Jonsen, Albert R.
Urban bioethics can draw on elements of city life and view them under the moral perspective of social responsibility of creating the personal, cultural, social, and economic environment in which persons can be responsible personally as they interpret actions on themselves and creatively respond to them in an ongoing community of agents.
Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and su...
Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair
While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in...
Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair
While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275
Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina
"Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences. PMID:25694860
Full Text Available The article explores two questions: what is feminist bioethics, and how different it is from standard bioethics. Development of feminist bioethics, it is argued, began as a response to standard bioethics, challenging its background values, and philosophical perspectives. The most important contribution of feminist bioethics has been its re-examination of the basic conceptual underpinnings of mainstream bioethics, including the concepts of “universality”, “autonomy”, and “trust”. Particularly important for feminists has been the concept of autonomy. They challenge the old liberal notion of autonomy that treats individuals as separate social units and argue that autonomy is established through relations. Relational autonomy assumes that identities and values are developed through relationships with others and that the choices one makes are shaped by specific social and historical contexts. Neither relational autonomy, nor feminist bioethics, however, represents a single, unified perspective. There are, actually, as many feminist bioethics as there are feminisms-liberal, cultural, radical, postmodern etc. Their different ontological, epistemological and political underpinnings shape their respective approaches to bioethical issues at hand. Still what they all have in common is interest in social justice-feminists explore mainstream bioethics and reproductive technologies in order to establish whether they support or impede gender and overall social justice and equality. Feminist bioethics thus brings a significant improvement to standard bioethics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Bioethical Aspects: Morally Acceptable Within the Biotechnologically and Socially Possible i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation
This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical
Guyer, Ruth Levy; Dillon, Mary Lou; Anderson, Linda; Szobota, Lola
Discusses the use of bioethics and bioethical dilemmas in different subject areas at the high school level by focusing on the case of Baby K. Includes the story of Baby K, classroom activities for U.S. history, 10th and 11th grade ethics, and anatomy and physiology. (CMK)
O. I. Kubar
Full Text Available Abstract. The serial materials on the history of establishment and the modern concepts of bioethics in the field of infectious pathology is planned to present in several articles. In the current report problems of forming and compliance of social responsibility are considered. It is demonstrated the universal importance of ethic principles and specificity of their realization in the different stages of combating with infectious diseases.
O. I. Kubar
Abstract. The serial materials on the history of establishment and the modern concepts of bioethics in the field of infectious pathology is planned to present in several articles. In the current report problems of forming and compliance of social responsibility are considered. It is demonstrated the universal importance of ethic principles and specificity of their realization in the different stages of combating with infectious diseases.
Derse, A. R.; Krogull, S. R.
Ethical analysis is crucial to decision making in biomedicine and health care, necessitating both rapid access to diffusely disseminated sources of information pertinent to bioethics and promotion of analysis in the field of bioethics through a resource for information analysis. We developed the Bioethics Discussion Forum, an Internet-based information analysis resource, in order to supplement the Bioethics Online Service with an interactive information medium to meet the demand for such an i...
Russo, Michael T.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Sunal, Dennis W.
All citizens will make bioethics decisions as a result of today's biotechnology revolution. The decisions made require citizens to find possible acceptable solutions to dilemmas that have become public issues. In this activity, students practice making decisions in ethical dilemmas after evaluating the influences of their own ethical beliefs and…
Chemical and Engineering News, 1974
The functioning of the Kennedy Institute, which aims at dealing with ethical and social questions raised by advances in biosciences and medicine, is described. Three major projects now underway are briefly discussed: a core reference library in bioethics, an Encyclopedia of Bioethics, and a bioethics information retrieval system. (DT)
Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo
This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission. PMID:23745819
Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria
This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm. PMID:22033813
Sharp, Richard R; Scott, Angela L; Landy, David C; Kicklighter, Laura A
Growing ties to private industry have prompted many to question the impartiality of academic bioethicists who receive financial support from for-profit corporations in exchange for ethics-related services and research. To the extent that corporate sponsors may view bioethics as little more than a way to strengthen public relations or avoid potential controversy, close ties to industry may pose serious threats to professional independence. New sources of support from private industry may also divert bioethicists from pursuing topics of greater social importance, such as the needs of medically underserved communities. To inform ongoing debates about the financing of bioethics and its transparency to those concerned about potential sources of bias, we examined funding disclosures appearing in original research reports in major bioethics journals. Reviewing research published over a 15-year period, we found little evidence that for-profit corporations are influencing bioethics research directly. Instead, we found evidence that a great number of organizations, both public and private, support bioethics research. These findings suggest that worries about the cooption of bioethics research by a few interested stakeholders are greatly overstated and undersupported by available data. PMID:18802867
... not more than 13 members who are drawn from the fields of bioethics, science, medicine, technology, engineering, law, philosophy, theology, or other areas of the humanities or social sciences. The Commission... science and technology. The Commission seeks to identify and promote policies and practices that...
Making difficult healthcare decisions is often helped by consultation with a bioethics committee. This article reviews the main bioethics principles, when it is appropriate and how to call a bioethics consult, ethical concerns, and members of the consult team. Bioethics resources are included.
Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.
Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C.
“PROTESTANT” IS A TERM APPLIED TO MANY DIFFERENT Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight conce...
The state of bioethics in Ukraine, as well as in the world has been analyzed in this article. The author offers a model of integrative pedagogical bioethics and substantiates the necessity of the organization of the bioethics education and confirms the topicality of adoption of the new specialty – educatorbioethicist. The author defines the structure and method of the educational process and the new curriculum «Integrative Bioethics» for preparing educator-bioethicist specialist.
The abstinence approach to sex education remains influential despite its demonstrated ineffectiveness. One bill forbids the "promotion" of "gateway sexual activity," while requiring outright condemnation of "non-abstinence," defined so loosely as to plausibly include handholding. Bioethics seldom (if ever) contributes to sex-ed debates, yet exploring the pivotal role of medical discourse reveals the need for bioethical intervention. Sex-ed debates revolve around a theory of human flourishing based on heteronormative temporality, a developmental teleology ensuring the transmission of various supposed social goods through heterosexual marriage (Halberstam, 2005). Heteronormative temporality also constitutes a moralized discourse in which the values of health and presumed certainties of medicine serve to justify conservative religious dictates that otherwise would appear controversial as the basis for public policy. Overall, this analysis explores how moralized medical discourses compound existing injustices, while suggesting bioethics' potential contributions to moral and political analysis of sex-ed policies. PMID:23468394
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....
O'Mathúna Dónal P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi
Cristian, Morozan; Mihaela, ASANDEI
The classical promotional media, especially the television, have been often criticized for the contradictory effects that they have on the consumers. Compared to those, the Internet and social networks that support them represent an interactive environment, because consumers have more time and space to evaluate the products compared with the traditional seconds or tens of seconds of the TV spots or the few printed lines in newspapers. The promotion on the web and social media have an importan...
The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204
Tasente Tanase; Ciacu Nicoleta; Sandu Mihaela
The following study sets its target on the identification of motives that leads the internet users in Romania to use Facebook online social network, the frequency of their login, the manner young men interact within Facebook and its implications in the process of socialization and self-image promotion of the Internet users in Romania. At the same time, a different goal of this research is to identify the relationship between at least two uses of Facebook social network, which is for socializa...
In this article, postmodernism is presented as posing a challenge to the role of philosophy within bioethics. It is argued that any attempt to develop a postmodern bioethics must respond to arguments concerning power, relational responsibility, and violence. Contemporary work on the topic of relational autonomy and naturalized bioethics is interpreted as engaging with the postmodern challenge. This article proposes that the role of philosophy in bioethics should be not to provide moral guidance but rather to adopt a critical approach to the possible consequences of privileging any position or understanding over others. PMID:25719353
History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. PMID:26847836
Kevles, D J
The principles of bioethics have been historically contingent, a product of social values, circumstances, and experience. During the early twentieth century, they rested on a doctor-knows-best autonomy that permitted physicians to perform research on human subjects with a minimum degree, if any, of informed consent. The eugenics movement of the period embraced an implicit bioethics by presuming to sterilize individuals for the sake of a larger social benefit, a practice and doctrine that helped lead to the Nazi medical experiments and death camps. After World War II, the promulgation of the Nuremberg Code failed to halt eugenic sterilization and risky human experimentation without informed consent either in civilian or military venues. However, beginning in the 1960s, these practices came under mounting critical scrutiny, partly because of the increasing attention given to individual rights. By now, it is widely understood that concern for individual rights rather than an appeal to some national good belongs at the heart of bioethics. PMID:11936137
Blair, J E
1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers. PMID:7575787
This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level. PMID:27477196
Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y
The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472
This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…
Full Text Available The classical promotional media, especially the television, have been often criticized for the contradictory effects that they have on the consumers. Compared to those, the Internet and social networks that support them represent an interactive environment, because consumers have more time and space to evaluate the products compared with the traditional seconds or tens of seconds of the TV spots or the few printed lines in newspapers. The promotion on the web and social media have an important role in consumers' informing, by providing the data they need for the purchasing decision, by providing feedback from others etc. For example, in the discussion groups and social networking sites, such products/services and software news are discussed and carefully evaluated by a permanent feedback from users, their responses being made posted on the internet.
Opel, Douglas J; Olson, Maren E
Ethics education based upon everyday ethical dilemmas can help trainees place themselves within the situation and encourage them to reflect on their role and responsibility in reaching its resolution.• Three elements can help augment the bioethics teaching experience: (a) identifying the ethical dilemma, (b) employing methods of ethical analysis, and(c) having knowledge of additional bioethics resources.An increasing number of bioethics resources are available to clinicians, including clinical ethics consultation (CEC) and print and Web-based resources. PMID:22855929
Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C
"Protestant" is a term applied to many different Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight concepts that have emerged from Protestant denominations that are particularly relevant to bioethics. These include the sovereignty of God, the value of autonomy and the idea of medicine as a calling as well as a profession. Most Canadian physicians will find that they share certain values and beliefs with the majority of their Protestant patients. Physicians should be particularly sensitive to their Protestant patients' beliefs when dealing with end-of-life issues, concerns about consent and refusal of care, and beginning-of-life issues such as abortion, genetic testing and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Physicians should also recognize that members of certain Protestant groups and denominations may have unique wishes concerning treatment. Understanding how to elicit these wishes and respond appropriately will allow physicians to enhance patient care and minimize conflict. PMID:11868645
Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate
Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…
Hoskins, Betty B.; Shannon, Thomas A.
Discusses the importance of developing bioethics programs for undergraduate students. Two aspects are considered: (1) current areas of concern and sources of bibliographic information; and (2) problems encountered in undergraduate projects. A list of references is provided. (HM)
Explores a hermeneutical perspective of modern medicine. The author suggests that good medical decision making requires interpretation, and bioethics will be well served by incorporating this interpretive element. (LZ)
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are supported by the Dutch government’s policy. Although many strategies have been developed to increase physical activity levels in general and in socially vulnerable groups in particular, most evaluations show o...
Salzano, Francisco M
In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons. PMID:25575494
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to introduce new social media as one of effective marketing tools for organic farmers. The research includes an application of recommendations proposed by Lohr (2013. In order to verify them on successfully implemented concept working with precisely defined target group the data from Facebook of the Faculty of Economics and Management of the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague were chosen. As one of the key indicators of success the reach of the published posts is examined. For its increasing we recommend to publish short posts and amusing content (such as photos. We analyse separately the influence of games and competitions on the loyalty of fans and recommend using them for better communication with users. The results of mutually done analysis of utilization of Facebook to promote organic products showed that having a lot of fans at Facebook does not necessary mean that they are active as well. The distribution of activities corresponds to the so-called “long tail”, which implies, using the theory of social capital exchange according to Emerson (2003 that the potential of social media for farmers’ pages is nowadays still high and still waits for its utilization. Social media can serve to farmers as a marketing tool, but are not fully utilized yet. One reason might be that farmers are not familiar with possibilities or lack of experiences with this new tool.
Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun
The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a ...
Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun
The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach. PMID:23864994
Luka Tomašević, PhD, ScD
Full Text Available Every creature is good and subject to the principle of solidarity that everyone has been blessed and gifted with life by God. Therefore, we cannot have one without the other, and no man exists without an animal.Over the last several decades, our world has been confronted with many ethical problems and ethics is being more and more sought after in spheres of human conduct and profession. Man has acquired enormous power over the world and over life itself, but he has also, willingly or not, become more responsible for 'the threats' against his very life, as well as against the life of other creatures. Within this context a discussion on biocentrism has ensued, which should replace Christian biblical anthropocentrism. At any rate, man has encountered a challenge to expand his moral sphere because nature needs his protection, whereas he no longer needs to protect himself from nature. It is exactly this point that poses a paradox: only man can give protection to nature and the whole of life within it. Having crossed all limits, he has to establish them yet again. Once again, he has to search for these limits within himself, which is exactly what original Christianity demands: to act according to one's pure belief (St. Peter. The aim of this work lies in trying to answer the questions of how to preserve life and healthy environment, how to achieve harmony between the development and modern ideas and trends as well as to establish the right relationship between man and his environment. The author primarily points out to the rising of pastoral medicine in Catholic theology, whose emergence was caused by the development of medical science and which gradually transforms into today's bioethics that is acknowledged by the theology. He then proceeds to discuss the disharmony between man and nature, about the rising of the 'animal rights' movement, and finally, about the beginnings of scientific and global bioethics which has developed in USA and which has
Purdy, L M
Feminist criticism of health care and of bioethics has become increasingly rich and sophisticated in the last years of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, this body of work remains quite marginalized. I believe that there are (at least) two reasons for this. First, many people are still confused about feminism. Second, many people are unconvinced that significant sexism still exists and are therefore unreceptive to arguments that it should be remedied if there is no larger benefit. In this essay I argue for a thin, "core" conception of feminism that is easy to understand and difficult to reject. Core feminism would render debate within feminism more fruitful, clear the way for appropriate recognition of differences among women and their circumstances, provide intellectually compelling reasons for current non-feminists to adopt a feminist outlook, and facilitate mutually beneficial cooperation between feminism and other progressive social movements. This conception of feminism also makes it clear that feminism is part of a larger egalitarian moral and political agenda, and adopting it would help bioethics focus on the most urgent moral priorities. In addition, integrating core feminism into bioethics would open a gateway to the more speculative parts of feminist work where a wealth of creative thinking is occurring. Engaging with this feminist work would challenge and strengthen mainstream approaches: it should also motivate mainstream bioethicists to explore other currently marginalized parts of bioethics. PMID:11561992
Kieffer, George H.
Examined is the issue concerning teaching bioethics. Differing points of view are discussed. The author concludes that moral and ethical reasoning should be incorporated into the public school curriculum, using morally laden issues that have grown out of advances in biological knowledge and biomedical technology. (CS)
Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman
-order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means...
The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.
Pastor, Luis Miguel
For years there are different types of criticism about principialist bioethics. One alternative that has been proposed is to introduce empirical evidence within the bioethical discourse to make it less formal, less theoretical and closer to reality. In this paper we analyze first in synthetic form diverse alternative proposals to make an empirical bioethics. Some of them are strongly naturalistic while others aim to provide empirical data only for correct or improve bioethical work. Most of them are not shown in favor of maintaining a complete separation between facts and values, between what is and what ought to be. With different nuances these proposals of moderate naturalism make ethical judgments depend normative social opinion resulting into a certain social naturalism. Against these proposals we think to make a bioethics in that relates the empirical facts with ethical duties, we must rediscover empirical reality of human action. Only from it and, in particular, from the activity of discernment that makes practical reason, when judged on the object of his action, it is possible to integrate the mere descriptive facts with ethical judgments of character prescriptive. In conclusion we think that it is not possible to perform bioethics a mode of empirical science, as this would be contrary to natural reason, leading to a sort of scientific reductionism. At the same time we believe that empirical data are important in the development of bioethics and to enhance and improve the innate ability of human reason to discern good. From this discernment could develop a bioethics from the perspective of ethical agents themselves, avoiding the extremes of an excessive normative rationalism, accepting empirical data and not falling into a simple pragmatism. PMID:24206254
McKneally, Martin F.; Peter A Singer
BIOETHICS IS NOW TAUGHT IN EVERY CANADIAN MEDICAL SCHOOL. Canada needs a cadre of teachers who can help clinicians learn bioethics. Our purpose is to encourage clinician teachers to accept this important responsibility and to provide practical advice about teaching bioethics to clinicians as an integral part of good clinical medicine. We use 5 questions to focus the discussion: Why should I teach? What should I teach? How should I teach? How should I evaluate? How should I learn?
Walker, Hill M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Walker, Laura; Bacon, Ansley; Palmer, Susan B.; Jesien, George S.; Nygren, Margaret A.; Heller, Tamar; Gotto, George S.; Abery, Brian H.; Johnson, David R.
This article describes a social-ecological approach for promoting and enhancing self-determination among individuals with developmental disabilities. A five-level model is presented, based on the interaction of person and environmental factors, that identifies a series of social mediator variables (i.e., social effectiveness, social capital,…
World Bank, (WB)
This note reviews the challenges in Mexico s social protection system and possible options to achieve an integral and effective system that is more than the sum of its parts. Mexico s social protection system includes contributory social security schemes, social assistance programs, and labor market programs. The contributory social security schemes offer pensions and health insurance to f...
Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena
Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media. PMID:21558472
Dietz, Elizabeth A
Transgender people and issues have come to the forefront of public consciousness over the last year. Caitlyn Jenner' very public transition, heightened media coverage of the murders of transgender women of color, and the panicked passage of North Carolina's "bathroom bill" (House Bill 2), mean that conversations about transgender health and well-being are no longer happening only within small communities. The idea that transgender issues are bioethical issues is not new, but I think that increased public awareness of transgender people and the ways that their health is affected by systems that bioethics already engages with offers an opportunity for scholarship that works to improve transgender health in meaningful ways. PMID:27417871
Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.
Herreros, Benjamín; Moreno-Milán, Beatriz; Pacho-Jiménez, Eloy; Real de Asua, Diego; Roa-Castellanos, Ricardo Andrés; Valentia, Emanuele
In this article some of the most relevant terms in clinical bioethics are defined. The terms were chosen based on three criteria: impact on the most important problems in clinical bioethics, difficulty in understanding, and need to clarify their meaning. For a better understanding, the terms were grouped into 5 areas: general concepts (conflict of values, deliberation, conflict of interest, conscientious objection); justice (justice, distributive justice, models of justice, triage); clinical matters (information, competency, capability, informed consent, mature minor, coercion, secrecy, privacy, confidentiality, professional secrecy); end of life (prior instructions, limitation of therapeutic efforts, professional obstinacy, futility, palliative care, palliative sedation, principle of double effect, euthanasia, assisted suicide, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, brain death), and beginning of life (assisted reproduction, genetic counseling, preimplantation genetic diagnosis). PMID:26506495
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L
Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative. PMID:17982003
José Roque Junges
Full Text Available The right to health is being more and more affected by the Biopower new configurations, no more only determined by the State, as in Foucault's analyses, but mainly by the symbolic power of the market. The biotechnological enterprises stir up increasing claims for consuming in health. These products are techno-semiotic agencies of the subjectivity in health, rendering their use as a right. In this situation it is important to return to the Right to Health comprehension of the International Conventions and the Alma-Ata Conference, proving the interdependence between Human Rights in general and the Right to Health in particular, mainly aiming at the social determinants of health that define more basic rights. The Human Rights perspective permits the proposal of a public health bioethics, different from the clinical bioethics, more appropriate for considering the collective implications of the right to Health, not reduced to a mere consumption of technologies.
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
The main goal of this Strategy (GN-1894-7) is to promote faster progress in the reduction of poverty by tackling its root causes and fostering inclusion and greater social equity, as an essential element of development. It identifies the actions that the Bank should take to support the borrowing countries in order to reach the Millennium Development Goals. The strategy highlights Bank key actions to reduce poverty and promote social equity, including: (i) the promotion of policies and program...
Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; TSUJI, Masatsugu
Social media such as SNS, Twitter, and the blogs has been spreading all over the world, and a large number of firms recognize social media as new communication tools for obtaining information on consumer needs and market for developing new goods and services and promoting marketing. In spite of increasing its use in the reality, academic research on whether or how social media contributes to promoting product innovation is not enough yet. This study thus attempts to analyze empirically how so...
Andréasson, Hannes; Elert, Niklas; Karlson, Nils
This paper investigates whether social cohesion makes economic reforms more likely. First, we investigated whether social cohesion is a coherent concept by using a principal-component factor (PCF) analysis covering 16 indicators used to measure social cohesion in the previous literature for 40 different countries. The results suggested that in fact social cohesion is a multidimensional concept, consisting of no less than five orthogonal components or distinct dimensions, which we labeled soci...
Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali
Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent. PMID:19492719
Dalia Karlaitė; Rūta Tamošiūnaitė
Purpose – to determine the scope of on-line social networks in promoting socially responsible decision on safe food consumption. Design/methodology/approach – analysis of scientific literature, synthesis, case study of an online social networking site sveikasvaikas.lt. Findings – the scope of on-line social networks in promoting socially responsible decision on safe food consumption is described. Trends for further research revealed. Research limitations/implications – this research...
Pastor, Luis Miguel
In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics. PMID:23745818
This paper begins by acknowledging the interest taken by various international organisations in genetic enhancement and sport, including the US President's Council on Bioethics (July, 2002) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (March, 2002). It is noticed how sporting organisations have been particularly concerned to emphasize the 'threat' of genetics to sport, whereas other institutions have recognised the broader bioethical issues arising from this prospect, which do not readily reject the use of genetic technology in sport. Sports are identified as necessarily 'human' and 'moral' practices, the exploration of which can reveal greater insight into the intuitive fears about genetic modification. It is argued that anti-doping testing measures and sanctions unacceptably persecute the athlete. While there are substantial reasons to be concerned about the use of genetic modification in sport, the desire for policy ought not diminish the need for ethical research; nor ought such research embody the similar guise of traditional 'anti' doping strategies. Rather, the approach to genetics in sport must be informed more by broader social policies in bioethics and recognition of the greater goods arising from genetic technology. PMID:16285154
de Vries, R
Bioethics traffics in matters moral. As such, bioethics frequently bumps up against religion, offering an ideal arena to examine how the sacred and the secular encounter each other in modern medicine. In this essay I consider two places where bioethics and religion intersect: 1) the response of bioethics to the universal problem of suffering, and 2) the professional proselytizing or “missionizing work” that bioethics does in order to make a place for itself among the professions of the life s...
... advisory panel of the nation's leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The... related areas of science and technology. The Bioethics Commission seeks to identify and promote...
Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin
To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…
Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.
Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Fahnøe, Kristian
innovation, and revealed how they might stimulate future lines of investigation. The seven key research themes identified by INNOSERV are: (1) User-centred services and approaches, (2) Innovations and organizational as well as institutional development, (3) Framing social services in relation to innovation......European welfare systems are under increasing pressure to transform and adapt to the present and future challenges of our globalized world. This is especially true of the comprehensive field of health, welfare and informal education services –that we will all use at one point or another during our...... lifetimes. Social services, generally speaking, are changing. Research conducted by the INNOSERV social platform identified a diverse set of themes: . This research agenda outlines how the various stages of investigation worked together to develop possible solutions to the issues surrounding social service...
Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn
Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…
Bryant, John; la Velle, Linda Baggott
Points out the importance of awareness among biologists and biology teachers of the ethical and social implications of their work. Describes the bioethics module established at the University of Exeter mainly targeting students majoring in biology and science education. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/YDS)
Full Text Available The paper presents one of the most recent methods of promoting throught the Internet, that is, advertising on social-media networking. Social media allows businesses to quickly and economically communicate to a large audience and in 2012, more and more organisations using it as a customer service tool.
Bowen, Glenn A.
Service-learning is a high-impact pedagogical strategy embraced by higher education institutions. Direct service based on a charity paradigm tends to be the norm, while little attention is paid to social change-oriented service. This article offers suggestions for incorporating social justice education into courses designed to promote social…
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
This is the strategy profile of the Inter-American Development Bank on Poverty Reduction and the Promotion of Social Equity. The proposed strategy will start by considering the recent developments in the region, and lessons learned in the fight against poverty and in social equity advancement. In particular, it will take into account the experiences obtained from previous strategies.
The paper presents one of the most recent methods of promoting throught the Internet, that is, advertising on social-media networking. Social media allows businesses to quickly and economically communicate to a large audience and in 2012, more and more organisations using it as a customer service tool.
Grimalda, Gianluca; Pondorfer, Andreas; Tracer, David P
Human cooperation is enigmatic, as organisms are expected, by evolutionary and economic theory, to act principally in their own interests. However, cooperation requires individuals to sacrifice resources for each other's benefit. We conducted a series of novel experiments in a foraging society where social institutions make the study of social image and punishment particularly salient. Participants played simple cooperation games where they could punish non-cooperators, promote a positive social image or do so in combination with one another. We show that although all these mechanisms raise cooperation above baseline levels, only when social image alone is at stake do average economic gains rise significantly above baseline. Punishment, either alone or combined with social image building, yields lower gains. Individuals' desire to establish a positive social image thus emerges as a more decisive factor than punishment in promoting human cooperation. PMID:27504898
This paper is concerned with the process by which bioethics decisions are made as well as the actual decisions that are reached. The process commonly is one of ``shared decision-making,`` that is, decisionmaking at several levels, beginning with the government and ending with the individual. After the government has defined a scope of permissible activity, the research or health care institution may further limit what activities are permitted. Finally, the individual patient, or, if the patient is incompetent, the patient`s legal representative decides whether or not to participate in the activity. Because bioethics in general, and bioethics related to genetics in particular, evolves through this process of decisionmaking at several levels, this paper briefly traces the process, to see how it works in several areas of bioethics, in order to provide a perspective on the way in which ethical decisions related to genetics are or will be made.
This paper is concerned with the process by which bioethics decisions are made as well as the actual decisions that are reached. The process commonly is one of shared decision-making,'' that is, decisionmaking at several levels, beginning with the government and ending with the individual. After the government has defined a scope of permissible activity, the research or health care institution may further limit what activities are permitted. Finally, the individual patient, or, if the patient is incompetent, the patient's legal representative decides whether or not to participate in the activity. Because bioethics in general, and bioethics related to genetics in particular, evolves through this process of decisionmaking at several levels, this paper briefly traces the process, to see how it works in several areas of bioethics, in order to provide a perspective on the way in which ethical decisions related to genetics are or will be made.
Neelesh K Jain
Full Text Available The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.
Jain, Neelesh Kumar; Verma, Ashish; Verma, Rama Shankar; Tiwari, Prashant
The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.
Full Text Available Purpose – to determine the scope of on-line social networks in promoting socially responsible decision on safe food consumption. Design/methodology/approach – analysis of scientific literature, synthesis, case study of an online social networking site sveikasvaikas.lt. Findings – the scope of on-line social networks in promoting socially responsible decision on safe food consumption is described. Trends for further research revealed. Research limitations/implications – this research paper is the background in order to create a socially responsible consumption model based on the impact of active participation at on-line social networks. Limitations of this paper are as follows: empirical analysis for promoting socially responsible decisions is carried out only by case analysis of a particular online social networking site sveikasvaikas.lt; in order to create socially responsible consumption model a deeper empirical analysis is necessary (a quantitative analysis is planned for the further research. Practical implications – in the era of globally advertised non-natural food production the scope of on-line social networks in promoting socially responsible decision on safe food consumption is growing: giving the right information about the composition of the production, helping to come to a decision to use safe food. Case study reveals the possible types of social technologies to be used in this process. Originality/Value – the scope of on-line social networks in promoting socially responsible decisions on safe food consumption is revealed in this paper. Only socially responsible business can remain and grow in the market. Keywords: socially responsible consumption, corporate social responsibility, social technologies, decisions, public interest. Research type: case study.
Ogundiran Temidayo O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s
Plantz, M C
The application of social marketing principles to the promotion of human services programs is illustrated in this paper. As part of a household interview survey, 176 respondents were asked to name their hopes and fears for their lives. Responses generated by these questions are reported briefly. These findings then are interpreted from the perspective of social marketing theory, and resulting implications for the design of strategies to promote human service programs are discussed. Other areas in which social marketing theory may aid the planning and delivery of human services are mentioned. PMID:7471701
Sapag, Jaime C; Kawachi, Ichiro
Latin America faces common development and health problems and equity and overcoming poverty are crucial in the search for comprehensive and high impact solutions. The article analyzes the definition of social capital, its relationship with health, its limitations and potentialities from a perspective of community development and health promotion in Latin America. High-priority challenges are also identified as well as possible ways to better measure and to strengthen social capital. Particularly, it is discussed how and why social capital may be critical in a global health promotion strategy, where empowerment and community participation, interdisciplinary and intersectorial work would help to achieve Public Health aims and a sustainable positive change for the global development. Also, some potential limitations of the social capital concept in the context of health promotion in Latin America are identified. PMID:17273645
G. Bonaiuti; Ranieri, M.; P. Ravotto
Final English Booklet of Ensemble project. Mobile learning, or m-learning, is the new term that is gaining ground in the educational technology vocabulary. The project has tried to find out how mobile devices could be integrated into learning settings to improve social inclusion.
In this article, Michelle DeMeulenaere discusses social/emotional learning (SEL), with a focus on helping preschool children gain knowledge about feelings and getting along with others. SEL is the process in which children are able to acknowledge and recognize the emotions of others, develop empathy, make good decisions, establish friendships, and…
Berggren, Niclas; Bjørnskov, Christian
countries and the U.S. states, measuring religiosity by the share of the population that answers yes to the question "Is religion an important part of your daily life?". Our empirical results, making use of regression analysis whereby we control for other possible determinants of social trust and, by using...
Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J
The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions. PMID:26139447
Alexander Georgievich Yushchenko
Full Text Available The essential theses of evolutional theology are set forth here, which assume biological evolution to be either a technology of the Creator or His own evolution towards understanding His own intentions and attributes. The paradigm of evolutional Christianity is reviwed along with the position and the role of humans in the psychophysical megasynthesis of the Universe and the attibutes of religious and scientifically-atheistic world-view. Biological evolution is interpreted as an ascending row of divine embodiments in biological organisms culminated in the most cephalized living forms: human being (terrestrial form and higher dolphins (water form. The establishment of communication between these living forms is considered a necessary stage of integration of Noospheric consciousness. It is suggested to use the ethics of the Creator’s attitude to human beings, as a basis of bio-ethical attitude of humans to animals, especially to higher ones possessing advanced intellect and soul.
Allograft shortage is a formidable obstacle in organ transplantation. Xenotransplantation, the interspecies transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs, or ex vivo interspecies exchange between cells, tissues, and organs is a frequently suggested alternative to this allograft shortage. As xenotransplantation steadily improves into a viable allotransplantation alternative, several bioethical considerations coalesce. Such considerations include the Helsinki declaration's guarantee of patients' rights to privacy; political red tape that may select for undermined socioeconomic groups as the first recipients of xenografts; industry incentives in xenotransplantation investments; conflicts of interest when a clinician supervises a patient as a research subject; the psychosocial impact of transplantation on the xenograft recipient, and the rights of animals. This review illuminates these issues through a conglomeration of expert opinion and relevant experimental studies. PMID:16574873
Barman, Charles R.; Rusch, John J.
Discusses the rationale for and development of an undergraduate bioethics course. Based on experiences with the course, general suggestions are offered to instructors planning to add bioethics to existing curricula. (MA)
The Salomon Neumann Medal of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention bears the inscription. "Medicine is a Social Science". This provocative statement is most topical. It compels us to actively promote health by healthier living and environmental conditions apart from medical prevention. A core of this sphere of action is the reduction of social inequalities. Several recent congresses and publications have clearly shown that this subject remains one of the biggest challenges facing health promotion. German law has set the signs for reducing socially rooted inequalities for chances of health. This article postulates the thesis that health promotion can find allies for a healthy public policy in programmes planning for healthy urban development and for combatting poverty. The specific approaches for combatting social inequalities in the health sphere are reported and examples are given how such a health promotion policy may be translated into reality on a communal level. Finally, spotlight is on the dilemma of combatting inequality of chance due to differences in social status. PMID:11329919
Explains the importance of integrating bioethics into the science curriculum for student learning. Introduces a workshop designed for middle and high school science teachers teaching bioethics, its application to case studies, and how teachers can fit bioethics into their classroom. (YDS)
José Manuel Bertolín Guillén
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Numerous opinions and medico-legal controversies have arisen up to the date from community treatment orders in Western countries, but underlying bioethical questions have not been specifically studied. The aim of this work is to contribute to further clarify the bioethical conflicts arising from community treatment orders. Methods: The bioethical deliberation of the author is principally based on what can be considered the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm. These principles, as first described by Beauchamp and Childress in 1979, will be applied in this work to the actual situation of involuntary outpatient treatment. Results: The author's deliberation considers that community treatment orders are consistent first with the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm of practical reason, respecting its four general categories of basic principles. It also respects the principles of the medical ethics of virtue, subsumed in the personalism of ontological matrix, in the same way as its ethos affects the intrinsic purpose which is the dignity of the person; and with the consequentialist utilitarianism because it seeks the proportionality of the common good. A community treatment order prescription must ultimately be based on a bioethical exercise of responsibility by the clinician, judiciously weighing up the classic principal prima facie duties which must necessarily be translated into a real duty referring to a specific patient and context. Conclusions: Community treatment orders are seen as a method of therapeutic intervention with a bioethical basis resistant to criticism.
Mohd Taib Harun; Norlena Salamuddin
Outdoor education is a holistic form of education which aids in overall wellbeing of adolescence, including academic, physical, emotional, social and psychology well being. The aim of this study was to see whether outdoor education promotes social skills and assess its effects on participants. Research sample comprised of 671 adolescence attending a five-day residential outdoor education program. Kolb’s Cycle of Learning through Experience is used as the theoretical framework while the resear...
Full Text Available In our increasingly internationalized world, one of the main consequences is the creation of multicultural environments. This is a controversial issue, regarded either as an enriching experience, either as a threat to national identities. However, the “secret weapon” that most national minorities and immigrant communities seem to make recourse to is the one of cultural performance, in the form of events. After all, culture is the most pacifist and apolitical form of self-promotion. Managing cultural events with the purpose of raising awareness of a nation's own culture is in itself an example of good practice towards integration, and an exercise in creativity and cross-cultural management. In this article we will analyze concrete examples of cultural events organized by the Romanian diaspora and Romanian cultural institutions abroad. We will find out about the concepts behind these events, the way they have been managed, and the positive impact they have on the way that Romanian national identity is perceived.
Marina Alekseevna Nikulina
In article the conceptual analysis of a phenomenon of subjectivity in the space of a modern bioethical reflection is given, the main transformations of subjectivity, adherent by a post-nonclassical paradigm and development of biotechnological activities are determined. Social and sociological loading of a concept "subjectivity" is connected with judgment of incorporated moral components. Proving the need of ethical parameterization of subjectivity for a bioethical discourse, the author opens ...
Lipworth, Wendy; Axler, Renata
In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine might be beneficial, it also raises serious moral, legal, economic and sociopolitical questions that require further scrutiny. In this article, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be accompanied by a dedicated 'bioethics of innovation' that attends systematically to the goals, process and outcomes of biomedical innovation as objects of critical inquiry. Using the example of personalised or precision medicine, we then suggest a preliminary framework for a bioethics of innovation, based on the research policy initiative of 'Responsible Innovation'. We invite and encourage critiques of this framework and hope that this will provoke a challenging and enriching new bioethical discourse. PMID:27015740
Resnik, D B
Most of the discussion in bioethics and health policy concerning social responsibility for health has focused on society's obligation to provide access to healthcare. While ensuring access to healthcare is an important social responsibility, societies can promote health in many other ways, such as through sanitation, pollution control, food and drug safety, health education, disease surveillance, urban planning and occupational health. Greater attention should be paid to strategies for health...
Stewart, Dafina Lazarus
Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames…
Policies on social promotion and retention, although formulated to regulate academic success and failure in the field of K-12 education, have become burdensome and are now considered damaging to the public education system. The various stakeholders in education, including students, teachers, education policy makers, parents, and employers are all…
Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde
Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…
Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine. PMID:20639610
Carpentier, Francesca Renee Dillman
This commentary explores the implications of increased social media marketing by drug manufacturers, based on findings in Hyosun Kim’s article of the major themes in recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning letters and notices of violation regarding online direct-to-consumer promotions of pharmaceuticals. Kim’s rigorous analysis of FDA letters over a 10-year span highlights a relative abundance of regulatory action toward marketer-controlled websites and sponsored advertisements, compared to branded and unbranded social media messaging. However, social media marketing efforts are increasing, as is FDA attention to these efforts. This commentary explores recent developments and continuing challenges in the FDA’s attempts to provide guidance and define pharmaceutical company accountability in marketer-controlled and -uncontrolled claims disseminated through social media. PMID:27239874
Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce
In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…
Raúl León; Juan, Angel A.
This paper discusses how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can be promoted in Logistics and Transportation (L&T) companies by means of Horizontal Cooperation (HC) practices. The L&T sector is experiencing important changes because of new trends in markets and society. These changes have a strong impact on the way L&T companies develop their distribution activities. On the one hand, globalisation and increasing competition are creating incentives for these companies to cooperate in differe...
Angel A. Juan
This paper discusses how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can be promoted in Logistics and Transportation (L&T) companies by means of Horizontal Cooperation (HC) practices. The L&T sector is experiencing important changes because of new trends in markets and society. These changes have a strong impact on the way L&T companies develop their distribution activities.On the one hand, globalisation and increasing competition are creating incentives for these companies to cooperate in differen...
Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei
Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics. PMID:27599082
Mohd Taib Harun
Full Text Available Outdoor education is a holistic form of education which aids in overall wellbeing of adolescence, including academic, physical, emotional, social and psychology well being. The aim of this study was to see whether outdoor education promotes social skills and assess its effects on participants. Research sample comprised of 671 adolescence attending a five-day residential outdoor education program. Kolb’s Cycle of Learning through Experience is used as the theoretical framework while the research framework is adapted from Carver’s Outdoor Education Framework. Social skills measured are cooperative teamwork, leadership ability, and ability to cope with changes. Descriptive and inferential statistics used were t-test, Cohen’s D, multiple analysis of variance, and post hoc test. The result showed that the outdoor programme had a significant influence for all the constructs involved in this study. Cohen’s D showed that the treatment contributes greatly to leadership ability (60%, and ability to cope with changes (61%. Wilks’ Lambda in multiple analysis of variance showed that the outdoor education module contributes significantly high F=30.78, p<0.05; ?²= 0.57 to changes in social skills. Analysis of variance showed that there is a retention period whereby the changes in social skills examined remain in the participants for a certain period of time. This retention of changes in social skills is significant for all factors studied which are cooperative teamwork, leadership ability, and ability to cope with changes.
Bioethics deals with the ethical problems arising from the developments in life sciences and biotechnologies. Western autonomy-based philosophical framework has dominated the approach of mainstream Bioethics. Yet, many of the assumptions implicit in the Western framework that makes claim to universal validity may not be shared by non-western cultures. Moral pluralism poses a challenge to a common bioethics. Pluralism is understood as a descriptive term, which refers to the existence of differ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been debate on whether a global or unified field of bioethics exists. If bioethics is a unified global field, or at the very least a closely shared way of thinking, then we should expect bioethicists to behave the same way in their academic activities anywhere in the world. This paper investigates whether there is a 'global bioethics' in the sense of a unified academic community. Methods To address this question, we study the web-linking patterns of bioethics institutions, the citation patterns of bioethics papers and the buying patterns of bioethics books. Results All three analyses indicate that there are geographical and institutional differences in the academic behavior of bioethicists and bioethics institutions. Conclusion These exploratory studies support the position that there is no unified global field of bioethics. This is a problem if the only reason is parochialism. But these regional differences are probably of less concern if one notices that bioethics comes in many not always mutually understandable dialects.
In this article, I consider in what sense bioethics is philosophical. Philosophy includes both analysis and synthesis. Analysis focuses on central concepts in a domain, for example, informed consent, death, medical futility, and health. It is argued that analysis should avoid oversimplification. The synthesis or synoptic dimension prompts people to explain how their views have logical assumptions and implications. In addition to the conceptual elements are the evaluative and empirical dimensions. Among its functions, philosophy can be a form of prophylaxis--helping people avoid some commonly accepted questionable theories. Generally, recent philosophy has steered away from algorithms and deductivist approaches to ethical justification. In bioethics, philosophy works in partnership with a range of other disciplines, including pediatrics and neurology. PMID:26358430
Salzano, Francisco M.
In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group’s biological and cultural history; however, in their ur...
Hernandez de Hahn, Leticia
This paper proposes the development of an enhanced sense of social responsibility in the use of talents and the creation of programmes and services that focus on the promotion of these traits among a wider student population. Selection of students for these offerings should not mirror the rigid identification of academically or intellectually…
Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz; 10.1038/srep00576
Whether or not to change strategy depends not only on the personal success of each individual, but also on the success of others. Using this as motivation, we study the evolution of cooperation in games that describe social dilemmas, where the propensity to adopt a different strategy depends both on individual fitness as well as on the strategies of neighbors. Regardless of whether the evolutionary process is governed by pairwise or group interactions, we show that plugging into the "wisdom of groups" strongly promotes cooperative behavior. The more the wider knowledge is taken into account the more the evolution of defectors is impaired. We explain this by revealing a dynamically decelerated invasion process, by means of which interfaces separating different domains remain smooth and defectors therefore become unable to efficiently invade cooperators. This in turn invigorates spatial reciprocity and establishes decentralized decision making as very beneficial for resolving social dilemmas.
Bryant, Carol A; Mayer, Alyssa B; McDermott, Robert J; Panzera, Anthony D; Trainor, John K
Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to motivate voluntary behavioral change. It relies on consumer research for understanding the people they hope to change, including their values, aspirations, fears, lifestyle, and factors that motivate and deter them from adopting desired behaviors. Social marketing has been applied in public health settings since the 1980s for promoting such behaviors as safer sex, hypertension and cholesterol control, reduced occurrence of alcohol-impaired driving, improved utilization of public health prevention and screening services, and enactment of better school nutrition policies in schools. Although most evidence for social marketing's utility comes from interventions directed at adult audiences, its application with adolescents may help to address issues that have been challenging or unresponsive to health behavior change specialists. This article describes the basic tenets of social marketing as a behavior change process, identifies its previously successful applications with adolescent audience segments, and offers both lessons learned and projected future applications that employ emerging communication technologies. PMID:22423457
Murray, Kevin J.
Describes the implementation of a bioethics laboratory exercise that incorporates a variety of instructional strategies. In the activity, General Biology students consider relevant and interesting topics of bioethical importance and prepare classroom presentations on the different viewpoints normally attendant to ethical topics. Includes an…
Pearce, Roger S.
Developing critical thinking is a perceived weakness in current education. Analysis and reasoning are core skills in bioethics making bioethics a useful vehicle to address this weakness. Assessment is widely considered to be the most influential factor on learning (Brown and Glasner, 1999) and this piece describes how analysis and reasoning in…
Roberto E. Cuenca
Introduction: In the area of the environment, it has been perceived the Bioethics like an interdisciplinary in the construction of a critical thought that should conclude in an environmental knowledge with ethics and in a position epistemologist where the existential values and axiological are reaffirmed, to conclude analyzing the courses of the environmental education. Objectives: To demonstrate how the Bioethics claims ...
Ivanković, Viktor; Savić, Lovro
This article provides a critical evaluation of the central components of Integrative Bioethics, a project aiming at a bioethical framework reconceptualization. Its proponents claim that this new system of thought has developed a better bioethical methodology than mainstream Western bioethics, a claim that we criticize here. We deal especially with the buzz words of Integrative Bioethics - pluriperspectivism, integrativity, orientational knowledge, as well as with its underlying theory of moral truth. The first part of the paper looks at what the claims of a superior methodology consist in. The second reveals pluriperspectivism and integrativity to be underdeveloped, hazy terms, but which seem to be underpinned by two theses - the incommensurability and the inclusiveness theses. These theses we critically scrutinize. We then consider strategies the project's proponents might apply to curb these theses in order to acquire minimal consistency for their framework. This part of the article also deals with the conception of moral truth that drives the theory, a position equally burdened with inconsistencies. In the last part of the article, we observe the concept of orientational knowledge, and develop two interpretations of its possible meaning. We claim that, following the first interpretation, Integrative Bioethics is completely descriptive, in which case it is informative and important, but hardly bioethics; if it is normative, following the second interpretation, it is bioethics as we already know it, but merely clad in rhetorical embellishments. We conclude that there is nothing new about this project, and that its inconsistencies are reason enough for its abandonment. PMID:26644388
Eduardo Rafael Medina Márquez; Luis Alberto Sánchez–Alfaro
Introduction: Dentistry has been presenting the changes that involve not only the discipline, but also the decision–making at both the professional–patient relationship and research processes. Given these new challenges, the bioethics foundation (theory and practice) plays a major role and promotes integral formation. Objective: To identify the knowledge possessed by the graduate students of the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Cartagena about principles and foundations of bioethics...
Harmon, Shawn H E
Complex social and ethical problems are often most effectively solved by engaging them at the messy and uncomfortable intersections of disciplines and practices, a notion that grounds the InVisible Difference project, which seeks to extend thinking and alter practice around the making, status, ownership, and value of work by contemporary dance choreographers by examining choreographic work through the lenses of law, bioethics, dance scholarship, and the practice of dance by differently-abled dancers. This article offers a critical thesis on how bioethics has come to occupy a marginal and marginalizing role in questions about the differently-abled body. In doing so, it has rendered the disabled community largely invisible to and in bioethics. It then defends the claim that bioethics - as a social undertaking pursued collaboratively by individuals from different disciplines - must take much better notice of the body and the embodied individual if it is to better achieve its ends, which include constructing a moral and just society. Finally, this article considers how the arts, and specifically dance (and here dance by differently-abled dancers), provides us with rich evidence about the body and our ability to respond positively to normally 'othered' bodies. It concludes that greater attention to empirical evidence like that being generated in InVisible Difference will help to expand the reach and significance of bioethics, and thereby its relevance to (and consciousness of) important questions about the status of bodies and bodily differences, which must be considered as central to its ambitions. PMID:25476013
The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician. PMID:21858670
Full Text Available Nowadays, the narrative approach in Bioethics is more and more considered and used. In our paper we would like to explain why – when we need to take a decision – it is essential and crucial that the patient tells his own history; we also indicate the main consequences that this approach has with reference to the choices at the bed of the patient. Selected Papers of the Congress “Narrative Based Medicine and Communication in Clinical Practice” · Cagliari, Italy · April 14th, 2014 Guest Editors: Massimiliano Zonza, Vassilios Fanos, Gian Paolo Donzelli
Angel A. Juan
Full Text Available This paper discusses how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR can be promoted in Logistics and Transportation (L&T companies by means of Horizontal Cooperation (HC practices. The L&T sector is experiencing important changes because of new trends in markets and society. These changes have a strong impact on the way L&T companies develop their distribution activities.On the one hand, globalisation and increasing competition are creating incentives for these companies to cooperate in different ways – with the aim of becoming more efficient by sharing resources and reducing costs. On the other hand, the increasing sustainability awareness within society is pressuring L&T companies to integrate CSR principles into their strategies and policies. Accordingly, this paper discusses the current trends in these areas and offers some examples of how HC can contribute to reduce both distributions costs as well as the environmental impact of the distribution activities.
Osborne, Katy; Patel, Katherine
The online provision of health information and services has been viewed as having the potential to inform and empower health consumers and, ultimately, to promote better health. The Internet can be an innovative tool to deliver services to 'hard-to-reach' population groups, including geographically isolated populations. However, the online platform raises questions regarding the equitable distribution of health services. In this paper we examine a case study of a website that aims to promote health by fostering social connectedness. The website provides information to connect people to locally based community events across Australia. We draw on evaluation findings to examine the socioeconomic and geographical distribution of website usage. A descriptive analysis of web usage statistics revealed a gradient whereby more information is listed and viewed about events in affluent socioeconomic areas. Furthermore, the analysis showed that a greater proportion of information listed and viewed related to urban areas. These results are consistent with broader gradients of Internet access and usage. Drawing on these findings, we identify implications for online health promotion across different population groups, particularly for interventions that do not incorporate an explicit equity focus. PMID:23987586
Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as ‘bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the concerns of several groups. My analysis centres on the moral philosopher Mary Warnock, who chaired a government inquiry into human fertilization and embryology between 1982 and 1984, and became a strong advocate of bioethics. I detail how Warnock's promotion of bioethics tallied with the Conservative government's desire for increased surveillance of hitherto autonomous professions – while fulfilling her own belief that philosophers should engage in public affairs. And I also show that Warnock simultaneously promoted bioethics to doctors and scientists as an essential safeguard against declining political and public trust. This stance, I argue, framed bioethics as a vital intermediary between politics, the public, and biomedicine, and explains the growth and endurance of what the Guardian identified as an ethics industry. PMID:22563348
Sally Dunlop; Becky Freeman; Jones, Sandra C
The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy pro...
Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.
NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.
... of science and technology. The Commission shall pursue its work with the goal of identifying and... members, who will be drawn from fields of bioethics, science, medicine, technology, engineering, law, philosophy, theology, and other areas of the humanities or social sciences. Commission members shall...
Asada, Yukiko; Tsuzuki, Miho; Akiyama, Shiro; Macer, Nobuko Y.; Macer, Darryl R. J.
Summarizes the results of an International Bioethics Education Survey conducted in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Compares knowledge and teaching of 15 selected topics with particular emphasis on the teaching of social, ethical, and environmental issues of in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, biotechnology, nuclear power, pesticides,…
Rahadi, Dedi Rianto; Abdillah, Leon Andretti
Nowadays social media (Twitter, Facebook, etc.), not only simply as communication media, but also for promotion. Social networking media offers many business benefits for companies and organizations. Research purposes is to determine the model of social network media utilization as a promotional media for handicraft business in Palembang city. Qualitative and quantitative research design are used to know how handicraft business in Palembang city utilizing social media networking as a promotio...
Radley, Keith C.; Ford, W. Blake; McHugh, Melissa B.; Dadakhodjaeva, Komila; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Battaglia, Allison A.; Lum, John D.
The current study evaluated the use of Superheroes Social Skills to promote accurate use of discrete social skills in training and generalization conditions in two children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants attended a twice weekly social skills training group over 5 weeks, with lessons targeting nonverbal, requesting, responding, and…
It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation. Two of these perspectives have been particularly fruitful in understanding the processes of teaching and learning in a variety of domains. The third perspective has been developed in relation to the formal ethical education of medical students. I examine their relevance for 'non-professional' bioethics education suggesting that if we take seriously the idea that it is part of 'educating for citizenship' then the distinction between 'ethics' and 'politics' is blurred as such programmes aim at the development of student's political subjectivity. PMID:25344014
Singleton, Rivers, Jr.; Brock, D. Heyward
Outlines an interdisciplinary workshop in bioethics for secondary teachers taught by a team consisting of a scientist, a philosopher, and a literary critic. Discusses definitions, topics, reading selections, problems, and value. (DC)
Capron, Alexander Morgan
The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)
Chávez Aguilar, Pamela
Bioethics must have an intercultural perspective. This is based on three facts: The principles and values around which reflection is made are related to world views and traditions, human beings are cultural beings, and current societies are considerably diverse. Based on this, bioethics will seek an adequate balance between ethical universalism and contextualism. This is a fundamental step for unconditional respect for human dignity and mutual recognition, dialogue, correlation and complementarity among diverse cultures. PMID:23338647
Chan, See-Ching; 陳詩正.
Bioethics has been central to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which mandates a high recipient benefit and an acceptably low donor risk. The double equipoise imposes the contextual features of this already technically complex treatment. This research aimed at looking into key bioethical issues of LDLT in the light of the contemporary practice standards. In adult LDLT, in order to provide a partial graft of adequate size, donor right hepatectomy is often required. This procedure...
Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradiction
Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.
Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J
A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. PMID:26481200
Brody, B A
Empirical research can aid ethical reflection in bioethics by identifying issues, by seeing how they are currently resolved, and by assessing the consequences of these current resolutions. This potential can be misused when the ethical issues in question are fundamentally non-consequentialist or when they are consequentialist but the empirical research fails to address the important consequences. An example of the former problem is some recent studies about bad consequences resulting from commercialized living kidney donor programs. These consequences could be avoided, but the crucial non-consequentialist ethical issues about exploitation and commercialization would still remain. Examples of the latter problem are provided by recent studies of the allocation of ICU beds and of physician deception, where important consequences were not adequately studied. PMID:8259528
Rossi, Elisa; Baraldi, Claudio
This article presents the theoretical framework, methodology and the main results of a comparative research on the promotion of children's social participation in Italy and Scotland, which was based on politicians', managers' and practitioners' representations. Promotion of participation here is considered a form of social intervention in which…
Stramondo, Joseph A
The deeply entrenched, sometimes heated conflict between the disability movement and the profession of bioethics is well known and well documented. Critiques of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are probably the most salient and most sophisticated of disability studies scholars' engagements with bioethics, but there are many other topics over which disability activists and scholars have encountered the field of bioethics in an adversarial way, including health care rationing, growth-attenuation interventions, assisted reproduction technology, and physician-assisted suicide. The tension between the analyses of the disabilities studies scholars and mainstream bioethics is not merely a conflict between two insular political groups, however; it is, rather, also an encounter between those who have experienced disability and those who have not. This paper explores that idea. I maintain that it is a mistake to think of this conflict as arising just from a difference in ideology or political commitments because it represents a much deeper difference-one rooted in variations in how human beings perceive and reason about moral problems. These are what I will refer to as variations of moral psychology. The lived experiences of disability produce variations in moral psychology that are at the heart of the moral conflict between the disability movement and mainstream bioethics. I will illustrate this point by exploring how the disability movement and mainstream bioethics come into conflict when perceiving and analyzing the moral problem of physician-assisted suicide via the lens of the principle of respect for autonomy. To reconcile its contemporary and historical conflict with the disability movement, the field of bioethics must engage with and fully consider the two groups' differences in moral perception and reasoning, not just the explicit moral and political arguments of the disability movement. PMID:27150415
O.F. Gryshсhenko; A.D. Niesheva
The aim of this article. The aim of this article is to analyze the connection and relation between social media marketing and enterprise’s products promotion, to show the importance of using social media in marketing and the role of marketers in this process. The results of the analysis. This article is based on the investigation of specialized literature regarding new promotional techniques used at the global market nowadays. Authors analyze the definition to the social media marketing...
ICT-enabled Social Innovation in support of the Implementation of the Social Investment Package (IESI) - Mapping and Analysis of ICT-enabled Social Innovation Initiatives promoting Social Investment through Integrated Approaches to the Provision of Social Services
Gianluca Misuraca; Clelia Colombo; Csaba Kucsera; Stephanie Carretero; Margherita Bacigalupo; Raluca Radescu
This report presents the results of the mapping and analysis of ICT-enabled social innovation initiatives promoting social investment through integrated approaches to the provision of social services, which was conducted as part of the research on ICT-Enabled Social Innovation in support of the Social Investment Package (SIP). The main goal of the research carried out by the European Commission's JRC-IPTS jointly with the Directorate General Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, was to ex...
This study examined social integration in 11 primary schools in Canada and 19 primary schools in China as reported by teachers in terms of the strategies employed to promote social integration and success in achieving social integration. Structured interviews were conducted with 64 Canadian and 52 Chinese general education teachers. The results…
Ugelvig, Line V; Cremer, Sylvia
Life in a social group increases the risk of disease transmission. To counteract this threat, social insects have evolved manifold antiparasite defenses, ranging from social exclusion of infected group members to intensive care. It is generally assumed that individuals performing hygienic behavio...... behaviors toward others, and this might explain the widely observed maintenance of social cohesion under parasite attack in insect societies.......Life in a social group increases the risk of disease transmission. To counteract this threat, social insects have evolved manifold antiparasite defenses, ranging from social exclusion of infected group members to intensive care. It is generally assumed that individuals performing hygienic behaviors...... risk infecting themselves, suggesting a high direct cost of helping. Our work instead indicates the opposite for garden ants. Social contact with individual workers, which were experimentally exposed to a fungal parasite, provided a clear survival benefit to nontreated, naive group members upon later...
O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Lum, John D. K.
Social difficulties represent a major area of concern in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Social skills interventions targeting communication or language skills of children with SLI have been generally ineffective. The current study tested the efficacy of a social skills intervention consisting of multiple behavioral interventions…
Students' minds today are attracted to entertainment and all things social. To engage the reading attitudes of this generation, educators need to adapt some old tricks and add new tricks to their bag to meet these Digital Natives where they live--the world of social interaction and social technology. This article discusses the three R's necessary…
Full Text Available Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immunogenicity. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce NHP use in biopharmaceutical drug development, e.g. study design improvements and changes in regulatory policy. In addition, several expert groups are active in this field (e.g. NC3Rs, BioSafe, and Biopharmaceutical Technical Group. Despite that, there is an increasing trend of use of NHP in preclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals, especially regarding monoclonal antibodies. Other potential bioethical issues related biopharmaceutical drug development are their cost/effectiveness ratio, clinical safety assessment, production of biosimilars, and comparison of their efficacy with placebo in countries without intention to market. Identification of the human genome has opened many new bioethical issues. Development of biopharmaceuticals is an important bioethical issue for several reasons. It connects all aspects of contemporary bioethics: biomedicine (e.g. clinical trials in vulnerable subjects, animal welfare and the most recent advances in biotechnology. In particular, biopharmaceutical drug development is a challenging issue regarding treatment of rare diseases.
Full Text Available The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy products such as energy dense and nutrient poor food and beverages, alcohol, and tobacco on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. We explore emerging evidence about the extent of exposure to marketing of these harmful products through social media platforms and potential impacts of exposure on adolescent health. Secondly, we present examples of health-promoting social media campaigns aimed at youth, with the purpose of describing innovative campaigns and highlighting lessons learned for creating effective social media interventions. Finally, we suggest implications for policy and practice, and identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research.
Loss, J; Lang, K; Ultsch, S; Eichhorn, C; Nagel, E
"Social marketing" is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programmes to promote socially beneficial behaviour changes. In the field of health promotion and prevention, the systematic planning process of social marketing can offer new ideas and perspectives to the traditions of social science. Major characteristics of social marketing encompass continuous market research focussing on attitudes, motives and behavioural patterns of the target group, an integrated mix of strategic key elements, and the perpetual evaluation of all procedures. So far, however, it is unclear in how far social marketing is actually more effective than other concepts of programme planning. Furthermore, it has to be discussed whether the underlying philosophy of social marketing and its implicit understanding of relationships to the public are reconcilable with health promotion principles. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the social marketing concept has achieved widespread application and is subject to controversial scientific discussions, whereas this approach is hardly considered in German health promotion research and practice. Given the increasing call for quality management and evaluation of health promotion interventions, the social marketing concept may contribute useful insights at an operational level and thus add to a discussion on effective approaches for programme planning. PMID:16868866
The thesis explored the connection between individuals’ social media promotion and its influence on the company’s performance. The definitions of social media and social media marketing were covered, taking into consideration both the advantages and disadvantages of using it within a company’s strategy. The main task was to find out what impact social media on marketing a company’s performance (readership) on the web. The literature review helped provide valuable information about th...
Shu-Man Chang; Yung-Hsiu Lin; Chi-Wei Lin; Her-Kun Chang; Ping Pete Chong
This study explores the potential of promoting college students’ positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students’ Internet time and has the potential to assist students’ positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their streng...
Full Text Available Our contribution discusses the possibilities and limits of using video games for apprehending and reflecting on the moral actions of their players. We briefly present the results of an extended study that introduces the conceptual idea of a Serious Moral Game (SMG. Then, we outline its possible application in the domain of bioethics for training medical professionals such that they can deal better with moral problems in medical practice. We briefly sketch major components of a SMG Bioethics. The contribution should demonstrate how such an instrument may improve psychological competences that are needed for dealing with various ethical questions within healthcare. The contribution is an intermediate step of a project that aims at actually creating a SMG for training in moral competences that are needed for putting bioethics in practice.
Enterprises are part of society they function in; therefore, they must, besides the implementation of economic objectives, pay attention to the impact they have on society and environment i.e., they should act responsibly. Corporate social responsibility involves the execution of all tasks in the enterprise in socially acceptable manner, with respect of: economic, legal, ethical principles, with volunteer participation of the enterprise in solving social and environmental problems. In S...
Laura Yolanda RODRÍGUEZ MATAMOROS
Full Text Available With the intention of promoting social skills of Mexican high school students based on the graduate profile of this level, virtual activities were implemented in the Moodle platform to 169 students of second year, adopting the proposed Goldstein social skills. In order to establish the impact of these activities to a pretest-postest a one group design was used. The results show that the activities had a positive and significant impact in beginning social skills, advanced social skills, skills for dealing with feeling, social alternatives skills of the participants according to the results obtained by skills scale social Goldstein.
'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics. PMID:26833492
Fleischman, A R
The prognosis is not good for an infant whose entire intestine has been destroyed by necrotizing enterocolitis. An infant bioethics committee is asked to advise whether the parents should be offered the option of total parenteral intravenous nutrition, with its ultimately fatal complications, for their child. Committee members agree that the option of intravenous feeding should be offered, and that it is morally acceptable for the parents to refuse it. Fleischman reviews the issues that an infant bioethics committee must consider when it is asked to help decide what treatment options will be discussed with the family of a seriously ill neonate. PMID:2108103
Jones, S F; Kessel, A S
Biomedicine is a global enterprise constructed upon the belief in the universality of scientific truths. However, despite huge scientific advances over recent decades it has not been able to formulate a specific and universal definition of death: In fact, in its attempt to redefine death, the concept of death appears to have become immersed in ever increasing vagueness and ambiguity. Even more worrisome is that bioethics, in the form of principlism, is also endeavouring to become a global enterprise by claiming neutrality. It appears that the discourse within both disciplines have similarly manipulated the boundaries of death to include the "dying". This paper argues that the redefinition of death debate in biomedicine reveals a concept of personhood which is profoundly western in origin and which is in accordance to the concept adhered to within principlism. Biomedicine and bioethics do not appear to acknowledge the limitations of their own world view and hence lack an understanding of their applicability and appropriateness in diverse social and cultural contexts; a situation which adds credence to claims as to the hegemonic and imperialistic nature of all such global enterprises. PMID:11214385
Gooderham, Paul; Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben
combined with theory on the determinants of social capital. Three governance mechanisms are identified: market-based mechanisms, hierarchical mechanisms, and social mechanisms. The findings, based on data from two Danish MNCs, indicate that although the use of social governance mechanisms promotes positive......The aim of this paper is to extend social capital approaches to knowledge transfer by identifying governance mechanisms that managers can deploy to promote the development of social capital. In order to achieve this objective, insights from the micro-level, knowledge governance approach are...... assessment of social capital, hierarchical governance mechanisms constrain its development. The application of market-based governance mechanisms has no significant effect. In addition, the findings provide evidence that social capital has a positive impact on knowledge transfer...
Jody Schimmel; Bonnie O'Day; Allison Roche
This issue brief summarizes findings from the Work Incentives Planning and Assistance program, a Social Security Administration program to promote employment by providing beneficiaries with information about federal work supports.
Ricklefs, Christine A; Asdigian, Nancy L; Kalra, Heidi L; Mayer, Joni A; Dellavalle, Robert P; Holman, Dawn M; Crane, Lori A
There is no research investigating indoor tanning advertising on social media. We assessed the use of social media to promote indoor tanning. We subscribed to social media platforms in six US cities and content-analyzed promotional messages received. We captured 662 messages on Twitter and Facebook, through salon emails, and in daily deal coupons. Salon postings were most frequent on Twitter and Facebook, with an average of 2-3 postings per week. National chains posted more frequently than local businesses. Forty percent of messages were devoid of tanning content and included photos, jokes, or popular references. Thirty percent mentioned price reductions, and 28 % referenced an upcoming holiday. Sunless tanning (17 %) was promoted more often than ultraviolet tanning (9 %). Tanning salons actively use social media as a strategy for maintaining relationships with customers and offer pricing deals that promote loyalty and high-frequency tanning. PMID:27356996
This thesis is a case study research of the case organization Voimisteluliitto (the Finnish Gymnastics Federation). In more detail it analyses the promotion process for Gymnaestrada 2015, a huge gymnastics festival that is held in Helsinki in summer of 2015. The organization and the festival are introduced in the first part of the thesis. The empirical part was completed during summer 2014 and it consisted of the process or organising a street promotion event as well as producing content ...
Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo
A non-profit organization was formed in 2009 by lay citizens of Nagahama, Japan in response to a community-based genome-epidemiologic study, the 'Nagahama Zero(0)-ji Prevention Cohort Project (N0PCP)'. This organization aims to promote health by taking advantage of citizens' social networks. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion affirms the importance of creating supportive environments and coordinating social relationships. Supportive environments (infrastructure) and social relationships (resources) work together as aspects of social capital. This study sought to examine the association between self-rated health and social capital, at both individual and neighborhood levels, and to discuss suitable health promotion strategies for local circumstances.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011, using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Social capital indicators included aspects of support in the environment (social support, neighborhood connectedness, informal social controls, neighborhood trust, general trust, and attachment to place) and social relationships (number of activities; participation in neighborhood activities; participation in recreational activities; and social leverage regarding physical health, mental health, and acquisition of health information). Neighborhood-level social capital was calculated as the percentage of individuals in a neighborhood in the 'high social capital' category. At the individual level, participation in recreational activities, high general trust, and discussion regarding mental health problems with family members were associated with self-rated health positively, whereas discussion of mental health problems with acquaintances had a negative correlation. At the neighborhood level, a highly supportive environment did not contribute to good health, whereas aggregated attachment to place had a positive correlation. There were no significant inter-regional health differences.The results of this study suggest that
Ramanadhan, Shoba; Mendez, Samuel R; Rao, Megan; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popular...
Ramanadhan, Shoba; Mendez, Samuel R; Rao, Megan; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Background: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popula...
Rand, David G.; Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.
Human populations are both highly cooperative and highly organized. Human interactions are not random but rather are structured in social networks. Importantly, ties in these networks often are dynamic, changing in response to the behavior of one's social partners. This dynamic structure permits an important form of conditional action that has been explored theoretically but has received little empirical attention: People can respond to the cooperation and defection of those around them by ma...
The paper highlights the poignancy with which problems and issues surface as the fields of special education and bioethics (the combination of ethics and the life sciences) intersect, and touches upon professionals' responsibility for protection of the persons in their care. (Author/SBH)
Willmott, Christopher J. R.; Wellens, Jane
There is growing awareness of the need to equip students to think through the ethical implications of developments in biology. We describe an exercise in which students work in teams to produce websites about current controversial issues within the subject. Participants report a significant improvement in their knowledge of bioethics and…
Markowitz, Dina G.; DuPre, Michael J.; Holt, Susan; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Wischnowski, Michael
This article discusses "Family Secrets," a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum module that focuses on the bioethical implications of genetic testing. In high school biology classrooms throughout New York State, students are using "Family Secrets" to learn about DNA testing; Huntington's disease (HD); and the ethical, legal, and social…
March, B. E.
Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)
Shapiro, Robyn S.
Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…
In recent years legal intervention in bioethical matters has increased notably following various paths: court decisions, parliamentary acts, codes of conduct and solemn declarations (i.e. European Bioethics Convention, 1997, or the UNESCO Genome Declaration, 1997). Body and liberty, as a question of fundamental legal rights, are constitutionalized along two paths. The former is vertical (a text created at central level is open to ratification and domestic implementation to finally become the rule in concrete cases). The latter is, above all, horizontal. It is characterized by the existence at world level of a number of centres and institutions, with the judiciary and judge-made law playing a major role. The most important new rights and freedoms in bioethics have been recognized in this ever-changing and troubled environment. The horizontal way has the great advantage of considering the differences as a resource and not as a limit. In the case law on bioethics a sort of jurisprudential model seems to be at work, that goes some way toward a judge-made law at a universal level. Cases such as Cruzan, Bland and Massimo held the fundamental concept of self-determination with surprising similarity. But we don't know if one of them has influenced the others, always supposing that the judges were aware of them. Today's first duty is to raise the consciousness of judges as to how common their problems are and how often their rulings are similar to each other's. PMID:12058772
Reidpath Daniel D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Area deprivation is a known determinant of health. It is also known that area deprivation is associated with lower impact health promotion. It is less well known, however, whether deprived areas are less responsive to health promotion, or whether they are less exposed. Using data from a national, school-based campaign to promote vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV, the relationship between area deprivation and exposure was examined. Methods Taking advantage of a health promotion campaign to provide information to schools about HPV vaccination, a cross sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between area level, social deprivation, and take-up of (i.e., exposure to available health promotion material. The sample was 4,750 schools across England, including government maintained and independent schools. The relationship between area deprivation and exposure was examined using bi- and multivariate logistic regression. Results It was found that schools in the least deprived quintile had 1.32 times the odds of requesting health promotion materials than schools in the most deprived areas (p = .01. This effect was independent of the school size, the type of school, and the geographic region. Conclusion The relationship between area deprivation and the impact of health promotion may be due, at least in part, to differential levels of exposure. The study was limited in scope, pointing to the need for more research, but also points to potentially important policy implications.
Funge, Simon P.
Thirteen social work educators were interviewed regarding their responsibility to fulfill the CSWE educational standard related to integrating content that prepares students to promote social justice in their practice. Findings revealed differing understandings about this responsibility as well as factors in the institution that were reported to…
Bossu, Carina; Bull, David; Brown, Mark
This article discusses the role of open and distance learning to widen participation and promote social inclusion within Australian higher education, as well as the benefits that open educational resources (OER) could bring to that context. It also explores some of the most relevant social inclusion policies and related initiatives developed in…
Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey
Video self-modeling (VSM) has been used to teach social skills to children with autism older than 4 years of age. Attempts to use VSM with younger children with disabilities have produced less than favorable results; however, it is unclear whether VSM could be used to promote social initiations by typically developing children. Thirty minutes of…
Globalisation is present whether recognised in SARS, global terrorism, finance or youth music. With the growth of the health promoting school movement in this context and the increased numbers of countries and schools involved, eight themes are proposed as critical to how the Health Promotion School move forward. They are concerned with: the diverse origins and alliances of forces in the movement; holistic and ecological approach; its status as a global movement; the tension between and empowerment or compliances model; evidence-based and values-based approches; the radical vision; social capital and social inclusion; and sustainability. Reaching the level of acceptance the Health Promotion School has acheived may lead to settling into comfortable official recognition--and assured funding--and losing its militancy. Can the Health Promotion School challenge health inequalities on a national and international scale and can it be a force for social inclusion? PMID:15828510
Students with disabilities are often faced with numerous challenges as they progress through their school years. In addition to disability-related challenges, they may encounter additional difficulties such as bullying in school and lack of social acceptance by their peers. It is important that students with disabilities develop competence in…
Winn, Matthew R.
Just as participation in social networking has grown, so has media coverage of inappropriate activity online. Teacher-student relationships and cyberbullying are just a few of the stories that seem to make the news on a regular basis. For educators, this is particularly troubling, considering how few students know what is appropriate when using…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how 15 graduate students enrolled in a US school leadership preparation program understand issues of social justice and equity through a reflective process utilizing audio and/or video software. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on the tradition of grounded theory. The researcher…
Rand, David G; Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A
Human populations are both highly cooperative and highly organized. Human interactions are not random but rather are structured in social networks. Importantly, ties in these networks often are dynamic, changing in response to the behavior of one's social partners. This dynamic structure permits an important form of conditional action that has been explored theoretically but has received little empirical attention: People can respond to the cooperation and defection of those around them by making or breaking network links. Here, we present experimental evidence of the power of using strategic link formation and dissolution, and the network modification it entails, to stabilize cooperation in sizable groups. Our experiments explore large-scale cooperation, where subjects' cooperative actions are equally beneficial to all those with whom they interact. Consistent with previous research, we find that cooperation decays over time when social networks are shuffled randomly every round or are fixed across all rounds. We also find that, when networks are dynamic but are updated only infrequently, cooperation again fails. However, when subjects can update their network connections frequently, we see a qualitatively different outcome: Cooperation is maintained at a high level through network rewiring. Subjects preferentially break links with defectors and form new links with cooperators, creating an incentive to cooperate and leading to substantial changes in network structure. Our experiments confirm the predictions of a set of evolutionary game theoretic models and demonstrate the important role that dynamic social networks can play in supporting large-scale human cooperation. PMID:22084103
Campbell, Catherine; Murray, Michael
Community health psychology is concerned with the theory and method of working with communities to combat disease and to promote health. This introductory article outlines key assumptions and debates underlying this area of research and practice – in the interests of framing the papers in this special edition of the Journal of Health Psychology. Attention is given to the value of emphasising the community level of analysis and action; the role of collective action in improving health; psycho-...
Human capital represents the key to organizational sustainability through both its role in implementing strategies and policies and by its potential for innovation and adaptability. Analyzing and fostering the organizational factors that promote innovation is not only sound human resources practice, but also a fertile ground for organizational research in the field of organizational climate and work style. The present article reviews the most recent research regarding organizational climate a...
The Hastings Center was founded in 1969 to study ethical problems in medicine and biology. The Center arose from a confluence of three social currents: the increased public scrutiny of medicine and its practices, the concern about the moral problems being generated by technological developments, and the desire of one of its founders (Callahan) to make use of his philosophical training in a more applied way. The early years of the Center were devoted to raising money, developing an early agenda of issues, and identifying a cadre of people around the country interested in the issues. Various stresses and strains in the Center and the field are identified, and some final reflections are offered on the nature and value of the contributions made by bioethics as an academic field. PMID:22198414
Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M
Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639
This paper narrates the experiences of a private sector commercial company and that of a private developers (non-profit organization) in their efforts to promote solar PV in a developing country. The country chosen is Sri Lanka, in which a considerable PV effort has already been witnessed. However, substantial political, economic and social barriers exist which have hindered PV promotion in that country. The authors point that similar constraints may impede promotional efforts in many developing countries and recommend that a global paradigm to promote the technology must assign an important role to the issue of obstacles
Cordero, E. C.; Todd, A.
One of the challenges of communicating climate change to younger audiences is the disconnect between global issues and local impacts. The Green Ninja is a climate-action superhero that aims to energize young people about climate science through media and social engagement tools. In this presentation, we'll highlight two of the tools designed to help K-12 students implement appropriate local mitigation strategies. A mobile phone application builds and supports a social community around taking action at local businesses regarding themes such as food, packaging and energy efficiency. An energy efficiency contest in local schools utilizes smart meter technology to provide feedback on household energy use and conservation. These tools are supported by films and lesson plans that link formal and informal education channels. The effectiveness of these methodologies as tools to engage young people in climate science and action will be discussed.
Full Text Available Through crowdfunding an activity is financed by the contribution of a lot of people, initiators of innovative projects, people or organizations with beneficial ideas, coming to support the others, but who have no money for that, are put in contact with citizens, with thousands of users willing to support such proposals. Donors feel involved in the community and help to make a change. This activity fits perfectly into the category which is recognized in practice and theory as "solidary economy", "the third sector of the economy" or "social entrepreneurship". In fact, is is a form of offering new and innovative solutions for older needs, proving its ability to contribute to satisfying some needs such as social, economic and environmental problems, which the countries of the world, their economies and population are confronting.
This thesis is commissioned by a fashion startup company. The goal was to find out how to attract new customers via social media at minimal costs. The research was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative research. However, traditional quantitative research had the biggest impact on the results. Relevant literature was reviewed; an interview and a survey were also conducted. The results helped to better understand how to get consumers’ attention in a fast developing market, i.e....
Chang, Shu-Man; Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chang, Her-Kun; Chong, Ping Pete
This study explores the potential of promoting college students' positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students' Internet time and has the potential to assist students' positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1) relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2) using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3) promoting student's positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents' future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence. PMID:24785540
Full Text Available This study explores the potential of promoting college students’ positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students’ Internet time and has the potential to assist students’ positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1 relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2 using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3 promoting student’s positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents’ future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.
Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia
We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught. Regarding the social aspect, we examined how classroom discourse supported student learning in terms of students' opportunities to talk and interaction patterns. Our participants were 17 physics teachers who were actively engaged in teacher education programs in universities and professional development programs in local school districts. We analyzed one lesson video from each participating teacher. The results suggest both promises and challenges. Regarding the cognitive aspect of inquiry, the teachers in general recognized the importance of teaching the cognitive processes and disciplinary reasoning. However, they were less likely to address common intuitive ideas about science concepts and principles. Regarding the social aspect of inquiry, the teachers frequently interacted with students in class. However, it appeared that facilitating conversations among students and prompting students to talk about their own ideas are challenging. We discuss the implications of these findings for teacher education programs and professional development programs in China.
Alisa Yu. Fadeyeva
Full Text Available Objective to investigate the potential of Social Media Marketing as a tool for promoting regional investment portals in the information environment to identify the most effective ways of its implementation and to determine the level of mastering of this tool by the Russian regions. Methods general scientific methods observation comparison analysis induction deduction analogy classification. Results the analysis showed that today Social Media Marketing is an essential tool for interaction with the investment community and one of the most effective ways to promote the regional portal which allows to increase the knowledge of and loyalty to the brand to increase the targeted website traffic to increase the awareness of investors about the specific features of the portal and the regional development agenciesrsquo functioning to promptly receive information about the investment environment and to establish contacts with investors. At the same time the study of SMMactivity in the Russian regions revealed a very low level of quality of communication with investors through social networks. Scientific novelty for the first time the article investigates the significance and makes the comparative analysis of the Social Media Marketing channels with regard to investment promotion agencies as well as the results of the regional structures functioning for effective communication through social networks. Practical significance the main results of the research can be used by the regional investment agencies in order to promote their websites increase the quality of communication with investors and promote the investment attractiveness of the region as a whole. nbsp
Almaiman, Sarah; Bahkali, Salwa; Alabdulatif, Norah; Bahkaly, Ahlam; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa
Access to oral health care services around the world is limited by a lack of universal coverage. The internet and social media can be an important source for patients to access supplementary oral health related information (OHRI). Online OHRI presents an opportunity to enhance dental public health education about innumerable oral health issues and promote dental self-care. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of social media users among the Saudi population and identify the preferred social media platform for seeking Arabic OHRI and its impact on seekers' knowledge, attitude, and behavior. A total of 2652 Twitter followers were surveyed, using a web-based self-administered questionnaire to collect data on demographic characteristics and online OHRI seeking behavior More than two thirds, 67.7% (n= 1796), of the participants reported they were seeking Arabic online OHRI, while 41.1% of the participants reported they had no preference for using a specific social media platform. These results emphasize the need and importance of supporting the content of social media with trusted and high quality online OHRI resources to promote a high level of public awareness about oral health and dental health services. Further studies in this regard are highly recommended on a larger scale of nationalities to explore the role of social media platform preference in promoting health promotion and dental public health awareness. PMID:27350526
Kahn, Peter A
Bioethics in America positions itself as a totalizing discipline, capable of providing guidance to any individual within the boundaries of a health or medical setting. Yet the religiously observant or those driven by spiritual values have not universally accepted decisions made by "secular" bioethics, and as a result, religious bioethical thinkers and adherents have developed frameworks and rich counter-narratives used to fend off encroachment by policies perceived as threatening. This article uses brain death in Jewish law, the case of Jahi McMath, and vaccination refusal to observe how the religious system of ethics is presently excluded from bioethics and its implications. PMID:26525211
Full Text Available Problem statement: Bioethics is the philosophical study of the ethical controversies about humans and his environment. Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, philosophy, theology and climate change. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of using bioethics resources as teaching tool in the teaching of climate change at tertiary level. Approach: This is done through assessing the extent of bioethics knowledge acquired in the learning process and how bioethics principles affect respondents thinking and opinions. The research employs a qualitative analysis of the data that is collected through pre-and post-tests and from feedback solicited through discussions with respondents. Some 100 university undergraduate students participated in this study. Results: The findings reveal that through the use of bioethics resources in teaching climate change, respondents' showed increased comprehension of bioethics knowledge and greater appreciation of its principles. Conclusion: Therefore the study concludes that the use of bioethics resources can accentuate the importance of bioethics principles in the understanding and in the provision of ethical framework in dealing with climate changes issues and mitigation initiatives. This research finding can be a useful source of information for scholars and researchers developing teaching strategies using bioethics resources.
Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin
People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…
Brusse, Carl; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle
Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health promotion interventions, with a particular focus on the Australian context and on health promotion targeted toward an Indigenous audience. Specifically, our research questions were: (1) What is the peer-reviewed evidence of benefit for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management, and health service delivery, with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media? and (2) What social media and mobile software have been used in Indigenous-focused health promotion interventions in Australia with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, or otitis media, and what is the evidence of their effectiveness and benefit? Methods We conducted a scoping study of peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of social media and mobile technologies in health promotion (globally) with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media. A scoping review was also conducted for Australian uses of social media to reach Indigenous Australians and mobile apps produced by Australian health bodies, again with respect to these three areas. Results The review identified 17 intervention studies and seven systematic reviews that met inclusion criteria, which showed limited evidence of benefit from these interventions. We also found five Australian projects with significant social media health components targeting the Indigenous Australian population for health promotion purposes, and four mobile software apps that met inclusion
UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, la...
As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) brought together grantmakers, researchers, and public health professionals on May 20, 2004 to discuss the application of social marketing principles to health promotion and chronic disease prevention. As a behavior change technique, social marketing has proven effective in motivating people to make the complex and difficult behavior changes that can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The Issue Dialogue used the lens of tobacco prevention and cessation, physical activity, and healthy eating to examine how health grantmakers can use social marketing principles and techniques to encourage and support the adoption of healthier behaviors across the lifespan. This Issue Brief incorporates the information and ideas shared at the meeting with a background paper on social marketing that was prepared for participants who attended the Issue Dialogue. It starts with an introduction of social marketing concepts and provides a framework for assessing whether social marketing is an appropriate approach to use in addressing a particular issue. Subsequent sections: (1) describe both the social marketing communications process and techniques, using examples from campaigns developed by health grantmakers and others; (2) describe how social marketing can be used to promote policy change; (3) provide information on communication strategies that can complement social marketing; and (4) present opportunities for grantmakers. PMID:15551499
Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria A; Saan, Hans; Leeuwis, Cees
The evaluation of community health promotion designed to create supportive social environments for health is still in its infancy. There is a lack of consensus on concepts, a lack of information on interventions that bring about social change, and a lack of feasible methods and tools. Consequently, the effectiveness of community health promotion may not be evaluated under all relevant headings. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the evaluation of change in the social environment by presenting a framework. On the basis of the relevant literature we describe the relation between social environment and health predicting mediators. We selected participation and collaboration as core concepts in moderating the social environment of health because these terms give insight into the actual dynamics of health promotion practice. We synthesize the results into a framework with operational variables and offer four guidelines on how to apply the framework: use the variables as a menu, set specific aims for social change processes, use an action research approach, and triangulate data. The framework and guidelines enable the start-up, facilitation and evaluation of social change and learning processes and provide common ground for researchers and practitioners to improve the practice of their professions. PMID:20106527
Bioethics was born not only as an aftermath of medical technological advance but also from underlying philosophical conceptions about man, that determine scientific research. Analyzing occidental ethics, Heidegger showed that animalism was the only human dimension considered and thereby the domain of measurable objectiveness. He postulated that the essence of human existence as being-in-the-world is ethical and revealed through an original consciousness. Unlike moral conscience, original conscience calls to authenticity, to hear his constitutive nihilism as a "Being-referred-to-death". The founding ground of bioethics may be to listen to this primary being-guilty prior to the derived guilts, e.g. faults, deficiencies and shortcomings of specific daily actions. PMID:22286741
This article, which introduces the special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," begins by offering an overview of the analytical scope of the issue. Specifically, the first half of this essay raises critical questions central to the concept of a space-related queer bioethics, such as: How do we appreciate and understand the special needs of queer parties given the constraints of location, space, and geography? The second half of this article describes each feature article in the issue, as well as the subsequent special sections on the ethics of reading literal, health-related maps ("Cartographies") and scrutinizing the history of this journal as concerns LGBT health ("Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality"). PMID:26643032
Magalhães, Susana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia
Since the focus of Bioethics is the bridge between Humanities and the Life Sciences and bearing in mind that this bridge is often difficult to build, those who believe that this dialogue is important in our days should promote it through Education. By educating in Bioethics it is possible to improve the participation of the citizens in debates on the ethical issues raised by new technologies and scientific research. It is our conviction that literary texts are laboratories of ethical judgment, where the ethical questions concerning specific scientific/ technological issues are addressed in an imaginary world. Therefore our purpose is to present a framework for ethical deliberation through the use of literature. Fiction allows us to "practise" ethical decision making, by focusing on the particular cases of the characters of the story and by checking how the principles/theories working in the background apply to the narrated cases. PMID:21528799
Full Text Available The aim of this article. The aim of this article is to analyze the connection and relation between social media marketing and enterprise’s products promotion, to show the importance of using social media in marketing and the role of marketers in this process. The results of the analysis. This article is based on the investigation of specialized literature regarding new promotional techniques used at the global market nowadays. Authors analyze the definition to the social media marketing, according to the several various sources, the main objective of which is to state the difference between social media marketing and social media. In the article all existing social media types are represented and examples of practical usage of them by nowadays leading companies are shown. The advantages and disadvantages (risks of using social media marking tools and methodology for brands, goods or companies in the current economic conditions are investigated in the article. The importance and practical usefulness of providing social media marking in the company is proved. The research of the importance and practical usefulness of social media marking is based on latest investigations and researches done by top specialists in the sphere of social media marketing, including the information about the situation on the Ukrainian markets. The functions and role of the marketers in social media marking process were explained in the article. For the purpose of the characteristic of social media marking scopes existing types of social media are defined and classified in the article. The portrait of Ukrainian Internet audience is investigated in the article. Laws of social media marketing developed by Susan Gunelius are examined in the article. Authors investigate different types of measurements, which can be used in evaluation of the effectiveness of social media marketing, identified the place of social media marking in the marketing strategy of the company and gave
UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO's broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders-academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives-felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration's development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045
In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.
Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.
Roberto E. Cuenca
Full Text Available Introduction: In the area of the environment, it has been perceived the Bioethics like an interdisciplinary in the construction of a critical thought that should conclude in an environmental knowledge with ethics and in a position epistemologist where the existential values and axiological are reaffirmed, to conclude analyzing the courses of the environmental education. Objectives: To demonstrate how the Bioethics claims the values of the humanism and to outline the Environmental Education as an action opportunity and generation of actions in the sustainable development of the communities of our region. Methodology: By means of bibliographical revision, a rehearsal was elaborated about the relationship of the Bioethics with the Environmental Education, as for the aspects of the atmosphere, the socioeconomic development and the environmental pedagogy. Results: They were carried out descriptions about the Holistic concept in the environment; conceptualization on Environmental Ethics; conceptualization about the Sustainable Development, the Globalization and the Sustainability; and conceptualization about the Environmental Education and the Bioethics. Conclusions: Of the carried out analysis we have a first epilogue that drives to assume the responsibility for our to work in the world and being able to understand that our quality of life reaches its fullness, when we transcend from our individual conscience toward a form of conscience able to not feel as own alone our necessity but, that of all other human being and in all other way of life. And a second epilogue in outlining strategies of an Environmental Education, different to the traditional ones, like an evolution toward the Education for the Sustainability, on the as continuing the development at the same time that it is protected, it preserves and they conserve the systems of vital support of the planet.
Todorović Zoran; Protić Dragana
Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP) and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immuno...
Edgar Abarca López
Full Text Available This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.
Edgar Abarca López; Alejandra Rodríguez Torres; Donovan Casas Patiño; Esteban Espíndola Benítez
This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.
Full Text Available In Charlotte Lennox’s The Female Quixote, the unruly Arabella clashes with the eighteenth century’s conception of England as an orderly, unromantic site of commercial trade. Arabella’s romances prompt her to expect certain power structures from English society; she invites others to see her body as a spectacle and expects that her actions will solidify her status as a powerful woman. Yet Lennox reveals that English society sees Arabella’s body not as powerful, but as an object upon which they may construct their own potential site for the exchange of knowledge, an objectification that neither Arabella nor Lennox are prepared to accept. I argue that Lennox teaches her reader to read English social spaces in terms of discourses of power, thereby giving women the literacy skills to read their own subjectivity according to their position in both romantic and unromantic public spaces.
Martínez-Carbonell López, Alfonso
In the dense theological thought of Joseph Ratzinger before his election as pope, we find fundamental contributions to contemporary bioethics. Starting from the assumption of the close relationship between faith and science he incorporates a necessary theological dimension in the bioethical dialogue that illuminates and clarifies the answers to the real questions raised in bioethical actions. On the one hand, there is the question of the origin of man that is understood as God's creation as opposed to a purely biological origin to which a modern pseudoscientific stance wants to confine it. On the other hand, there is the question about man's identity, which is understood as the image of God, from which stems the inviolable dignity and sacredness of human life, overcoming scientistic materialism. Finally, we find the question of how to treat the ″other″, even the embryo, as a result of its lofty dignity, analyzing the ethical and legal consequences that exude from their nature and are summarized in the duty to protect and respect the other which the law should protect against the abuse of those who are stronger. PMID:25329412
Arras, J D
This paper represents the first installment of a larger project devoted to the relevance of pragmatism for bioethics. One self-consciously pragmatist move would be to return to the classical pragmatist canon of Peirce, James and Dewey in search of substantive doctrines or methodological approaches that might be applied to current bioethical controversies. Another pragmatist (or neopragmatist) move would be to subject the regnant principlist paradigm to Richard Rorty's subversive assaults on foundationalism in epistemology and ethics. A third pragmatist method, dubbed "freestanding pragmatism" by its proponents, embraces a "pragmatist" approach to practical reasoning without discernable moorings either to the classical canon or to Rorty's neopragmatism. This third pragmatist approach to method in practical ethics is the subject of this article. I begin with an examination of freestanding pragmatism in the theory of judicial decision making. I argue that this version of legal pragmatism--so described on account of its commitments to contextualism, instrumentalism, eclecticism, and freedom from grand theory--bears a striking resemblance to much self-described pragmatist work in bioethics today. I further argue that if this is what we mean by "pragmatism," then in a certain sense "we are all pragmatists now." PMID:11437273
Bittner, Jenny V; Kulesz, Micaela M
We investigated whether social presence cues encourage consumers to self-regulate and select healthier food products. In the first experiment, workers completed food choices in an e-commerce environment. After the activation of health-related goals, they saw a social presence cue and were asked to choose between healthy and unhealthy food options. The analyses revealed main effects of social presence and health goal activation on food choices. These effects were additive, such that the combination of social presence and health goals induced significantly healthier choices compared with the control group. The second experiment further examined social presence cues that were presented on a menu. The results showed significant effects on food choices and on the perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. These findings indicate that social presence cues could be employed to increase healthful eating and, furthermore, that it may be useful to co-activate multiple cues in health promotion messages. PMID:25579221
Picot-Clémente, Romain; BOTHOREL, Cécile; Jullien, Nicolas
In epistemic community, people are said to be selected on their knowledge contribution to the project (articles, codes, etc.) However, the socialization process is an important factor for inclusion, sustainability as a contributor, and promotion. Finally, what does matter to be promoted? being a good contributor? being a good animator? knowing the boss? We explore this question looking at the process of election for administrator in the English Wikipedia community. We modeled the candidates a...
Jeanne Ting Chowning
Full Text Available Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001 between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001 in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student
Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N; Collins, Laura J
Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (pstrategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and engagement with science content, while promoting reasoning
Asian Development Bank
Increasing job opportunities and decent work for women are essential for advancing economic and social development in countries, because many women continue to experience gender inequalities at work. An analysis of strategies to counter gender discrimination and promote equality between men and women shows how a combination of good practices in law and in social and economic policy can improve equitable employment opportunities, remuneration, and treatment for women and men at work. This repo...
Brusse, Carl; Gardner, Karen; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle
Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health pr...
IOAN PASTOR; CAMELIA-OLIVIA ILIES
In a global economy, organizations have the responsibility to demonstrate and promote corporate social responsibility. Long-term sustainability demands that organizations rethink their business goals and objectives from focusing on making a profit to corporate citizenship. Human resource managers play a critical role – that of leading and educating their companies regarding the importance of corporate social responsability while at the same time strategically implementing healthy management p...
Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima
Television can be a powerful education tool; however, content-makers must understand the factors that engage attention and promote learning from screen media. Prior research suggests that social engagement is critical for learning and that interactivity may enhance the educational quality of children’s media. The present study examined the effects of increasing the social interactivity of television on children’s visual attention and word learning. Three- to 5-year-old (MAge = 4;5 years, SD =...
This paper studies the effectiveness of a social media marketing campaign for Company X and specifically its brand SUPER. The commissioning company wishes to remain anonymous, thus the names are changed. SUPER promoted their participation to consumer targeted fairs on Facebook and the empirical study of this paper is based on these marketing campaigns. The aim of this study is to achieve and understanding about the key success factors of a marketing campaign in social media by identifying tho...
Favati, Anna; Leimar, Olof; Radesäter, Tommy; Løvlie, Hanne
Stability of ‘state’ has been suggested as an underlying factor explaining behavioural stability and animal personality (i.e. variation among, and consistency within individuals in behavioural responses), but the possibility that stable social relationships represent such states remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of social status on the expression and consistency of behaviours by experimentally changing social status between repeated personality assays. We used male domes...
Pedrana, Alisa; Hellard, Margaret; Gold, Judy; Ata, Nadine; Chang, Shanton; Howard, Steve; Asselin, Jason; Ilic, Olivia; Batrouney, Colin; Stoove, Mark
Background A growing number of health promotion interventions are taking advantage of the popularity and interactivity of new social media platforms to foster and engage communities for health promotion. However, few health promotion interventions using social networking sites (SNS) have been rigorously evaluated. "Queer as F**k"(QAF) began as pilot project in 2010 to deliver sexual health promotion via short "webisodes" on SNS to gay men. Now in its fifth season, QAF is among the few publish...
Flavia Pedro dos Anjos Santos
Full Text Available A violência na escola é um problema social que perpassa o âmbito da educação e da saúde pública, envolve aspectos bioéticos e requer mecanismos de enfrentamento, a partir da educação em saúde. Este estudo objetiva discutir estratégias fundamentadoras da educação em saúde, sobre aspectos bioéticos no domínio da violência escolar. Consiste em uma revisão bibliográfica crítico-reflexiva por meio do acesso a banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS, utilizando os descritores "violência and bioética" e "violência na escola", considerando os estudos publicados no período de 2004 a 2009. Realizamos também levantamento das obras de Paulo Freire e Pedro Demo, teóricos da Educação Libertadora. A leitura do material conduziu-nos a definição e discussão de três eixos temáticos: 1 bioética como instrumento reflexivo para a retomada dos valores morais na sociedade; 2 escola como formadora ética e de exercício de cidadania; 3 educação em saúde como instrumento para o enfrentamento da violência na escola. Acreditamos que a violência escolar envolve questões bioéticas que devem ser alvo de intervenções educativas na perspectiva libertadora, no intuito de gerar reflexões sobre o caráter negativo da violência escolar, tanto para o ensino-aprendizagem, como para o adoecimento dos atores envolvidos nessa problemática. Os profissionais da saúde poderão estabelecer a intersetorialidade com a educação e contribuir na prevenção da violência na escola, por meio de ações educativas em saúde, mobilizando cidadãos para uma sociedade comprometida em promover a vida; e que os profissionais da educação sejam receptivos e coparticipantes do processo intersetorial de educação e saúde.School violence is a social problem that pervades the educational and public health context, involving bioethical issues and requires coping mechanisms from health education. This study aims to discuss strategies that
Stevenson, H M; Burke, M
This paper discusses theoretical, methodological and political problems in the field of health promotion research. It argues that these problems result from a partial and contradictory appropriation of the discourse of new social movements. Politically, the health promotion movement is largely confined within the state, rather than the expression of a social movement against the state. The direction of health promotion research and policy is, therefore, caught in the bureaucratic logic of "trapped administrators", and results in contradictory emphases on problems like the development of "health promotion indicators", which show little result in informing a broader but coherent conceptualization of health, let alone in effecting change in health policy and outcomes. Such political problems reflect parallel confusions about theory and methodology. Theoretically, the field relies heavily on a critique of bio-medical science, but fails to move beyond a rhetorical outline of an alternative to systematic arguments about what promotes health. In this regard, the literature on health promotion remains unaware of important conceptual developments in the social sciences, relies on imprecise specifications of major constructs like community empowerment, and has no conception of the state. Methodologically, the literature is influenced by contradictory epistemological tendencies which reflect a positivist inspiration (as in the search for indicators) and an anti-positivist emphasis on agency and social change through the collective action and the discursive reconstitution of social identity, value and meaning. In regard to these questions, this paper is critical of observers who suggest that the way ahead is to embrace post-modern research strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423122
perceived as being incapable of taking care of their own health and therefore also as being too far from the role model figure inherent in the discourse of professional health promotion work. Practices targeting students' physical health are induced both in- and outside the curriculum. Based on empirical...... analysis and post-structuralist theory, the article explores the processes of subjectification that result from the practices of health promotion within this particular educational setting. The article reveals how health promotion is transformed into an educational technology and is thus utilised to solve......This article explores how health promotion is practised within a specific educational setting: the Danish Social and Health Education Programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a strategy aimed at citizens - not at the students themselves. However, the students are generally...
Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia
The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…
Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy
This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…
Diaz, Jose Luis
Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…
...-mail: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov.... The meeting will also be webcast at http://www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order....bioethics.gov . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any...
...: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov... available. The meeting will also be webcast at http://www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order....bioethics.gov . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any...
Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms
Fox, Lise; Hemmeter, Mary; Snyder, Patricia; Binder, Denise Perez; Clarke, Shelley
Growing evidence suggests the importance of practitioners implementing promotion, prevention, and intervention practices to foster children's social-emotional competence and address challenging behavior within schools. Limited research exists, however, on how to support teachers of school-age children to implement with fidelity comprehensive…
Webster, Collin A.; Buchan, Heather; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Rob; Doutis, Panayiotis; Weaver, Robert Glenn
Despite its recommended use, physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) has received little attention in terms of the factors that help to facilitate it. In this study, a social learning perspective was adopted to examine the role of physical activity biographies in generalist classroom teachers' (CTs) PAPAC. CTs (N = 213) were…
Jones, Jeffrey N.; Warnaar, Bethany L.; Bench, Joshua H.; Stroup, John
Involvement in social action and community service can promote the construction of prosocial identities and enduring patterns of civic behavior. This article explores this important process for youth that participate in the PeaceJam Ambassadors program. High school-aged "PeaceJammers" study the lives of Nobel Peace laureates while…
Hyllegard, Karen H.; Ogle, Jennifer Paff; Rudd, Nancy A.; Littrell, Mary A.; Bickle, Marianne
This paper describes a course development project designed to address the obligation of consumer goods companies to engage in socially responsible advertising and promotion. Course development was informed by stakeholder theory. Videotaped interviews with 46 stakeholder representatives were integrated into the course, providing students with an…
Doyle, Brooke Graham; Bramwell, Wendie
Although teachers face increasing pressure to focus on academics in kindergarten, research indicates that promoting school success in young children involves integrating skills in multiple domains. For example, by using dialogic reading--a well-researched shared-reading technique--and books with strong social-emotional content, teachers can…
Jagers, Robert J.
Describes evolving efforts to promote African American children's social and emotional competencies, examining moral competence. Proposes a cultural psychology framework to highlight the theme of communalism and morality of care. Identifies various moral events, offering knowledge of moral emotions and moral self-efficacy as key constructs.…
Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O.; Wilson, Shaunqula A.
This study examined the role of religious orientation and social support in health-promoting behaviors of African American college students. Data were collected from 211 students attending a historically Black university. Results from a 4 x 2 MANOVA revealed significant main effects for both variables. No interaction effects were observed. Post…
Harris, Kathleen I.
Peer-mediated intervention (PMI), a strategy those working in preschool inclusive environments can use, creates opportunities for peers to assume instructional roles to promote positive social behaviors for children with disabilities. The purpose of the study was threefold: first, to examine peer mediators' use of PMI during baseline and…
Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Bahkali, Ahlam; Almaiman, Sara; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled
Social media has the potential to improve women's health in developing countries through health education and promotion. In the Arab world, women's health interventions are lacking. However, with a high penetration rate of social media in the Arab world, there is good opportunity to utilize social media platforms such as Twitter to promote women's health. In this paper, we analyze the Tweet feeds of Saudi-based Twitter account to promote women's health. A total of 5167 Tweets were extracted and analyzed retrospectively, using NVivo Ncapture between June 2014 and March 2015. There were a total number of 3449 followers by March 20, 2015. Results showed that a majority of the Twitter followers (61%, n=2104) were seeking gynecological information, followed by pregnancy related information (27%, n=931), breast-feeding advice (9%, n=310), and other health related information (3%, n=103). Results also showed an increased level of health awareness and comprehension among Twitter followers. Further research is needed to promote women's health in Saudi Arabia and the Arab world through social media platforms such as Twitter and similar platforms including Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube which are also popular in the Arab world. PMID:26153009
It is the aim of this investigation through literature review to identify teacher characteristics that may best promote social capital in students, thereby improving their ability to succeed in society. This review defines success as the procurement of a career-aimed occupation or a prestigious occupation. Consequently, it intends to (a) provide a…
This paper shows the focus and methodological design about The Networking and Promoting Resilience in Social Risk Children, Project. Project funded by the Ministry of Innovation, Science and Employment of the Government of Andalusia (SEJ 1366) Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech
Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina
“Education for Values and Bioethics” is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010–2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, pr...
Keskin-Samanci, Nilay; Özer-Keskin, Melike; Arslan, Orhan
This study has led to the development of the "Bioethical Values Inventory" that can be used to reveal secondary school students' ethical values in decisions that they make during ethical debates regarding the application of biological sciences. An original inventory development model was used, consisting of four steps and involving…
Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F
A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions. PMID:26786036
Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D
Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere. PMID:25829123
This article was derived from my memorial talk given when receiving the prize of the Japanese Society for Hygiene at their academic congress. The reader could review my research on health and welfare promotion made by introducing new conceptual health policy based on the approach of social medicine. Through my experience in different research work, the importance of social factors in the etiology of health during childhood, adulthood and old age was discussed. In addition, it was revealed that social factors not only influence the population's health status but also constitute the context within which organized efforts can be made to promote health. For the elderly, the annual health check, stroke patient registration, and insurance for care and spousal bereavement; for adults, the Karoshi and occupational health; and for children, air pollution-atopy predisposition and lifestyles were highlighted as social medicine-related issues. The research on mostly longitudinal population studies showed that health status, including the life expectancy and the prevalence of disability and chronic disorders, are related to one's marital status, social support, psychosocial working conditions and environmental factors as well as to lifestyles such as physical activity and hours of work and sleep at entry. More attention should be directed to independent factors' effects on health, separate from those of adverse health habits and bio-medical situations, under the health and welfare promotion strategy. PMID:15359894
Full Text Available This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android platform. Upon completion of this paper, heuristic evaluation and usability testing have been conducted. The result of both testing shows that the application is highly usable. Even though there are some usability problems discovered, the problems can be eliminated immediately by implementing the recommendations from the expert evaluators and the users as the testers of the application. Further improvement made to the application will ensure that the application can really be beneficial for the users of the application.
Luhur, H. S.; Widjaja, N. D.
This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android platform. Upon completion of this paper, heuristic evaluation and usability testing have been conducted. The result of both testing shows that the application is highly usable. Even though there are some usability problems discovered, the problems can be eliminated immediately by implementing the recommendations from the expert evaluators and the users as the testers of the application. Further improvement made to the application will ensure that the application can really be beneficial for the users of the application.
Culture and class remain contested terrains in policy narratives about the right of the urban poor to access health and social services delivery systems under welfare reform. An urban bioethics agenda is needed to address these dilemmas that have arisen in the context of PRWORA and had an impact on access to health and social services in the urban environment.2;18 Such efforts, however, must address the intellectual framing of the urban poor, as well as the public policies that inscribe deter...
Selecionar quem deve viver: um estudo bioético sobre critérios sociais para microalocação de recursos em emergências médicas To choose who should live: a bioethical study of social criteria to microallocation of health care resources in medical emergencies
PAULO ANTONIO DE CARVALHO FORTES
Full Text Available OJETIVO: Estudo, de caráter exploratório, que trata de dilemas de natureza ética de microalocação de recursos escassos de saúde, objetivando-se, com base em referenciais bioéticos, deontológicos e utilitaristas, analisar critérios sociais considerados nas escolhas para seleção de pacientes no atendimento de emergências médicas por parte de parcela da opinião pública. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas 395 pessoas, na cidade de Diadema/SP, que responderam a nove situações que versaram sobre os seguintes critérios sociais: idade, sexo, responsabilidade social, condição econômica e local de residência. RESULTADOS: Significativa parcela dos pesquisados parece aceitar que o uso de critérios sociais seja válido em situação de escassez de recursos. Mostrou a presença de elementos identificadores de correntes éticas deontológicas (justiça como eqüidade como de correntes utilitaristas de tomada de decisão. CONCLUSÕES: Demonstrou-se uma expressiva opção pelas pessoas que se encontram em situação de "maior desfavorecimento", ou seja, se favorecem "os mais desafortunados", em detrimento de situações que pudessem levar a um maior custo/benefício social.OBJECTIVE: To analyze ethical dilemmas about microallocation of health care scarce resources, based on deontological and utilitarian bioethical basis. It analyzes some criteria considered in the choices and justifications for patients selection in medical emergencies.METHODS: 395 subjects were interviewed in the city of Diadema/SP, about dilemmas among two people needing a place in a public hospital of emergency service. The presented situations dealed with the following social criteria: age, sex, social responsibility and economical condition.RESULTS: They pointed that significant portion of those researched seems to consider that the use of social criteria is valid and that the people lives can have unequal value in situations of scarce resources, accepting social variables
Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Lankford, Deanna Marie
This paper addresses using social media to promote pre-service science teachers' practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) based teaching in a science classroom setting. We designed our research in two phases. The first phase examined pre-service science teachers' perceptions about using social media to promote their SSI-based teaching. The…
Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara
This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…
Nielsen, Line; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Nelausen, Malene Kubstrup; Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
Purpose: Within the framework of Health Promoting Schools "Up" is an intervention using a whole school approach aimed at promoting mental health by strengthening social and emotional competence among schoolchildren. Social and emotional competence is an integral part of many school-based mental health interventions but only a minority of…
Full Text Available As online social networks acquire larger user bases, they also become more interesting targets for spammers and promoters. Spam can take very different forms on social websites, especially in the form of videos and cannot always be detected by analyzing textual content. There are online video sharing systems that allow the users to post videos s response to any type of discussion topic. This feature encourages some of the users to post polluted content illegally as responses and there may be content promoters who try to promote them in the top listed search. Content pollution like spread advertise to generate sales, disseminate pornography, and compromise system reputation may threaten the trust of users on the system, thus weaken its success in promoting social interactions. As a solution for this problem, we classify the users as spammers, content promoters and legitimate users by building a test collection of real YouTube users using which we can provide a classification we use of content, individual and social attributes that help in characterizing each user class. For effective classification we use SVMKNN which is an active learning approach. Our proposed approach poses a promising alternative to simply considering all users as legitimate or to randomly selecting users for manual inspection. In simple SVM training is very slow on whole dataset and not works very well on multiple classes. To overcome this problem and to provide efficient classification in fast manner we proposed new approach is SVM-KNN. Train a Support Vector Machine on K no of collections of nearest neighbours.
Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.
In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086
Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the essential problems of our times. Most commonly, terrorist organizations have their origins in social movements that presume that they cannot reach their goal of promoting political change other than through violence. This paper deals with the use of the Internet, and especially social media, by terroristgroups. Social media seem to be an essential part in the groups'strategic communication concepts. They do not only use it for the groups' internal organization but mainly for the dissemination of ideas to a broader public. If the government wants to counteract terrorist movements, it also has to counteract their use of socialmedia. Therefore, theoretical concepts of terrorism as communication, PR and propaganda will be presented as well as results of case studies in order to show the interconnectedness of terrorism and social media.
Garvey, G; Towney, P; McPhee, J R; Little, M; Kerridge, I H
It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate. In doing so the authors consider how the ethics, values, and beliefs of the dominant white Australian culture have framed the treatment and delivery of services that Aboriginal people receive, and whether sufficient effort has been made to understand or acknowledge the different ethical predispositions that form the traditions and identity of Aboriginal Australia(ns). PMID:15574447
Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.
Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…
Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L
Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray. PMID:27089070
Costa, Sandra; Soares, Filomena; Santos, Cristina; Ferreira, Manuel João Oliveira; Moreira, F.; Pereira, Ana Paula da Silva; Cunha, Fernanda
Most autistic people present some difficulties in developing social behavior, living in their own world. This study has the goal to improve the social life of children with autism with a main focus in promoting their social interaction and communication. It is necessary to call for children’s attention and enforce their collaboration, where a robot, LEGO MindStorm, behaves as a mediator/promoter of this interaction. A set of experiments designed to share objects and fulfill simple orders, by ...
Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Holdershaw, Judith
The turn of the century has seen an increase in reported cases of sexually transmitted infections including the human immunodeficiency virus, particularly in groups of men who have sex with men. Both internationally and in New Zealand the implementation of social marketing human immunodeficiency virus prevention programmes are identified as appropriate mechanisms to promote condom use in men who have sex with men. This paper presents a review of the literature on research-based social marketing initiatives designed to decrease sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus, through an increase in condom use by men who have sex with men. Eleven quality assured articles met the inclusion criteria and were consequently included in the review. The review presented here strongly supports the utilisation of behaviourally based social marketing campaigns to increase condom use in men who have sex with men. Nurses are frequently first point of contact for consumers of health services. As such they need to have a sound understanding of not only Get it On!, a New Zealand social marketing campaign designed to promote condom use, but also about existing international campaigns. Nurses should also know about social marketing principles if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:24839743
Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya
Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421
Bioethics as a cultural phenomenon is nowadays presented as a paradigmatic locus of reflection, critical analysis, inquiries and debates about ethical problems and moral dilemmas provoked by scientific researches in the field of Biotechnology, with its innovations and applications. Humanity, since the middle of X X Th Century, lives under uncertainty and fear. Bioethics responds to the need of a ethical reflection which follows such inquiries and technological applications. One of the subjects of Bioethics is the biosafety, which deals with biohazards. In this process, there is a privileged place many questions such as technological evaluation, risk management and, in a special way, the precautionary principle. This study focus on these questions
Iudin, B G
Professor Yu.M. Lopukhin has made the most important contribution to the development of bioethics in this country based on his extensive experience in research, education and organization pertaining to different biomedical disciplines and high-tech medicine. The main works of Yu.M. Lopukhin on major bioethical problems of special importance for present-day Russia are analysed including ethical expertise of biomedical research and their legal aspects including tissue and organ transplantation, the use of embrionic stem cells, etc. The importance of international collaboration in the field of bioethics is emphasized. PMID:20000106
Lerner, Richard M
The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. PMID:25782450
Okazaki, Shintaro; Navarro-Bailón, María Ángeles; Molina-Castillo, Francisco Jose
Drawing upon utility maximization theory, this study examines the conse-quences of quick response (QR) code mobile promotion in terms of information privacy concerns, defensive responses (intention to protect, fabricate, or withhold), and loyalty. Two contextual variables, social anxiety and situational involvement, are hypothesized as moderators. The main survey employs the scenario method with 667 general consumers in Japan. The results indicate that most of the main effects are supported f...
Prof. Veronel avram Ph.d, Lecturer ROxana Heteș Gavra Ph.D, Ph.D Student Alexandru Avram
The international financial crisis started in 2007 brought to the fore the fragility of the banking system, for which the axiom "When confidence was gone, the crisis arose", coupled with an acute need to rebuild public confidence in the banking system in general, refers directly to the commands of social responsibility and promotion of ethical values. Because they were too much concerned with the performance indicators, notably the profitability, but also with the level of their salaries, inc...
Fariba Kolahdooz; Forouz Nader; Kyoung J. Yi; Sangita Sharma
Background: Indigenous Canadians have a life expectancy 12 years lower than the national average and experience higher rates of preventable chronic diseases compared with non-Indigenous Canadians. Transgenerational trauma from past assimilation policies have affected the health of Indigenous populations. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the social determinants of health (SDH), in order to identify priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Design: ...
This thesis explores the use of social media by fan communities and official carriers for the promotion of South Korean cinema and television series (dramas) in the English language and to global audiences. The text begins with an introduction to the concept of the 'Korean Wave' or 'Hallyu', continues with some words about the rise in popularity of South Korean cinema and drama through it and ends with the difference between South Korean, other Asian and international audiences. Chapt...
Xu, Songhua; Markson, Christopher; Costello, Kaitlin L.; Xing, Cathleen Y; Demissie, Kitaw; Llanos, Adana AM
Background As social media becomes increasingly popular online venues for engaging in communication about public health issues, it is important to understand how users promote knowledge and awareness about specific topics. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the frequency of discussion and differences by race and ethnicity of cancer-related topics among unique users via Twitter. Methods Tweets were collected from April 1, 2014 through January 21, 2015 using the Twitter public stream...
Nzohabonayo Jerome; Kays Megan B; Kassegne Sethson
Abstract Background Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication ...
Bierman, Karen L.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Nix, Robert L.; Gest, Scott D.; Welsh, Janet A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; BLAIR, CLANCY; Nelson, Keith E.; Gill, Sukhdeep
Forty-four Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to enriched intervention (Head Start REDI- Research-based, Developmentally Informed) or “usual practice” conditions. The intervention involved brief lessons, “hands on” extension activities, and specific teaching strategies linked empirically with the promotion of: 1) social-emotional competencies, and 2) language development and emergent literacy skills. Take-home materials were provided to parents to enhance skill development at home. ...
Current cognitive models of social phobia converge on the view that negative imagery is a key factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. Research to date has predominantly focussed on the detrimental impact of negative imagery on cognitive bias and anxiety symptoms, while the potential benefit of promoting positive imagery has been relatively unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests however that positive imagery could have multiple benefits such as improving positive affect, sel...
Arvidson, Malin; Lyon, Fergus
Non-profit organisations are under increasing pressure to demonstrate their social impact. This paper examines the experience and behaviour of non-profit organisations in the UK in relation to a demand for impact evaluations. It shows that organisations both accept and resist control, and use evaluations for promotional purposes. External resource providers request organisations to present evidence on how resources are used and what organisations have achieved. However, non-profit organisati...
Fayemi, Ademola K
It is nearly two decades now since the publication of Godfrey Tangwa's article, 'Bioethics: African Perspective', without a critical review. His article is important because sequel to its publication in Bioethics, the idea of 'African bioethics' started gaining some attention in the international bioethics literature. This paper breaks this relative silence by critically examining Tangwa's claim on the existence of African bioethics. Employing conceptual and critical methods, this paper argues that Tangwa's account of African bioethics has some conceptual, methodic and substantive difficulties, which altogether do not justify the idea of African bioethics, at least for now. Contra Tangwa, this article establishes that while African bioethics remains a future possibility, it is more cogent that current efforts in the name of 'African bioethics' be primarily re-intensified towards 'Healthcare ethics in Africa'. PMID:25912979
Alam, Hasan B.
This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed.
The Holocaust arose, in part, because of a profound and pervasive breakdown of medical professional ethics. This history is complex and powerfully instructive. The value judgments and moral actions of the Nazi doctors can inform current debate and practices and also prevent the use of inaccurate analogies in current bioethical debates. Under the auspices of the International Center for Health, Law and Ethics at Haifa University, we are in the process of publishing a casebook on bioethical topics, using personal cases from the Third Reich and the Holocaust. The casebook will provide a platform for deep reflection and discourse on historical ethical issues and their relevance for today. This teaching tool can also inspire healthcare professionals and students to practice with greater compassion, knowledge, tolerance, respect and justice on behalf of their patients. PMID:23781761
Adriana Acevedo Tirado
Full Text Available Social programs are crucial to reduce poverty and inequity in developing countries. The operation of social programs, however, cannot be improved with traditional engineering tools since these tools are designed to maximize profits: in social programs maximizing profits is not the objective, social sustainability is. Field research was conducted and it was found that the operation of social programs is considered more socially sustainable if it meets two criteria: Efficiency and Equity; in other words, if the program can help more people who need it the most. This paper proposes a methodology centered in the development of mathematical formulas for the concepts of Efficiency and Equity, so that, by being able to measure them, government programs operation can be enhanced with engineering tools. The methodology is illustrated with a case study, a subsidized milk distribution program in Mexico, called Liconsa. Once the formulas were developed and used in a simulation model for Liconsa, different policies were tested and their results regarding Efficiency and Equity were compared. Results showed the best policies for Liconsa are the balanced ones: where help is increased for beneficiaries, while cost reduction commitments are obtained. In the discussion it is argued how the developed Equity and Efficiency indicators help to understand the tradeoffs between the objectives in opposition: instead of analyzing dozens of indicators, some of them improving and others worsening, the two formulas allow to capture all effects into two objectives and evaluate decisions based on their integral impact. Conclusions show that the mathematical definition of Equity and Efficiency supports better and more informed decision making towards improving the social sustainability of the programs operation. The mathematical definition of Equity and Efficiency and its use in engineering models helps balance the opposing objectives of social programs operation and promotes
Edjane Tenório de Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective: To argue upon the social hole of Dentistry in health promotion. Data Synthesis: It is necessary to understand health promotion as a process by which people and communities are enabled to analyze and to reflect over their real problems for, only then, think strategies for overcoming such difficulties. As oral diseases are direct products of the social insertion of affected people/communities, the dentist can greatly contribute to the increase in the quality of life of these groups. What is observed in the dentist professional acting is the unfamiliarity on how to make health strictu sensu. Therein, academic changes in graduation courses are proposed, in which subjects directed to the social aspects of the profession may be adequately explored. It is understood that such alterations may be reflected in health services practice, contributing for the conceptual change of hegemonic attention model. Final considerations: Dentistry has a relevant social role, as it can contribute, beyond clinical procedures in the oral cavity, for the real increment of people/communities quality of life.
Lauckner, Carolyn; Whitten, Pamela
Social media are potentially valuable tools for disseminating cancer education messages, but the differential effects of various sites on persuasive outcomes are unknown. In an effort to inform future health promotion, this research tested the effects of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogs for delivering a cancer risk reduction message. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly placed in several conditions that delivered the same message but with different forms of social media. Effects on comprehension and attitudes were examined, as they are important variables in the behavior change process. YouTube led to higher comprehension and stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction than Twitter, but there were no differences between other sites. Additionally, YouTube led to stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction as compared to Facebook, but not any other sites. These results demonstrate that, even if the message is kept constant, the form of social media used to deliver content can have an effect on persuasive outcomes. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms behind the differences found, however. Altogether, this line of research is valuable for any individuals seeking to use social media for health promotion purposes and could have direct implications for the development of cancer risk reduction campaigns. PMID:26156568
Full Text Available Current cognitive models of social phobia converge on the view that negative imagery is a key factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. Research to date has predominantly focussed on the detrimental impact of negative imagery on cognitive bias and anxiety symptoms, while the potential benefit of promoting positive imagery has been relatively unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests however that positive imagery could have multiple benefits such as improving positive affect, self-esteem and positive interpretation bias, and enhancing social performance. The present article defends the view that combining bias induction with a repeated practice in generating positive imagery in a cognitive bias modification procedure could represent a promising area for future research and clinical innovation in social anxiety disorder.
Leskovec, Jure; Kleinberg, Jon
Social media sites are often guided by a core group of committed users engaged in various forms of governance. A crucial aspect of this type of governance is deliberation, in which such a group reaches decisions on issues of importance to the site. Despite its crucial --- though subtle --- role in how a number of prominent social media sites function, there has been relatively little investigation of the deliberative aspects of social media governance. Here we explore this issue, investigating a particular deliberative process that is extensive, public, and recorded: the promotion of Wikipedia admins, which is determined by elections that engage committed members of the Wikipedia community. We find that the group decision-making at the heart of this process exhibits several fundamental forms of relative assessment. First we observe that the chance that a voter will support a candidate is strongly dependent on the relationship between characteristics of the voter and the candidate. Second we investigate how bo...
Current cognitive models of social phobia converge on the view that negative imagery is a key factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. Research to date has predominantly focussed on the detrimental impact of negative imagery on cognitive bias and anxiety symptoms, while the potential benefit of promoting positive imagery has been relatively unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests however that positive imagery could have multiple benefits such as improving positive affect, self-esteem and positive interpretation bias, and enhancing social performance. The present article defends the view that combining bias induction with a repeated practice in generating positive imagery in a cognitive bias modification procedure could represent a promising area for future research and clinical innovation in social anxiety disorder. PMID:24550815
Bierman, Karen L; Domitrovich, Celene E; Nix, Robert L; Gest, Scott D; Welsh, Janet A; Greenberg, Mark T; Blair, Clancy; Nelson, Keith E; Gill, Sukhdeep
Forty-four Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to enriched intervention (Head Start REDI-Research-based, Developmentally Informed) or "usual practice" conditions. The intervention involved brief lessons, "hands-on" extension activities, and specific teaching strategies linked empirically with the promotion of: (a) social-emotional competencies and (b) language development and emergent literacy skills. Take-home materials were provided to parents to enhance skill development at home. Multimethod assessments of three hundred and fifty-six 4-year-old children tracked their progress over the course of the 1-year program. Results revealed significant differences favoring children in the enriched intervention classrooms on measures of vocabulary, emergent literacy, emotional understanding, social problem solving, social behavior, and learning engagement. Implications are discussed for developmental models of school readiness and for early educational programs and policies. PMID:19037951
College and University, 1985
Examples are given of points hospitals must consider when adopting and implementing infant bioethics committees, including committee functions (educational, policy development, and consultative), structure, membership, jurisdiction, recordkeeping, and legal issues. (MSE)
Bergel, Salvador Darío
Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents. PMID:26665351
Cortázar V., Juan
This article proposes a strategy of government action to promote an equal access to basic social services and lo social insertion opportunities. In the case of social services, it proposes the need to point out the responsibility of the government in relation to the financing and provision of such services. Although the poverty of the country implies that the government should finance directly the greater part of social services, this does not mean that the provision should be exclusively i...
Duke, Jennifer C; Hansen, Heather; Kim, Annice E; Curry, Laurel; Allen, Jane
Background The promotion of evidence-based cessation services through social media sites may increase their utilization by smokers. Data on social media adoption and use within tobacco control programs (TCPs) have not been reported. Objective This study examines TCP use of and activity levels on social media, the reach of TCP sites, and the level of engagement with the content on sites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study of state TCP social media sites and their content was conducted...
Zhanna V. Chashina
Full Text Available Introduction: the article discusses significance of use of new technologies in the learning process for realisation of goals of cognitive and affective domain of knowledge. The paper explores the methods of development of educational knowledge, which is achieved by information, reproductive and research means. Based on example of bioethics the paper demonstrates the use of visuals technology (charts, graphs, tables, illustrations, specification, etc., which performs the following tasks: memorising, analysis and synthesis, comparison and differentiation, categorisation and classification, identification of relationships between facts, and for the revision of the material studied, acquisition of the new knowledge, memo risation of educational material. Materials and Methods: on the basis of the dialectical approach the object of research is new technologies in the learning process, in particular the study of bioethics. By using methods of observation, survey, analysis and synthesis in the educational process the authors prove the efficiency of such technologies as the use of visualisation (diagrams, illustrations, problem-based learning (issues, tasks and situations and research tasks (case study method. Results: visual method complements the learning process. It allows a deeper understanding of the subject. This method deals with feelings, emotions and consciousness of students. It encourages creativity. In addition this method of material presentation allows reducing the amount of material of an ordinary lecture. It is underscored that in the study of bioethics it is recommended to use a technology of a problem-based learning, which is able to implement the intellectual activity of students by means of questions¸ case-studies, tasks and situations. The most vivid form of such technology is a case method. The basis for the emergence of technology of problembased learning is a certain contradiction between knowledge and practice. This method can
Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav
In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other. PMID:27017727
Premkumar, Ashish; Gates, Elena
Within the realm of bioethics, the construction of pregnancy classically has focused on principle-based ethics, essentially separating maternal and fetal interests. Respect for maternal autonomy becomes distinct from an obligation of fetal beneficence, placing practitioners in complicated ethical situations when the goals of pregnant women may be at odds with the best health interests of the fetus as defined by both professional groups and society in general. As a result, clinical care is framed by an ethical "maternal-fetal conflict," with important downstream legal and policy consequences for the well-being of pregnant women. Developments in the social sciences highlight the value of attending to the biosocial realm that a pregnant woman inhabits rather than relating to her and to her fetus as discrete entities. By understanding the needs, concerns, and context within which a woman lives, clinicians can practice an ethics of accompaniment. With a focus on an ethics of accompaniment, assumptions about the maternal moral responsibility to fetal health made by practitioners and society in general can directly affect not only clinical care, but also the way policy surrounding reproductive health is constructed and implemented. PMID:27400011
Schultz, Michael; Bar-Sela, Gil
What are the ethical responsibilities of the medical staff (doctors, nurses, social workers, and chaplains) regarding the preservation of meaningful life for their patients who are approaching the end of life (EOL)? In particular, what is the staff's ethical responsibility to initiate a conversation with their patient regarding palliative care? By subjecting traditional Jewish teachings to an ethical analysis and then exploring the underlying universal principles, we will suggest a general ethical duty to inform patients of the different care options, especially in a manner that preserves hope. The principle that we can derive from Jewish bioethics teaches that the medical staff has a responsibility to help our patients live in a way that is consistent with how they understand their task or responsibility in life. For some patients, the best way to preserve a meaningful life in which they can fulfill their sense of purpose in the time that remains is to focus on palliation. For this reason, although palliative and supportive care are provided from the time of diagnosis, it is critical we make sure our patients realize that they have the opportunity to make a decision between either pursuing additional active treatments or choosing to focus primarily on palliative therapies to maximize quality of life. The Jewish tradition and our experience in spiritual care suggest the importance of helping patients preserve hope while, simultaneously, honestly acknowledging their situation. Staff members can play a vital role in helping patients make the most of this new period of their lives. PMID:23089233
Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy
This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students’ general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important decision-making skills. Learning bioethics through scientific argumentation gives students opportunities to express their ideas, formulate educated opinions and value others’ viewpoints. Research has shown that science teachers’ expectations of student success and knowledge directly influence student achievement and confidence levels. Our study analyzes pre-course and post-course surveys completed by students enrolled in a university level bioethics course ( n = 111) and by faculty in the College of Biology and Agriculture faculty ( n = 34) based on their perceptions of student confidence. Additionally, student data were collected from classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis showed a disconnect between faculty and students perceptions of confidence for both knowledge and the use of science argumentation. Student reports of their confidence levels regarding various bioethical issues were higher than faculty reports. A further disconnect showed up between students’ preferred learning styles and the general faculty’s common teaching methods; students learned more by practicing scientific argumentation than listening to traditional lectures. Students who completed a bioethics course that included practice in scientific argumentation, significantly increased their confidence levels. This study suggests that professors’ expectations and teaching styles influence student confidence levels in both knowledge and scientific argumentation.
Full Text Available Abstract In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee. The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law. In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Williams, Arthur Robin
Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211
Cai, Jingxian; Hao, Yi; Ying, Yuchen; Chan, Benedict Shing Bun; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa
Background Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a handwashing promotion campaign organized by the Global Public-Private Partnership of Handwashing with Soap. In China, it has been promoted by the Chinese public health authorities, international organizations and multinational corporations through various channels including social media such as Sina Weibo, the leading Chinese microblogging site similar to Twitter. The objective of this study is to qualitatively assess Chinese social media users’ reactions to a health promotion campaign using Global Handwashing Day (GHD) 2012 as an example. Methods We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 552 Weibo posts generated on GHD 2012 by Weibo users with 1000 or more followers with the Chinese keyword for “handwashing.” We categorized the Weibo posts into groups by keywords that frequently appeared in the data set. These groups were either exact reposts of an original post, or they conveyed similar information. Results We observed the interconnections between traditional media and social media in handwashing promotion. Social media were found to serve as amplifiers of contents provided by traditional media. We observed the contextualization of global hygiene messages in a unique national social media market in China. Discussion Our study showed that social media and traditional media are two interconnected arms of the GHD campaign in China. Our analysis demonstrated that public health campaigns in China can be evaluated using social media data. The themes and topics identified in this study will help public health practitioners evaluate future social media handwashing promotion campaigns. PMID:26668765
Murphy, Timothy F
In many ways, we live in propitious times for gay and lesbian people. In 1996, the Supreme Court struck down Colorado law prohibiting any kind of protected status based on sexual orientation. In 2003, the Supreme Court held that states may not criminalize sexual conduct between consenting adults of the same sex in private, so long as no money changes hands. In 2010, the Congress repealed the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy that excluded openly gay men and lesbians from military service. In 2013, the Supreme Court struck down key elements of the Defense of Marriage Act that prohibited any federal recognition of same-sex marriage. Most states do not allow same-sex marriage, but more and more states are joining the fold. Likewise, most U.S. states do not forbid discrimination based on sexual orientation, but the number that does is increasing. Arguably, no other social minority has made as much legal progress in so short a time. Despite these advances, the story of gay and lesbian people and the law is not yet finished, and the meaning of homosexuality for bioethics is still being written too. Concerns about gay and lesbian people remain important to bioethics in key domains, especially in seeing to the conferral of optimal health care benefits and in sorting through the priorities and social effects of research. Progress in these domains still involves lifting certain burdens of medical and social misjudgments about same-sex attraction. PMID:25231791
Pan, Sung-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tien, Kuei-Lien; Chien, Kuang-Tse; Chang, Shawn-Chwen
Background Hand hygiene is an important component in infection control to protect patient safety and reduce health care-associated infection. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of different social media on the promotion of a hand hygiene (HH) program. Methods The observational study was conducted from May 5 to December 31, 2014, at a 2600-bed tertiary care hospital. A 3-minute video of an HH campaign in 8 languages was posted to YouTube. The Chinese version was promoted through three platforms: the hospital website, the hospital group email, and the Facebook site of a well-known Internet illustrator. The video traffic was analyzed via Google Analytics. HH compliance was measured in November 2013 and 2014. Results There were 5252 views of the video, mainly of the Chinese-language version (3509/5252, 66.81%). The NTUH website had 24,000 subscribers, and 151 of them viewed the video (connection rate was 151/24,000, 0.63%). There were 9967 users of the hospital email group and the connection rate was 0.91% (91/9967). The connection rate was 6.17% (807/13,080) from Facebook, significantly higher than the other 2 venues (both PFacebook had the highest connection rate in the HH video campaign. The use of novel social media such as Facebook should be considered for future programs that promote hand hygiene and other healthy behaviors.
Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled
Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26153006
Peltomäki, Päivi; Johansson, Mauri; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sala, Maria; Wesseling, Catharina; Brenes, Freddy; Font, Carme; Husman, Kaj; Janer, Gemma; Kallas-Tarpila, Tarja; Kogevinas, Manolis; Loponen, Minna; Solé, Maria Dolors; Tempel, Jürgen; Vasama-Neuvonen, Kaisa; Partanen, Timo
We constructed a simple, flexible procedure that facilitates the pre-assessment of feasibility of workplace health promotion (WHP) programmes. It evaluates cancer hazards, workers' need for hazard reduction, acceptability of WHP, and social context. It was tested and applied in 16 workplace communities and among 1085 employees in industry, construction, transport, services, teaching and municipal works in Costa Rica, Finland, Germany, Spain and Sweden. Social context is inseparable from WHP. It covers workers' organizations and representatives, management, safety committees, occupational health services, health and safety enforcement agencies, general health services, non-government organizations, insurance systems, academic and other institutions, regulatory stipulations pertaining WHP, and material resources. Priorities, risk definitions, attitudes, hazard profiles, motivations and assessment methods were highly contextual. Management preferred passive interventions, helping cover expert costs, participating in planning and granting time. Trade unions, workers' representatives, safety committees and occupational health services appeared to be important operational partners. Occupational health services may however be loaded with curative and screening functions or be non-existent. We advocate participatory, multifaceted WHP based on the needs and empowerment of the workers themselves, integrating occupational and lifestyle hazards. Workforce in irregular and shift work, in agriculture, in small enterprises, in the informal sector, and immigrant, seasonal and temporary workers represent groups in need of particular strategies such as community health promotion. In a more general framework, social context itself may become a target for intervention. PMID:12746383
In order to achieve and promotes coherent economic and social development European Union throughout the last three decades have been engaged, firstly, to promote economic and financial cohesion among the EU Member States, and secondly, as part of its responsibility for global development to support the economic and social development of non-EU members states, both those in the process of becoming EU members. In this context, the EU allocates part of its budget to support the economic and soci...
Isaac Chun-Hai Fung; Jingxian Cai; Yi Hao; Yuchen Ying; Benedict Shing Bun Chan; Zion Tsz Ho Tse; King-Wa Fu
Background: Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a handwashing promotion campaign organized by the Global Public-Private Partnership of Handwashing with Soap. In China, it has been promoted by the Chinese public health authorities, international organizations and multinational corporations through various channels including social media such as Sina Weibo, the leading Chinese microblogging site similar to Twitter. The objective of this study is to qualitatively assess Chinese social media users’ r...
Chiong, Raymond; Kirley, Michael
This paper presents a novel generalised indirect reciprocity approach for promoting cooperation in social dilemma games. Here, players decide upon an action to play in the game based on public information (or "external cues") rather than individual-specific information. The public information is constantly updated according to the underlying learning model. Comprehensive simulation experiments using the N-player Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games show that generalised indirect reciprocity promotes high levels of cooperation across a wide range of conditions. This is despite the fact that the make-up of player groups is continually changing. As expected, the extent of cooperative behaviour observed in the "constraint-relaxed" N-player SD game is significantly higher than the N-player PD game. Our proposed generalised indirect reciprocity model may shed light on the conundrum of cooperation between anonymous individuals.
problems of both a social and moral character. It is shown how health promotion has a thorough impact on the students’ possibilities of coming into being as (professional) subjects. The article points to the conclusion that in this particular educational setting, health promotion constitutes......This article explores how health promotion is practiced within a specific educational setting: the Danish Social and Health Education Programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a strategy aimed at citizens - not at the students themselves. However, the students are generally...... analysis and post-structuralist theory, the article explores the processes of subjectification that result from the practices of health promotion within this particular educational setting. The article reveals how health promotion is transformed into an educational technology and is thus utilized to solve...
Wakefield, Sarah E L; Poland, Blake
Social capital has been the focus of considerable academic and policy interest in recent years. Despite this interest, the concept remains undertheorized: there is an urgent need for a critical engagement with this literature that goes beyond summary. This paper lays a foundation for a critical dialogue between social capital and health promotion, by examining problematics in the conceptualization and practice of social capital building and linking these to models of community development, a cornerstone health promotion strategy. In so doing, the paper contributes to the existing literature by providing a theoretical exposition and critique of various threads in social capital discourse, and linking these threads explicitly to community development practice. Distinctions between communitarian, institutional and critical approaches to social capital are elaborated, and the relationships between these three approaches and three models of community development-social planning, locality development, and social action-are discussed. The existing social capital literature is then critically examined in relation to three key themes common to both literatures: community integration, public participation, and power relations. This examination suggests that social capital cannot be conceived in isolation from economic and political structures, since social connections are contingent on, and structured by, access to material resources. This runs counter to many current policy discourses, which focus on the importance of connection and cohesion without addressing fundamental inequities in access to resources. This paper posits that approaches to community development and social capital should emphasise the importance of a conscious concern with social justice. A construction of social capital which explicitly endorses the importance of transformative social engagement, while at the same time recognising the potential negative consequences of social capital development, could
Chen, Xi; Ragonesi, Christina; Galloway, James C; Agrawal, Sunil K
Self-initiated mobility is a causal factor in children's development. Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of our training methods in learning directional driving and navigation. The ultimate goal of mobility training is to enable children to be social, that is, to interact with peers. A powered mobility device was developed that can localize itself, map the environment, plan an obstacle-free path to a goal, and ensure safety of a human driver. Combined with a positioning system, this system is able to apply a force field to train subjects to drive towards an object, a caregiver, a peer, or a group of peers. System feasibility was tested by designing a 'ball chasing' game. Results show that the system is promising in promoting socialization in children. PMID:24187294
In this book, a PhD study is presented that investigates if and how music therapy may help to promote social communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined several dimensions of this complex field, and includes four articles: (i) a systematic review (Cochrane...... review) synthesising research evidence on overall effects of music therapy for individuals with ASD; (ii) a study protocol specifying the design of TIME-A, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills in children with ASD aged 4 to...... 7; (iii) a treatment guide that describes an international consensus model of improvisational music therapy for children with ASD; and (iv) a feasibility study summarising data from the Viennese pilot cohort of the international multi-centre project TIME-A. In this way, this study presents feasible...
Intersectionality is receiving increasing attention in many fields, including psychology. This theory or framework has its roots in the work of Black feminist scholar-activists, and it focuses on interlocking systems of oppression and the need to work toward structural-level changes to promote social justice and equity. Thus, the current interest in intersectionality in psychology presents an opportunity to draw psychologists' attention more to structural-level issues and to make social justice and equity more central agendas to the field. The large, ever-growing bodies of research demonstrating the wide-ranging adverse consequences of structural- and interpersonal-level oppression, inequality, and stigma for the health and well-being of many diverse groups of people support that these issues are central to the field of psychology. We as individual psychologists and the field as a whole can work to fully incorporate the insights of intersectionality and therefore contribute to making social justice and equity more central across the varied subfields and realms of our work. Specific ways that we can do this are to (a) engage and collaborate with communities, (b) address and critique societal structures, (c) work together/build coalitions, (d) attend to resistance in addition to resilience, and (e) teach social justice curricula. There are important examples both within and outside of psychology that can guide us in achieving these goals. These suggestions are meant to foster conversation and consideration by psychologists across all subfields and areas of focus. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27571527
Tony E. Persico
Full Text Available This paper highlights the relationship between economic scienceand Christian moral in order to analyze the idea of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching (CST. In the first period leading up to the Second Vatican Council (1891-1962, from Pope Leo XIII to Pope John XXIII, the idea of development was connected both to technical and industrial progress, and to the universal values of justice, charity, and truth,which national communities were asked to follow. During the Conciliar period (1962-1979, the concept of development assumes a social and economic dimension, and so it becomes one of the main pillars of Catholic Social Teaching, which introduces the earliest definition of integral human development. Ultimately, in the post-Conciliar phase (1979-2009 including Benedict XVI’s pontificate, the idea of integral human development reaches its maturity by incorporating the complexity of real-world economic interactions. Finally, this paper shows how the ethics bolstered by the Catholic Social Teaching is characterized by two distinct but complementary lines of thought: moral rules for both political action, and for socio-economic issues.
Gordon, Stephen P.
The author begins this article with a brief review of the reasons educational leaders and schools need to promote equity and social justice. The article then critiques two approaches to educational leadership as inadequate for preparing educational leaders to foster equity and social justice. The conventional approach to both educational…
Wang, Cixin; Couch, Lauren; Rodriguez, Geovanna Rosas; Lee, Catherine
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Bullying Literature Project on social-emotional and behavioral outcomes among elementary school students. The Bullying Literature Project is a five-session classroom-wide intervention that uses children's literature as a springboard to promote adaptive social-cognitive process, teach social…
Smith, Carolyn; Goddard, Sarah; Fluck, Michael
This paper describes an approach to intervention that aims to foster the skill of young children with autistic spectrum disorder to share social attention and action to promote socially meaningful communication. It applies principles derived from research into pre-linguistic development. The efficacy of the approach was evaluated through both a…
Goldim, José Roberto
Van Rensselaer Potter is usually credited with coining the term bioethics and with founding this field. However, the rediscovery of the article "Bioethics: A Panorama of the Human Being's Ethical Relations with Animals and Plants," published in 1927 by Fritz Jahr in the German magazine Kosmos, necessitates a revision of this history of the foundation of bioethics. While Potter made significant contributions to this field, the importance of Jahr to the founding of bioethics should be recognized. PMID:19684372
Helga Þórðardóttir 1992
PreCold is an Icelandic medical device produced by Zymetech which shortens the duration of the common cold. The product launched in January 2015 and since then the company has sought ways to promote the product on various platforms. As social media is increasingly becoming a part of the routine of daily life for most people, the company decided to use it for their promotional plan. The objective of this final thesis is to create a social media promotional plan for PreCold. The thesis gives...
Civilian and common law judges differ substantially in their approach to the resolution of issues concerning bioethics and health sciences. Whereas the civilian judge will first take into account the legislative source, his common law counterpart will most probably first look at judicial precedents for guidance. In both systems, however, the legislative drafting technique differs substantially and has a direct impact on judicial interpretation of the law. Both systems also differ in the way that judicial decisions are drafted and rendered. In the common law tradition, judges draft their own opinion, leaving the possibility of dissent which, in turn, helps to better illustrate contentious issues and may have an influence on social awareness of difficult problems. Finally, in bioethics, legislation should be preferred if only for a question of social legitimacy, since decisions are then taken by elected representatives. However, this type of legislation should be subject to periodical review to better adapt its rules to the evolution of science and society. PMID:17902324
Rodrigo A. Salinas
Full Text Available The reflection on bioethical contents of health policies and their effects on the demands for social justice has been a preferred concern of those who have driven the health reforms that were behind the creation of the National Health Service and, more recently, the regime of health guarantees. In the course of the years, the concern for the vindication of individual rights in the context of health care and research has joined to citizen demands for equitable access to health actions. For this purpose, in 2006 and 2012, specific laws addressing these matters were enacted and in the last year, regulations that make them operative emerged and are being implemented. The wording of the articles of both laws, in the effort to rescue individual rights, raises an imbalance in some respects, with regard to the social impact of their implementation. In certain subjects, its provisions run counter to existing codes of professional ethics in the country and in others; its implementation allows the privatization of the process of ethical review of pharmacological research, which was restricted to public health services. The absence of starting up of the National Bioethics Commission, pending since 2006, has prevented the creation of a pluralistic spaTce for deliberation on these issues and others as provided by law.
..., DC 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...
Pearce, Roger S.
The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…
...., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202-233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...
... 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...
Full Text Available Background: Indigenous Canadians have a life expectancy 12 years lower than the national average and experience higher rates of preventable chronic diseases compared with non-Indigenous Canadians. Transgenerational trauma from past assimilation policies have affected the health of Indigenous populations. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the social determinants of health (SDH, in order to identify priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Design: We undertook a series of systematic reviews focusing on four major SDH (i.e. income, education, employment, and housing among Indigenous peoples in Alberta, following the protocol Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-Equity. Results: We found that the four SDH disproportionately affect the health of Indigenous peoples. Our systematic review highlighted 1 limited information regarding relationships and interactions among income, personal and social circumstances, and health outcomes; 2 limited knowledge of factors contributing to current housing status and its impacts on health outcomes; and 3 the limited number of studies involving the barriers to, and opportunities for, education. Conclusions: These findings may help to inform efforts to promote health equity and improve health outcomes of Indigenous Canadians. However, there is still a great need for in-depth subgroup studies to understand SDH (e.g. age, Indigenous ethnicity, dwelling area, etc. and intersectoral collaborations (e.g. community and various government departments to reduce health disparities faced by Indigenous Canadians.
This paper presents results from modelling work investigating the effects of social networks on the adoption of energy technologies in the domestic sector. This work concerns ideas on social network interventions which have been successfully applied in other domains but which have seldom been applied to energy policy questions. We employ a dynamical multi-parameter network model where households are represented as nodes on a network for which the uptake of technologies is influenced by both personal benefit and social influences. This is applied to demonstrate the usefulness of this type of model in assessing the likely success of different roll-out strategies that a local authority could pursue in promoting the uptake of domestic energy technologies. Local authorities can play a key role in the retrofit of energy-efficiency and low-carbon energy-generation technologies in order to realise carbon reductions and alleviate fuel poverty. Scenarios are modelled for different local authority interventions that target network interactions and uptake threshold effects, and the results provide insights for policy. The potential for the use of this type of modelling in understanding the adoption of energy innovations in the domestic sector and designing local-level interventions is demonstrated. - Highlights: • We model energy-technology adoption of households connected on a social network. • Adoption depends on both personal and social benefits to the household. • We investigate interventions that a local authority could take to increase uptake. • Increased uptake results from both threshold and network intervention scenarios. • Insights should be incorporated into design of local-level domestic interventions
Engelhardt, H Tristram
In the face of the moral pluralism that results from the death of God and the abandonment of a God's eye perspective in secular philosophy, bioethics arose in a context that renders it essentially incapable of giving answers to substantive moral questions, such as concerning the permissibility of abortion, human embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia, etc. Indeed, it is only when bioethics understands its own limitations and those of secular moral philosophy in general can it better appreciate those tasks that it can actually usefully perform in both the clinical and academic setting. It is the task of this paper to understand and reevaluate bioethics by understanding these limits. Academic bioethicists can analyze ideas, concepts, and claims necessary to understanding the moral questions raised in health care, assessing the arguments related to these issues, and provide an understanding of the different moral perspectives on bioethical issues. In the clinical setting, bioethicists can provide legal advice, serve as experts on IRBs, mediating disputes, facilitating decision-making and risk management, and clarifying normative issues. However, understanding this is only possible when one understands the history, genesis, and foundations of bioethics and its inability to provide a resolution to postmodern moral pluralism. PMID:21724971
Pereira, Éverton Luís
This paper assesses the options for accessing public policies available to families of women incarcerated in the female penitentiary of Brazil's Federal District. It seeks to contribute to the construction of health promotion strategies for the female population living in the prison system. Some of the claims were revealed in the national comprehensive healthcare policy for individuals in the prison system, especially those that acknowledge the importance of intersectoral actions and relationship networks to promote health. Data are presented from research conducted at the penitentiary in 2014 that used qualitative methodology by means of participant observation and semi-structured interviews with family members of women incarcerated in the Federal District. It was detected that attention must be paid to the different types of relationship that exist between incarcerated women and their families, and especially to the allegations of exhaustion and difficulty of access to public policies. A more in-depth survey into how this population organizes itself could assist in the development of public policies to promote health and overcome social vulnerability. PMID:27383346
Hersey, J C; Klibanoff, L S; Lam, D J; Taylor, R L
Increasing recognition of the importance of social support for health has not been accompanied by commensurate increases in knowledge about how to strengthen natural support networks on a large scale. This study evaluated the impact of California's innovative "Friends Can Be Good Medicine" public education campaign in promoting social support. Campaign impact was assessed with pre-, post-, and long-term follow-up interviews with a panel sample of 340 adults in the six county Fresno media market area. Comparisons of exposed and unexposed individuals found that the campaign appeared to have measurable impact on knowledge, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and support enhancing behavior. Follow-up interviews indicated that these gains maintained themselves over the course of a year. The campaign was most effective when it utilized multiple channels of communication. In Fresno City, where there was the most intensive combination of community activities and media exposure, respondents indicating substantial likelihood of engaging in support enhancing behavior increased from 42% to 59% compared to smaller gains in areas which relied primarily on community implementation, and no gains in areas where exposure to the campaign was limited to mass media. The campaign appeared particularly effective with people who had experienced the death of someone close to them during the past year, and within that group, gains were largest among respondents below average in initial levels of social support. PMID:6520008
Maloy, Debra A.
Traditionally, nurse anesthesia educators have utilized prior academic achievement to predict student success. However, research has indicated that prior academic achievement offers an inadequate assessment of student success in graduate healthcare programs with extensive clinical residencies. The educational literature has identified many non-cognitive factors, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, that may provide a more holistic prediction model of student success. An experimental study with pretest-posttest design and stratified random assignment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention to promote self-management, professional socialization, and academic achievement among first semester graduate nurse anesthesia students. Participants (N = 66) were demographically similar to the national graduate nurse anesthesia student body, though Hispanics and younger students were a little over-represented in the sample (56% female, 75.8% White, 15.2% Hispanic, 6% Other, 59% ≤ 30-years-old, 67% ≤ 3 years of ICU). The results showed that most graduate anesthesia students had strong self-management and professional socialization characteristics on admission. The results did not support the effectiveness of this educational intervention. Thus, ceiling effect may have accounted in part for statistically non-significant results regarding self-efficacy (p = .190, o2 = .03), locus of control (p = .137, o2 = .04), professional socialization (p = .819, o2 = .001), and academic achievement (p = .689, o2 = .003). Future researchers may need to expand the scope of the intervention, use a more powerful and sensitive instrument, and utilize a larger sample.
Purdy, Christopher H
Condoms are an important contraceptive method in Turkey, used by one in three couples using modern methods. However, withdrawal remains the most common form of contraception, resulting in many unwanted pregnancies. To address this issue and increase condom use in Turkey, DKT International, a social marketing enterprise, leveraged the high use of the Internet and social networking to help build Fiesta, a premium condom brand, and promote sales and condom use. By utilising a wide range of digital platforms--a new website, Facebook page, Google Adwords, an e-newsletter, viral marketing, banner ads and involving bloggers--Fiesta achieved strong recognition among the target audience of sexually active young people, though far more men than women. Retail audits, Internet analysis and sales performance suggest that using the Internet was instrumental in establishing Fiesta. Sales reached 4.3 million condoms (of which 8% were sold online) in the first 18 months. In contrast, Kiss, a far more inexpensive DKT condom, launched at the same time but with no digital campaign, sold 2.6 million. With the growing availability and use of the Internet and social media globally, family planning organizations should consider incorporating these technologies into their educational, outreach and marketing programmes. PMID:21555096
Workplace health promotion (WHP) is an idea that was conceived over 25 years ago. At its very core is the wellbeing of employees. The development and dissemination of this notion, as well as the implementation of its basic principles have always been challenged by various theories and practices derived from the field of human resources management. The corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of such new concepts promulgated within the European Union Based on the literature review, especially European Commission documents, articles retrieved in the EBSCO database, guidelines and guidebooks published by the CSR Forum, other NGOs active in the field, and the publications of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, the author makes an attempt to compare these two ideas and discuss the coherence between their assumptions. The primary hypothesis was that WHP is an element of CSR. The comparison between CSR and WHP concepts confirm a hypothesis that the latter is an element of the former, which means that activities aimed at taking care of health and well-being of employees contribute to the creation of a socially responsible company. It indicates that the implementation of both ideas requires multidisciplinary and holistic approach. In addition, the role of social dialog and workers' participation in the company management are strongly emphasized. PMID:18846997
The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect. PMID:23912730
Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Erices, Alejandro; Santos, Manuel J
Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research. PMID:24448860
Fagundes, Maria José Delgado; Soares, Magnely Gomes Alves; Diniz, Nilza Maria; Pires, Jansen Ribeiro; Garrafa, Volnei
This study investigates how advertising campaigns for drugs influence drug prescription practices among physicians from a point of view of "protection ethics" and of "intervention bioethics". It also analyzes information quality in advertisements for prescription drugs before and after the ANVISA (National Agency for Sanitary Protection) RDC 102/200 Resolution wich regulates drugs advertising as well as discusses the regulating role of the state in this area. A first approach was to interview 50 physicians in Brasília/DF (25 general physicians and 25 surgeons) in order to examine how they perceive the effects of advertisement on their professional activities. A second approach was to study 10 publicity pieces, five from before and five from after the RDC Resolution. The results showed that: a) 98% of phsicians are visited by sales representatives on a regular basis; b) 86% of physicians receive gifts during these visits; c) 68% beleive that advertising strongly influences prescription practices; d) 14% related prescription practices to the receival of rewards; e) 68% beleive that information contained in advertisements is unreliable; f) before the RDC Resolution, 28% of advertisements had adequate information content (counter-indications, indications precautions, warnings, and adverse reactions); after the RDC Resolution, that number grew to 79%. PMID:17680073
Najar, Alberto Lopes; Peres, Fabio de Faria
The article examines the complex relationships among the sociological concept of socio-spatial segregation, urban poverty and health promotion, suggesting research topics that could contribute to a detailed analysis of the Brazilian social reality within the public health context, underpinning decisions on healthcare. Initially, the main aspects of the social division problems in major cities are examined from the historical and sociological viewpoints. The inaccuracies and problems related to the concept of segregation are then discussed analytically, referenced to discussions of urban sociology. The importance of new information and the decoupage of other levels of social ties are also addressed, taking the problems of health promotion into account. Finally, four themes are listed that might well constitute a research agenda: analysis of socio-spatial segregation structures; comparison of social structures and socialization practices in poverty-stricken neighborhoods; a study of the middle class and its space distribution; and Government policies, regulations curtailing segregation and urban inequalities. PMID:17680124
Isabel-Gemma FAJARDO GARCíA
Full Text Available La “economía social” como concepto identificativo de una forma de hacer empresa, caracterizada por sus fines y ciertas pautas de comportamiento comunes, ha tenido reconocimiento en la legislación española desde los años 90 y especialmente en el último año con la aprobación de la Ley 5/2011 de Economía Social. Los objetivos principales de esta Ley son dar reconocimiento legal a la economía social y promover su fomento. Pero la economía social, como identificación de una realidad económica viene siendo objeto de fomento desde mucho antes, desde la creación en 1990 del Instituto Nacional de Fomento de la Economía Social. Hoy en día, el fomento de la economía social es una competencia asumida por todas las Comunidades Autónomas. Se subvencionan normalmente los gastos derivados de actividades de promoción de la economía social y los gastos generales de funcionamiento de sus entidades representativas. Pero el concepto de economía social utilizado identifica, con alguna excepción (mutualidades y empresas de inserción, exclusivamente a las cooperativas y sociedades laborales. La razón está en que dentro de cada administración pública el fomento de la economía social suele ser competencia de la administración competente en materia de empleo. Con la nueva ley, el fomento de la economía social debería alcanzar a todas las demás familias y para ello sería aconsejable que su fomento se atribuyese a un organismo interministerial / The “social economy” as a concept identifies a way of doing business, characterized by its purposes and certain patterns of common behavior, it has been recognized in Spanish legislation since the 90//////s and especially in the last year with the approval of Social Economy Law 5 / 2011. The main objectives of this Act are giving legal recognition to the social economy and promote its development. But the social economy, as identification of an economic reality has been under development long
构建社会主义和谐社会的过程是一个不断诉求生命伦理的过程。尊重生命是生命伦理的基本要义，加强生命伦理教育有助于提升国民素质，有助于和谐社会建设，有助于青年人健康成长。在高等教育中，应设定生命伦理教育的目标：即通过生死教育来认识生命、敬畏生命；通过责任教育来发展生命；通过生命价值教育来完善生命。%It is a constant pursuit of the process of life ethics that the process of constructing a harmonious socialist society. Life must be respected, be reverenced, be treatment friendly, be developed, these are our basic concepts of social management. Respect life is the basic meaning of life ethics, strengthen life ethics education would help to improve civics quality, contribute to the construc- tion of a harmonious society, contribute to the healthy growth of young people. With the development of science and technology, social change and educational utilitarianism, contemporary college students＇ life ethics consciousness has already been stricken. We have to set the higher education of life ethics goals ： through the life and death education to understand life, respect life; through the responsi- bility education to develop life; through the life value education to improve life.
Mittelmark, M B
The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for. PMID:11509463
Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan
Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research. PMID:26767499
This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles. PMID:23637435
Tawalare, Kiran A; Nanote, Kalpana D; Gawai, Vijay U; Gotmare, Ashish Y
Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as "principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics. PMID:26195897
Full Text Available Due to the omnipresent risk of epidemics, insect societies have evolved sophisticated disease defences at the individual and colony level. An intriguing yet little understood phenomenon is that social contact to pathogen-exposed individuals reduces susceptibility of previously naive nestmates to this pathogen. We tested whether such social immunisation in Lasius ants against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is based on active upregulation of the immune system of nestmates following contact to an infectious individual or passive protection via transfer of immune effectors among group members--that is, active versus passive immunisation. We found no evidence for involvement of passive immunisation via transfer of antimicrobials among colony members. Instead, intensive allogrooming behaviour between naive and pathogen-exposed ants before fungal conidia firmly attached to their cuticle suggested passage of the pathogen from the exposed individuals to their nestmates. By tracing fluorescence-labelled conidia we indeed detected frequent pathogen transfer to the nestmates, where they caused low-level infections as revealed by growth of small numbers of fungal colony forming units from their dissected body content. These infections rarely led to death, but instead promoted an enhanced ability to inhibit fungal growth and an active upregulation of immune genes involved in antifungal defences (defensin and prophenoloxidase, PPO. Contrarily, there was no upregulation of the gene cathepsin L, which is associated with antibacterial and antiviral defences, and we found no increased antibacterial activity of nestmates of fungus-exposed ants. This indicates that social immunisation after fungal exposure is specific, similar to recent findings for individual-level immune priming in invertebrates. Epidemiological modeling further suggests that active social immunisation is adaptive, as it leads to faster elimination of the disease and lower
Costello, Kaitlin L; Xing, Cathleen Y; Demissie, Kitaw
Background As social media becomes increasingly popular online venues for engaging in communication about public health issues, it is important to understand how users promote knowledge and awareness about specific topics. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the frequency of discussion and differences by race and ethnicity of cancer-related topics among unique users via Twitter. Methods Tweets were collected from April 1, 2014 through January 21, 2015 using the Twitter public streaming Application Programming Interface (API) to collect 1% of public tweets. Twitter users were classified into racial and ethnic groups using a new text mining approach applied to English-only tweets. Each ethnic group was then analyzed for frequency in cancer-related terms within user timelines, investigated for changes over time and across groups, and measured for statistical significance. Results Observable usage patterns of the terms "cancer", "breast cancer", "prostate cancer", and "lung cancer" between Caucasian and African American groups were evident across the study period. We observed some variation in the frequency of term usage during months known to be labeled as cancer awareness months, particularly September, October, and November. Interestingly, we found that of the terms studied, "colorectal cancer" received the least Twitter attention. Conclusions The findings of the study provide evidence that social media can serve as a very powerful and important tool in implementing and disseminating critical prevention, screening, and treatment messages to the community in real-time. The study also introduced and tested a new methodology of identifying race and ethnicity among users of the social media. Study findings highlight the potential benefits of social media as a tool in reducing racial and ethnic disparities. PMID:27227152
Morrison, Kathleen E; Narasimhan, Sneha; Fein, Ethan; Bale, Tracy L
The peripubertal period of development is a sensitive window, during which adverse experiences can increase the risk for presentation of cognitive and affective dysfunction throughout the lifespan, especially in women. However, such experiences in the context of a supportive social environment can actually ameliorate this risk, suggesting that resilience can be programmed in early life. Affective disorders and cognitive deficits commonly emerge during aging, with many women reporting increased difficulty with prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive functions. We have developed a mouse model to examine the interaction between peripubertal experience and age-related changes in cognition and stress regulation. Female mice were exposed to peripubertal chronic stress, during which they were either individually housed or housed with social interaction. One year after this stress experience, mice were examined in tasks to access their cognitive ability and flexibility in stress reactive measures. In a test of spatial memory acquisition and reversal learning where aged females normally display a decreased performance, the females that had experienced stress with social interaction a year earlier showed improved performance in reversal learning, a measure of cognitive flexibility. Because peripuberty is a time of major PFC maturation, we performed transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of the aged PFC, in which long-term changes in microRNA expression and in myelin proteins were found. These data suggest that stress in the context of social support experienced over the pubertal window can promote epigenetic reprogramming in the brain to increase the resilience to age-related cognitive decline in females. PMID:26943365
This study seeks to understand whether and how decentralised school governance in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) enhances the schools' role of promoting social cohesion. This includes increasing "horizontal" trust among different ethnic groups and "vertical" trust between civilians and public institutes. The study examined secondary school leaders' perceptions regarding school board influence on social cohesion policies and practices, their interactions with school board members, and their accountability to the school-based governing body. The results show that school leaders and school boards, supposedly representing the interests of local stakeholders, did not appear to be actively engaged in the deliberate process of promoting social cohesion. While school directors tended to view themselves as being independent from the school boards, ethnically diverse school boards provided important support to proactive school leaders for their inter-group activities. Given that the central level is not providing initiatives to promote social cohesion and that BiH citizens appear to generally support social cohesion, decentralised school governance has the potential to improve social trust from the bottom up. To promote participatory school governance, the study recommends that BiH school leaders should be provided with opportunities to re-examine and redefine their professional accountability and to assist local stakeholders to improve their involvement in school governance.
Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J
Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values. PMID:26325585
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS, the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication activities. The study looks at trends in ORASEL use in Burundi and in behavioral determinants that may be related to its use. Methods In 2006 and 2007, PSI conducted household surveys among Burundian females of reproductive age (15-49. Both surveys used a two-stage sampling process to select 30 households in each of 115 rural and urban collines throughout the nation. Survey respondents were asked about diarrhea treatment-related behavior; key behavioral determinants; and exposure to the ORASEL intervention. Data were analyzed to identify trends over time, characteristics of ORASEL users, and associations between exposure to the intervention and changes in ORASEL use and related behavioral determinants. Results ORASEL use among caregivers at their children's last diarrheal episode increased significantly from 20% in 2006 to 30% in 2007, and there were also desirable changes in several behavioral determinants associated with ORASEL use. Evaluation analysis showed that a higher level of exposure to the social marketing campaign was associated with greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy. Conclusions ORS use can be improved through social marketing and educational campaigns that make the public aware of the availability of the product, encourage dialogue about its use, and increase skills and confidence relating to correct product
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969
Colucci, Massimiliano; Aprile, Anna; Pegoraro, Renzo
Sometimes medical errors should not be disclosed. We report a case of semen samples exchange, during a homologous artificial insemination procedure, where a bioethics consultation was required. The bioethics consultation addressed ethical and legal elements in play, supporting non-disclosure to some of the subjects involved. Through a proper methodology, gathering factual and juridical elements, a consultant can show when a moral dilemma between values and rights-privacy versus fatherhood, in our case-is unsubstantial, in a given context, because of the groundlessness of the value or the right itself. However, being the error elicited by organizational factors, a broader ethical pronouncement was needed. Under such circumstances, ethical evaluation should engage in a sort of 'ethical-based root-cause analysis', linking ethical principles to quality aims and showing the opportunity to integrate ethical methodology in healthcare management. From this perspective, errors may become an incentive to promote high-quality organizations, attending to the central value of person even through the organizational process. PMID:26276448
Full Text Available Thorough genetic testing gives possibility's diagnosis of genetic diseases or identity individuals, who genetic predisposed for disease outbreak Aims: To present/identify the ethical and religious issues, which arise from the application of genetic testing in humans. Furthermore, the principles from the European and Greek legislation regarding genetic testing will be discussed. Materials & Methods: A literature review based on both review and research literature, conducted during the period of (1993-2010, derived from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ΙΑΤΡΟΤΕΚ databases using as key words: Bioethics, genetic testing, bioethics, access, genetic information, orthodox ethics, Legislation. Results: Genetic testing for disease prevention is of primary importance. The main ethical concerns however, are related to the dissemination/ disclosure and use of this information from insurance companies, healthcare authorities, scientists, forensic departments/services and employers. Similarly, the orthodox religion accepts the use of genetic testing for the prevention and treatment of diseases as long as there is no break of confidentiality. Finally, considering the legal issues, it is apparent that genetic information is regarded as personal information and as such it is protected from the national (Greek and international law. Conclusions: It is necessary to ensure that the public authorities protect the rights of their citizens regarding genetic testing and all insurance companies, employers, schools etc. should not be allowed to have access to genetic information. Such an approach will ensure that social discrimination, obstructions or other inequalities between people on the basis of genetic information is avoided.
Full Text Available Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services, and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.
The Symposium on "The Interface of Child Rights and Pediatric Bioethics in the Clinical Setting" brought together a diverse group of pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates to explore how the junction of these disciplines could inform their respective work. In retrospect, it is clear how the diversity of personal histories, professional disciplines, knowledge, experience, language, culture, and politics of the participants influenced the outcomes of the Symposium and provided both challenges and opportunities for further collaboration. Several themes emerged from the meeting, including the relevance of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the role of the family, and consideration of the best interests of the child to complex medical decision-making; research ethics; and the applicability of the principles of bioethics and child rights to the social determinants of health. This essay poses questions related to each of these themes that can serve as a framework for further collaboration. It concludes with a statement by Da Silva and his coauthors that the CRC and the principles of child rights can provide "increased conceptual clarity and a widely endorsed language that can assist pediatric bioethicists in clinical, organizational, and international consultations, as well as in education and policy development." PMID:27157356
Butler, Catherine R; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Tonelli, Mark R; Lam, Daniel Y
Throughout the history of dialysis, four bioethical principles - beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice - have been weighted differently based upon changing forces of technologic innovation, resource limitation, and societal values. In the 1960s, a committee of lay people in Seattle attempted to fairly distribute a limited number of maintenance hemodialysis stations guided by considerations of justice. As technology advanced and dialysis was funded under an amendment to the Social Security Act in 1972, focus shifted to providing dialysis for all in need while balancing the burdens of treatment and quality of life, supported by the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. At the end of the last century, the importance of patient preferences and personal values became paramount in medical decisions, reflecting a focus on the principle of autonomy. More recently, greater recognition that health care financial resources are limited makes fair allocation more pressing, again highlighting the importance of distributive justice. The varying application and prioritization of these four principles to both policy and clinical decisions in the United States over the last 50 years makes the history of hemodialysis an instructive platform for understanding principlist bioethics. As medical technology evolves in a landscape of changing personal and societal values, a comprehensive understanding of an ethical framework for evaluating appropriate use of medical interventions enables the clinician to systematically negotiate and optimize difficult ethical situations. PMID:26912540
Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina
Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650
BADULESCU, Daniel; BADULESCU, Alina
Abstract Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF. Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p p p Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a persuasive positive message can lead to belief change and can create new or alter existing associations - but only in the specific domain. Interventions to change outcome expectations in a positive
The aim of this report was to investigate how the use of promotional activities can help to develop the tourism industry by giving special attention to the case of Finland. The goal for this research was to analyze the utilization of social media accepted by tour operators as a means of promotion. This report was based on both theoretical and empirical point of view. Literature was used for the theoretical analysis. Information sources include articles, journals, and internet web page et...
Full Text Available Children and adolescents with intellectual disability have higher rates of mental health problems compared with there typically developing peers. Social support has been identified as an important protective factor for psychological well - being. In this paper we discuss the benefits of social support networks, and consider approaches for promoting children’s perceptions of the availability of social support. We describe an evidence-based intervention that has been specially adapted and implemented for students with intellectual disability in school settings. In a randomised controlled trial, the Aussie Optimism Resilience Skills Program was associated with improved perceptions of social support following a 10-week intervention. Educators need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of students with intellectual disability to the development mental health problems and the proactive ways in which they can promote psychological well - being within their classrooms.
Full Text Available Citizen participation is essential for democracies to be viable, sustainable and healthy. But it is necessary to establish the appropriate channels for exercising it; and we can not fail to consider the fact that people live in an increasingly interconnected society, where the mass media are a key social resource and can play an important role in fostering critical thinking and active citizenship (Livingstone, 2004; Buckingham, 2007. We understand that to achieve this, from the field of civic education, digital spaces should be considered as privileged spaces for participation. In this paper we show the initiatives undertaken by the «Civic Parliament» project to provide online teaching materials to the teachers so they can raise in their students certain social virtues. The challenges in this order are diverse, we could highlight two: to promote participatory awareness in students, and to combine the technical, pedagogical and ethical-civic aspects of media use (Gonzálvez, 2012.
Full Text Available This work is part of Progetto Vela, a project that aims at "the promotion of health" in communities struck by natural and humanitarian emergencies. It is an initiative organized by a research group from University of Padova (FISSPA Department - Philosophy, Sociology, Pedagogy and Psychology, born in October 2011 with the goal to investigate the outcome on the interactive structure of the community of L’Aquila, meaning how it is shaping its own social reality, after the earthquake of April 6, 2009. The opening words of the article are dedicated to a theoretical reflection on how elements such as "catastrophe", "health" and "emergency" are known, which led to assume the relevance of investigating them as they are configured by the members of the community, instead of considering them as static entities. In line with these assumptions, through specific survey protocols, we researched the discourse modes that shape the "health" of L’Aquila before the earthquake, during the hours of post-earthquake emergency, today and in the future. The protocols were administered to different roles (citizens, merchants, teachers, law enforcement officers, Civil Protection operators, doctors and psychologists, in order to collect the words of all the voices of the community. The findings showed that the people of L’Aquila still see their community as "living a catastrophe" and linked to the earthquake, which pervaded, and still pervades, the community’s biography (in past, present and future perspective with a high rate of potential social disintegration.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrant populations must cope not only with environmental changes in different biomes, but also with the continuous constraints imposed by human-induced changes through landscape transformation and resource patchiness. Theoretical studies suggest that changes in food distribution can promote changes in the social arrangement of individuals without apparent adaptive value. Empirical research on this subject has only been performed at reduced geographical scales and/or for single species. However, the relative contribution of food patchiness and predictability, both in space and time, to abundance and sociality can vary among species, depending on their degree of flexibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By means of constrained zero-inflated Generalized Additive Models we analysed the spatial distribution of two trans-Saharan avian scavengers that breed (Europe and winter (Africa sympatrically, in relation to food availability. In the summering grounds, the probability of finding large numbers of both species increases close to predictable feeding sources, whereas in the wintering grounds, where food resources are widespread, we did not find such aggregation patterns, except for the black kite, which aggregated at desert locust outbreaks. The comparison of diets in both species through stable isotopes revealed that their diets overlapped during summering, but not during wintering. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that bird sociality at feeding grounds is closely linked to the pattern of spatial distribution and predictability of trophic resources, which are ultimately induced by human activities. Migrant species can show adaptive foraging strategies to face changing distribution of food availability in both wintering and summering quarters. Understanding these effects is a key aspect for predicting the fitness costs and population consequences of habitat transformations on the viability of endangered migratory species.
Social Network Sites (SNS) have recently quickly grown in numbers and sizes as more and more people join them in an attempt to connect with others for various reasons. This research aims at finding the major factors that make social network sites appealing for use in promotion of urban music entertainment events in Helsinki nightclubs. Moreover, it examines necessary improvements on the use of Facebook and on its features while recommending previous marketing methods that should be maintained...
Richter, Frida; Torstensson, Christoffer
The usage of social networking sites is steadily increasing, setting higher demands on companies and their need to be present on social media. This study aims to examine how companies could design their content on Facebook and Instagram to promote interaction from followers. To be able to understand this the company Pantamera is used as a case in this study. Pantamera is responsible for the recycling of metal cans and PET bottles in Sweden, and are experiencing that their usage of strategies ...
Corten, Rense; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Buskens, Vincent; Cook, Karen S
Despite the popularity of the notion that social cohesion in the form of dense social networks promotes cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemmas through reputation, very little experimental evidence for this claim exists. We address this issue by testing hypotheses from one of the few rigorous game-theoretic models on this topic, the Raub & Weesie model, in two incentivized lab experiments. In the experiments, 156 subjects played repeated two-person PDs in groups of six. In the "atomized interactio...
This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories. PMID:21175707
Full Text Available This article highlights the role played by Work Integration Social Enterprises as mechanisms which offer jobs to people with difficulties entering the ordinary labour market through social and employment programmes which promote the employability of beneficiaries, some of whom are international immigrants. Despite their quantity, which now amounts to more than 5.7 million in Spain – the 12.2% of its population-, they make up a group that is specially exposed to social risks and levels of poverty. Such entrepreneurial devices, as transition companies for the labour activation and the social inclusion of the most vulnerable immigrants, contribute to the attainment of a more inclusive and cohesive society. We shall define the work of the Work Integration Social Enterprises in the Basque Country where the international migration is rated in the 6,6% in 2011.
Turrens, Julio F.
Undergraduate students in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of South Alabama, Mobile, are required to take a course entitled "Issues in Biomedical Sciences," designed to increase students' awareness about bioethical questions and issues concerning research integrity. This paper describes the main features of this course and…
Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul C.; Teysseire, Nathalie; Nann, Stephanie; Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales; Ahmed, Ramadan; Kamble, Shanmukh; Olivari, Cecilia; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz
We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from five studies that were conducted in the field of empirical bioethics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) the rationing of rare treatments, (b) adolescents' abortions, (c) end-of-life decision-making regarding damaged neonates, (d) end-of-life…
Pyrrho, Monique; do Prado, Mauro Machado; Cordón, Jorge; Garrafa, Volnei
The Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics (DCE), Resolution CFO-71 from May 2006, is an instrument created to guide dentists' behavior in relation to the ethical aspects of professional practice. The purpose of the study is to analyze the above mentioned code comparing the deontological and bioethical focuses. In order to do so, an interpretative analysis of the code and of twelve selected texts was made. Six of the texts were about bioethics and six on deontology, and the analysis was made through the methodological classification of the context units, textual paragraphs and items from the code in the following categories: the referentials of bioethical principlism--autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice -, technical aspects and moral virtues related to the profession. Together the four principles represented 22.9%, 39.8% and 54.2% of the content of the DCE, of the deontological texts and of the bioethical texts respectively. In the DCE, 42% of the items referred to virtues, 40.2% were associated to technical aspects and just 22.9% referred to principles. The virtues related to the professionals and the technical aspects together amounted to 70.1% of the code. Instead of focusing on the patient as the subject of the process of oral health care, the DCE focuses on the professional, and it is predominantly turned to legalistic and corporate aspects. PMID:19851604
Nicotera, Nicole; Walls, N. Eugene
The required research courses in social work education are, perhaps, one of the more difficult content areas in which to infuse direct teaching and knowledge acquisition of multiculturalism. The study presented in this article examines the outcomes of systematically addressing social justice within a required master's level social work research…
Keller, Martha Freese; Carlson, Peter M.
Nineteen socially isolated preschool children were exposed either to four videotapes in which social skills were modeled (treatment) or to four sequences of a nature film (control). Observations indicated that treatment produced increases in the frequency with which subjects dispensed and received social reinforcement and the frequency of social…
In this first Bioethical Issues column the author outlines some of the distinctions and congruities between ethics and law, and between bioethics and medical law. The evidence for connections is obvious and wide-ranging, appearing within health and medical education, the academic literature, statute and case law, professional guidelines and the activities of professional associations, the history of legal practice and philosophical inquiry, and the emergence of human rights theory and applications. The interpenetration of morals and law is examined first by briefly tracing the development of natural law and legal positivism. These links are then developed through a number of examples which are the subjects of both bioethical and legal interest: decision-making capacity, what constitutes good medical practice in the advance care planning context, sex selection, embryo experimentation and posthumous conception. These topics illustrate some of the explicit and some of the less obvious ways in which moral considerations and medical law interact, and suggest that biolaw can involve inconsistencies and even obfuscation which, while difficult to avoid in plural societies, are appropriate areas for examination. In the final section the author argues that bioethics and medical law share some important logical features, including a prescriptivist, principled structure, which is subject to the related requirements of specification and universalisability. Again, medico-legal illustrations are used to support this proposal, which also constitutes a suitable topic for critique. Future columns will provide the opportunity for those who care about the issues of bioethics and medical law to share their thoughts and those of their colleagues. PMID:18365517
Humanity is both an animal species that evolved within and is dependent upon natural ecosystems and a social animal that exists within the social systems we have created. Our health is dependent upon both these systems - natural and social - functioning well, and indeed upon their interactions. Yet our approach to improving the health of the population over the past few decades has been largely, if not exclusively, focused on the social determinants of health. A recent Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) Discussion Document and the technical report on which it is based seek to strike a more balanced approach. First, they document the dramatic and rapid global ecological changes that humans have created and argue that they are a significant threat to the health of the population in the 21st century. Second, they identify the underlying social, cultural and economic forces that are driving these changes. Third, they argue that we need to take an eco-social approach in population health promotion, recognizing the interactions between the ecological and social determinants of health. Such an approach could be considered to be 'Population health promotion 2.0', and it has profound implications for the practice of public health. PMID:26285199
Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Connell, Arin M.; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Myers, Michael W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Kavanagh, Kathryn; Caruthers, Allison S.
This study examined the impact of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and linked intervention services on reducing health-risk behaviors and promoting social adaptation among middle school youth. A total of 593 students and their families were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention or middle school services as usual. Forty-two percent of…
Fox, Lise; Hemmeter, Mary Louise
The Pyramid Model is a conceptual framework for organizing practices for promoting young children's social-emotional development and preventing and addressing challenging behavior. The authors describe a coaching approach that is focused on supporting early educators' implementation of the Pyramid Model. The authors provide a description of the…
Paek, Hye-Jin; Jung, Yumi; Oh, Hyun Jung; Alaimo, Katherine; Pfeiffer, Karin; Carlson, Joseph J.; Wen, Yalu; Betz, Heather Hayes; Orth, Julie
Objective: To evaluate the short-term outcome of the social marketing approach used in Project FIT, we developed a school- and community-based programme for promoting healthful eating and physical activity in kindergarten to 5th-grade children and their parents. Design: A 2-year quasi-experiment for children and two cross-sectional surveys for…
Cooper, Paul; Jacobs, Barbara
In this paper, the authors review empirical evidence on the effects of peer groups on social, emotional and behavioural functioning. The paper shows that an understanding of the ways in which peer groups can influence the development of deviance and subvert the positive effects of interventions can be exploited in the promotion of positive social…
Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E
Stress-induced eating disorders cause significant health problems and are often co-morbid with mood disorders. Emotional feeding, particularly in women, may be important for the development of obesity and failed attempts to lose weight. However, prospective studies assessing the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on appetite in different dietary environments in females are lacking. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic psychosocial stress would increase consumption of high caloric diet and this emotional feeding would persist even when a healthier diet was available. Socially housed female rhesus monkeys were studied to address whether subordination increases caloric intake when a high fat and sugar diet (HFSD) was available concurrently with a low fat, high fiber diet (LCD). Cortisol responsivity and food intake were quantified during this choice phase and when only the LCD was available. The order of diet condition was counterbalanced to assess whether a history of HFSD would affect appetite. All females preferred the HFSD but subordinates consumed significantly more calories during the choice phase. The increased calorie intake was maintained in subordinate monkeys even after withdrawal of the HFSD. Subordinate females demonstrated reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback, with post dexamethasone serum cortisol levels significantly predicting intake of the HFSD but not the LCD during the choice condition. The cortisol response to an acute stressor significantly predicted subsequent intake of a HFSD in all females. Continual exposure to the psychosocial stress of subordination in female monkeys results in excess caloric intake of foods that mimic a western dietary environment. In addition, this social stressor interacts with a history of HFSD intake to promote increased feeding even in a healthy dietary environment. PMID:22377541
Herron, Patrick D
Identifying sources of and eliminating social stigma associated with the promotion and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of sexually acquired HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) is both a moral imperative and necessary requirement to ensure that public health objectives of HIV prevention can be met. This article will examine and address ethical concerns and criticisms regarding the use of PrEP, barriers to its promotion, and use among MSM and examine the types of social stigma associated with PrEP. An ethical justification for both healthcare and LGBT communities to address and overcome social stigma regarding the use of PrEP among MSM is offered. PMID:26859191
Adriana Acevedo Tirado; Mariana Ruiz Morales; Odette Lobato-Calleros
Social programs are crucial to reduce poverty and inequity in developing countries. The operation of social programs, however, cannot be improved with traditional engineering tools since these tools are designed to maximize profits: in social programs maximizing profits is not the objective, social sustainability is. Field research was conducted and it was found that the operation of social programs is considered more socially sustainable if it meets two criteria: Efficiency and Equity; in ot...
Broadening adoption of social network tools within the enterprise suggests a new and valuable source for insight into the social structure through organizations. While online social media tools are being evolved by enterprises in recent years, the social media are used much for knowledge sharing. This paper focuses on how enterprise social network builds within and between the departments and utilize an agent-based model of social networks to clarify employees with critical network positions ...
Witte, Michael M; Foster, Norman L; Fleisher, Adam S; Williams, Monique M; Quaid, Kimberly; Wasserman, Michael; Hunt, Gail; Roberts, J Scott; Rabinovici, Gil D; Levenson, James L; Hake, Ann Marie; Hunter, Craig A; Van Campen, Luann E; Pontecorvo, Michael J; Hochstetler, Helen M; Tabas, Linda B; Trzepacz, Paula T
Until recently, estimation of β-amyloid plaque density as a key element for identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as the cause of cognitive impairment was only possible at autopsy. Now with amyloid-positron emission tomography (amyloid-PET) neuroimaging, this AD hallmark can be detected antemortem. Practitioners and patients need to better understand potential diagnostic benefits and limitations of amyloid-PET and the complex practical, ethical, and social implications surrounding this new technology. To complement the practical considerations, Eli Lilly and Company sponsored a Bioethics Advisory Board to discuss ethical issues that might arise from clinical use of amyloid-PET neuroimaging with patients being evaluated for causes of cognitive decline. To best address the multifaceted issues associated with amyloid-PET neuroimaging, we recommend this technology be used only by experienced imaging and treating physicians in appropriately selected patients and only in the context of a comprehensive clinical evaluation with adequate explanations before and after the scan. PMID:27239516
Romeo Casabona, Carlos María
The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups. PMID:22984748
Full Text Available The role of tourism in rural areas is pivotal for the integration and valorization of territorial resources and it is strengthened by the capacity to promote local community participation in processes of development. The paper addresses the issue by presenting and discussing a case study of a rural area of southern Italy where a territorial network for the development of local tourism has been set up. The innovative initiative aimed, firstly, to facilitate a closer connection between production and consumption by reducing transaction costs and, secondly, to connect local production with quality conscious consumers looking for traditional products. The network project also aimed to create conditions conducive to increasing the competitiveness of the local production chain and tourism sector. The case study shows how the challenge for many rural territories lies in increasing levels of trust and rebuilding social capital as a precondition of developing the tourism sector and fostering socio-economic development as a whole. Traditional institutions, as well as hybrid institutions, with the support of research organizations, can play a key role.
Introduction The use of technology and Internet-based activities (IBAs) is increasing in society. However, seniors with limited experiences with the Internet can experience restricted participation in meaningful activities that are dependent on the Internet. Also, social transitions during aging might lead to reduced social activities and social contacts and to increased experiences of loneliness, all of which might have negative health implications. Therefore, there is a need to advance the ...
This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings...
Lora Jean Brake
At first glance the twenty-first century arena of biotechnology and bioethics seems worlds away from the practical concerns of the first century outlook of the New Testament book of James. A closer look, however, reveals that the issues that James addresses have applications to challenges in bioethics. This article will give an overview of James and examine James’ teaching on wealth, poverty, and generosity and its import for the issue of global stewardship in bioethics. Stewardship concerns...
Despite the fact that bioethics is, basically, an interdisciplinary scientific field, it is deeply intertwined with less objectivistic, yet important, threads of morality and religion. From the beginning, in the United States, the language of bioethics has been shaped by theologians and people who do not neglect the religious approaches of particular scientific issues. This paper examines the possibility of using religious and nonreligious terminologies in the bioethical discourse, paying clo...
Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth
Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating
This article examines the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline from a sociological perspective. This reconstruction helps us to understand on the one hand what is meant by bioethics and what its practices and areas of inquiry are, and on the other to identify various concepts and expert opinions about what the field of study for bioethics should be, opinions which lead in practice to different applications of the discipline in health sciences. This becomes relevant for epistemological discussions about the discipline and for consolidating a sociology of bioethics in the context of Ibero-America. PMID:26625913
... an advisory panel of the nation's leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and... biomedicine and related areas of science and technology. The Bioethics Commission seeks to identify...
...'s leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advised the President on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science...
... medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advises the President on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology....
...'s leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advises the President on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science...
The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of 2005 purports to articulate universal norms for bioethics. However, this document has met with mixed reviews. Some deny that the elaboration of universal bioethics norms is needed; some deny that UNESCO has the expertise or authority to articulate such norms; some regard the content of the UNESCO document as too vague or general to be useful; and some regard the document as a cog in the effort of like-minded cosmopolitans to codify their particular moral intuitions in international law. This issue examines the potential merits and pitfalls of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. PMID:19387002
Jaime C Sapag
Full Text Available América Latina enfrenta problemáticas de desarrollo y salud comunes. La equidad y la superación de la pobreza son cruciales en la búsqueda de soluciones integrales y de alto impacto. El artículo analiza el concepto de capital social, su relación con salud, sus limitaciones y potencialidades, desde una perspectiva de desarrollo comunitario y promoción de salud en América Latina. También, se identifican desafíos prioritarios, como la medición y fortalecimiento del capital social. Se discute cómo y por qué el capital social pudiera ser crítico en una estrategia global de promoción de la salud, donde el empoderamiento y la participación comunitaria, el trabajo interdisciplinario e intersectorial permitirían avanzar en los objetivos de salud pública y en la concreción de un cambio social sustentable. Igualmente, se identifican algunas de las potenciales limitaciones del concepto de capital social en el contexto de promoción de la salud en América Latina.Latin America faces common development and health problems and equity and overcoming poverty are crucial in the search for comprehensive and high impact solutions. The article analyzes the definition of social capital, its relationship with health, its limitations and potentialities from a perspective of community development and health promotion in Latin America. High-priority challenges are also identified as well as possible ways to better measure and to strengthen social capital. Particularly, it is discussed how and why social capital may be critical in a global health promotion strategy, where empowerment and community participation, interdisciplinary and intersectorial work would help to achieve Public Health aims and a sustainable positive change for the global development. Also, some potential limitations of the social capital concept in the context of health promotion in Latin America are identified.
Full Text Available Background: Research centers, operating in a very dynamic, changing and complex environment in the first decade of the 21st century, face a number of major challenges. Universities set up virtual research teams (VRTs, whose cooperation proves extremely effective, despite geographical distances, borders, differences resulting from time zones, cultural and organizational dissimilarities. They work out common models which are then put into practical action in those academic institutions. For five years now VRTs formed by employees of the colleges of higher education based in Suwalki and Grodno have been working successfully. Aim of the study: Assessment of joint activities developed by VRTs, based on an analysis of medical and social aspects of pro-health attitudes declared by students of Prof. Edward F. Szczepanik State Vocational College in Suwalki (SVC and Yanka Kupala State University in Grodno (YKU. Material and methods: The studies in Grodno and Suwalki were carried out by a VRT coordinated by SVC in Suwalki, within the framework of the “Pro-health program for the years 2013–2016”. We used the online questionnaire system LimeSurvey (social, organizational and statistical tool for implementation of health promotion and health education. Results: Upon the analysis of 4,878 original electronic surveys, which were conducted in 2013–2015, Suwalki-Grodno-based VRTs obtained extensive knowledge of pro-health attitudes of students of both academic centers. As a result, there were created databases of, among others: a studies on the impact of health-targeting behaviors, b studies on the prevalence of psychoactive substances (alcohol, tobacco, drugs among students, c studies on knowledge about diseases related to addictions, and d studies on the model of physical activity among students. Conclusions: 1. Unconventional forms of work, including also the sphere of science, materialize along with socio-technological developments and the appearance
Pragmatism has been understood by bioethicists as yet another rival in the "methods wars," as yet another theory of moral deliberation. This has led to criticism of pragmatic bioethics as both theoretically and practically inadequate. Pragmatists' responses to these objections have focused mainly on misunderstandings of pragmatism's epistemology. These responses are insufficient. Pragmatism's commitment to radical empiricism gives it theoretical resources unappreciated by critics and defenders alike. Radical empiricism, unlike its more traditional ancestors, undercuts the gaps between theory and practice, and subjective and objective accounts of experience, and in so doing provides the metaphysical and epistemological basis for a thoroughgoing empirical naturalism in ethics. Pragmatism's strength as an approach to moral problems thus emerges as a result of a much wider array of resources than contemporary interpreters have acknowledged, which makes it a richer, deeper framework for understanding moral deliberation in general and bioethical decision making in particular. PMID:23878348
Jorge, Samuel António Ferreira Antunes Santos
Master in Marketing/ Classificação: M31,L83 O principal objetivo desta Tese é estudar como usar a internet e, mais especificamente, as plataformas de Social Media, para promover o clube de futebol “Sport Lisboa e Benfica”, elaborando um Plano de Comunicação de Social Media para a época 2013/2014, de modo a melhorar a comunicação online feita atualmente pelo Benfica. Estas plataformas de Social Media proporcionam uma excelente oportunidade para os clubes de futebol promoverem os seus pro...
In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most...
Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N.; Collins, Laura J.
Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development an...
Author in this paper refers to ethical and bioethical issues and implications characteristic within female elite gymnastics. Female gymnastics is not the only sport, whose ethics can be called into question, but it is specific, because the female elite gymnasts are mostly under aged girls, and they are faced with both, demanding sport and pressure from parents and coaches. Contemporary athletes are often called modern gladiators. Acute injuries, chronic diseases and various psychosomatic diso...
Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram
In Bioethics and Secular Humanism: The Search for a Common Morality, Tristram Engelhardt examines various possibilities of finding common ground for moral discourse among people from different traditions and concludes their futility. In this paper I will argue that many of the assumptions on which Engelhardt bases his conclusion about the impossibility of a content-full secular bioethics are problematic. By starting with the notion of moral strangers, there is no possibility, by definition, for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers. It means that there is circularity in starting the inquiry with a definition of moral strangers, which implies that they do not share enough moral background or commitment to an authority to allow for reaching a moral agreement, and concluding that content-full morality is impossible among moral strangers. I argue that assuming traditions as solid and immutable structures that insulate people across their boundaries is problematic. Another questionable assumption in Engelhardt's work is the idea that religious and philosophical traditions provide content-full moralities. As the cardinal assumption in Engelhardt's review of the various alternatives for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers, I analyze his foundationalist account of moral reasoning and knowledge and indicate the possibility of other ways of moral knowledge, besides the foundationalist one. Then, I examine Engelhardt's view concerning the futility of attempts at justifying a content-full secular bioethics, and indicate how the assumptions have shaped Engelhardt's critique of the alternatives for the possibility of content-full secular bioethics. PMID:26715286
Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto
This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues. PMID:24959763
Full Text Available In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies
Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi
In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social
In this paper, I start by describing the role played by British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) in nurturing two important new paradigms in social psychology - the social identity approach and discourse psychology. I then consider the forces in contemporary academia, in general, and psychology, in particular, that militate against innovation. I conclude by suggesting some ways in which individual social psychologists and our journals, particularly BJSP, can contribute to the development of an innovative and intellectually dynamic discipline. PMID:21884539
Paulo Sérgio Boggio; Manish eAsthana; Thiago Leiros eCosta; Claudia Aparecida Valasek; Ana Alexandra Caldas Osório
Being socially connected directly impacts our basic needs and survival. People with deficits in social cognition might exhibit abnormal behaviors and face many challenges in our highly social-dependent world. These challenges and limitations are associated with a substantial economical and subjective impact. As many conditions where social cognition is affected are highly prevalent, more treatments have to be developed. Based on recent research, we review studies where noninvasive neuromodula...
Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Connell, Arin M.; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; MYERS, MICHAEL W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Kavanagh, Kathryn; Caruthers, Allison S.
This study examined the impact of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and linked intervention services on reducing health-risk behaviors and promoting social adaptation among middle school youth. A total of 593 students and their families were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention or middle school services as usual. Forty-two percent of intervention families engaged in the service and received the FCU. Using complier average causal effect analyses, engagement in the intervention moderate...
Dahlgren, Göran; Whitehead, Margaret
This is the second in a series of discussion papers from the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The first covers concepts and principes of equity in relation to health, and should be read in conjunction with this paper (Whitehead 1990). The present paper sets out to develop the discussion further by outlining a strategic approach to promote greater equity in health between different social and occupational groups. This draws on the work of WHO advisory groups and associated litterature listed a...
Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan (Jack); Crain, Steven; Hsu, Min-Huei; Wang, Yao-Chin; Khandregzen, Dorjsuren; Chuluunbaatar, Enkhzaya; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Liou, Der-Ming
Introduction The amount of information being uploaded onto social video platforms, such as YouTube, Vimeo, and Veoh, continues to spiral, making it increasingly difficult to discern reliable health information from misleading content. There are thousands of YouTube videos promoting misleading information about anorexia (eg, anorexia as a healthy lifestyle). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate anorexia-related misinformation disseminated through YouTube videos. Methods We retrie...
Dimitrios V. Skiadas
Full Text Available This article considers the matters arising during the judicial review of the management of the assistance provided through the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment. Issues such as the direct actions for annulment, the actions for failure to act, the enforcement actions, the preliminary rulings and the actions for damages are examined in detail. The analysis focuses on topics like the identity of the reviewable acts, the standing of the applicants, the grounds of review, etc.
Skiadas, Dimitrios V.
This article considers the matters arising during the judicial review of the management of the assistance provided through the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment. Issues such as the direct actions for annulment, the actions for failure to act, the enforcement actions, the preliminary rulings and the actions for damages are examined in detail. The analysis focuses on topics like the identity of the reviewable acts, the standing of the applicants, the grounds of review, etc.
O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Kuziemsky, Craig E; Toal-Sullivan, Darene; Corneil, Wayne
Complexity is a useful frame of reference for disaster management and understanding population health. An important means to unraveling the complexities of disaster management is to recognize the interdependencies between health care and broader social systems and how they intersect to promote health and resilience before, during and after a crisis. While recent literature has expanded our understanding of the complexity of disasters at the macro level, few studies have examined empirically how dynamic elements of critical social infrastructure at the micro level influence community capacity. The purpose of this study was to explore empirically the complexity of disasters, to determine levers for action where interventions can be used to facilitate collaborative action and promote health among high risk populations. A second purpose was to build a framework for critical social infrastructure and develop a model to identify potential points of intervention to promote population health and resilience. A community-based participatory research design was used in nine focus group consultations (n = 143) held in five communities in Canada, between October 2010 and March 2011, using the Structured Interview Matrix facilitation technique. The findings underscore the importance of interconnectedness of hard and soft systems at the micro level, with culture providing the backdrop for the social fabric of each community. Open coding drawing upon the tenets of complexity theory was used to develop four core themes that provide structure for the framework that evolved; they relate to dynamic context, situational awareness and connectedness, flexible planning, and collaboration, which are needed to foster adaptive responses to disasters. Seven action recommendations are presented, to promote community resilience and population health. PMID:22898721
Full Text Available La Bioética puede entenderse como una reflexión crítica sobre la vida y la salud, como una nueva forma de tomar decisiones en esos ámbitos, como un movimiento de reforma social y también como una disciplina académica. En cualquiera de los casos, la Bioética implica un diálogo interdisciplinario e intercultural. A su vez, los derechos humanos, como pautas morales universales, proporcionan una base plausible para el diálogo intercultural, permitiendo identificar un núcleo de valores transculturales que funcionen como “mínimos morales” en las arenas del diálogo entre culturas diversas y la búsqueda de consensos internacionales. En este trabajo se plantea la triple vinculación (histórico-genealógica, conceptual y práctica de la bioética y los derechos humanos y se reflexiona sobre algunas condiciones que deberían tomarse en cuenta para una bioética implicada en la cultura de los derechos humanos.Bioethics can be interpreted as a critical reflection on life and health, a new way to make decisions in these fields, a social reform movement, and an academic discipline. In any case, Bioethics implies an interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue. At the same time, human rights, as universal moral guidelines, provide a plausible basis for this intercultural dialogue, for they enable the identification of a core of transcultural values that can work as “moral minima” in the dialogue among different cultures and the search for international consensuses. This article sets forth the triple connection (historical-genealogical, conceptual and practical between bioethics and human rights, and reflects on some of the conditions that should be taken into account for bioethics to be involved in the human rights culture.
Solberg, Mary M.
Teaching bioethics might be likened to a rollercoaster ride of twists, turns, and dips that invite teachers and students to experience something of their own edges of fear and comfort. Here the author provides readers with a glimpse into her distinctive approach to teaching bioethics that encourages students to move beyond boundaries of personal…
Precollegiate education has paid little attention to the bioethical underpinning of recent innovations. Without a deliberate commitment to bioethical education, confusion and divisiveness regarding genetic testing are likely to challenge harmony in families and further polarize the already fragmented society. This article presents the following…
Balatsoukas, Panos; Catriona M Kennedy; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John
Background Social network technologies have become part of health education and wider health promotion—either by design or happenstance. Social support, peer pressure, and information sharing in online communities may affect health behaviors. If there are positive and sustained effects, then social network technologies could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of many public health campaigns. Social media alone, however, may be insufficient to promote health. Furthermore, there may be u...
Social media has become an essential part of modern life as it intensely transforms the way people interact and transact with each other. With the increasing popularity on social media usage, Facebook has become one of the most popular and widely used in Thailand, making it an ideal place for marketing promotion activities. The purpose of this study is to find the attitude of consumers toward marketing activities through social media and to examine how social media use impact consumers’ ...
生命伦理学是20世纪60年代兴起于美国的一门新兴学科,旨在应对生命科学和生物技术的发展或医疗保健的演变使人类面临的种种伦理难题.生命伦理学的兴起有着特殊的社会历史背景.它在发展过程中出现的一些里程碑式的案例,对生命伦理学的发展产生了深远的影响.从其发展特征上看,生命伦理学和医学伦理学紧密联系,有着更为广泛的研究内容和独特的专业特性.生命伦理学要有效回应现代医学和生命科学的发展给人类带来的伦理难题,既要准确地界定伦理问题,又要以适当的方式将伦理学基础理论应用到具体问题当中.对生命伦理学的基本理论进行概述.%Bioethics is an emerging discipline originating in America of the 1960s, aiming to bridge between life science, biomedical technology, health care and ethics. Bioethics originated under particular social historical contexts; Some events or cases which happened as the cornerstone in the history have profound influences on the development of bioethics. With respect to its developmental features, even though bioethics historical linked with medical ethics, it owns broader contents and unique characteristics. In order to answer ethical dilemmas caused by the developments of contemporary medicine and life science, bioethics firstly needs to define ethical issues correctly, then apply fundamental theories of ethics to concrete scenarios in appropriate ways. This paper also makes a briefly introduction of the basic theories of bioethics.
Alireza Bakhshizadeh; Fereshteh Mansouri Moayyed; Saeed Dehyadegari
Social networks are online gathering places for people who would like to share their interests and activities. In this context, advertising through social networks is one of the most important topics in the field of marketing and brand that has been considered only in few studies. This study examines the impact of advertising on brand equity through social networks in the beverage industry (PepsiCo). This research study was to survey and collect data from the a standard questionnaire. PepsiCo...
The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. PMID:25655982
Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal
At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics. PMID:26911078
Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael
Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice. PMID:23118470
Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong
Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…
Killen, Melanie; Rutland, Adam; Ruck, Martin D.
Children around the world are affected by discrimination and social exclusion due to their age, race, ethnicity, gender, religion, indigenous background, or other statuses. When considering the negative consequences of discrimination and social exclusion on children's development and well-being, it is of paramount importance to examine the…
Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard
The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…
Semino, Stella Maris
This article examines how social policy influences social cohesion within a London borough. The focus is on the degree to which civil society organisations facilitate the representation of migrants within the public sphere. The policies considered are those introduced by New Labour and the curren...
Oswald, Ramona Faith; Masciadrelli, Brian P.
Generativity is typically studied as a normative adult inclination expressed through social roles (D.P. McAdams & E. de St. Aubin, 1992). We extend this research by examining generativity through the lenses of social marginality and ritual. Toward this end, we utilize in-depth interview and observational data about family rituals from 49 downstate…
Patterson, David A.; Cronley, Courtney; West, Stacia; Lantz, Jennifer
This article examines an ongoing university-community relationship that fuses innovative technology delivery, university-outreach research, and social work practice/research education into a unique, collaborative intervention to reduce homelessness. In doing so, we apply a social justice framework to homelessness, arguing that housing is a right…
O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen
Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…
Raffo, Carlo; Gunter, Helen
Although much research has focussed on how various educational policy initiatives have attempted to improve problems of social exclusion, little research has systematically examined, categorised and synthesised the types of leadership in schools that might assist improving social inclusion. Given the importance of school leadership in New Labour…
Dover, Alison G.
A growing body of research explores theoretical models of teaching for social justice in P-12 classrooms and in teacher education. However, many of these models fail to account for the relationship between teachers' social justice frameworks and their classroom practices. In this article, I use vignettes drawn from a recent study of secondary…
Fast paced, quick to read, impossible to put down, this book is a complete plan for social engagement on the web. You've heard plenty of social media success stories. You know your WordPress site inside and out, but you want help. Stop right now and pick up a copy of this book.
Woodland, Rebecca H.; Barry, Shannon; Roohr, Katrina Crotts
Social network analysis (SNA), a methodological approach that enables the mathematical examination of interprofessional relationships, can be an important tool for understanding and leveraging the social relationships that support and restrain instructional innovation and the quality and pace of school reform initiatives. In this article, we…
Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
There is a strong need for strategies that can help promote healthy eating. The paper explores the shaping of initiatives aimed at promoting and implementing healthy eating in a worksite catering setting by analysing the sustainability of the intervention of healthier eating in a canteen model st...... study. The results after one year were promising, showing an increase in the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The paper analyses the long-term sustainability of the increased consumption 4 years after the intervention....
Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce
Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093
Full Text Available Abstract Social isolation and disengagement fragments local communities. Evidence indicates that refugee families are highly vulnerable to social isolation in their countries of resettlement. Research to identify approaches to best address this is needed. Football United is a program that aims to foster social inclusion and cohesion in areas with high refugee settlement in New South Wales, Australia, through skills and leadership development, mentoring, and the creation of links with local community and corporate leaders and organisations. The Social Cohesion through Football study's broad goal is to examine the implementation of a complex health promotion program, and to analyse the processes involved in program implementation. The study will consider program impact on individual health and wellbeing, social inclusion and cohesion, as well as analyse how the program by necessity interacts and adapts to context during implementation, a concept we refer to as plasticity. The proposed study will be the first prospective cohort impact study to our knowledge to assess the impact of a comprehensive integrated program using football as a vehicle for fostering social inclusion and cohesion in communities with high refugee settlement. Methods/design A quasi-experimental cohort study design with treatment partitioning involving four study sites. The study employs a 'dose response' model, comparing those with no involvement in the Football United program with those with lower or higher levels of participation. A range of qualitative and quantitative measures will be used in the study. Study participants' emotional well being, resilience, ethnic identity and other group orientation, feelings of social inclusion and belonging will be measured using a survey instrument complemented by relevant data drawn from in-depth interviews, self reporting measures and participant observation. The views of key informants from the program and the wider community will
This philosophical inquiry examines the nature of the technology of genetic predisposition testing and its relation to patients as whole persons. The bioethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy and justice are judged insufficient to resolve issues associated with use. A new principle of 'sustained being', drawn from philosophical propositions of Pellegrino, is suggested. The new principle is suited to an evolving practice and is compatible with consequentialist, deontological and relational ethics theories. The notion of 'taking care' is related to nursing in genetic health care to form a standard of conduct and a moral imperative to 'safeguard being'. PMID:12762460
Full Text Available En Occident, on semble généralement persuadé que ce qui y est appelé la bioéthique peut s’exporter mondialement. En fait les excellentes études qui ont été consacrées aux indiens Hopi montrent que notre bioéthique y serait totalement incompréhensible. Et l’enquête faite chez les Hopis donnerait des résultats très semblables dans d’autres sociétés dites « traditionnelles », dénomination qui signale l’autre aspect du problème. L’Occident, qui prétend étendre la bioéthique, en plus de ce qu’il appelle le droit, la démocratie et d’autres valeurs qui sont en fait une façon d’afficher sa supériorité et sa stratégie de conquête, cet Occident dissimule derrière son discours civilisateur la réalité d’une pensée sauvage qui se perçoit fort bien lorsque le prêche bioéthique dissimule mal les interdits des sacralités primitives.The Western world seems generally convinced that what is labelled as bioethics can be exported throughout the world. In fact the excellent research devoted to Hopi indians shows that our bioethics would be there totally impossible for them to understand. And the study carried out among the Hopis would produce very similar results in other so-called « traditional » societies. When the West claims the extension of bioethics in addition to law, democracy and other values, this may in fact be analyzed as a way of displaying its superiority and its strategy of conquest. It conceals behind its civilizing discourse the reality of a savage mind which is clearly perceptible, for its bioethical sermonising barely hides the taboos of its primitive sacrednesses .
Heshmati, Mitra; Golden, Sam A; Pfau, Madeline L; Christoffel, Daniel J; Seeley, Elena L; Cahill, Michael E; Khibnik, Lena A; Russo, Scott J
Mefloquine continues to be a key drug used for malaria chemoprophylaxis and treatment, despite reports of adverse events like depression and anxiety. It is unknown how mefloquine acts within the central nervous system to cause depression and anxiety or why some individuals are more vulnerable. We show that intraperitoneal injection of mefloquine in mice, when coupled to subthreshold social defeat stress, is sufficient to produce depression-like social avoidance behavior. Direct infusion of mefloquine into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region, increased stress-induced social avoidance and anxiety behavior. In contrast, infusion into the ventral hippocampus had no effect. Whole cell recordings from NAc medium spiny neurons indicated that mefloquine application increases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, a synaptic adaptation that we have previously shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to social defeat stress. Together, these data demonstrate a role for the NAc in mefloquine-induced depression and anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:26471420
Nandigam, V.; Crosby, C. J.; Baru, C.
LiDAR (Light Distance And Ranging) topography data offer earth scientists the opportunity to study the earth's surface at very high resolutions. As a result, the popularity of these data is growing dramatically. However, the management, distribution, and analysis of community LiDAR data sets is a challenge due to their massive size (multi-billion point, mutli-terabyte). We have also found that many earth science users of these data sets lack the computing resources and expertise required to process these data. We have developed the OpenTopography Portal to democratize access to these large and computationally challenging data sets. The OpenTopography Portal uses cyberinfrastructure technology developed by the GEON project to provide access to LiDAR data in a variety of formats. LiDAR data products available range from simple Google Earth visualizations of LiDAR-derived hillshades to 1 km2 tiles of standard digital elevation model (DEM) products as well as LiDAR point cloud data and user generated custom-DEMs. We have found that the wide spectrum of LiDAR users have variable scientific applications, computing resources and technical experience and thus require a data system with multiple distribution mechanisms and platforms to serve a broader range of user communities. Because the volume of LiDAR topography data available is rapidly expanding, and data analysis techniques are evolving, there is a need for the user community to be able to communicate and interact to share knowledge and experiences. To address this need, the OpenTopography Portal enables social networking capabilities through a variety of collaboration tools, web 2.0 technologies and customized usage pattern tracking. Fundamentally, these tools offer users the ability to communicate, to access and share documents, participate in discussions, and to keep up to date on upcoming events and emerging technologies. The OpenTopography portal achieves the social networking capabilities by integrating various
Houghton, Kat; Schuchard, Julia; Lewis, Charlie; Thompson, Cynthia
This study examined the effects of the Son-Rise Program (SRP), an intensive treatment aimed to improve child-initiated social communication in children with autism. Six children between the ages of 47 and 78 months were provided with 40 h of SRP, with pre- to post-treatment behavioral changes tested using a novel passive interaction probe task. Results showed an increase in the frequency of spontaneous social orienting and gestural communication for the experimental children, compared to six ...
Sirviö, A. (Anu)
Abstract The evolution of sociality is often associated with close relatedness and genetic similarity of interacting individuals. However, colonies of advanced social insects (e.g. ants, bees and wasps) characterized by large colony size and division of tasks, are also shaped by acquisition of genetic diversity by polyandry, polygyny, recombination and even by hybridization. The balance between forces selecting for high relatedness on one hand and for improved colony performance though inc...
Rebelo, Márcia; Alturas, Bráulio
This paper addresses the topic of Social Networking as a Marketing tool studying the participation in cultural events disseminated through social networks, specifically by Facebook. After a theoretical framework, we propose a conceptual model that identifies and analyses the assumptions of this research. It is argued that “the reading of an invitation to a an event received through Facebook is positively influenced by being sent by a friend”, “users who regularly read invitations to cultural ...
Harris, Patrick; Ritchie, Jan; Tabi, Graham; Abel, Myriam; Lower, Tony
Community based health promotion initiatives are recognised as important strategies to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. However, limited knowledge exists on how such initiatives work in practice. One innovative health promotion program of work, the Pacific Action for Health Project, is working with young people and communities in the Pacific country of Vanuatu to offset the future effects of risk factors for these diseases, through optimising broad lifestyle and living conditions for the positive promotion of health. Recognising the established link between non-communicable diseases and their social determinants, the Pacific Action for Health Project works with young people to address these determinants at the community level including, but not limited to, unemployment. This paper appraises the program based on a constructivist approach to data gathering and analysis, with observations made in the field subsequently interpreted through the health promotion literature on community empowerment. From the data collected, six themes emerged as key attributes through which the program achieved its planned outcomes. Subsequent analysis through the community empowerment literature, specifically 'dynamic continuum' models of community development, provided deeper analysis of the program's strategies and offered insight into how the literature on community empowerment may work in practice in a resource poor context. In addition to the development of locally specific empowerment measures as indicators for future program evaluation, further ethnographic work and participatory-action research approaches are encouraged to assist the future development of the program. PMID:19588611
Chen, Xi; Ragonesi, Christina; Galloway, James C; Agrawal, Sunil K
Self-initiated mobility is a causal factor in children's development. Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of our training methods in learning directional driving and navigation. The ultimate goal of mobility training is to enable children to be social, that is, to interact with their peers. A powered mobility device was developed that can localize itself, map the environment, plan an obstacle-free path to a goal, and ensure safety of a human driver. Combined with a positioning system, this system is able to apply a force field using a modular haptic feedback approach to train subjects to drive towards an object, a caregiver, a peer, or a group of peers. System feasibility was tested by designing a 'ball chasing' game. Results show that the system is promising in promoting socialization in children. PMID:24968377
Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed. PMID:22054026
Butryn, Meghan L; Arigo, Danielle; Raggio, Greer A; Colasanti, Marie; Forman, Evan M
This pilot study tested a novel program to promote adoption and maintenance of aerobic activity in midlife women. Lifestyle modification group sessions were held weekly for 3 months, followed by two booster sessions during the 3-month maintenance phase. During all 6 months of the program, participants used a physical activity sensor to automate self-monitoring and a web platform to facilitate social connectivity. Aerobic exercise increased from 63 to 132 minute/week from baseline to 3 months (p behavior change. PMID:25488937
In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of 'empirical' (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but can perhaps best be understood as a substantive attempt to engage with the nature of that interdisciplinarity and to articulate the relationship between the many different disciplines (some of them empirical) that contribute to the field. It can also be described as an endeavour to explain how different disciplinary approaches can be integrated to effectively answer normative questions in bioethics, and fundamental to that endeavour is the need to think about how a robust methodology can be articulated that successfully marries apparently divergent epistemological and metaethical perspectives with method. This paper proposes 'Reflexive Bioethics' (RB) as a methodology for interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics, which utilizes a method of 'Reflexive Balancing' (RBL). RBL has been developed in response to criticisms of various forms of reflective equilibrium, and is built upon a pragmatic characterization of Bioethics and a 'quasi-moral foundationalism', which allows RBL to avoid some of the difficulties associated with RE and yet retain the flexible egalitarianism that makes it intuitively appealing to many. PMID:23444909
Yuan, Si-Yang; Freeman, Ruth
Objective: To examine if social support in the guise of a culturally sensitive, community-based oral health intervention could promote mother-infant bonding in socially-isolated immigrant mothers. Design: A quasi-experimental design. Participants: A convenience sample of 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with 8-week-old infants was divided into…
Low, Sabina; Cook, Clayton R; Smolkowski, Keith; Buntain-Ricklefs, Jodie
Research has consistently linked social-emotional skills to important educational and life outcomes. Many children begin their school careers, however, without the requisite social and emotional skills that facilitate learning, which has prompted schools nationwide to adopt specific curricula to teach students the social-emotional skills that enable them to maintain optimal engagement in the learning process. Second Step® is one of the most widely disseminated social-emotional learning (SEL) programs; however, its newly revised version has never been empirically evaluated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of the 4th Edition Second Step® on social-behavioral outcomes over a 1-year period when combined with a brief training on proactive classroom management. Participants were kindergarten to 2nd grade students in 61 schools (321 teachers, 7300 students) across six school districts. Hierarchical models (time×condition) suggest that the program had few main effects from teacher-reported social and behavioral indices, with small effect sizes. The majority of significant findings were moderated effects, with 8 out of 11 outcome variables indicating the intervention-produced significant improvements in social-emotional competence and behavior for children who started the school year with skill deficits relative to their peers. All the significant findings were based on teacher-report data highlighting a need for replication using other informants and sources of data. Findings provide program validation and have implications for understanding the reach of SEL programs. PMID:26563599
In the context of clinical and non-clinical biomedical practices, negligence is usually understood as a lapse of a specific professional duty by a healthcare worker or by a medical facility. This paper tries to delineate systemic negligence as another kind of negligence in the context of health systems, particularly in developing countries, that needs to be recognized and addressed. Systemic negligence is not just a mere collection of stray incidences of medical errors and system failures in a health system, but is proposed in this paper as a more pervasive kind of neglect. Several non-medical factors, such as lack of social and political will, also contribute to it and hence is more difficult to address in a health system. This paper argues that recognizing systemic negligence and including it research agenda have special moral importance for researchers in developing world bioethics, public health ethics and for health activists in the developing world. For, it can be a potent health system barrier, and can seriously impair efforts to ensure patient safety, particularly in the weaker health systems. As it erodes accountability in a health system, addressing it is also important for the twin goals of ensuring patient safety and improving health system performance. Above all, it needs to be addressed because the tolerance of its persistence in a health system seems to undervalue health as a social good. PMID:24761790
Full Text Available Social networks are online gathering places for people who would like to share their interests and activities. In this context, advertising through social networks is one of the most important topics in the field of marketing and brand that has been considered only in few studies. This study examines the impact of advertising on brand equity through social networks in the beverage industry (PepsiCo. This research study was to survey and collect data from the a standard questionnaire. PepsiCo brand, which is a well known beverage industry worldwide is selected for the proposed study of this paper. Thus, all customers of Pepsi products in city of Tehran are considered as statistical research community and a sample size of 385 people is selected for the proposed study. In order to analyze the data, we use structural equations method and certified factor analysis. The results of our survey indicate that advertisement on social networks has a positive impact in this industry. Based on the results of our survey, we realize that there are some positive relationship between social network advertisement and quality perception, brand loyalty, brand awareness and brand association when the level of significance is one percent.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a stakeholder analysis, (b international literature reviews, (c Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental
The research contained within this article was commissioned by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, as part of the development of an ethical framework to guide the practice of those involved in novel neurotechnologies. The findings of this study are included in chapter 9 of the report Novel Neurotechnologies: Intervening in the Brain. The purpose of this research was to provide a 'snapshot' of the content found within postings on social media platforms, concerning the technologies of Deep Brain Stimulation, Brain Computer Interface and Neural Stem Cell Therapy. The methodology included an analysis of the postings found on Delicious, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and blogs and found evidence that social media provided a platform for a variety of voices, including patients, medical personnel and neuroscientists. However, it additionally found evidence of the advertisement and promotion of neurotechnologies as potential medical interventions, the hype of scientific breakthroughs and the hope of cures for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24707595
Hiemke Katharina Schmidt
Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.
Hubbard, William J; Dashti, Nassrin
The aged patient stands at the nexus of significant biomedical and bioethical issues in transplantation. This in itself can be seen as a microcosm of an imminent global tempest, stemming from expanding numbers and longer lives of the aged population. As a candidate for receiving organ and tissue transplants, the geriatric patient is challenging because they present unique physiology for medical management. As organ and tissue donors, the aged are perceived of as providing "marginal" organs, which drives the fear that the graft will fail before the recipient. Such difficulties lead inexorably to several unique bioethical considerations for transplantation with this population. The thorny conundrums for society hinge on fairness versus discrimination based on age, played out under the enormous and probably intractable problem of severe donor organ shortages. Fortunately, recent findings offer some rather unexpected new and favorable prospects. Notably, aged donors can provide organs with good, lifesaving function, even though there are nonetheless age-related compromises present. On the other side of the coin, there is less doubt that recipients can have their lives extended with high quality through transplantation. Here they benefit from some (counterintuitively) positive attributes for aging, such as reduced immune function, making immunosuppression less rigorous. Finally, the pressure of organ and tissue shortages plus the lifting of bans on embryonic stem cell research have portents for an explosive alternative to transplantation of adult organs. Stem cells also lend credibility to prospects for realizing regenerative medicine, assuming ethical and religious concerns can be satisfied. PMID:22396872
María Natalia Zavadivker
Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate to what extent the resulting empirical data from various experiments in Moral Psychology (some behavioral, others based on evidence from neuroimaging and in patients with brain lesions associated with moral competence areas , can contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes (cognitive and emotional underlying to our moral practical judgments, helping us to understand the mechanisms that influence our assessment of moral dilemmas in general and bioethics in particular. Various experiments are discussed (and the theoretical models that are supported that reveal aspects such as the role of disgust or repugnance in the production of moral judgments, the competitive or cooperative role of emotions and cognitions in impersonal and personal moral dilemmas -and between the above mentioned, easy and difficult-, the neurophysiological bases of deontologist and consequentialist, the value attributed to the intent and the results of action, etc. The relevance of these experiments are analyzed to understand the evaluative and deliberative processes concerning various bioethical dilemmas, for which appeals to examples of conflict situations involved and our emotional resources (that activate immediate assessment and our higher cortical areas interact (cognitive processes responsible for slower deliberative and reflexive.
Berloviene, Dina; Samuseviča, Alīda
Dynamics of ageing of Latvia’s population is faster than in other European Union countries, which has been caused by the social economic situation and immigration of society members. Ageing of society will have a considerable impact on health care in the future. Hence, it is essential to invest resources in the process of the development of health care by educating health care specialists who will be motivated to solve social wellbeing problems in the country in a professional way.Students an...
Mizuno, Toshinari; Slingsby, Brian Taylor
Religious traditions can play a significant role in the shaping of bioethical thought. In Japan, traditional Buddhist and Shinto thought continue to influence contemporary bioethical perspectives. To better define this relationship, this paper examines the correlation between Japanese bioethical perspectives and Buddhist and Shinto thought. An in-depth discussion explores how Buddhist and Shinto scholars have used fundamental concepts with each religious tradition to agree and disagree with the disclosure of an incurable disease to a patient, brain death, and brain-dead organ transplantation. PMID:17269549
Full Text Available Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications.
Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung
Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications. PMID:24859031
Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan
The social accountability of medical schools is an emerging concept in medical education. This issue calls for the consideration of societal needs in all aspects of medical programmes, including the values of relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Most importantly, these needs must be defined collaboratively with people themselves.…
Merrell, Kenneth W.; Gueldner, Barbara A.
This highly engaging, eminently practical book provides essential resources for implementing social and emotional learning (SEL) in any K-12 setting. Numerous vivid examples illustrate the nuts and bolts of this increasingly influential approach to supporting students' mental health, behavior, and academic performance. Helpful reproducibles are…
Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.
The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…
Rubin-Vaughan, Alice; Pepler, Debra; Brown, Steven; Craig, Wendy
Everyday many students face bullying situations that they are ill equipped to manage. E-learning has recently emerged as a potentially effective tool in teaching children social skills, in addition to academic subject matter. Quest for the Golden Rule is one of the first bullying prevention e-learning programs available, designed by the…
Moody, Amelia K.
Family members of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often face social, emotional, and behavioral challenges in the home. Difficulty communicating with family members, forming relationships with friends, and responding appropriately to others can cause significant challenges in the home (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…
Dowden, Angel Riddick
This article describes the author's journey as a school counselor utilizing an action research approach to advocate for social justice in education. Two case studies are provided to discuss the process utilized to advocate for equal education for all students as a school counselor. Lastly, the author reflects on the successes and failures…
Buhin, Larisa; Vera, Elizabeth M.
This paper proposes that prevention of racism is a social justice issue in light of the pervasively detrimental effects of racism on all members of our society and the especially traumatizing effects for people of color. Review of contact theory and its extensions provides the theoretical background for person-focused prevention strategies.…
Scarapicchia, Tanya M. F.; Sabiston, Catherine M. F.; Brownrigg, Michelle; Blackburn-Evans, Althea; Cressy, Jill; Robb, Janine; Faulkner, Guy E. J.
Objective: MoveU is a social marketing initiative aimed at increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among undergraduate students. Using the Hierarchy of Effects model (HOEM), this study identified awareness of MoveU and examined associations between awareness, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intentions, and MVPA. Participants:…
G.E. Hodes (Georgia E.); M.L. Pfau (Madeline L.); M. Leboeuf (Marylene); S.A. Golden (Sam A.); D.J. Christoffel (Daniel J.); D. Bregman (Dana); N. Rebusi (Nicole); M. Heshmati (Mitra); H. Aleyasin (Hossein); B.L. Warren (Brandon L.); B. Lebonté (Benoit); S. Horn (Sarah); K.A. Lapidus (Kyle A.); V. Stelzhammer (Viktoria); E.H.F. Wong (Erik H. F.); S. Bahn (Sabine); V. Krishnan (Vaishnav); C.A. Bolaños-Guzman (Carlos A.); J.W. Murrough (James W.); M. Merad (Miriam); S.J. Russo (Scott J.)
textabstractDepression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that pre
Maller, Cecily Jane
Purpose: This paper aims to determine educators' perceptions about the benefits of contact with nature for children's mental, emotional and social health. Design/methodology/approach: The approach was exploratory using qualitative methods. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with school principals and teachers as well as professionals from the…
Pattanapichet, Fasawang; Wichadee, Saovapa
The current study was conducted to see the effectiveness of using social media to enhance students' critical thinking skills. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a 14-week experimental study was performed with two groups of students. Both groups were introduced to how to respond to questions based on Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. During the period of…
Student affairs, as an integral part of universities, has taken on a key position in contributing to social justice as one of the central imperatives of higher education in South Africa. This article sketches the development of this role and outlines some important tasks for contemporary student affairs. Three conceptual models within the social…
Sommerfeld, Amanda K.; Bowen, Paul
Bachelor's degree attainment has become essential for U.S. labor market participation. However, degree attainment is differentially accessible across racial and economic lines. One explanation of degree disparities is that urban students often lack the social and cultural capital needed to succeed in higher education institutions. This article…
Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted
This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values. PMID:17578570
Full Text Available Abstract This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH. In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values.
Full Text Available Introduction: Child maltreatment is one of the United States’ most significant public health problems. In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs (BPTs, which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there is research to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programs is still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recently, new technologies have emerged that offer innovative opportunities to improve family engagement. These technologies include smartphones and social networking; however, very little is known about the potential of these to aid in maltreatment prevention. The primary goal of this study was to conduct 2 pilot exploratory projects. Methods: The first project administered a survey to parents and providers to gather data about at-risk parents’ use of smartphones and online social networking technologies. The second project tested a social networking-enhanced brief parenting program with 3 intervention participants and evaluated parental responses. Results: Seventy-five percent of parents surveyed reported owning a computer that worked. Eighty-nine percent of parents reported that they had reliable Internet access at home, and 67% said they used the Internet daily. Three parents participated in the intervention with all reporting improvement in parent-child interaction skills and a positive experience participating in the social networking-enhanced SafeCare components. Conclusion: In general, findings suggest that smartphones, social networking, and Facebook, in particular, are now being used by individuals who show risk factors formal treatment. Further, the majority of parents surveyed in this study said that they like Facebook, and all parents surveyed said that they use Facebook and have a Facebook account. As well, all saw it as a potentially
Marcos Castro Sandúa
Full Text Available Purpose: the notion of dialogic learning is on the basis of educational practices (Successful Educational Actions and projects (Schools as Learning Communities that are currently improving coexistence and promoting school success in more and more schools around the world. Physical Education has to find its place within this context and to define how to contribute to these aims from its specificity, as it is a subject in which the body and the movement have leading roles for learning and it is increasingly emphasizing the promotion of healthy habits. Due to all that, this article pretends to offer orientations to professionals and schools for building a more dialogic Physical Education. Design/methodology: a review of scientific literature on Physical Education and dialogic learning has been done starting from the results of the Juega Dialoga y Resuelve [Play, Dialogue and Solve] project (Spanish RTD National Plan and from the results obtained in the search for the topics “dialogic learning” and ”successful educational actions” in the ISI Web of Science. Findings: the results of the literature review show that the principles of dialogic learning and their practical development can be transferred to Physical Education and school sport in order to contribute to school success and to improve students’ and their communities’ health. Practical implications: orientations for professionals and schools to organize the practice of Physical Education and school sport in accordance with the principles of dialogic learning derive from the analysis. Social implications: the orientations promote school success for students and social cohesion and health for them and their communities. Originality/value: the article presents innovative elements for the organization of Physical Education and school sport that can be useful for teachers and other professionals.
Malmberg, Jonas; Johnsson, David
International labour standards can be promoted in different fora and in various ways. The aim of this report is to survey in wich international fora the need of international labour standards has been discussed and wich results the debate has yielded in the form of proposed or adopted conventions and other legal acts. First of all we find international labour standards in from of conventions and recommendations from the ILO. The ILO has been quite successful in working out internationally acc...
Full Text Available There has been much discussion on promotion of the health of young people in vulnerable situations; but little work has been done analyzing its actual operation - and this is especially true in relation to programs and projects that are outside the health services. This article aims to analyze the relationship of an experience in Community Theater with the promotion of health. It is a qualitative, ethnographic study made at the Pombas Urbanas Institute, in the Cidade Tiradentes district of the municipality of São Paulo, and is coordinated by a theater group with a history that is relevant to the objective of the study. Participatory observation was carried out for one year, with semi-structured interviews with young people, and with actors of the Pombas Urbanas group, and analysis of documents. The theoretical framework that was used is made up of concepts from the fields of collective health, Community Theater, and liberation pedagogy. The results are presented in two interlinked sub-categories which have arisen from the empiric material and from the references adopted: (i 'True friends', and (ii 'Dialog'. The analysis clearly shows the importance of this type of theatrical joint experience for the promotion of health by transforming the quality of relationships between people. Concepts of health, culture and education were used in analysis of the results.
Bazemore, Andrew W; Cottrell, Erika K; Gold, Rachel; Hughes, Lauren S; Phillips, Robert L; Angier, Heather; Burdick, Timothy E; Carrozza, Mark A; DeVoe, Jennifer E
Social determinants of health significantly impact morbidity and mortality; however, physicians lack ready access to this information in patient care and population management. Just as traditional vital signs give providers a biometric assessment of any patient, "community vital signs" (Community VS) can provide an aggregated overview of the social and environmental factors impacting patient health. Knowing Community VS could inform clinical recommendations for individual patients, facilitate referrals to community services, and expand understanding of factors impacting treatment adherence and health outcomes. This information could also help care teams target disease prevention initiatives and other health improvement efforts for clinic panels and populations. Given the proliferation of big data, geospatial technologies, and democratization of data, the time has come to integrate Community VS into the electronic health record (EHR). Here, the authors describe (i) historical precedent for this concept, (ii) opportunities to expand upon these historical foundations, and (iii) a novel approach to EHR integration. PMID:26174867
Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R
The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. PMID:24944133
Timperio, Anna; Reid, Jacqueline; Veitch, Jenny
The role of neighbourhood built and social environments in shaping children's physical activity has received increasing interest over the past 10 years. We reviewed recent evidence published between 2011 and 2014. Most of the recent evidence continues to be cross-sectional. Few macro-level neighbourhood attributes were consistently associated with physical activity in the expected direction. The strongest evidence for associations between neighbourhood attributes and physical activity with was for the transportation environment, particularly in relation to proximity to school and transport-related physical activity. There was intermediate evidence that neighbourhood walking/cycling infrastructure and pedestrian safety structures are associated with transport-related PA. Recent evidence on associations between the neighbourhood built and social environment and children's PA is modest. Stronger study designs and greater attention to conceptual-matching and specificity of measures are critical to advance the evidence base. PMID:26399255
Chi-Ming Kam; Lance Wai-lap Wong; Kennis Mei-sze Fung
Social emotion learning (SEL) can be taught in schools. The present report describes a pilot trial of the PATHS Curriculum, a US developed evidence-based SEL program, among schools in Hong Kong SAR (China). Three elementary schools, 318 students in 12 first grade classrooms, participated in the study. The first grade PATHS lessons were adapted and translated into Chinese. Twelve teachers learned and adopted these lessons in their teaching. Students in these classrooms learned about different ...
Bloom, Arthur; Constan, Phyllis
A bioethics unit aimed at taking biology out of the laboratory and classroom and into the world. An experience in which students not only begin to understand reasons for making decisions, but also understand how values change. (Author/EB)
Yang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey; Chao, Co-Shi Chantal; Lai, Wei-Shu
To understand the gaps between current bioethics education and the requirements of practicing nurses, a semistructured questionnaire was used to invite the directors of nursing departments at all 82 teaching hospitals in Taiwan to participate in this survey. The response rate was 64.6%. Through content analysis we obtained information about previous bioethical training, required themes and content, recommended teaching strategies, and difficulties with education and its application. The results suggest that Taiwanese nursing personnel need to be instilled with both self-cultivation of morality and mental cultivation to acquire nursing virtues and the right attitudes toward bioethical issues. Good communication skills to prevent damage to the harmonious relationships between patients, their families and medical team members, policies that support the provision of systematic formal knowledge of ethics, small group training, and clarification of values were also shown to be important in bioethics education. PMID:20610584
Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.
Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre–health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically address these bioethical dilemmas. These courses incorporate innovative pedagogical methods, case studies, and class discussions to stimulate the stu...
Vonderheid, Susan C; Carrie, S Klima; Norr, Kathleen F; Grady, Mary Alice; Westdahl, Claire M
Centering Pregnancy, an innovative group model of prenatal care, shows promise to reduce persistent adverse maternal-infant outcomes and contain costs. Because this innovation requires systemwide change, clinics reported needing support enrolling women into groups and obtaining organizational buy-in. This study used the 3-step social marketing communication strategy to help clinic staff identify key customers and customer-specific barriers to adopting or supporting Centering Pregnancy. They developed targeted information to reduce barriers and built skills in communicating with different customers through role-playing. Findings provide practical information for others to use this communication strategy to improve implementation of Centering Pregnancy. PMID:24169111