技术的发展历程,讨论卵子库存在的价值,分析卵子库存在的对捐献者的伤害、商品化、人性尊严等主要伦理问题,最后指出应为卵子库的建立和发展制定相应的生命伦理原则加以规范.%The establishment of human egg bank is mainly to solve the problem of infertility and promote the development of assisted reproductive technology.It is of significant medical and social meanings.Through reviewing the development histories of egg bank and relevant technologies, this article discussed the existence value of egg bank, and analyzed main ethical considerations of harm to subjects, commercialization and human dignity due to the existence of egg bank.Eventually it has pointed out that the corresponding ethical principles of life for the establishment and development of egg bank should be formulated as the regulation.

  18. 儒家生命伦理视阈下的安乐死%Study of the Euthanasia in Light of the Confucianism Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甲乐; 罗会宇

    2012-01-01

    Even though the researchers tend to put emphasis on the problem of euthanasia while people faces the death, the first and foremost issue concerning euthanasia is always a question of life and death. This paper discussed the Confucianism world view、 outlook on life and Values. The Confucianism world view believes that human should integrate themselves with nature, we should calmly accept death when facing the inevitable end, which provides a logic point for the study of euthanasia. Confucians'outlook on life reckon that not all patients with constant agony can apply for euthanasia, and this agony does not include the spiritual sufferings. Only the disease has to stop to the pursuit of an ideal personality you can apply for euthanasia According to the Confucius view, life is not taken as an absolute holy thing. Confucians also confirms the attendant utilitarian effects of euthanasia, even though it cannot be applied for this reason.%安乐死的研究者往往强调死得“安乐”,但是安乐死首先面对的问题仍然是“生”与“死”的问题,本文从儒家世界观,人生观,价值观方面来探讨安乐死问题,儒家世界观认为“天人一体”,在死亡面前,应该坦然接受死亡,这为安乐死研究提供了一个逻辑起点.儒家人生观认为,并非存在持续性的痛苦的患者都可以申请安乐死,只有疾病已阻止到了对人格理想的追求时才可以申请安乐死,并且痛苦不包含精神上的痛苦.生命权的地位问题是安乐死的一个热点问题,儒家价值观认为,生命权并不是绝对神圣的,还对安乐死所附带的功利主义效果予以肯定,虽然这种功利主义效果不能作为实行安乐死的理由.

  19. The Model of Bioethics as “Semiotic Attractors” for Diagnosing Innovative Strategies of Training Specialists for NBICS-Technologies Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melik-Gaykazyan Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors interpret bioethics’ models as a fixation of the new symbolism in which sociocultural systems expressed its response to impact of technologies standardizing the image of a human being. At the moment it is NBICS technologies that are responsible for this impact. Convergency of these technologies’ goals makes education responsible for adjustments of the future states of culture formed by NBICS-technologies. The possibility of this adjustment provided by the fact that training of specialists for the NBICS-technologies niche as the primary resource of those technologies is processed in the space of educational systems. The article reveals the structure of this space; bioethics’ models are distributed in the context of this structure and proofs produced for understanding the semiotic essence of the phenomenon of education. These conceptual suggestions shape the original method of semiotic diagnostics of innovative educational strategies based on interpretation of bioethics’ symbolism as “semiotic attractors” of knowledge management related to convergent technologies.

  20. 论中国传统文化的生命伦理精神%On The Bioethical Spirit of Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玮玮; 张广森

    2009-01-01

    由儒、佛、道三大支柱构成的中国传统文化向来关注生命.尽管儒、佛、道对生命最深层次的看法有所不同,但其生命伦理精神是一致的.它们都主张以贵生精神看待生命的价值,以平等精神衡量各个生命的价值,以仁爱精神善待一切生命,以和谐精神调节生命之间的关系,并以超越精神面对生命的终结.