Sample records for bioethics electronic resource

  1. Bioethics Consultations and Resources


    Thomas, Jennie


    Making difficult healthcare decisions is often helped by consultation with a bioethics committee. This article reviews the main bioethics principles, when it is appropriate and how to call a bioethics consult, ethical concerns, and members of the consult team. Bioethics resources are included.

  2. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics. (United States)

    Verkerk, Marian A; Lindemann, Hilde


    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical resources that are up to the task. This paper identifies four distinct understandings of 'globalised' in the bioethics literature: (1) a focus on global issues; (2) an attempt to develop a universal ethical theory that can transcend cultural differences; (3) an awareness of how bioethics itself has expanded, with new centres and journals emerging in nearly every corner of the globe; (4) a concern to avoid cultural imperialism in encounters with other societies. Each of these approaches to globalisation has some merit, as will be shown. The difficulty with them is that the standard theoretical tools on which they rely are not designed for cross-cultural ethical reflection. As a result, they leave important considerations hidden. A set of theoretical resources is proposed to deal with the moral puzzles of globalisation. Abandoning idealised moral theory, a normative framework is developed that is sensitive enough to account for differences without losing the broader context in which ethical issues arise. An empirically nourished, self-reflexive, socially inquisitive, politically critical and inclusive ethics allows bioethicists the flexibility they need to pick up on the morally relevant particulars of this situation here without losing sight of the broader cultural contexts in which it all takes place.

  3. Bioethical challenges to rheumatology in resource poor areas: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To outline the bioethical challenges specific to rheumatology in resource poor areas. Data source: Published articles and selected personal communications on bioethical challenges and education in rheumatology. Study design: A narrative commentary. Data extraction: Online searches using PubMed and ...

  4. Center for Practical Bioethics (United States)

    ... Directors Center Fellows Staff News Headlines What is bioethics? Programs PAINS Pain Action Alliance to Implement a ... Us Videos Symposium Videos Lecture Videos Audio Interviews Bioethics Channel Resources Caring Conversations Free Downloads Order Prints ...



    Dr. M. Panneerselvam


    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  6. Fair Resource Allocation to Health Research: Priority Topics for Bioethics Scholarship. (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A


    This article draws attention to the limited amount of scholarship on what constitutes fairness and equity in resource allocation to health research by individual funders. It identifies three key decisions of ethical significance about resource allocation that research funders make regularly and calls for prioritizing scholarship on those topics - namely, how health resources should be fairly apportioned amongst public health and health care delivery versus health research, how health research resources should be fairly allocated between health problems experienced domestically versus other health problems typically experienced by disadvantaged populations outside the funder's country, and how domestic and non-domestic health research funding should be further apportioned to different areas, e.g. types of research and recipients. These three topics should be priorities for bioethics research because their outcomes have a substantial bearing on the achievement of health justice. The proposed agenda aims to move discussion on the ethics of health research funding beyond its current focus on the mismatch between worldwide basic and clinical research investment and the global burden of disease. Individual funders' decision-making on whether and to what extent to allocate resources to non-domestic health research, health systems research, research on the social determinants of health, capacity development, and recipients in certain countries should also be the focus of ethical scrutiny. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Electronic Resource Management and Design (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.


    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  8. Bioethics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman


    This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinati......This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second......-order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means...... of first-order analyses alone, and that bioethics needs to engage more closely with second-order enquiries and the question of legitimacy in general....

  9. "Hindu" bioethics? (United States)

    Sarma, Deepak


    The author offers a commentary on the question, "Are there Hindu bioethics?" After deconstructing the term "Hindu," the author shows that there are indeed no Hindu bioethics. He shows that from a classical and Brahminical perspective, medicine is an inappropriate and impure profession.

  10. Undignified bioethics. (United States)

    Cochrane, Alasdair


    The concept of dignity is pervasive in bioethics. However, some bioethicists have argued that it is useless on three grounds: that it is indeterminate; that it is reactionary; and that it is redundant. In response, a number of defences of dignity have recently emerged. All of these defences claim that when dignity is suitably clarified, it can be of great use in helping us tackle bioethical controversies. This paper rejects such defences of dignity. It outlines the four most plausible conceptions of dignity: dignity as virtuous behaviour; dignity as inherent moral worth; Kantian dignity; and dignity as species integrity. It argues that while each conception is coherent, each is also fundamentally flawed. As such, the paper argues for a bioethics without dignity: an 'undignified bioethics.'

  11. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O


    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  12. Teaching Bioethics (United States)

    Russo, Michael T.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Sunal, Dennis W.


    All citizens will make bioethics decisions as a result of today's biotechnology revolution. The decisions made require citizens to find possible acceptable solutions to dilemmas that have become public issues. In this activity, students practice making decisions in ethical dilemmas after evaluating the influences of their own ethical beliefs and…

  13. [Personalist bioethics and utilitarian bioethics]. (United States)

    Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo


    This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission.

  14. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon


    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  15. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  16. Bioethical concerns are global, bioethics is Western (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond


    Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and suggest that global bioethics will succeed only to the extent that it is local. PMID:19593391

  17. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  18. [Bioethics destiny]. (United States)

    Fagot-Largeault, Anne


    The paper is about the links between ethics and science, at a time (1974-2014) when the life sciences expanded rapidly. First (1974-1994), the development of a principlist ethics, set out by philosophers, sustained the research, and the scientists, expected to behave responsibly, felt like they could easily converge towards impeccable and consensual solutions to any problem arising from scientific innovations. Later on (1994-2014), however, while yielding ground to social sciences and ground work, bioethics took an empirical turn; then it became clear that behaving responsibly was compatible with a plurality of divergent normative convictions. Ethics crumbled. Local or national policies restored order, so-called bioethical laws short-circuited ethical reflection. And far from being respected as the wise men, apt to recommend the very best solutions to problems raised by new scientific advances, researchers happened to be deemed irresponsible, as some of them were suspected of lacking intellectual integrity. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out ... New approaches in acquisition, accessing, selection, preservation and choices on whether to operate digital, or combine traditional print and digital resources in the library have to be worked out and adopted.

  20. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electronic resources, electronic books, electronic learning, electronic journals, as well as electronic archive among others is intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and sectors of the society. Electronic information resources (EIRS) as reported by Meitz (2004), are "Library materials produced in electronic format.

  1. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  2. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa (United States)

    Macaulay-Adeyelure, O.C.


    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics’ invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of ‘African bioethics,’ which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for ‘bioethics in Africa’. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics. PMID:28344985

  3. A nursing bioethics program. (United States)

    Albrizio, M A; Ozuna, J; Mattheis, R; Saunders, J


    In 1985 the Seattle Veterans' Administration Medical Center nursing service implemented a nursing program for bioethics with three goals: (1) to expand the nurse's knowledge of bioethical principles, (2) to develop the nurse's ability and confidence in analyzing bioethical dilemmas, and (3) to increase bioethical application at the bedside. Two psychosocial clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) led this highly successful nursing program that prepared nurses to more actively and responsibly participate in bioethical decision making within the medical center. The program offers an annual workshop for new members, holds a monthly discussion group, conducts a yearly enrichment program, and completes an annual evaluation report. This article describes nursing service bioethics program from planning through evaluation and the role of the CNS as program coordinator, facilitator, and educator in the expanding field of bioethics.

  4. The calculating rating of electronic resources




    The rating of electron resources is devoted to count by theories, directions in this work. The calculating model of rating of ER by entering and exiting directions on bases of used widely PageRank is produced for calculating the rating of web pages in Google searching system. The rating of ER is taken into account for calculating the ratings of entering direction and the calculating exiting direction is accomplished by equitable distribution of ER. And also the calculating rating ER among kin...

  5. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources. (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E


    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  6. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia]. (United States)

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime


    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution.

  7. Bioethics for clinicians: 21. Islamic bioethics (United States)

    Daar, Abdallah S.; Khitamy, A.


    ISLAMIC BIOETHICS DERIVES FROM A COMBINATION OF PRINCIPLES, duties and rights, and, to a certain extent, a call to virtue. In Islam, bioethical decision-making is carried out within a framework of values derived from revelation and tradition. It is intimately linked to the broad ethical teachings of the Qur'an and the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, and thus to the interpretation of Islamic law. In this way, Islam has the flexibility to respond to new biomedical technologies. Islamic bioethics emphasizes prevention and teaches that the patient must be treated with respect and compassion and that the physical, mental and spiritual dimensions of the illness experience be taken into account. Because Islam shares many foundational values with Judaism and Christianity, the informed Canadian physician will find Islamic bioethics quite familiar. Canadian Muslims come from varied backgrounds and have varying degrees of religious observance. Physicians need to recognize this diversity and avoid a stereotypical approach to Muslim patients. PMID:11202669

  8. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K


    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  9. Bioethics in China. (United States)

    Li, En-Chang


    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  10. Utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... printer, and audio-visuals are equally available. Student have unlimited accessibility in the utilization of electronic resources, students frequently utilized electronic information resources in Ramat Library. It is recommended, among others, that registered students should utilize and access electronic information resources ...

  11. [Bioethics, science and conscience]. (United States)

    Beaufils, François


    Both object of science and conscience, bioethics is concerned about the impact of biomedical research and its applications for the human person. Object of pluralistic and multidisciplinary thought and proposal, bioethics seeks to reconcile respect for fundamental values and progress in life sciences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward critical bioethics. (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur


    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  13. Bioethics for clinicians: 22. Jewish bioethics (United States)

    Goldsand, Gary; Rosenberg, Zahava R.S.; Gordon, Michael


    Jewish bioethics in the contemporary era emerges from the traditional practice of applying principles of Jewish law (Halacha) to ethical dilemmas. The Bible (written law) and the Talmud (oral law) are the foundational texts on which such deliberations are based. Interpretation of passages in these texts attempts to identify the duties of physicians, patients and families faced with difficult health care decisions. Although Jewish law is an integral consideration of religiously observant Jews, secularized Jewish patients often welcome the wisdom of their tradition when considering treatment options. Jewish bioethics exemplifies how an ethical system based on duties may differ from the secular rights-based model prevalent in North American society. PMID:11332319

  14. Impact of electronic resources use on academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that use of electronic resources had a positive impact on students' academic performance. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that more emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of electronic resources so as to give room for wider and multiple access to information resources in order to ...

  15. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  16. The Evolution of Selection Activities for Electronic Resources. (United States)

    Davis, Trisha L.


    Selection of electronic resources--CD-ROMs, dial access databases, electronic journals, and World Wide Web products--requires a more extensive set of criteria than do print resources. Discusses two factors influencing collection development of electronic products: technology options and licensing issues, and outlines how traditional selection…

  17. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach


    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  18. Bioethics for clinicians: 28. Protestant bioethics (United States)

    Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C.


    “PROTESTANT” IS A TERM APPLIED TO MANY DIFFERENT Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight concepts that have emerged from Protestant denominations that are particularly relevant to bioethics. These include the sovereignty of God, the value of autonomy and the idea of medicine as a calling as well as a profession. Most Canadian physicians will find that they share certain values and beliefs with the majority of their Protestant patients. Physicians should be particularly sensitive to their Protestant patients' beliefs when dealing with end-of-life issues, concerns about consent and refusal of care, and beginning-of-life issues such as abortion, genetic testing and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Physicians should also recognize that members of certain Protestant groups and denominations may have unique wishes concerning treatment. Understanding how to elicit these wishes and respond appropriately will allow physicians to enhance patient care and minimize conflict. PMID:11868645

  19. Bioethics for clinicians: 28. Protestant bioethics. (United States)

    Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C


    "Protestant" is a term applied to many different Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight concepts that have emerged from Protestant denominations that are particularly relevant to bioethics. These include the sovereignty of God, the value of autonomy and the idea of medicine as a calling as well as a profession. Most Canadian physicians will find that they share certain values and beliefs with the majority of their Protestant patients. Physicians should be particularly sensitive to their Protestant patients' beliefs when dealing with end-of-life issues, concerns about consent and refusal of care, and beginning-of-life issues such as abortion, genetic testing and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Physicians should also recognize that members of certain Protestant groups and denominations may have unique wishes concerning treatment. Understanding how to elicit these wishes and respond appropriately will allow physicians to enhance patient care and minimize conflict.

  20. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, e-resources are not always accessible, lack of supporting structures (connection, downloading, printing limits) and too many resources.

  1. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  2. Islamic bioethics: between sacred law, lived experiences, and state authority. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I


    There is burgeoning interest in the field of "Islamic" bioethics within public and professional circles, and both healthcare practitioners and academic scholars deploy their respective expertise in attempts to cohere a discipline of inquiry that addresses the needs of contemporary bioethics stakeholders while using resources from within the Islamic ethico-legal tradition. This manuscript serves as an introduction to the present thematic issue dedicated to Islamic bioethics. Using the collection of papers as a guide the paper outlines several critical questions that a comprehensive and cohesive Islamic bioethical theory must address: (i) What are the relationships between Islamic law (Sharī'ah), moral theology (uṣūl al-Fiqh), and Islamic bioethics? (ii) What is the relationship between an Islamic bioethics and the lived experiences of Muslims? and (iii) What is the relationship between Islamic bioethics and the state? This manuscript, and the papers in this special collection, provides insight into how Islamic bioethicists and Muslim communities are addressing some of these questions, and aims to spur further dialogue around these overaching questions as Islamic bioethics coalesces into a true field of scholarly and practical inquiry.

  3. Elucidating Bioethics with Undergraduates. (United States)

    Hoskins, Betty B.; Shannon, Thomas A.


    Discusses the importance of developing bioethics programs for undergraduate students. Two aspects are considered: (1) current areas of concern and sources of bibliographic information; and (2) problems encountered in undergraduate projects. A list of references is provided. (HM)

  4. Postmodern Bioethics through Literature. (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel


    Explores a hermeneutical perspective of modern medicine. The author suggests that good medical decision making requires interpretation, and bioethics will be well served by incorporating this interpretive element. (LZ)

  5. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  6. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang


    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  7. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  8. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.


    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  9. Use of electronic resources by undergraduates in two selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to know the extent of use of electronic resources and identify the type of electronic resources used by undergraduates in universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The study population includes all undergraduate students in the faculty of engineering in Niger Delta ...

  10. Bioethics for clinicians: 27. Catholic bioethics (United States)

    Markwell, Hazel J.; Brown, Barry F.


    THERE IS A LONG TRADITION OF BIOETHICAL REASONING within the Roman Catholic faith, a tradition expressed in scripture, the writings of the Doctors of the Church, papal encyclical documents and reflections by contemporary Catholic theologians. Catholic bioethics is concerned with a broad range of issues, including social justice and the right to health care, the duty to preserve life and the limits of that duty, the ethics of human reproduction and end-of-life decisions. Fundamental to Catholic bioethics is a belief in the sanctity of life and a metaphysical conception of the person as a composite of body and soul. Although there is considerable consensus among Catholic thinkers, differences in philosophical approach have given rise to some diversity of opinion with respect to specific issues. Given the influential history of Catholic reflection on ethical matters, the number of people in Canada who profess to be Catholic, and the continuing presence of Catholic health care institutions, it is helpful for clinicians to be familiar with the central tenets of this tradition while respecting the differing perspectives of patients who identify themselves as Catholic. PMID:11501460

  11. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care. (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S


    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  12. Bioethics and Christian theology. (United States)

    Griniezakis, Makarios; Symeonides, Nathanael


    The authors of this essay suggest that the field of bioethics and Christian theology have a great deal to offer each other. The authors first argue that representatives from both fields must first make sure that they fully and correctly represent their respective position. In other words, scientists, ethicists, and theologians alike must make sure that they present their fields and not use their knowledge merely for personal gain at the stake of misguiding people. Once this is established, the authors then proceed to show the intimate relationship between Christianity and medicine that has existed throughout the ages. It is a call for a continuation of such a relationship that the authors suggest between bioethics and theology. Through an integration of bioethics and Christian theology, both scientists/physicians and theologians are able to gain greater insight into the human person--a focus in both fields.

  13. [Bioethics of principles]. (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José


    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  14. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory


    of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...

  15. Global bioethics: utopia or reality? (United States)

    Hellsten, Sirkku K


    This article discusses what 'global bioethics' means today and what features make bioethical research 'global'. The article provides a historical view of the development of the field of 'bioethics', from medical ethics to the wider study of bioethics in a global context. It critically examines the particular problems that 'global bioethics' research faces across cultural and political borders and suggests some solutions on how to move towards a more balanced and culturally less biased dialogue in the issues of bioethics. The main thesis is that we need to bring global and local aspects closer together when looking for international guidelines, by paying more attention to particular cultures and local economic and social circumstances in reaching a shared understanding of the main values and principles of bioethics, and in building 'biodemocracy'.

  16. Constitution and common law in bioethics. (United States)

    Santosuosso, A


    In recent years legal intervention in bioethical matters has increased notably following various paths: court decisions, parliamentary acts, codes of conduct and solemn declarations (i.e. European Bioethics Convention, 1997, or the UNESCO Genome Declaration, 1997). Body and liberty, as a question of fundamental legal rights, are constitutionalized along two paths. The former is vertical (a text created at central level is open to ratification and domestic implementation to finally become the rule in concrete cases). The latter is, above all, horizontal. It is characterized by the existence at world level of a number of centres and institutions, with the judiciary and judge-made law playing a major role. The most important new rights and freedoms in bioethics have been recognized in this ever-changing and troubled environment. The horizontal way has the great advantage of considering the differences as a resource and not as a limit. In the case law on bioethics a sort of jurisprudential model seems to be at work, that goes some way toward a judge-made law at a universal level. Cases such as Cruzan, Bland and Massimo held the fundamental concept of self-determination with surprising similarity. But we don't know if one of them has influenced the others, always supposing that the judges were aware of them. Today's first duty is to raise the consciousness of judges as to how common their problems are and how often their rulings are similar to each other's.

  17. Bioethics in Catholic Theology and Scientific Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Tomašević, PhD, ScD


    Full Text Available Every creature is good and subject to the principle of solidarity that everyone has been blessed and gifted with life by God. Therefore, we cannot have one without the other, and no man exists without an animal.Over the last several decades, our world has been confronted with many ethical problems and ethics is being more and more sought after in spheres of human conduct and profession. Man has acquired enormous power over the world and over life itself, but he has also, willingly or not, become more responsible for 'the threats' against his very life, as well as against the life of other creatures. Within this context a discussion on biocentrism has ensued, which should replace Christian biblical anthropocentrism. At any rate, man has encountered a challenge to expand his moral sphere because nature needs his protection, whereas he no longer needs to protect himself from nature. It is exactly this point that poses a paradox: only man can give protection to nature and the whole of life within it. Having crossed all limits, he has to establish them yet again. Once again, he has to search for these limits within himself, which is exactly what original Christianity demands: to act according to one's pure belief (St. Peter. The aim of this work lies in trying to answer the questions of how to preserve life and healthy environment, how to achieve harmony between the development and modern ideas and trends as well as to establish the right relationship between man and his environment. The author primarily points out to the rising of pastoral medicine in Catholic theology, whose emergence was caused by the development of medical science and which gradually transforms into today's bioethics that is acknowledged by the theology. He then proceeds to discuss the disharmony between man and nature, about the rising of the 'animal rights' movement, and finally, about the beginnings of scientific and global bioethics which has developed in USA and which has

  18. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach. (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda


    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  19. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  20. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  1. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources


    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.


    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  2. In defense of bioethics. (United States)

    Baker, Robert


    Although bioethics societies are developing standards for clinical ethicists and a code of ethics, they have been castigated in this journal as "a moral, if not an ethics, disaster" for not having completed this task. Compared with the development of codes of ethics and educational standards in law and medicine, however, the pace of professionalization in bioethics appears appropriate. Assessed by this metric, none of the charges leveled against bioethics are justified. The specific charges leveled against the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) and its Core Competencies report are analyzed and rejected as artifacts of an ahistoric conception of the stages by which organizations professionalize. For example, the charge that the ASBH should provide definitive criteria for what counts as "medical ethics consultation" antecedent to further progress towards professionalization is assessed by comparing it with the American Medical Association's decades-long struggle to define who can legitimately claim the title "medical doctor." Historically, clarity about who is legitimately a doctor, a lawyer - or a "clinical ethicist"- is a byproduct of, and never antecedent to, the decades-long process by which a field professionalizes. The charges leveled against ASBH thus appear to be a function of impatient, ahistoric perfectionism.

  3. Should Bioethics Be Taught? (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.


    Examined is the issue concerning teaching bioethics. Differing points of view are discussed. The author concludes that moral and ethical reasoning should be incorporated into the public school curriculum, using morally laden issues that have grown out of advances in biological knowledge and biomedical technology. (CS)

  4. Debates in Teaching Bioethics (United States)

    Kedraka, Katerina; Kourkoutas, Yiannis


    In this small scale study in higher education, a good educational practice on the teaching of Bioethics based on transformative learning and accomplished by debates is presented. The research was carried out in June 2016 at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece and it includes the assessment of…

  5. Bioethics and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Castillo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.

  6. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  7. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D


    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  8. On feminist engagements with bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezgić Rada


    Full Text Available The article explores two questions: what is feminist bioethics, and how different it is from standard bioethics. Development of feminist bioethics, it is argued, began as a response to standard bioethics, challenging its background values, and philosophical perspectives. The most important contribution of feminist bioethics has been its re-examination of the basic conceptual underpinnings of mainstream bioethics, including the concepts of “universality”, “autonomy”, and “trust”. Particularly important for feminists has been the concept of autonomy. They challenge the old liberal notion of autonomy that treats individuals as separate social units and argue that autonomy is established through relations. Relational autonomy assumes that identities and values are developed through relationships with others and that the choices one makes are shaped by specific social and historical contexts. Neither relational autonomy, nor feminist bioethics, however, represents a single, unified perspective. There are, actually, as many feminist bioethics as there are feminisms-liberal, cultural, radical, postmodern etc. Their different ontological, epistemological and political underpinnings shape their respective approaches to bioethical issues at hand. Still what they all have in common is interest in social justice-feminists explore mainstream bioethics and reproductive technologies in order to establish whether they support or impede gender and overall social justice and equality. Feminist bioethics thus brings a significant improvement to standard bioethics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Bioethical Aspects: Morally Acceptable Within the Biotechnologically and Socially Possible i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  9. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович


    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  10. Bioethics for clinicians: 25. Teaching bioethics in the clinical setting (United States)

    McKneally, Martin F.; Singer, Peter A.


    BIOETHICS IS NOW TAUGHT IN EVERY CANADIAN MEDICAL SCHOOL. Canada needs a cadre of teachers who can help clinicians learn bioethics. Our purpose is to encourage clinician teachers to accept this important responsibility and to provide practical advice about teaching bioethics to clinicians as an integral part of good clinical medicine. We use 5 questions to focus the discussion: Why should I teach? What should I teach? How should I teach? How should I evaluate? How should I learn? PMID:11338804


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Denisenko


    Full Text Available The widespread introduction of electronic educational resources in the educational process requires the development of a scientific basis for all aspects related to their creation and use. These modern means are designed not just to convey to learners the required course material, but also to create conditions for its most effective study. This is possible in conditions of reasonable approach to the presentation of educational material on the screen. The article is devoted to consideration of the problem of presenting educational material in electronic educational resources. Visuals are powerful didactic tool that enhances the perception and understanding of educational information. Particular attention is paid to the use of such a powerful medium like video. Investigated the role and importance of video in the learning process, their educational opportunities and benefits. Shows types of video and their use in electronic educational resources. Grounded requirements for training videos. The recommendations are given on the use of video in combination with other media in electronic educational resources. Adduced the example a real electronic multimedia educational resource and shows the possibility of using video.

  12. A degree in bioethics: an "introspective" analysis from Pakistan. (United States)

    Jafarey, Aamir M


    The success of degree-level bioethics programmes, a recent development across the world, is generally evaluated on the basis of their quantifiable impact; for instance, the number of publications graduates produce. The author conducted a study of Pakistani graduates who had pursued a higher qualification in bioethics, and on the basis of the respondents' written and verbal narratives, this paper presents an analysis of their perceptions of the internal impact of bioethics degree programmes. Using these narratives, the paper also analyses the reactions of their colleagues to their new qualification.The respondents reported significant changes in their thinking and actions following their education in bioethics. They exhibited more empathy towards their patients and research subjects, and became better "listeners~ They also reported changes in practices,the most significant being the discontinuation of the linkages they had established with pharmaceutical firms to seek support,because of concerns related to conflict of interest. Although some respondents believed that their new qualification was generally welcomed by their colleagues, who considered them aesthetics resources, others reported that their colleagues harboured unreasonable and impractical expectations from them, and that these were impossible to fulfil. They also got the feeling of being ostracized and regarded as "ethics watchdogs~ Whereas the internalisation of bioethics is an encouraging finding in this cohort, the mixed reception that bioethics and those involved in it received indicates a Jack of understanding of the field and is a source of concern.

  13. On nature and bioethics. (United States)

    Peterson, Paul Silas


    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  15. Bioethics and "Rightness". (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W


    If bioethics seeks to affect what people do and don't do as they respond to the practical issues that confront them, then it is useful to take seriously people's sense of rightness. Rightness emerges from the fabric of a life-including the economy of its geography, the events of its times, its popular culture-to be what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu calls a predisposition. It is the product of a way of life and presupposes continuing to live that way. Rightness is local and communal, holding in relationship those who share the same predisposing sense of how to experience. Rightness is an embodied way of evaluating what is known to matter and choosing among possible responses. Bioethics spends considerable time on what people should do and on the arguments that support recommended actions. It might spend more time on what shapes people's sense of the rightness of what they feel called to do. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  16. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon


    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.


    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana


    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  18. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu


    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  19. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven


    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  20. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana


    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  1. Bioethics and the Italian National Bioethics Committee: historical highlights. (United States)

    Conti, A A


    Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath. An institutional milestone in the Italian evolution of bioethical knowledge and competence was the foundation of the Italian National Bioethics Committee (NBC), established in 1990. The NBC, which answers to the Council of Ministers, provides methodological support to the Italian Government in the field of bioethical issues, elaborating legislative acts and also furnishing information and consultation for other bodies and associations and for the general public. The activity of the NBC is clearly discernible in its free and user-friendly website. Today, the Internet is often the first repository where individuals and patients look for bioethical information. Given that the quality of this information is extremely variable and not infrequently unreliable, initiatives such as that of the above mentioned NBC website are particularly useful and precious both for health care operators and the entire community.

  2. Teaching Bioethics in High Schools (United States)

    Araújo, Joana; Gomes, Carlos Costa; Jácomo, António; Pereira, Sandra Martins


    Objective: The Bioethics Teaching in Secondary Education (Project BEST) aims to promote the teaching of bioethics in secondary schools. This paper describes the development and implementation of the programme in Portugal. Design: Programme development involved two main tasks: (1) using the learning tools previously developed by the US Northwest…

  3. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership. (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat


    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  4. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  5. Electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the state of electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in Southern part of Nigeria, highlighting the prospects and the challenges. The study was an empirical research which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The questionnaire was used to collect data from the ...

  6. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, E- journals, CD-ROMs, AGORA, and ... to finance and geographical location. Furthermore, in developed countries like United Kingdom, students get access to .... databases, web sources and audio-video tapes. Furthermore, studies also ...

  7. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  8. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services in A.B.U & UNIBEN MTN Net Libraries. ... Lastly, management of the MTN Net Libraries should conduct user studies annually in order to have feedback from users on how well the library is meeting their information needs. The results of the survey should ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva


    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  10. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an empirical study that examined the association between gender and the use of electronic information resources among postgraduate students at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in December 2005 and integrated both qualitative and quantitative research ...

  11. Use of electronic information resources among the undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at finding out the use of electronic information resources among undergraduate students in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The study is based on descriptive survey design method and the population consists of 16,962 undergraduate students across different schools at the Federal University ...

  12. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  13. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.


    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  14. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian? (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna


    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  15. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  16. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.


    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  17. A bioethics for all seasons. (United States)

    Chan, Sarah


    The last four decades have seen the emergence and flourishing of the field of bioethics and its incorporation into wide-ranging aspects of society, from the clinic or laboratory through to public policy and the media. Yet considerable debate still exists over what bioethics is and how it should be done. In this paper I consider the question of what makes good bioethics. Drawing on historical and contemporary examples, I suggest that bioethics encompasses multiple modes of responding to moral disagreement, and that an awareness of which mode is operational in a given context is essential to doing good bioethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB]. (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta


    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  19. Towards Pluri-Perspectivism Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđić Vojislav


    Full Text Available Why are we lawyers still dealing with Bioethics? Who has given us the opportunity to, out of our own self-sufficiency, which legal doctrine and practice have enabled, make a journey towards the field of Bioethics? The separation of the law from Bioethics, understood as Pluri-Perspectivistic field of action of a wide range of science and teaching, leaves the law isolated and limited to its own frames that become insufficient for the development of the legal thought. This causes an irreparable damage to the law, as well as to Bioethics which does not get legal solutions to its problems, which is necessary. Since Bioethics is not a mere presentation of views, comprehending the problem, but also their reflexion and, eventually, their standardization, i.e. the providing of legal answers to the social issues that arise from the field of Bioethics. Thus, not only the theory and philosophy of law find their place in the field of Bioethics, but the same goes for the theory of criminal law, which, also, even in the practical sphere of jurisprudence, is most likely to protect the life. Such a non-isolation of jurisprudence enables it to step out of its own constrains and accept the 'Bioethical sensibility.' This is possible only if we recognize the Pluri-Perspectivism as a starting point in both Bioethics and the law. Is it possible that the law be understood as a field of activity of the various value orientations? Pluri-Perspectivism, which does not go into relativism, will claim that it is possible, and we are inclined to believe it, given the proper results obtained in the field of Bioethics via such a postulate.

  20. Psychoanalysis and bioethics: a Lacanian approach to bioethical discourse. (United States)

    Zwart, Hub


    This article aims to develop a Lacanian approach to bioethics. Point of departure is the fact that both psychoanalysis and bioethics are practices of language, combining diagnostics with therapy. Subsequently, I will point out how Lacanian linguistics may help us to elucidate the dynamics of both psychoanalytical and bioethical discourse, using the movie One flew over the Cuckoo's Nest and Sophocles' tragedy Antigone as key examples. Next, I will explain the 'topology' of the bioethical landscape with the help of Lacan's three dimensions: the imaginary, the symbolical and the real. This will culminate in an assessment of the dynamics of bioethical discourse with the help of Lacan's theorem of the four discourses. Bioethics, I will argue, is not a homogeneous discourse. Rather, four modalities of bioethical discourse can be distinguished, all of them displaying specific weaknesses and strengths, opportunities and threats. This will be elucidated with the help of two case studies, namely the debates on human reproductive technologies and on the use of animals as biomedical research models.

  1. [From virtue bioethics to bioethics personalistic: is integration possible?]. (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel


    In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics.

  2. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning. (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S


    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  3. Bioethics as a Governance Practice. (United States)

    Montgomery, Jonathan


    Bioethics can be considered as a topic, an academic discipline (or combination of disciplines), a field of study, an enterprise in persuasion. The historical specificity of the forms bioethics takes is significant, and raises questions about some of these approaches. Bioethics can also be considered as a governance practice, with distinctive institutions and structures. The forms this practice takes are also to a degree country specific, as the paper illustrates by drawing on the author's UK experience. However, the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics can provide a starting point for comparisons provided that this does not exclude sensitivity to the socio-political context. Bioethics governance practices are explained by various legitimating narratives. These include response to scandal, the need to restrain irresponsible science, the accommodation of pluralist views, and the resistance to the relativist idea that all opinions count equally in bioethics. Each approach raises interesting questions and shows that bioethics should be studied as a governance practice as a complement to other approaches.

  4. What is bioethics without Christianity? (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas


    The author uses the essays in this issue as a springboard for making three points. First, he argues that most, if not all, current institutional versions of Christianity have failed to provide a meaningful framework for the spiritual life. Second, he argues that there is no ethics other than Judeo-Christian ethics and that there can be no bioethics other than Judeo-Christian bioethics. Finally, he argues that the overriding issue we face is not whether to address bioethical issues from a Christian perspective or from a non-Christian perspective, but rather whether we shall address biological and medical issues from an ethical or a scientific-technological perspective.



    Svitlana G. Lytvynova


    The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER) for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process), described the requirements to the participants...

  6. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret


    standardisation under the rubric of ‘global bioethics’. Such a ‘global’, ‘Western’ or ‘universal’ bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips...

  7. Between morality and repentance: recapturing "sin" for bioethics. (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna


    Distinguishing within "sin" the dimensions of anomia, hamartia, and asthenia makes it possible to analyze in greater detail the contrary manners in which traditional and post-traditional Christianities in this issue of Christian Bioethics endeavor to recapture what was lost when secular bioethics reconstructed the specifically spiritual-context-oriented normative commitments of Christianity in one-dimensionally moral terms. Various post-traditional attempts at securing moral orientation and resources for forgiveness, both of which secular bioethics finds increasingly difficult to provide, are critically reviewed. Their engagement of secular moral concepts and concerns, and even their adoption of an academically philosophical posture and language, is presented as responsible for their failure to adequately preserve what in traditional Christianity would count as prohibited vs. permitted, and advisable vs. non-advisable, or what would allow to resolve "tragic conflicts." The deeper reason for this failure lies in post-traditional Christianity's restricting the Christian life (with its central tension between love and the law) to what can be captured by cognitive categories. As the survey of several traditionally Christian accounts of sin in bioethics makes clear, both moral orientation (along with the resolution of "tragic" conflicts) and the sources of forgiveness are available, once that Christian life is framed in terms of persons' spirit-supported practical involvement in ascesis and liturgy, and once bioethical reflections are situated in the experiential context of such involvement.

  8. Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton managers. (United States)

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C; Tao, Cui


    Infobuttons provide context-aware educational materials to both providers and patients and are becoming an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR) and patient health records (PHR). However, the content from different electronic resources (e-resource) as responses from infobutton manager has not been fully analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically analyzing responses from infobutton manager. A tool is implemented to retrieve and analyze responses from infobutton manager. To test the tool, we extracted and sampled common and uncommon concepts from EHR usage data in Intermountain Healthcare's enterprise data warehouse. From the output of the tool, we evaluate infobutton performance by multiple categories, including against the most and less common used concepts, grouped by different modules in patient portal, by different e-resources, and by type of access (standardized Health Level Seven (HL7) vs not). Based on the results of our evaluation, we provide suggestions for further enhancements of infobuttons to the current implementation, including suggesting accessing priorities of e-resources and encouraging the use of the HL7 standard.

  9. Urban bioethics: adapting bioethics to the urban context. (United States)

    Blustein, Jeffrey; Fleischman, Alan R


    Urban bioethics is an area of inquiry within the discipline of bioethics that focuses on ethical issues, problems, and conflicts relating to medicine, science, health care, and the environment that typically arise in urban settings. Urban bioethics challenges traditional bioethics (1) to examine value concerns in a multicultural context, including issues related to equity and disparity, and public health concerns that may highlight conflict between individual rights and the public good, and (2) to broaden its primary focus on individual self-determination and respect for autonomy to include examination of the interests of family, community, and society. Three features associated with urban life-density, diversity, and disparity-affect the health of urban populations and provide the substrate for identifying ethical concerns and value conflicts and creating interventions to affect population health outcomes. The field of urban bioethics can be helpful in creating ethical foundations and principles for public health practice, developing strategies to respect diversity in health policy in a pluralistic society, and fostering collaborative work among educators, social scientists, and others to eliminate bias among health professionals and health care institutions to enhance patients' satisfaction with their care and ultimately affect health outcomes. Educational programs at all levels and encompassing all health professions are needed as a first step to address the perplexing and important problem of eliminating health disparities. Urban bioethics is both contributing to the social science literature in this area and helping educators to craft interventions to affect professional attitudes and behaviors.

  10. Bioética y asignación de recursos para la atención odontológica del adulto mayor en Chile Bioethics and dental health care resource allocation for elderly people in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Espinoza Santander


    . This requires ethical considerations that support these policies more than demographic and epidemiological data. This article outlines the oral health of older adults in Chile and subsequently, bioethical considerations that may limit or support health care resource allocation in this group. Finally, it can be concluded that Justice in Health and Protection Bioethics must be applied to the discussion about resources allocation in dental health care program for elderly people and other susceptible groups that should be the focus of protection.

  11. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM


    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  12. The Ethics of Globalizing Bioethics (United States)

    Rennie, Stuart; Mupenda, Bavon


    In the last decade, there have been efforts to globalize the field of bioethics, particularly in developing countries, where biomedical and other research is increasingly taking place. We describe and evaluate some key ethical criticisms directed towards these initiatives, and argue that while they may be marked by ethical, practical, and political tensions and pitfalls, they can nevertheless play an important role in stimulating critical bioethics culture in countries vulnerable to exploitation by foreign agencies and/or their own authorities. PMID:25632370

  13. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  14. Bioethics for Technical Experts (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  15. Democracy and bioethical controversies. (United States)

    Byk, Christian


    Bioethics and the public debate is certainly a nonsense for those who still believe that medical practice should only be a matter of individual relationship between a physician and his/her patient, such a relationship being regulated by the awareness that the medical practitioner has of his/her ethical duties. However for those who believe that physicians and other health care providers cannot find any more the replies to the problems raised by the development of new biomedical techniques in their own professional ethics, at least three questions should be posed. Can the traditional democratic institutions face those issues? Is there a need for new institutions to be built? Are such mechanisms--both old and new--appropriate to support a public debate?

  16. Bioethics and academic freedom. (United States)

    Singer, Peter


    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  17. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian


    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case......-case scenario, only 47% of the total materials in RVCs are ultimately recycled. While this low material recovery is mainly due to the lower plastic recycling rate, other market realities and the complex material flows in the recycling chain also contribute to it. The study provides a robust methodological...... approach for assessing the EoL performance based on the knowledge of a product and its complex recycling chain. The lessons learned can be used to support both the design and EoL processing of products with similar features, which carry a high potential for resource recovery, especially at the initial...

  18. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  19. The UNESCO Bioethics Programme: A Review (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle


    UNESCO’s Bioethics Programme was established in 1993. In twenty years it has adopted three international declarations, on the human genome (1997), human genetic data (2003) and bioethics (2005); produced reports on a wide range of bioethics issues; and developed capacity building and public education programmes in bioethics. Yet UNESCO has sometimes struggled to assert its authority in the wider bioethics world. Some bioethicists have criticized the 2005 declaration and suggested that the World Health Organization might be better placed to advance bioethics. In 2011, after four years of debate, UNESCO decided not to draft a convention on human reproductive cloning, because consensus on the issue proved impossible. This article reviews the standard setting and capacity building activities of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme. While the Programme faces challenges common to most intergovernmental organizations, its achievements in expanding international law and building bioethics capacity should not be underestimated. PMID:24979873

  20. The UNESCO Bioethics Programme: a review. (United States)

    Langlois, Adéle


    UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established in 1993. In twenty years it has adopted three international declarations, on the human genome (1997), human genetic data (2003) and bioethics (2005); produced reports on a wide range of bioethics issues; and developed capacity building and public education programmes in bioethics. Yet UNESCO has sometimes struggled to assert its authority in the wider bioethics world. Some bioethicists have criticized the 2005 declaration and suggested that the World Health Organization might be better placed to advance bioethics. In 2011, after four years of debate, UNESCO decided not to draft a convention on human reproductive cloning, because consensus on the issue proved impossible. This article reviews the standard setting and capacity building activities of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme. While the Programme faces challenges common to most intergovernmental organizations, its achievements in expanding international law and building bioethics capacity should not be underestimated.

  1. Bioethics: A Rationale and a Model (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.; Rusch, John J.


    Discusses the rationale for and development of an undergraduate bioethics course. Based on experiences with the course, general suggestions are offered to instructors planning to add bioethics to existing curricula. (MA)

  2. Toward a psychodynamic approach to bioethics. (United States)

    Appel, Jacob M


    Although many first-generation bioethicists were psychiatrists and some received psychoanalytic training, the field of bioethics has developed largely in isolation from psychodynamic theory. While much has been written regarding the ethics of psychoanalysis, only a few scholars have attempted to explain bioethical phenomena in psychodynamic terms. This paper argues for the development of a comprehensive theory of "psychodynamic bioethics" that attempts to explain individual and collective attitudes toward bioethical controversy in psychodynamic terms.

  3. Regarding Bioethics: A Sociology of Morality. (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond


    C. Wright Mills said that when done well, sociology illuminates the intersection of biography and history. This essay examines how the author's vocational choices and career path were shaped by historical circumstance, leading him to a degree in sociology and to participation in the odd and interesting interdiscipline of bioethics. Drawing on a distinction between sociology in bioethics and sociology of bioethics, the essay considers the value of sociology to the bioethical project.

  4. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas


    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  5. Improving the Science Curriculum with Bioethics. (United States)

    Lundmark, Cathy


    Explains the importance of integrating bioethics into the science curriculum for student learning. Introduces a workshop designed for middle and high school science teachers teaching bioethics, its application to case studies, and how teachers can fit bioethics into their classroom. (YDS)

  6. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš


    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  7. Religious and cultural legitimacy of bioethics: lessons from Islamic bioethics. (United States)

    Shabana, Ayman


    Islamic religious norms are important for Islamic bioethical deliberations. In Muslim societies religious and cultural norms are sometimes confused but only the former are considered inviolable. I argue that respect for Islamic religious norms is essential for the legitimacy of bioethical standards in the Muslim context. I attribute the legitimating power of these norms, in addition to their purely religious and spiritual underpinnings, to their moral, legal, and communal dimensions. Although diversity within the Islamic ethical tradition defies any reductionist or essentialist reconstruction, legitimacy is secured mainly by approximation of Islamic ethical ideals believed to be inherent in the scriptural texts, rather than by the adoption of particular dogmatic or creedal views. With these characteristics, Islamic (bio) ethics may provide useful insights for comparative ethics and global bioethics.

  8. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald


    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  9. Bioethics and Transhumanism. (United States)

    Porter, Allen


    Transhumanism is a "technoprogressive" socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming "posthuman." To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those "bioconservatives" who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground with a number of esteemed thinkers and traditions, from the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the postmodern philosophy of Nietzsche. It is crucially important to give proper scholarly attention to transhumanism now, not only because of its recent and ongoing rise as a cultural and political force (and the concomitant potential ramifications for bioethical discourse and public policy), but because of the imminence of major breakthroughs in the kinds of technologies that transhumanism focuses on. Thus, the articles in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy are either explicitly about transhumanism or are on topics, such as the ethics of germline engineering and criteria for personhood, that are directly relevant to the debate between transhumanists (and technoprogressives more broadly) and bioconservatives. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Bioscience, bioinnovations, and bioethics. (United States)

    Leisola, Matti


    Biosciences and their applications, which we call biotechnology, have affected human society in many ways. Great hopes have been set on future biotechnology. The future depends on three key issues. First, we need good science. Recent developments in biosciences have surprised us in many ways. I shall explain in this article how. Secondly, we need structured innovation systems in order to commercialize our discoveries. Europe is slow in this respect compared to our Japanese and American competitors and may lose in the competition. I shall describe the Finnish innovation chain using the rewarded Otaniemi model as an example of how commercialization can be done in a systematic way. Thirdly, we need norms to guide what to do and where to go. Bioethics is probably the most neglected of the three key issues. With modern biotechnology we are able to do things that should worry every citizen, but the ethical discussion has been largely neglected or the discussion in our pluralistic society is leading nowhere. I shall finally discuss these problems from a historical perspective.

  11. What can history do for bioethics? (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan


    This article details the relationship between history and bioethics. I argue that historians' reluctance to engage with bioethics rests on a misreading of the field as solely reducible to applied ethics, and overlooks previous enthusiasm for historical perspectives. I claim that seeing bioethics as its practitioners see it - as an interdisciplinary meeting ground - should encourage historians to collaborate in greater numbers. I conclude by outlining how bioethics might benefit from new histories of the field, and how historians can lend a fresh perspective to bioethical debates. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The European Convention on bioethics. (United States)

    Byk, C


    Benefiting from a widely recognised experience of the field of bioethics, the Council of Europe which represents all the democratic countries of Europe, has embarked on the ambitious task of drafting a European Convention on bioethics. The purpose of this text is to set out fundamental values, such as respect for human dignity, free informed consent and non-commercialisation of the human body. In addition to this task, protocols will provide specific standards for the different fields concerned with the application of biomedical sciences. The convention and the first two protocols (human experiments and organ transplants) are due to be ready for signature by mid 1994.

  13. On the nature and sociology of bioethics. (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael


    Much has been written in the last decade about how we should understand the value of the sociology of bioethics. Increasingly the value of the sociology of bioethics is interpreted by its advocates directly in terms of its relationship to bioethics. It is claimed that the sociology of bioethics (and related disciplinary approaches) should be seen as an important component of work in bioethics. In this paper we wish to examine whether, and how, the sociology of bioethics can be defended as a valid and justified research activity, in the context of debates about the nature of bioethics. We begin by presenting and arguing for an account of bioethics that does justice to the content of the field, the range of questions that belong within this field, and the justificatory standards (and methodological orientations) that can provide convincing answers to these questions. We then consider the role of sociology in bioethics and show how and under what conditions it can contribute to answering questions within bioethics. In the final section, we return to the sociology of bioethics to show that it can make only a limited contribution to the field.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process, described the requirements to the participants of EER expertise, grounded EER accordance to didactic and methodological requirements, described an algorithm of preparation for  the examination object to determine compliance with the requirements of didactic. It is established that the assessment is aimed to the receipt from the experts of corresponding data and acceptance on their basis of competent decisions about expedience of the use in general educational establishments.

  15. [Secular bioethics and religious bioethics. Keys to a contemporary argument]. (United States)

    Díaz de Terán Velasco, M Cruz


    Within the context of the contemporary plural debate, it is common to use the adjective secular as if it were the only manner to participate in the bioethical debate of Western multi-ethnic society. This situation gives rise to the question of whether there can be a religious contribution to the current bioethical debate. There are two possible answers. The first, an affirmative one, is centered on the fact that contemporary society is characterized by pluralistic and secular values on which is based the obligations of its members, defined by consensus through democratic procedures. In this context, religious contribution, as something from the private sphere, must be excluded. The alternative response to our central question may be negative, based on the assertion that human beings are identified as members of different value systems, many of them imbued with religious elements. From this point of view, the religious phenomenon would be one of the most important elements in the debate on cultural pluralism, because it guides, and serves as an inspiration of our conduct. This article aims to answer our central question by analyzing each of the two possible positions. The article is divided into two sections; the first analyses the significance of the term secular when it is employed in the sphere of bioethics and the second examines whether, within the scope of democratic societies, the current religious contribution to the bioethics debate has any legitimacy. The article ends with some conclusions.

  16. The bioethics of cosmetic psychopharmacology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    shyness (that does not meet criteria for social anxiety disor- der) or from general dissatisfaction with themselves and ... dysthymia, social anxiety disorder, and personality disorders, it may be argued by extrapolation that these .... Berkeley, CA, University of California Press. 11. The President's Council on Bioethics. Beyond ...

  17. Education for values and bioethics. (United States)

    Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina


    "Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences.

  18. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'? (United States)

    Hurst, Samia


    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  19. Bioethics in the Hunger Games (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce


    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  20. Bioethics. LC Science Tracer Bullet. (United States)

    Martin, Cathy, Comp.; Cadoree, Michelle

    This guide lists published materials on many aspects of bioethics, the literature of which is varied and scattered. Related guides in the LC Science Tracer Bullet series are TB 80-9, Terminal Care, TB 80-11, Drug Research on Human Subjects, TB 83-4, Science Policy, and TB 84-7, Biotechnology. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this…

  1. Beyond the Sterility of a Distinct African Bioethics: Addressing the Conceptual Bioethics Lag in Africa. (United States)

    Ssebunnya, Gerald M


    In the current debate on the future of bioethics in Africa, several authors have argued for a distinct communitarian African bioethics that can counter the dominancy of Western atomistic principlism in contemporary bioethics. In this article I examine this rather contentious argument and evaluate its validity and viability. Firstly, I trace the contextual origins of contemporary bioethics and highlight the rise and dominance of principlism. I particularly note that principlism was premised on a content-thin notion of the common morality that is in need of enrichment. I also contend that bioethics is essentially two-dimensional, being both conceptual and empirical, and indicate the lag in Africa with regard to conceptual bioethics. I then appeal for authentic engagement by 1) African health care professionals, 2) African health care training institutions, 3) Africa's bioethics development partners, and 4) African bioethicists and philosophers, towards addressing this critical lag. I underline the need to maintain the essential universality of bioethics as a discipline. I particularly argue against the pursuit of a distinct African bioethics, as it appears to be rooted in sterile African ethno-philosophy. Rather, African bioethicists and philosophers would do well to elucidate the universalisability of insights from traditional African thought, for the benefit of bioethics as a whole. Thus we must engage beyond the sterility of a distinct African bioethics - authentically reflecting on the essentially universal contemporary bioethical concerns - to effectively articulate a viable trajectory for bioethics in Africa. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pragmatism, metaphysics, and bioethics: beyond a theory of moral deliberation. (United States)

    Pamental, Matthew


    Pragmatism has been understood by bioethicists as yet another rival in the "methods wars," as yet another theory of moral deliberation. This has led to criticism of pragmatic bioethics as both theoretically and practically inadequate. Pragmatists' responses to these objections have focused mainly on misunderstandings of pragmatism's epistemology. These responses are insufficient. Pragmatism's commitment to radical empiricism gives it theoretical resources unappreciated by critics and defenders alike. Radical empiricism, unlike its more traditional ancestors, undercuts the gaps between theory and practice, and subjective and objective accounts of experience, and in so doing provides the metaphysical and epistemological basis for a thoroughgoing empirical naturalism in ethics. Pragmatism's strength as an approach to moral problems thus emerges as a result of a much wider array of resources than contemporary interpreters have acknowledged, which makes it a richer, deeper framework for understanding moral deliberation in general and bioethical decision making in particular.

  3. Setting the agenda for urban bioethics. (United States)

    Blustein, J


    Urban bioethics has two goals. First, it aims to focus attention on neglected bioethical problems that have particular salience in urban settings. Three problems are highlighted: socioeconomic inequality as a major determinant of health inequality, the foundations of an ethic for public health, and the impact of social context on the therapeutic alliance between patients and physicians. Second, urban bioethics serves as a vehicle for raising deep theoretical and methodological questions about the dominant assumptions and approaches of contemporary bioethics. Demands for cultural sensitivity, so pronounced in the urban context, compel us to reexamine the central commitment in bioethics to personal autonomy. The multiculturalism of urban life also argues for a dialogic approach to bioethical problem solving rather than the monologic approach that characterizes most bioethical thinking. Although my brief for redirecting bioethics will resonate with many critics who do not consider themselves urban bioethicists, I argue that there are special advantages in using urban bioethics to expose the limitations of contemporary bioethical paradigms.

  4. Bioethics and authoritarian discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Güven


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]This paper has been planned as a critical response to Murat Civaner's article entitled 'Medical Ethics arguments should be concordant with scientific knowledge and certain values', published in the Autumn 2015 issue of Turkish Journal of Bioethics. It also aims to provide an evaluation of the way the authoritarian discourse manifests itself in ethical arguments.[¤]METHODS[|]For this purpose, the paper first presents the views of Orhan Hançerlioğlu on Karl Marx and Karl Popper and treats these views as a written example of such authoritarian discourse, which is essentially a problematic attitude that results from an inability to acknowledge the value-laden aspects of a given perspective. [¤]RESULTS[|]In order to show that problems in Hançerlioğlu's approach is also present in Civaner's arguments, several examples where the author did not recognize the value-laden aspects and the subjective nature of information are provided. The paper then examines the recent claim by Celal Şengör, who asserted that force feeding of feces to individuals do not qualify as torture. Based on the presentation and the justification of this reductionist claim, it is emphasized that the relationship between information and values is much more complicated than those presented by Civaner. Civaner's claim, which asserts that the concept of conscience should have no place in medical ethics arguments, is also evaluated on this basis and the dangers of excluding the moral agent in ethical evaluation are underlined. In addition, the relationship of the paternalist tradition with the perspective which I refer to as the 'macro axis' is examined. Last but not least, the paper deals with the concept of 'ethics of ethics' by using examples from national and international ethics literature and emphasizes the reason why it is important for the ethicist to become aware of her own scheme of values. [¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]The paper concludes that contrary

  5. Bioethics and its gatekeepers: does institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals? (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Myser, Catherine; De Vries, Raymond


    Who are the gatekeepers in bioethics? Does editorial bias or institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals? We analyzed the composition of the editorial boards of 14 leading bioethics journals by country. Categorizing these countries according to their Human Development Index (HDI), we discovered that approximately 95 percent of editorial board members are based in (very) high-HDI countries, less than 4 percent are from medium-HDI countries, and fewer than 1.5 percent are from low-HDI countries. Eight out of 14 leading bioethics journals have no editorial board members from a medium- or low-HDI country. Eleven bioethics journals have no board members from low-HDI countries. This severe underrepresentation of bioethics scholars from developing countries on editorial boards suggests that bioethics may be affected by institutional racism, raising significant questions about the ethics of bioethics in a global context.

  6. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  7. The virtue ethics approach to bioethics. (United States)

    Holland, Stephen


    This paper discusses the viability of a virtue-based approach to bioethics. Virtue ethics is clearly appropriate to addressing issues of professional character and conduct. But another major remit of bioethics is to evaluate the ethics of biomedical procedures in order to recommend regulatory policy. How appropriate is the virtue ethics approach to fulfilling this remit? The first part of this paper characterizes the methodology problem in bioethics in terms of diversity, and shows that virtue ethics does not simply restate this problem in its own terms. However, fatal objections to the way the virtue ethics approach is typically taken in bioethics literature are presented in the second section of the paper. In the third part, a virtue-based approach to bioethics that avoids the shortcomings of the typical one is introduced and shown to be prima facie plausible. The upshot is an inviting new direction for research into bioethics' methodology. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. [Interface between bioethics and international relations]. (United States)

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei


    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics.

  9. [Bioethical language in the law and jurisprudence about bioethical problems]. (United States)

    Corral García, Eduardo


    The impact is analyzed that on the Spanish Law relative to questions bioethics--as the Law on artificial reproduction, the Law of biomedical investigation, and the Law on sexual and reproductive health--can have the conception of human embryo enunciated by the Court of Justice of the European Union in his judgment of October 18, 2011, considering it to be any ovum fertilized with independence of the degree of reached development.

  10. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  11. Global bioethics – myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams-Jones Bryn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been debate on whether a global or unified field of bioethics exists. If bioethics is a unified global field, or at the very least a closely shared way of thinking, then we should expect bioethicists to behave the same way in their academic activities anywhere in the world. This paper investigates whether there is a 'global bioethics' in the sense of a unified academic community. Methods To address this question, we study the web-linking patterns of bioethics institutions, the citation patterns of bioethics papers and the buying patterns of bioethics books. Results All three analyses indicate that there are geographical and institutional differences in the academic behavior of bioethicists and bioethics institutions. Conclusion These exploratory studies support the position that there is no unified global field of bioethics. This is a problem if the only reason is parochialism. But these regional differences are probably of less concern if one notices that bioethics comes in many not always mutually understandable dialects.

  12. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Marian A.; Lindemann, Hilde

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical

  13. [Global Bioethics and Biocultural Ethics]. (United States)

    Rozzi, Ricardo


    The biocultural ethic recovers an understanding of the vital links between the life habits of the coinhabitants (humans and other-than-human) that share a habitat. The ″3Hs″ formal framework of the biocultural ethics provides a conceptual and methodological tool to understand and to better manage complex eco-social or biocultural systems in heterogeneous regions of the planet. From the global bioethics originally proposed by V.R. Potter, the integration of theory and praxis promoted by Alfredo Pradenas in the Bioethics Society of Chile, and the conceptual framework of biocultural ethics (including traditions of philosophical thought, scientific and Amerindians), I develop a comparative analysis of: 1. an ecosystemic and intercultural concept of the human body, 2. an intercultural understanding of health with complementary Western and Native American medicinal practices, and 3. an appreciation and respect for the fundamental links among the life habits, the habitats where they take place, and the well-being and identity of the communities of cohabitants. Implicit links in the ″3Hs″ biocultural ethics are present in the archaic meanings of the term ethos. This understanding retrieves a primordial root in the genesis of Western ethics, which did not start bounded to how to inhabit or dwell, but also considered where to inhabit and with whom to co-inhabit. I propose to restore the complexity and breadth of the concept of ethics originated in Ancient Greece, to reaffirm the common roots of bioethics and environmental ethics contained in Potter's global bioethics, and to incorporate the systemic and contextual perspective of the biocultural ethic that values biological and cultural diversity (and their interrelationships), to sustain a conception of human health interconnected with the sustainability of the biosphere.

  14. Resources (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  15. Disciplining Bioethics: Towards a Standard of Methodological Rigor in Bioethics Research (United States)

    Adler, Daniel; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik


    Contemporary bioethics research is often described as multi- or interdisciplinary. Disciplines are characterized, in part, by their methods. Thus, when bioethics research draws on a variety of methods, it crosses disciplinary boundaries. Yet each discipline has its own standard of rigor—so when multiple disciplinary perspectives are considered, what constitutes rigor? This question has received inadequate attention, as there is considerable disagreement regarding the disciplinary status of bioethics. This disagreement has presented five challenges to bioethics research. Addressing them requires consideration of the main types of cross-disciplinary research, and consideration of proposals aiming to ensure rigor in bioethics research. PMID:22686634

  16. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources. (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K


    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  17. Building the Next Bioethics Commission. (United States)

    Capron, Alexander M


    At every moment, somewhere in the world, a group of men and women are sitting around a table deliberating about an ethical issue posed by medicine and research, whether as a research ethics committee; a hospital or clinical ethics committee; a stem-cell review committee; a gene transfer research committee; a biobank ethics committee; an ethics advisory committee for a medical or nursing association or nongovernmental organization; a state, provincial, national, or intergovernmental bioethics committee; or an ad hoc panel examining a particular development or case. However, the last national committee in the United States, the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, held its final meeting at the end of August 2016 and closed its doors. Should we regret its departure? I believe that the United States would benefit from having another national bioethics advisory body, but I do not think that the commission should simply have continued under a new president in the same form. Instead, looking at the experience of that commission and its six predecessors-who they were, how they worked, the functions they served, and the problems they experienced-we can derive some useful ideas for anyone planning to build the next commission. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica


    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  19. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen


    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  20. [SIBIL: an information tool for the information retrieval on bioethics]. (United States)

    Dracos, Adriana


    The article describes the main features of the website SIBIL (Sistema Informativo per la Bioetica In Linea) implemented within the framework of a research project of the ISS for collecting, indexing and disseminating Italian literature on bioethics since 1995 through an integrated electronic system. The site, addressed to a wide range of people interested at different degrees and levels in bioethics, offers a comprehensive overview of the activities, such as courses and meetings, on the major ethical issues at stake in Italy, as well as a survey of the most important activities both at national and international level. The main feature of SIBIL is a database of a large collection of documents retrieved through sources or exploitation of the most important international electronic databases. A thesaurus of 1,600 terms, available in Italian and English, was created in order to organize documents with standardized criteria currently adopted in the Italian scientific environment. Future trends of the website are also discussed for sharing experiences with other countries and laying the basis for a European portal on bioethics.

  1. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne


    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  2. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that the study group has regular access to the internet , and preferred using free online resources from Google and Wikipedia to institutionally subscribed academic online resources in databases such as HINARI, EBSCO Host, Questia , JSTOR and High Beam.This shows that technology alone cannot help ...

  3. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah


    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  4. Integrative Bioethics: A Conceptually Inconsistent Project. (United States)

    Ivanković, Viktor; Savić, Lovro


    This article provides a critical evaluation of the central components of Integrative Bioethics, a project aiming at a bioethical framework reconceptualization. Its proponents claim that this new system of thought has developed a better bioethical methodology than mainstream Western bioethics, a claim that we criticize here. We deal especially with the buzz words of Integrative Bioethics - pluriperspectivism, integrativity, orientational knowledge, as well as with its underlying theory of moral truth. The first part of the paper looks at what the claims of a superior methodology consist in. The second reveals pluriperspectivism and integrativity to be underdeveloped, hazy terms, but which seem to be underpinned by two theses - the incommensurability and the inclusiveness theses. These theses we critically scrutinize. We then consider strategies the project's proponents might apply to curb these theses in order to acquire minimal consistency for their framework. This part of the article also deals with the conception of moral truth that drives the theory, a position equally burdened with inconsistencies. In the last part of the article, we observe the concept of orientational knowledge, and develop two interpretations of its possible meaning. We claim that, following the first interpretation, Integrative Bioethics is completely descriptive, in which case it is informative and important, but hardly bioethics; if it is normative, following the second interpretation, it is bioethics as we already know it, but merely clad in rhetorical embellishments. We conclude that there is nothing new about this project, and that its inconsistencies are reason enough for its abandonment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bioethics in the Laboratory: Synthesis and Interactivity. (United States)

    Murray, Kevin J.


    Describes the implementation of a bioethics laboratory exercise that incorporates a variety of instructional strategies. In the activity, General Biology students consider relevant and interesting topics of bioethical importance and prepare classroom presentations on the different viewpoints normally attendant to ethical topics. Includes an…

  6. Assessing Analysis and Reasoning in Bioethics (United States)

    Pearce, Roger S.


    Developing critical thinking is a perceived weakness in current education. Analysis and reasoning are core skills in bioethics making bioethics a useful vehicle to address this weakness. Assessment is widely considered to be the most influential factor on learning (Brown and Glasner, 1999) and this piece describes how analysis and reasoning in…

  7. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights. (United States)

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija


    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  8. Introduction: Political Influence on Bioethical Deliberation. (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Iltis, Ana S; DuBois, Susan G


    Twelve personal narratives address the impact of political influence on bioethics. Three commentary articles explore these stories and suggest lessons that can be learned from them. The commentators come from backgrounds that include bioethics, medicine, educational psychology, health care management, and philosophy.

  9. The Time Is Now: Bioethics and LGBT Issues. (United States)

    Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth


    Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating

  10. Fritz Jahr's 1927 concept of bioethics. (United States)

    Sass, Hans-Martin


    In 1927, Fritz Jahr, a Protestant pastor, philosopher, and educator in Halle an der Saale, published an article entitled "Bio-Ethics: A Review of the Ethical Relationships of Humans to Animals and Plants" and proposed a "Bioethical Imperative," extending Kant's moral imperative to all forms of life. Reviewing new physiological knowledge of his times and moral challenges associated with the development of secular and pluralistic societies, Jahr redefines moral obligations towards human and nonhuman forms of life, outlining the concept of bioethics as an academic discipline, principle, and virtue. Although he had no immediate long-lasting influence during politically and morally turbulent times, his argument that new science and technology requires new ethical and philosophical reflection and resolve may contribute toward clarification of terminology and of normative and practical visions of bioethics, including understanding of the geoethical dimensions of bioethics.

  11. Bioethics education of nursing curriculum in Korea: a national study. (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon; Kang, Youngmi; Lee, Woon-Yong


    The aim of this study is to examine the current profile of bioethics education in the nursing curriculum as perceived by nursing students and faculty in Korea. A convenience sampling method was used for recruiting 1223 undergraduate nursing students and 140 nursing faculty in Korea. Experience of Bioethics Education, Quality of Bioethics Education, and Demand for Bioethics Education Scales were developed. The Experience of Bioethics Education Scale showed that the nursing curriculum in Korea does not provide adequate bioethics education. The Quality of Bioethics Education Scale revealed that the topics of human nature and human rights were relatively well taught compared to other topics. The Demand for Bioethics Education Scale determined that the majority of the participants believed that bioethics education should be a major requirement in the nursing curriculum. The findings of this study suggest that bioethics should be systemically incorporated into nursing courses, clinical practice during the program, and during continuing education.

  12. The use of films as a teaching tool for the teaching-learning process in bioethics. (United States)

    Pereira Rates, Camila Maria; Maciel Silva, Larriny; Moura Pereira, Lívia; Reis Pessalacia, Juliana Dias


    Identifying the contribution of using films in the process of teaching-learning in bioethics and verifying the facilities and difficulties in using this teaching resource. A qualitative study analyzed from the Bardin referential. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, recorded, and transcribed in full. For definition of the sample was used the criteria of repetition. In total, participated in the study 21 students of Nursing and Biochemistry, members of a Center for Teaching and Research in Bioethics of a public federal university in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During the analysis of interviews, two thematic categories and two subcategories emerged. In their responses, students indicated the importance of viewing the bioethical problem for the reflection and decision-making in professional practice. Many reported that from the experience in discussions of the films showed, were made changes in the ethical position. The use of films as a teaching resource contributes to the process of teaching-learning in bioethics for undergraduate students. The discussions of the films are stimulating and provide a space for reflection and dialogue on bioethical problems that students may encounter in their professional practice.

  13. The use of films as a teaching tool for the teaching-learning process in bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Pereira Rates


    Full Text Available Objective. Identifying the contribution of using films in the process of teaching-learning in bioethics and verifying the facilities and difficulties in using this teaching resource. Methodology. A qualitative study analyzed from the Bardin referential. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, recorded, and transcribed in full. For definition of the sample was used the criteria of repetition. In total, participated in the study 21 students of Nursing and Biochemistry, members of a Center for Teaching and Research in Bioethics of a public federal university in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During the analysis of interviews, two thematic categories and two subcategories emerged. Results. In their responses, students indicated the importance of viewing the bioethical problem for the reflection and decision-making in professional practice. Many reported that from the experience in discussions of the films showed, were made changes in the ethical position. Conclusion: The use of films as a teaching resource contributes to the process of teaching-learning in bioethics for undergraduate students. The discussions of the films are stimulating and provide a space for reflection and dialogue on bioethical problems that students may encounter in their professional practice.

  14. Bioethics for the 21st century: building hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Cortina


    Full Text Available Bioethics faces the challenge of collaborating in building a just and sustainable world. This article analyzes the birth of bioethics as a civic bioethics of pluralistic societies in the context of applied ethics, its evolution to become a global bioethics, its current structure, the challenges it faces, and finally the kind of practical reasoning that should guide its task if bioethics is to achieve its goals.

  15. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail


    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  16. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  17. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    reported using free Internet resources including the search engines, while only a small proportion uses scholarly databases. For example, 22% of researchers reported using the. African Journals Online (AJOL) while 7% use Gale databases (see Table 2 for details). Additionally, the frequency of use also varied significantly ...

  18. Challenges associated with cataloguing of electronic resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to identify challenges associated with the cataloguing of e resources in some selected university libraries in south –south Nigeria. The descriptive survey design involving the use of questionnaire as the research instrument was adopted. The population comprised of cataloguers in five selected ...

  19. Current bioethical issues in parasitology. (United States)

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E


    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  20. Liberalism, authority, and bioethics commissions. (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert


    Bioethicists working on national ethics commissions frequently think of themselves as advisors to the government, but distance themselves from any claims to actual authority. Governments however may find it beneficial to appear to defer to the authority of these commissions when designing laws and policies, and might appoint such commissions for exactly this reason. Where does the authority for setting laws and policies come from? This question is best answered from within a normative political philosophy. This paper explains the locus of moral authority as understood within one family of normative political theories--liberal political theories--and argues that most major "liberal" commentators have understood both the source and scope of ethics commissions' authority in a manner at odds with liberalism, rightly interpreted. The author argues that reexamining the implications of liberalism for bioethics commissions would mean changing what are considered valid criticisms of such commissions and also changing the content of national bioethics commission mandates. The author concludes that bioethicists who participate in such commissions ought to carefully examine their own views about the normative limits of governmental authority because such limits have important implications for the contribution that bioethicists can legitimately make to government commissions.

  1. Current bioethical issues in parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boury D.


    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  2. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  3. Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics. (United States)

    Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine


    Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

  4. Genome editing: Bioethics shows the way.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn P Neuhaus


    Full Text Available When some scientists hear the word "bioethics," they break out in intellectual hives. They shouldn't. Good bioethics is about enabling science to move forward. Bioethics pushes scientists to acknowledge that they operate not within a vacuum but within a society in which diverse perspectives and values must be engaged. Bioethicists give voice to those divergent perspectives and provide a framework to facilitate informed and inclusive discussions that spur progress, rather than stall it. The field is needed to advance cutting-edge biomedical research in domains in which the benefits to be had are enormous, such as genome editing, but ethical concerns persist.

  5. Genome editing: Bioethics shows the way. (United States)

    Neuhaus, Carolyn P; Caplan, Arthur L


    When some scientists hear the word "bioethics," they break out in intellectual hives. They shouldn't. Good bioethics is about enabling science to move forward. Bioethics pushes scientists to acknowledge that they operate not within a vacuum but within a society in which diverse perspectives and values must be engaged. Bioethicists give voice to those divergent perspectives and provide a framework to facilitate informed and inclusive discussions that spur progress, rather than stall it. The field is needed to advance cutting-edge biomedical research in domains in which the benefits to be had are enormous, such as genome editing, but ethical concerns persist.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov


    Full Text Available Abstract. Results on modeling of quality management system of electronic information resources on the basis of the analysis of its elements functioning with use of the integrated and differentiated approaches are presented. Application of such model is illustrated on an example of calculation and optimization of parameters of a quality management system at the organization of the co-ordinated work of services of monitoring, an estimation of quality and support of electronic learning resources.

  7. IAB presidential address: bioethics in a globalized world: creating space for flourishing human relationships. (United States)

    Biller-Andorno, Nikola


    Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries (United States)

    Noh, Younghee


    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  9. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection (United States)

    Downey, Kay


    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  10. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing? (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit


    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  11. Bioethics: why philosophy is essential for progress. (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian


    It is the JME's 40th anniversary and my 20th anniversary working in the field. I reflect on the nature of bioethics and medical ethics. I argue that both bioethics and medical ethics together have, in many ways, failed as fields. My diagnosis is that better philosophy is needed. I give some examples of the importance of philosophy to bioethics. I focus mostly on the failure of ethics in research and organ transplantation, although I also consider genetic selection, enhancement, cloning, futility, disability and other topics. I do not consider any topic comprehensively or systematically or address the many reasonable objections to my arguments. Rather, I seek to illustrate why philosophical analysis and argument remain as important as ever to progress in bioethics and medical ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  12. A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law. (United States)

    Capron, Alexander Morgan


    The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

  13. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. [Contribution of Stein's Anthropology to Personalistic Bioethics]. (United States)

    Robles Morejón, Jeannette Beatriz


    Dr. Juan Manuel Burgos proposes ″a challenge″ to whom aims to consolidate the dignity of the human person as the center of a thought structure. Burgos presents a well-founded trilogy, citing Wojtyla, Sgreccia and he himself, as a perfect combination to support personalist bioethics. However, the possibility of giving a solid anthropological support to this bioethics remains open provided that a substantial list of personalistic authors is revised. This research seeks to collate Stein's anthropological proposal to personalist bioethics needs expressed by Burgos. The study aims to prove how Stein's anthropology can be assembled to the characteristics of personalism, and thus infer that more specific levels of the personalist bioethics can be based on this anthropology.

  15. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Teaching Bioethics from an Interdisciplinary Perspective. (United States)

    Singleton, Rivers, Jr.; Brock, D. Heyward


    Outlines an interdisciplinary workshop in bioethics for secondary teachers taught by a team consisting of a scientist, a philosopher, and a literary critic. Discusses definitions, topics, reading selections, problems, and value. (DC)

  17. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources? (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia


    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  1. On the possibility of a pragmatic discourse bioethics: Putnam, Habermas, and the normative logic of bioethical inquiry. (United States)

    Cooke, Elizabeth F


    Pragmatic bioethics represents a novel approach to the discipline of bioethics, yet has met with criticisms which have beset the discipline of bioethics in the past. In particular, pragmatic bioethics has been criticized for its excessively fuzzy approach to fundamental questions of normativity, which are crucial to a field like bioethics. Normative questions need answers, and consensus is not always enough. The approach here is to apply elements of the discourse ethics of Habermas and Putnam to the sphere of bioethics, in order to develop a normative structure out of the framework of bioethical inquiry as it stands. The idea here is that the process of inquiry contains its own normative structure as it aims to discover norms. Such an approach, which fuses pragmatic bioethics with discourse ethics (which equally draws on pragmatism), may rightly be called a "Pragmatic Discourse Bioethics."

  2. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics. (United States)

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida


    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

  3. Bioethical language and its dialects and idiolects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradiction

  4. Bioethical language and its dialects and idiolects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrafa Volnei


    Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradiction

  5. Burden of Proof in Bioethics. (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J


    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Authoritarian versus responsive communitarian bioethics. (United States)

    Etzioni, Amitai


    A communitarian approach to bioethics adds a core value to a field that is often more concerned with considerations of individual autonomy. Some interpretations of liberalism put the needs of the patient over those of the community; authoritarian communitarianism privileges the needs of society over those of the patient. Responsive communitarianism's main starting point is that we face two conflicting core values, autonomy and the common good, and that neither should be a priori privileged and that we have principles and procedure that can be used to work out this conflict but not to eliminate it. Additionally, it favours changing behaviour mainly through the creation of norms and by drawing on informal social control rather than by coercion.

  7. Bioethics, children, and the environment. (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F


    Queer perspectives have typically emerged from sexual minorities as a way of repudiating flawed views of sexuality, mischaracterized relationships, and objectionable social treatment of people with atypical sexuality or gender expression. In this vein, one commentator offers a queer critique of the conceptualization of children in regard to their value for people's identities and relationships. According to this account, children are morally problematic given the values that make them desirable, their displacement of other beings and things entitled to moral protection, not to mention the damaging environmental effects that follow in the wake of population growth. Objectionable views of children are said even to have colonized the view of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people who - with the enthusiastic endorsement of bioethics - increasingly turn to assisted reproductive treatments to have children. In the face of these outcomes, it is better - according to this account - that people reconsider their interest in children. This account is not, however, ultimately strong enough to override people's interest in having children, relative to the benefits they confer and relative to the benefits conferred on children themselves. It is certainly not strong enough to justify differential treatment of LGBT people in matters of assisted reproductive treatments. Environmental threats in the wake of population growth might be managed in ways other than devaluing children as such. Moreover, this account ultimately damages the interests of LGBT people in matters of access, equity, and children, which outcome is paradoxical, given the origins of queer perspectives as efforts to assert and defend the social interests of sexual and gender minorities. © 2017 The Authors. Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Nanotechnologies, bioethics and human dignity. (United States)

    Visciano, Silvia


    Nanoscale science, research, and technology present a complex set of circumstances. First of all, this field involves many different subjects, including biology, chemistry, physics, and environment sciences. Secondly, although scientists are working increasingly at a molecular level, nanotechnology is about much more than a reduction of scale. Indeed, nanoscience and Nanotechnologies offer an unprecedented ability to control and manipulate nature, offering hope for progress. Ethical perspectives vary considerably in this field, but commentators and researchers share a concern about a specific worrisome issue: the lack of appropriate ethical and legal principles and processes (associated with issues including health risks, human body manipulation, and private life violation), to guide nanotechnological R&D, commercialization, and final use. Some authors partially reject this concern by suggesting that Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies do not constitute an autonomous category, and that they are instead just the operative result of combining other traditional areas of study. However the nanotechnological debate brings up the semantic and content issues of bioethics and foments a contentious discussion emphasizing human dignity. Issues include enhancement versus therapeutic intervention, traceability versus privacy, and societal benefits versus risks. From these preliminary considerations, we will move on to discuss (I) the traditional, although still controversial, relationship between bioethics and human dignity, and (II) return to the subject of nanotechnology. We will discuss how today in Europe, although still indefinite, the principle of respect for human dignity is a welcomed contributor to "ethical vigilance" about the uncertain development of new nano-scale technologies. We will also note how U.S. strategy in this regard is simply lacking and appears only as a purely discursive "key issue in long term ".

  9. A Broader Bioethics: Topic Selection and the Impact of National Bioethics Commissions. (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L


    Comparative assessments of national bioethics commissions in the United States commonly look at the differences among these groups over their forty-year history. A particular focus has been differences in the membership, mission, methods, and reports of the President's Council on Bioethics, which was active from 2001 until 2009, compared to those of its predecessors and the recent Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, active from 2009 until 2016. The differences are real, but disproportionate attention to them can obscure the substantial similarities in commissions' structure and function throughout the history of expert bioethics advice to government. As the Trump administration considers what role, if any, a bioethics commission will play in its work, it would be well served to consider how choices regarding the design of such a group and the topics it examines can best facilitate the unique contributions it can make to the government and to the country. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  10. Bioethics and self-governance: the lessons of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Snead, O Carter


    The following article analyzes the process of conception, elaboration, and adoption of the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights, and reflects on the lessons it might hold for public bioethics on the international level. The author was involved in the process at a variety of levels: he provided advice to the IBC on behalf of the President's Council of Bioethics; he served as the U.S. representative to UNESCO's Intergovernmental Bioethics Committee; and led the U.S. Delegation in the multilateral negotiation of Government experts that culminated in the adoption of the declaration in its final form. The author is currently serving a 4-year term as a member of UNESCO's International Bioethics Committee.

  11. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu


    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  12. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff. (United States)

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen


    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. Article 6 of the UNESCO Universal Declaration of Bioethics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) was accepted unanimously in 2005 by the world community, consisting of 191 member nations. This means that the declaration is currently the first and only bioethical text to ...

  14. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > South African Journal of Bioethics and Law: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Systematic reviews in bioethics: types, challenges, and value. (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind


    There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.

  16. Archives: South African Journal of Bioethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Archives: South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home > Archives: South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Balancing bioethics by sensing the aesthetic. (United States)

    Macneill, Paul


    This article is critical of "bioethics" as it is widely understood and taught, noting in particular an emphasis given to philosophical justification, reason and rationality. It is proposed that "balancing" bioethics be achieved by giving greater weight to practice and the aesthetic: Defined in terms of sensory perception, emotion and feeling. Each of those three elements is elaborated as a non-cognitive capacity and, when taken together, comprise aesthetic sensitivity and responsiveness. This is to recognise the aesthetic as a productive element in bioethics as practice. Contributions from the philosophy of art and aesthetics are drawn into the discussion to bring depth to an understanding of "the aesthetic". This approach is buttressed by philosophers - including Foucault and 18th century German philosophers (in particular Kant) - who recognized a link between ethics and aesthetics. The article aims to give substance to a claim that bioethics necessarily comprises a cognitive component, relating to reason, and a non-cognitive component that draws on aesthetic sensibility and relates to practice. A number of advantages of bioethics, understood to explicitly acknowledge the aesthetic, are proffered. Having defined bioethics in conventional terms, there is discussion of the extent to which other approaches to bioethics (including casuistry, virtue ethics, and narrative ethics) recognize aesthetic sensitivity in their practice. It is apparent that they do so to varying extents although not always explicitly. By examining this aspect of applied ethics, the paper aims to draw attention to aesthetic sensitivity and responsiveness as integral to ethical and effective health care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Surmounting elusive barriers: the case for bioethics mediation. (United States)

    Bergman, Edward J


    This article describes, analyzes, and advocates for management of clinical healthcare conflict by a process commonly referred to as bioethics mediation. Section I provides a brief introduction to classical mediation outside the realm of clinical healthcare. Section II highlights certain distinguishing characteristics of bioethics mediation. Section III chronicles the history of bioethics mediation and references a number of seminal writings on the subject. Finally, Section IV analyzes barriers that have, thus far, limited the widespread implementation of bioethics mediation.

  19. Coaching bioethically with the purpose of achieving sustainable development


    Striedinger-Meléndez, Martha Patricia


    The present article analyzes the problematic of teaching and learning bioethics in the context of higher education, with an emphasis in medicine and aiming towards sustainable development. The objective is to expose that one of the alternatives to get to know bioethics in higher education institutions, is to coach each community bioethically. This means that the educator must be a role model for the students: not only teaching, but, living bioethically. In the beginning, it makes refe...

  20. Global Bioethics and Culture in a Pluralistic World: How does ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principles and values, which are the ethical responsibility of the community. Bioethics in the real sense cannot function where there is no culture. Most culture is based on the principles of the. “golden rules” do unto others what you will like them do unto you. This is the basis for bioethics because bioethical judgments.

  1. Bioethics Center: An Idea Whose Time Had Come (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974


    The functioning of the Kennedy Institute, which aims at dealing with ethical and social questions raised by advances in biosciences and medicine, is described. Three major projects now underway are briefly discussed: a core reference library in bioethics, an Encyclopedia of Bioethics, and a bioethics information retrieval system. (DT)

  2. The ethics of bioethics: mapping the moral landscape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eckenwiler, Lisa A; Cohn, Felicia G


    ... to the State House david orentlicher 74vi contents 7 Democratic Ideals and Bioethics Commissions: The Problem of Expertise in an Egalitarian Society mark g. kuczewski 83 8 The Endarkenment r. alta charo 95 9 Left Bias in Academic Bioethics: Three Dogmas griffin trotter 108 10 Bioethics as Politics: A Critical Reassessment h....

  3. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen


    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  4. Bioethics and Christian theology in Brazil. (United States)

    Dos Anjos, Márcio Fabri; Lepargneur, Hubert François


    A Christian theology is important to bioethics in Brazil not only because Brazil is a country of strong Christian traditions, but also because of its theological method and because of many practices in their Christian communities. In fact, the interaction within practice and theory is a big point of its methodology. A heritage of a long history of colonialism in South America comes to our times as enormous social inequalities. In such a context, the silent cry of poor people is heard as a question of coherence to the Christian faith and to the neighbor love. Through a constant dialog with human sciences, the method of theology, known as liberation theology, seeks the roots of social inequalities and the alternatives to a movement of spiritual and social liberation. In touch with the modern bioethics, this theology has strongly contributed to understand all the questions of bioethics in the frame of social structures and systems. On the other hand, many actual practices of the Catholic Church in Brazil with popular impact, like its annual Fraternity Campaign, develop social themes and problems that are also big concerns of bioethics. In this article we try to expose some aspects of this dialog, where theology has a well considered contribution to Brazilian bioethics, at the same time his religious discourse is open to interact with a lay discourse.

  5. Bioethical issues in the development of biopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Zoran


    Full Text Available Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immunogenicity. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce NHP use in biopharmaceutical drug development, e.g. study design improvements and changes in regulatory policy. In addition, several expert groups are active in this field (e.g. NC3Rs, BioSafe, and Biopharmaceutical Technical Group. Despite that, there is an increasing trend of use of NHP in preclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals, especially regarding monoclonal antibodies. Other potential bioethical issues related biopharmaceutical drug development are their cost/effectiveness ratio, clinical safety assessment, production of biosimilars, and comparison of their efficacy with placebo in countries without intention to market. Identification of the human genome has opened many new bioethical issues. Development of biopharmaceuticals is an important bioethical issue for several reasons. It connects all aspects of contemporary bioethics: bio­medicine (e.g. clinical trials in vulnerable subjects, animal welfare and the most recent ad­vances in biotechnology. In particular, biopharmaceutical drug development is a challenging issue regarding treatment of rare diseases.

  6. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  7. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments


    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.


    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air aud...

  8. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al


    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  9. [Twenty years of bioethics in Mexico: development and perspectives of the National Bioethics Commission]. (United States)

    Ruiz de Chávez-Guerrero, Manuel Hugo


    Bioethics in Mexico has a history that reveals the vision and ethical commitment of iconic characters in the fields of health sciences and humanities, leading to the creation of the National Bioethics Commission responsible for promoting a bioethics culture in Mexico. Its development and consolidation from the higher perspective of humanism had the aim to preserve health, life and its environment, while at the same time the bases of ethics and professional practice from different perspectives have been the building blocks of medical practice.

  10. Literature, history and the humanization of bioethics. (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan


    This paper considers the disciplines of literature and history and the contributions each makes to the discourse of bioethics. In each case I note the pedagogic ends that can be enacted though the appropriate use of the each of these disciplines in the sphere of medical education, particularly in the medical ethics classroom.(1) I then explore the contribution that both these disciplines and their respective methodologies can and do bring to the academic field of bioethics. I conclude with a brief consideration of the relations between literature and history with particular attention to the possibilities for a future bioethics informed by history and literature after the empirical turn. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The ethics of peer review in bioethics (United States)

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin


    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved. PMID:24131903

  12. Beyond A Beautiful Mind: Schizophrenia and Bioethics in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Donaldson


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on specific teaching assignments, strategies, and resources designed to help undergraduate students think critically about key concepts in bioethics—such as autonomy, paternalism, informed consent, and competency—using examples and case studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The assignments described below are disability-rights inspired interventions into the students' career-focused mindsets and training; one of my main strategies is social decentering, or having students examine a situation from a variety of theoretical and subjective perspectives. Exposing students to online talks by people diagnosed with schizophrenia and similar primary sources helps those students without first-hand experience to better understand these different points of view. While these assignments are primarily geared toward bioethics classes, they include resources and ideas for class activities that might be useful in other courses within disability studies, mad studies, psychiatry, literature, or film.

  13. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost? (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman


    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  14. Awareness and use of electronic resources at a university campus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looks into the use of electronic resources by the faculty members of College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Sixty-two copies of a questionnaire were sent to the entire faculty and 31 were returned which gave a response rate of 50%. The responses showed very ...

  15. Between naturalism and normativity: bioethical dilemmas under the scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Natalia Zavadivker


    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate to what extent the resulting empirical data from various experiments in Moral Psychology (some behavioral, others based on evidence from neuroimaging and in patients with brain lesions associated with moral competence areas , can contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes (cognitive and emotional underlying to our moral practical judgments, helping us to understand the mechanisms that influence our assessment of moral dilemmas in general and bioethics in particular. Various experiments are discussed (and the theoretical models that are supported that reveal aspects such as the role of disgust or repugnance in the production of moral judgments, the competitive or cooperative role of emotions and cognitions in impersonal and personal moral dilemmas -and between the above mentioned, easy and difficult-, the neurophysiological bases of deontologist and consequentialist, the value attributed to the intent and the results of action, etc. The relevance of these experiments are analyzed to understand the evaluative and deliberative processes concerning various bioethical dilemmas, for which appeals to examples of conflict situations involved and our emotional resources (that activate immediate assessment and our higher cortical areas interact (cognitive processes responsible for slower deliberative and reflexive.

  16. Constructing critical bioethics by deconstructing culture/nature dualism. (United States)

    Twine, Richard


    This paper seeks to respond to some of the recent criticisms directed toward bioethics by offering a contribution to a "critical bioethics". Here this concept is principally defined in terms of the three features of interdisciplinarity, self-reflexivity and the avoidance of uncritical complicity. In a partial reclamation of the ideas of V.R. Potter, it is argued that a critical bioethics requires a meaningful challenge to culture/nature dualism, expressed in bioethics as the distinction between medical ethics and ecological ethics. Such a contesting of the "bio" in bioethics arrests its ethical bracketing of environmental and animal ethics. Taken together, the triadic definition of a critical bioethics offered here provides a potential framework with which to fend off critiques of commercial capture or of being "too close to science" commonly directed toward bioethics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk


    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  18. Experimental course of bioethics upon the bioethics core curriculum of UNESCO: methodoloy and result of investigation. (United States)

    Davtyan, S


    In October 2005 the General Conference of UNESCO adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The aim of this Declaration was to assist in the realization ofprinciples and support the thorough understanding of the consequences of the ethics of scientific and technical progress, especially for youth. In 2008, the Division of Ethics of Science and Technology Sector for Social and Human Sciences of UNESCO worked out an Educational Program (Bioethics Core Curriculum). On November 23, 2010 a Memorandum was signed between UNESCO and the Yerevan State Medical University after M. Heratsi. The Memorandum was aimed to test the Bioethics Core Curriculum of UNESCO. In this article we will analyze the aims and goals of studying the course, as well as disputable shortcomings of the Program, make recommendations for the improvement of the course of bioethics, and highlight the positive aspects of this Educational Program.

  19. Global bioethics at UNESCO: in defence of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (United States)

    Andorno, R


    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) on 19 October 2005 is an important step in the search for global minimum standards in biomedical research and clinical practice. As a member of UNESCO International Bioethics Committee, I participated in the drafting of this document. Drawing on this experience, the principal features of the Declaration are outlined, before responding to two general charges that have been levelled at UNESCO's bioethical activities and at this particular document, are outlined. One criticism is to the effect that UNESCO is exceeding its mandate by drafting such bioethical instruments—in particular, the charge is that it is trespassing on a topic that lies in the responsibility of the World Health Organization. The second criticism is that UNESCO's reliance on international human rights norms is inappropriate. PMID:17329385

  20. Global bioethics at UNESCO: in defence of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Andorno, R


    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) on 19 October 2005 is an important step in the search for global minimum standards in biomedical research and clinical practice. As a member of UNESCO International Bioethics Committee, I participated in the drafting of this document. Drawing on this experience, the principal features of the Declaration are outlined, before responding to two general charges that have been levelled at UNESCO's bioethical activities and at this particular document, are outlined. One criticism is to the effect that UNESCO is exceeding its mandate by drafting such bioethical instruments--in particular, the charge is that it is trespassing on a topic that lies in the responsibility of the World Health Organization. The second criticism is that UNESCO's reliance on international human rights norms is inappropriate.

  1. Erasmus Mundus Master of Bioethics: a case for an effective model for international bioethics education. (United States)

    Piasecki, Jan; Dirksen, Kevin; Inbadas, Hamilton


    Designing bioethics curriculum for international postgraduate students is a challenging task. There are at least two main questions, which have to be resolved in advance: (1) what is a purpose of a particular teaching program and (2) how to respectfully arrange a classroom for students coming from different cultural and professional backgrounds. In our paper we analyze the case of the Erasmus Mundus Master of Bioethics program and provide recommendations for international bioethics education. In our opinion teaching bioethics to postgraduate international students goes beyond curriculum. It means that such a program requires not only well-defined goals, including equipping students with necessary skills and knowledge, but also it should first and foremost facilitate positive group dynamics among students and enables them to engage in dialogue to learn from one another.

  2. Little Book, Big Waves: The Epistle of James and Global Stewardship in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora Jean Brake


    Full Text Available At first glance the twenty-first century arena of biotechnology and bioethics seems worlds away from the practical concerns of the first century outlook of the New Testament book of James. A closer look, however, reveals that the issues that James addresses have applications to challenges in bioethics. This article will give an overview of James and examine James’ teaching on wealth, poverty, and generosity and its import for the issue of global stewardship in bioethics.  Stewardship concerns both a Christian’s care and management of time, talents, and treasures.  Faithful use of the resources God has given demonstrates the fruitful faith that James writes of in his epistle. The idea of global stewardship, though “stewardship” is grounded in a distinctly Christian ethic, reflects an emerging discussion in bioethics regarding the need to address the inequities present between the money and time spent on biotechnology in some of the world in proportion to the money spent on meeting the basic healthcare needs of the poor of the entire world.  This New Testament epistle gives clear indications of how the Christian is to view wealth and how the Christian is to respond to poverty.  James, though a comparatively small book, sends a crucial message across the years that should greatly impact how Christians view stewardship in terms of global healthcare needs. 

  3. Integrating Bioethics in Sciences’ curricula using values in science and socio-scientific issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa


    Full Text Available The  The main objective of the present work is selection of ethical issues that should be addressed with first year undergraduate and K-12 students. Since K-12 Sciences’ curriculum, in Portugal, does not include bioethics content in any discipline explicitly, teachers need to make an effort to include it. Some online materials are available to use in high school classes and will be discussed. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting the discussion of bioethics issues in accordance to UNESCO Bioethics Core Curriculum already adopted by twenty universities throughout the world (Darwish 2015. Some of the issues that are addressed are: ecology and environment ethics, infectious diseases and vaccination, water for all, intellectual property, genomes and patents, biotechnological advances (genetic modified organisms and synthesis of genomes, future generations, climate hanges and natural resources, biomedical advances and human rights, authorship and contributions in scientific publications, and biobanks. In conclusion, this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by K-12 teachers, of active inquiry strategies, using features of science such as values and socio-scientific issues, and focused on the discussion of concrete ethical issues facing humanity. It also constitutes a proposal of integrating Bioethics in undergraduate sciences’ curricula.

  4. 78 FR 20647 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...: [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY... Bioethical Issues (the Bioethics Commission). The meeting will be held from 9:00 a.m. to approximately 5:15 p... attendance limited to space available. The meeting will also be webcast at . Under...

  5. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu


    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  6. Dealing with bioethical dilemmas: A survey and analysis of responses from ministers in the Reformed Churches in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena (Leentie C. de Lange


    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements in Bioethics have been rapid and incremental, leaving little time for Christian ethicists to reflect or develop a coherent methodological approach. To assess the situation in the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA, a bioethical questionnaire was developed and administered during the synod in 2009. Three practical questions served as point of departure, viz. which bioethical issues confronted ministers in their work environment, which value judgement trends are evident when counselling members of their congregations and what theoretical frameworks or resources do they call upon when reflecting on these difficult situations? The survey consisted of 19 questions with several subquestions that sought demographic information to determine the population and information about bioethical issues confronting them, methodological strategies they apply and how they think they can contribute to the resolution of any such bioethical dilemmas. The results were tabulated and it was concluded that recent advancements in biotechnology cannot be ignored or dealt with in a piecemeal fashion any longer, either by the RCSA or its ministers. The need for clarity and analysis of the principles underlying those theories that guide or should guide their decision-making and pastoral care in dealing with bioethical dilemmas was emphasised. The findings highlighted the need for appropriate courses in Bioethics to be taught during initial theological training, as well as the need to keep the debate alive by offering workshops, seminars and short courses for practicing ministers to enhance awareness and allay fears and uncertainties in this very dynamic and morally challenging field of human and scientific endeavour.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков


    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  8. Family Secrets: The Bioethics of Genetic Testing (United States)

    Markowitz, Dina G.; DuPre, Michael J.; Holt, Susan; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Wischnowski, Michael


    This article discusses "Family Secrets," a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum module that focuses on the bioethical implications of genetic testing. In high school biology classrooms throughout New York State, students are using "Family Secrets" to learn about DNA testing; Huntington's disease (HD); and the ethical, legal,…

  9. Determination of Bioethical Perceptions of Gifted Students (United States)

    Ceylan, Özge; Topsakal, Ünsal Umdu


    This research was carried out to reveal the bioethical values that special, talented students have about the socioscientific issues that they may encounter in everyday life. Scanning model was used in the research from quantitative research methods. The study's working group is composed of special talented fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and…

  10. [Understanding my patient from the personalist bioethics]. (United States)

    Cardona Vélez, Jonathan


    The role of ethics in our everyday life responds to the need to understand a decisive reality, especially for us as physicians, a reality that we know as the human person. So, a personalized bioethical approach plays an important role against the accelerated dehumanization that we are experiencing, because every one of our actions has a direct impact on our patients.

  11. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.


    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  12. Bioethics for clinicians: 18. Aboriginal cultures (United States)

    Ellerby, Jonathan H.; McKenzie, John; McKay, Stanley; Gariépy, Gilbert J.; Kaufert, Joseph M.


    Although philosophies and practices analogous to bioethics exist in Aboriginal cultures, the terms and categorical distinctions of "ethics" and "bioethics" do not generally exist. In this article we address ethical values appropriate to Aboriginal patients, rather than a preconceived "Aboriginal bioethic." Aboriginal beliefs are rooted in the context of oral history and culture. For Aboriginal people, decision-making is best understood as a process and not as the correct interpretation of a unified code. Aboriginal cultures differ from religious and cultural groups that draw on Scripture and textual foundations for their ethical beliefs and practices. Aboriginal ethical values generally emphasize holism, pluralism, autonomy, community- or family-based decision-making, and the maintenance of quality of life rather than the exclusive pursuit of a cure. Most Aboriginal belief systems also emphasize achieving balance and wellness within the domains of human life (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual). Although these bioethical tenets are important to understand and apply, examining specific applications in detail is not as useful as developing a more generalized understanding of how to approach ethical decision-making with Aboriginal people. Aboriginal ethical decisions are often situational and highly dependent on the values of the individual within the context of his or her family and community. PMID:11033715

  13. Teaching about Bioethics through Authoring of Websites (United States)

    Willmott, Christopher J. R.; Wellens, Jane


    There is growing awareness of the need to equip students to think through the ethical implications of developments in biology. We describe an exercise in which students work in teams to produce websites about current controversial issues within the subject. Participants report a significant improvement in their knowledge of bioethics and…

  14. Epigenetics and the environment in bioethics. (United States)

    Dupras, Charles; Ravitsky, Vardit; Williams-Jones, Bryn


    A rich literature in public health has demonstrated that health is strongly influenced by a host of environmental factors that can vary according to social, economic, geographic, cultural or physical contexts. Bioethicists should, we argue, recognize this and--where appropriate--work to integrate environmental concerns into their field of study and their ethical deliberations. In this article, we present an argument grounded in scientific research at the molecular level that will be familiar to--and so hopefully more persuasive for--the biomedically-inclined in the bioethics community. Specifically, we argue that the relatively new field of molecular epigenetics provides novel information that should serve as additional justification for expanding the scope of bioethics to include environmental and public health concerns. We begin by presenting two distinct visions of bioethics: the individualistic and rights-oriented and the communitarian and responsibility-oriented. We follow with a description of biochemical characteristics distinguishing epigenetics from genetics, in order to emphasize the very close relationship that exists between the environment and gene expression. This then leads to a discussion of the importance of the environment in determining individual and population health, which, we argue, should shift bioethics towards a Potterian view that promotes a communitarian-based sense of responsibility for the environment, in order to fully account for justice considerations and improve public health. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Community Bioethics: The Health Decisions Community Council. (United States)

    Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate


    Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…

  16. Bioethics: New Responsibility for Human Service Administrators. (United States)

    Burke, Rebecca

    The paper highlights the poignancy with which problems and issues surface as the fields of special education and bioethics (the combination of ethics and the life sciences) intersect, and touches upon professionals' responsibility for protection of the persons in their care. (Author/SBH)

  17. What feminism can do for bioethics. (United States)

    Purdy, L M


    Feminist criticism of health care and of bioethics has become increasingly rich and sophisticated in the last years of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, this body of work remains quite marginalized. I believe that there are (at least) two reasons for this. First, many people are still confused about feminism. Second, many people are unconvinced that significant sexism still exists and are therefore unreceptive to arguments that it should be remedied if there is no larger benefit. In this essay I argue for a thin, "core" conception of feminism that is easy to understand and difficult to reject. Core feminism would render debate within feminism more fruitful, clear the way for appropriate recognition of differences among women and their circumstances, provide intellectually compelling reasons for current non-feminists to adopt a feminist outlook, and facilitate mutually beneficial cooperation between feminism and other progressive social movements. This conception of feminism also makes it clear that feminism is part of a larger egalitarian moral and political agenda, and adopting it would help bioethics focus on the most urgent moral priorities. In addition, integrating core feminism into bioethics would open a gateway to the more speculative parts of feminist work where a wealth of creative thinking is occurring. Engaging with this feminist work would challenge and strengthen mainstream approaches: it should also motivate mainstream bioethicists to explore other currently marginalized parts of bioethics.

  18. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights. (United States)

    March, B. E.


    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  19. Bioethics for Biotechnologists: From Dolly to CRISPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero-Hernandez D.


    Full Text Available Bioethics, as a discipline, has developed mainly, but not exclusively, around themes of moral importance for the medical practice, such as abortion and euthanasia, a never ending discussion that has been shaped by social mores and influenced by scientific and technological advance. However, in the past 20 years an important shift has been taking place, one where bioethical issues and their discussion are starting to being driven by the so-called emerging biotechnologies, from cloning to genome sequencing and editing. If Bioethics is concerned with human beings, and their interaction with other living beings and the environment, it makes sense for Biotechnology, by definition the use of living systems or organisms to develop products, to become an important, if not the most important, source of bioethical conflicts in modern era and for future society. As Biotechnology keeps expanding and becomes entangled in everyday life, so does the need for ethical competent biotechnologists, with competencies built not only on ethical principles but also on a realistic grasp of the impact these technologies could have on human society and the world we inhabit.

  20. Directions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science of students of a teacher training college


    Светлана Анатольева Баженова


    Article is devoted questions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science in a teacher training college, principles of pedagogical expediency of use of electronic resources at training are specified computer science and positive aspects of such use for different forms of work of the student and the teacher are allocated.

  1. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo


    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  2. Two Agendas for Bioethics: Critique and Integration. (United States)

    Garrett, Jeremy R


    Many bioethicists view the primary task of bioethics as 'value clarification'. In this article, I argue that the field must embrace two more ambitious agendas that go beyond mere clarification. The first agenda, critique, involves unmasking, interrogating, and challenging the presuppositions that underlie bioethical discourse. These largely unarticulated premises establish the boundaries within which problems can be conceptualized and solutions can be imagined. The function of critique, then, is not merely to clarify these premises but to challenge them and the boundaries they define. The second agenda, integration, involves honoring and unifying what is right in competing values. Integration is the morally ideal response to value conflict, offering the potential for transcending win/lose outcomes. The function of integration, then, is to envision actions or policies that not only resolve conflicts, but that do so by jointly realizing many genuine values in deep and compelling ways. My argument proceeds in stages. After critically examining the role and dominant status of value clarification in bioethical discourse, I describe the nature and value of the two agendas, identify concrete examples of where each has been and could be successful, and explain why a critical integrative bioethics--one that appreciates the joint necessity and symbiotic potential of the two agendas--is crucial to the future of the field. The ultimate goal of all of this is to offer a more compelling vision for how bioethics might conduct itself within the larger intellectual and social world it seeks to understand and serve. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research. (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J


    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  4. The interface between bioethics and cultural diversity under the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa


    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights has made clear its aims to provide a universal framework of principles and procedures to guide States in the formulation of their legislation, policies or other instruments in the field ofbioethics and also to guide the actions of individuals, groups, communities, institutions and corporations so as to promote appreciation for human dignity and to protect human rights. It also sets up 15 principles to be applied. One of the principles in the Declaration is about the recognition of cultural diversity as an important element of bioethics. Thus it is clear that bioethics has its relativeness and is susceptible to different cultures. However, in order not to have the bioethics principles being defeated because of the cultural factor, the Declaration set forth conditions to limit the application of the cultural diversity element. This approach is called "qualified absoluteness" by the author. The paper discusses these conditions and the problems arising from their applications. Basically, there is a clear line drawn to limit the application of cultural diversity in setting up and in applying bioethical rules. The line drawn is based on the concept of human rights, the principles and concepts of which have not only been set forth in the Human Rights Convention, but have also been prescribed in other provisions in the Declaration. From conceptual viewpoint, the Declaration has listed a number of soft-law rules, which in turn also provide authorization for the government or private or public groups to take cultural diversity into account. Although the rules set forth in most of the parts in the Declaration are of soft but absolute mandates in nature, the requirement of paying due regard to cultural diversity is in fact providing governments as well as groups a possibility to enact or apply their bioethical rules to reflect their cultural uniqueness. The term "qualified absoluteness" is used in this paper to reflect

  5. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings. (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C


    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent



    Nikulina Marina Alekseevna


    The interpretation of social reality is a classical problem of sociology, which solution helps perception and understanding of social phenomena. In the article phenomenological interpretation of bioethical reality is shown. Phenomenological sociology, being one of the perspective directions of development of social knowledge, it is characterized by aspiration to show «artificial», that is designed, nature of bioethical reality, its semantic structure, and thus, to «humanize» bioethical realit...

  7. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  8. The role of philosophy in global bioethics: introducing four trends. (United States)

    Hellsten, Sirkku K


    This article examines the relationship between philosophy and culture in global bioethics. First, it studies what is meant by the term "global" in global bioethics. Second, the author introduces four different types, or recognizable trends, in philosophical inquiry in bioethics today. The main argument is that, in order to make better sense of the complexity of the ethical questions and challenges we face today across the globe, we need to embrace the universal nature of self-critical and analytical philosophical analysis and argumentation, rather than using seemingly philosophical approaches to give unjustified normative emphasis on different cultural approaches to bioethics.

  9. Challenging the Conventional Wisdom: From Philosophy to Bioethics. (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G


    Philosophy is a core discipline that has contributed importantly to bioethics. In this essay, the author traces his trajectory from philosophy to bioethics, oriented around the theme of challenging the conventional wisdom. Three topics are discussed to illustrate this theme: the ethics of randomized trials, determination of death and organ transplantation, and pragmatism as a method of bioethics. In addition, the author offers some general reflections on the relationship between philosophy and bioethics. Philosophy recovers itself when it ceases to be a device for dealing with the problems of philosophers and becomes a method, cultivated by philosophers, for dealing with the problems of men.-John Dewey (1917).

  10. Bioethics, Religion, and Public Policy: Intersections, Interactions, and Solutions. (United States)

    Kahn, Peter A


    Bioethics in America positions itself as a totalizing discipline, capable of providing guidance to any individual within the boundaries of a health or medical setting. Yet the religiously observant or those driven by spiritual values have not universally accepted decisions made by "secular" bioethics, and as a result, religious bioethical thinkers and adherents have developed frameworks and rich counter-narratives used to fend off encroachment by policies perceived as threatening. This article uses brain death in Jewish law, the case of Jahi McMath, and vaccination refusal to observe how the religious system of ethics is presently excluded from bioethics and its implications.

  11. [Bioethics today: Heidegger’s questions]. (United States)

    Figueroa, Gustavo


    Bioethics was born not only as an aftermath of medical technological advance but also from underlying philosophical conceptions about man, that determine scientific research. Analyzing occidental ethics, Heidegger showed that animalism was the only human dimension considered and thereby the domain of measurable objectiveness. He postulated that the essence of human existence as being-in-the-world is ethical and revealed through an original consciousness. Unlike moral conscience, original conscience calls to authenticity, to hear his constitutive nihilism as a "Being-referred-to-death". The founding ground of bioethics may be to listen to this primary being-guilty prior to the derived guilts, e.g. faults, deficiencies and shortcomings of specific daily actions.

  12. [Bioethics in Latin America: legal perspective]. (United States)

    Figueroa Yáñez, Gonzalo


    The jurist's work is to detect the legal guiding principles, analize them and to anticipate what kind of acceptance they will have. The legislator must be prudent if the subject studied is changeable as it happens with the norms applied in Bioethics. This detection process is more delicate if the guiding principles that have to be detected are valid for such an extensive region, as it is Latin America, where the legislation of the different countries that form it would adopt them. The two problems that will be studied here are: a) if it is advisable or not to raise some Bioethic basic principles to the constitutional level. b) which are the main principles that have been adopted by the juridical legislations of Latin America and who, in some way, guide the legal regulation.

  13. Impact of bioethics on patentability of inventions. (United States)

    Devaiah, Vishwas H


    This paper examines the impact of bioethics on patent claims. The increase in research activities involving human biological materials, and the rush to commercialise inventions derived from such biological materials, can at times result in unethical conduct of research. Questions arise as to whether patent law should concern itself with tainted research that has resulted in an invention or whether it should grant patent rights solely on the basis of the technical improvements resulting from such research. This paper highlights the significance of ethical practice in biomedical research, an issue that may influence the decision to grant patents on inventions. It explores the relation between morality, bioethics and patents from the perspective of the objectives of the patent system and current developments in the law on patents. The inclusion of the morality provision in patent law introduces a mechanism through which inventions derived from tainted research can be filtered at an early stage.

  14. The Role of Empirical Research in Bioethics (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.


    There has long been tension between bioethicists whose work focuses on classical philosophical inquiry and those who perform empirical studies on bioethical issues. While many have argued that empirical research merely illuminates current practices and cannot inform normative ethics, others assert that research-based work has significant implications for refining our ethical norms. In this essay, I present a novel construct for classifying empirical research in bioethics into four hierarchical categories: Lay of the Land, Ideal Versus Reality, Improving Care, and Changing Ethical Norms. Through explaining these four categories and providing examples of publications in each stratum, I define how empirical research informs normative ethics. I conclude by demonstrating how philosophical inquiry and empirical research can work cooperatively to further normative ethics. PMID:19998120

  15. Religion and bioethics: toward an expanded understanding. (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Macdonald, Arlene


    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what "religion" means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion as lived experience as well as a body of doctrine and to see that religious differences and controversies should be welcomed in the public square of a diverse democratic society rather than merely tolerated.

  16. Bioethics and the national security state. (United States)

    Moreno, Jonathan D


    In previous work, I have described the history and ethics of human experiments for national security purposes during he cold war and developed the bioethical issues that will be apparent in the "war on terror". This paper is an attempt to bring these two previous lines of work together under the rubric of the "national security state," a concept familiar to Cold War historians and political scientists. The founding of the national security state was associated with the first articulations of informed consent requirements by national security agencies. My analysis indicates that strengthened consent standards, though conventionally thought to be antithetical crisis, can be seen as an attempt by the postwar national security state to protect itself from critics of expanded governmental power. During the coming years the renewed mission of the national security state in the war on terror should impel students of bioethics to consider its implications for the field.

  17. [Bioethics in the contemporary secular environment]. (United States)

    Akhaladze, V


    The aim of this study is to determine the preventive function of bioethics as an independent scientific discipline in terms of predicting the future of mankind, figuring the patterns of potential bioethical problems and other global challenges and dilemmas. Wide diversity of axiological issues, mental representations and principles of world vision, as well as various spiritual, ontological and existential concepts of solution of them, are described as the causes of different approaches to the problem of the future of mankind. In the article, along with theoretical questions, the negative spiritual and moral values, which influence the emergence of global problems of humankind (including the field of Biomedicine), are presented. The reasons of their formation and implementation are depicted, and the ways of their prevention are proposed.

  18. Right to health, biopower and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Junges


    Full Text Available The right to health is being more and more affected by the Biopower new configurations, no more only determined by the State, as in Foucault's analyses, but mainly by the symbolic power of the market. The biotechnological enterprises stir up increasing claims for consuming in health. These products are techno-semiotic agencies of the subjectivity in health, rendering their use as a right. In this situation it is important to return to the Right to Health comprehension of the International Conventions and the Alma-Ata Conference, proving the interdependence between Human Rights in general and the Right to Health in particular, mainly aiming at the social determinants of health that define more basic rights. The Human Rights perspective permits the proposal of a public health bioethics, different from the clinical bioethics, more appropriate for considering the collective implications of the right to Health, not reduced to a mere consumption of technologies.

  19. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics]. (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca


    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  20. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation. (United States)

    Friege, Henning


    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  1. Bioethics and Medical Issues in Literature


    Stripling, Mahala Yates


    Many of the bioethical and medical issues challenging society today have been anticipated and addressed in literature ranging from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Albert Camus’s The Plague, to Margaret Edson's Wit. The ten works of fiction explored in this book stimulate lively dialogue on topics like bioterrorism, cloning, organ transplants, obesity and heart disease, sexually transmitted diseases, and civil and human rights. This interdisciplinary and multicultural approach introducing literat...

  2. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenburg, L.


    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  3. What is Christian about Christian bioethics? (United States)

    Waters, Brent


    What is Christian about Christian bioethics? The short answer to this question is that the Incarnation should shape the form and content of Christian bioethics. In explicating this answer it is argued that contemporary medicine is unwittingly embracing and implementing the transhumanist dream of transforming humans into posthumans. Contemporary medicine does not admit that there are any limits in principle to the extent to which it should intervene to improve the quality of human life. This largely inarticulate, yet ambitious, agenda is derived first in late modernity's failed, but nonetheless ongoing, attempt to transform necessity into goodness, and second the loss of any viable concept of eternity, thereby stripping temporal existence of any normative significance. In short, medicine has become the vanguard of a profane attempt to save humankind by extracting data from flesh. In response, it is contended that an alternative Christian bioethics must be shaped by the Incarnation, the Word made flesh. This assertion does not entitle Christians to oppose the posthuman trajectory of contemporary medicine on the basis of any natural or biological essentialism. Rather, it is an evangelical witness to the grace of Christ's redemption instead of the work of self-transformation. It is Christ alone who thereby makes the vulnerability and mortality of finitude a gift and blessing. Specifically, it is maintained that the chasm separating necessity and goodness cannot be filled but only bridged through the suffering entailed in Christ's cross, and through Christ's resurrection eternity becomes the standard against which the temporal lives of human creatures are properly formed and measured. Consequently, Christian bioethics should help us become conformed to Christ rather than enabling self-transformation.

  4. Gender context of personalism in bioethics. (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh; Grandi, Giovanni


    Personalism is one of the philosophical perspectives which hold that the reality in person and the human person has the highest intrinsic value. This paper makes reference to Louis Janssens' eight criteria in adequate consideration of the human person but further argues that there is need to consider people as situated agents especially within gender relational perspectives. The paper identifies gender as an important social construction that shapes the consideration of the human persons within socio-spatial spheres. The main crux of the paper is that there is a gender context of personalism and this has profound implications for bioethical agendas. Gender is part of the human condition, especially when we philosophically or sociologically engage the notion of equity and equality within the social system, because social realities in the relational perspective are not impartial, impersonal and equal. Gender does not determine morality but it plays a role in morality and expectations from moral agents. Women have been categorised as a sociological group because their integrity, freedom/autonomy and dignity (which are basic concerns of bioethics) are capable of being threatened. A gender perspective provides important incentives for moral theory which searches for possible conceptual imbalances or blind spots in ethical reflections. The paper refers to Sen's faces of gender inequality and expands on the notion that natality inequality is one of the fundamental levels of gender inequality, which in turn is the primary starting agenda in bioethics. The paper avers that the recognition of the fundamental importance of gender to the organization of social reality and the development of personal identities have important practical implications for bioethics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey]. (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N


    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  6. Bioethics and innovation in pediatric nutrition research. (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W


    Advances in technology and understanding of fundamental human biology allow for an increasingly innovative research agenda in pediatric nutrition. All human research is governed by the norms of bioethics, which are in turn based on four primary principles: free will in participation, freedom from harm, opportunity to benefit, and non-discrimination in access. Legally, if not essentially, juveniles do not have free will to affirm their participation as research subjects. They have an absolute right, in nontherapeutic research, however, to decline. Pivotal in the discussion in nontherapeutic research in healthy children is the tolerance for risky procedures. Complicated situations include: multi-national protocols, choice of developing country sites, the inclusion of placebo treatment arms, analysis of genetic biomarkers, and research for commercial enterprises. The overly stringent interpretation of bioethical principles, as adapted to children, would stifle innovation in research. A relaxed bioethical attitude in pursuit of advancing science, by contrast, could violate essential human rights and expose a population worthy of special protection to undue risk and harm. By following the course of utility, seeking the steepest benefit-to-risk ratios, weighted toward safety and child welfare, the divergent nature of the considerations should be brought into convergence for the sake of continuing innovation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience. (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria


    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  8. Hard times, hard choices: founding bioethics today. (United States)

    Gracia, Diego


    The discussions of these past twenty years have significantly improved our knowledge about the foundation of bioethics and the meaning of the four bioethical principles with concern to at least three different points: that they are organised hierarchically, and therefore not "prima facie" of the same level; that they have exceptions, and consequently lack of absolute character; and that they are neither strictly deontological nor purely teleological. The only absolute principle of moral life can be the abstract and unconcrete respect of human beings. But when determining the material content of this respect, principles become contingent and relative. Therefore, moral reasoning must have necessarily no less than three moments, one absolute but merely formal, namely respect for all human beings, and the other two relative and material. The first material moment is comprised of the four bioethical principles, divided into two levels, one private, including the principles of autonomy and beneficence, and the other one public, including those of nonmaleficence and justice. The second material moment deals with specific cases, and requires analysis of their context, including their circumstances and consequences. Only when following these steps, and therefore balancing principlism and contextualism, can moral reasoning be correct and complete.

  9. Does American bioethics speak with one voice? (United States)

    Doucet, Hubert


    Many international organizations and countries have adopted the principles of American bioethics as their own principles. However, further analysis of what is going on in the United States shows that what we have come to call principlism is only one expression among many other health care ethics approaches that are found in the U.S. The first section of the text presents American bioethics from the point of view of principlism, the main focus being the creation of this vision, and its meaning. The second section examines, first of all, the critiques that from the beginning have been addressed to this approach; and secondly, other visions developed as much in response to the limits intrinsic to principlism as to the major changes that drive the American health system. In the third section, I will attempt to indicate that the real challenge of American bioethics is not a consequence of the tension existing between principlism and the other approaches, but that it arises in the political domain: the polarization between liberals and conservatives.

  10. Bioethics, sport and the genetically enhanced athlete. (United States)

    Miah, Andy


    This paper begins by acknowledging the interest taken by various international organisations in genetic enhancement and sport, including the US President's Council on Bioethics (July, 2002) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (March, 2002). It is noticed how sporting organisations have been particularly concerned to emphasize the 'threat' of genetics to sport, whereas other institutions have recognised the broader bioethical issues arising from this prospect, which do not readily reject the use of genetic technology in sport. Sports are identified as necessarily 'human' and 'moral' practices, the exploration of which can reveal greater insight into the intuitive fears about genetic modification. It is argued that anti-doping testing measures and sanctions unacceptably persecute the athlete. While there are substantial reasons to be concerned about the use of genetic modification in sport, the desire for policy ought not diminish the need for ethical research; nor ought such research embody the similar guise of traditional 'anti' doping strategies. Rather, the approach to genetics in sport must be informed more by broader social policies in bioethics and recognition of the greater goods arising from genetic technology.

  11. The ethics of peer review in bioethics. (United States)

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin


    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  12. Resourcifying human bodies--Kant and bioethics. (United States)

    Miyasaka, Michio


    This essay roughly sketches two major conceptions of autonomy in contemporary bioethics that promote the resourcification of human body parts: (1) a narrow conception of autonomy as self-determination; and (2) the conception of autonomy as dissociated from human dignity. In this paper I will argue that, on the one hand, these two conceptions are very different from that found in the modern European tradition of philosophical inquiry, because bioethics has concentrated on an external account of patient's self-determination and on dissociating dignity from internal human nature. However, on the other hand, they are consistent with more recent European philosophy. In this more recent tradition, human dignity has gradually been dissociated from contextual values, and human subjectivity has been dissociated from objectivity and absolutized as never to be objectified. In the concluding part, I will give a speculative sketch in which Kant's internal inquiry of maxim of ends, causality and end, and dignity as iirreplaceability is recombined with bioethics' externalized one and used to support an extended human resourcification.

  13. Global bioethics: did the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights miss the boat? (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl Cox


    This paper explores the evolution of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR), which was adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) in 2005. While the draft UDBHR generated controversy among bioethicists, the process through which it evolved excluded mainstream bioethicists. The absence of peer review affects the declaration's content and significance. This paper critically analyses its content, commenting on the failure to acknowledge socioeconomic and other factors that impede its implementation. The UDBHR outlines ideal standards but fails to provide guidance that can be readily applied in different settings. It strives for universality but does not contribute to understanding of universal or global bioethics.

  14. Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy. (United States)

    Richie, Cristina


    'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparing Electronic Human Resource Management Systems Efficiency In Production Organization amp Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadian


    Full Text Available Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management EHRM. In fact as the competitive complexity increases the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topics literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

  16. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  18. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review. (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis


    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  19. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi


    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  20. Cognitive Enhancement and Beyond: Recommendations from the Bioethics Commission. (United States)

    Allen, Anita L; Strand, Nicolle K


    Media outlets are reporting that cognitive enhancement is reaching epidemic levels, but evidence is lacking and ethical questions remain. The US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has examined the issue, and we lay out the commission's findings and their relevance for the scientific community. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Drawing on Other Disciplines to Define Quality in Bioethics Education (United States)

    Avci, Ercan


    In light of the lack of scholarly studies on the determination of quality in bioethics education, this paper aims to elaborate the concept of quality, focus on its understanding in education and explore a definition of quality in bioethics education. The findings of the literature-based research indicate that quality is a multidimensional concept…

  2. Global Bioethics and Culture in a Pluralistic World: How does ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethics principles and practice can be influenced by different cultural background. This is because the four globally accepted bioethics principles are often based on basic ethical codes such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. Beneficence/nonmaleficence requires us to maximize possible benefits, ...

  3. Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy


    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

  4. thoughts on a South African medical bioethics curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical ethics is becoming an increasingly integral part of undergraduate medical curricula world-wide. The recent social, educational and political changes in South Africa have emphasised the place of bioethics within the emerging integrated medical curricula in southern Africa. The bioethics programmes that are ...

  5. Towards an indigenous African bioethics | Behrens | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way is for African bioethicists to begin to apply indigenous African philosophy, thought and values to ethical issues. This project is important (i) to restore dignity; (ii) because a bioethics grounded in indigenous ideas is more likely to be accepted by Africans; and (iii) because such ideas can enrich bioethical discourse.

  6. "(East) Asia" as a Platform for Debate: Grouping and Bioethics. (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.

  7. The bioethical relevance of the ethics of healthcare organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethics and organisational ethics* are applied ethics disciplines with different objects of investigation. Bioethics focuses on the moral aspects of caring for the health of individuals and populations, and organisational ethics on the moral aspects of organisations' strategies and operations. So these two disciplines converge ...

  8. Dealing with bioethical dilemmas: A survey and analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for clarity and analysis of the principles underlying those theories that guide or should guide their decision-making and pastoral care in dealing with bioethical dilemmas was emphasised. The findings highlighted the need for appropriate courses in Bioethics to be taught during initial theological training, as well as ...

  9. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications (United States)

    Diaz, Jose Luis


    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  10. Bioethical Insights into Values and Policy: Climate Change and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book, a valuable addition to the slowly increasing bioethical literature on climate change, provides an excellent overview of the ethical dimensions pertinent to climate change. Bioethics, in the main, focuses on individual autonomy and the use of emerging technologies in medical practice and research. Even though ...

  11. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors. (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh


    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  12. Selecionar quem deve viver: um estudo bioético sobre critérios sociais para microalocação de recursos em emergências médicas To choose who should live: a bioethical study of social criteria to microallocation of health care resources in medical emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OJETIVO: Estudo, de caráter exploratório, que trata de dilemas de natureza ética de microalocação de recursos escassos de saúde, objetivando-se, com base em referenciais bioéticos, deontológicos e utilitaristas, analisar critérios sociais considerados nas escolhas para seleção de pacientes no atendimento de emergências médicas por parte de parcela da opinião pública. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas 395 pessoas, na cidade de Diadema/SP, que responderam a nove situações que versaram sobre os seguintes critérios sociais: idade, sexo, responsabilidade social, condição econômica e local de residência. RESULTADOS: Significativa parcela dos pesquisados parece aceitar que o uso de critérios sociais seja válido em situação de escassez de recursos. Mostrou a presença de elementos identificadores de correntes éticas deontológicas (justiça como eqüidade como de correntes utilitaristas de tomada de decisão. CONCLUSÕES: Demonstrou-se uma expressiva opção pelas pessoas que se encontram em situação de "maior desfavorecimento", ou seja, se favorecem "os mais desafortunados", em detrimento de situações que pudessem levar a um maior custo/benefício social.OBJECTIVE: To analyze ethical dilemmas about microallocation of health care scarce resources, based on deontological and utilitarian bioethical basis. It analyzes some criteria considered in the choices and justifications for patients selection in medical emergencies.METHODS: 395 subjects were interviewed in the city of Diadema/SP, about dilemmas among two people needing a place in a public hospital of emergency service. The presented situations dealed with the following social criteria: age, sex, social responsibility and economical condition.RESULTS: They pointed that significant portion of those researched seems to consider that the use of social criteria is valid and that the people lives can have unequal value in situations of scarce resources, accepting social variables

  13. 77 FR 41789 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...: [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY... also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24... access to the webcast, will be available at . The Commission welcomes input from anyone...

  14. 77 FR 2298 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY... will also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated... information about access to the webcast, will be available at . The Commission...

  15. 77 FR 76042 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...-233-3960. Email: [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics... with attendance limited to space available. The meeting will also be webcast at . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any issue...

  16. 77 FR 61608 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY... also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24... access to the webcast, will be available at . The Commission welcomes input from anyone...

  17. 77 FR 26012 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... will also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated... available at . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public...

  18. 78 FR 71615 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...: [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY... with attendance limited to space available. The meeting will also be webcast at bioethics, science, medicine, technology, engineering, law, philosophy, theology, or other areas of the...

  19. 76 FR 66720 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY... will also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any issue...

  20. A Tale of Two Disciplines: Law and Bioethics. (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca


    Fascination with In re Quinlan, the first high-profile right-to-die case in the United States, led the author to law school. By the time she received her law degree, bioethics was emerging as a field of study, and law and bioethics became her field. The mission of legal education is to teach students to "think like a lawyer," which can be a productive way to approach issues in many fields, including bioethics. Legal education can also teach individuals to respect people whose views on bioethics issues differ from their own. This essay describes three areas in which legal training influenced the author's work in bioethics: treatment decisions, research misconduct, and stem cell research.

  1. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products. (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui


    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Development of "Bioethical Values Inventory" for Pupils in Secondary Education within the Scope of Bioethical Education (United States)

    Keskin-Samanci, Nilay; Özer-Keskin, Melike; Arslan, Orhan


    This study has led to the development of the "Bioethical Values Inventory" that can be used to reveal secondary school students' ethical values in decisions that they make during ethical debates regarding the application of biological sciences. An original inventory development model was used, consisting of four steps and involving…

  3. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum. (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F


    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  4. Use of Electronic Resources by M.Sc. Chemistry Students at Arts Science and Commerce College Chopda Dist-Jalgaon


    Dr.Paithankar Rajeev; R., Mr.Kamble V.R.


    The libraries and information services has been changed due to the development of information and communication technology. Electronics resources role is very important as information repositories are use of information for various purposes like academic, research, teaching and learning process. E-resources gives solutions of the traditional libraries as like all data storage in digital format, users can access library without boundaries through internet so e-resources popularity is very cont...

  5. [Neuroethics and bioethics--implications of Balkanization controversy]. (United States)

    Kagawa, Chiaki


    There have been considerable disputes the positioning of neuroethics as a new field since its emergence in 2002. It is the novelty of the neuroethical issues and the necessity for updated moral approaches to them that leading exponents of neuroethics have emphasized; advances in neurosciences have created an entirely new field of moral inquiries that the conventional bioethics had never noticed. Futher, as neuroethics embraces the subdivision of ethics in neuroscience, it should take precedence over bioethics, which depends on the fundamental moral concepts without questioning their bases. Many bioethicists have squarely opposed these insistences and thereby detected the claim of neuroethics exceptionalism: the asserted newness of issues comes mainly from the ignorance of exponents of this new field regarding accumulated bioethical inquiries, so that the overlapping concerns between bioethics and neuroethics are passed on to the future by them. Moreover, bioethicists point out that the recent tendency of Balkanization in the field of bioethics could endanger the integrity of moral investigations. Subfields of bioethics, such as geneethics, neuroethics, nanoethics and so on, originate consecutively, entail wastage of valuable time and money, and increase the risk of fragmentizing moral considerations in an inconsistent way. By reviewing this controversy between neuroethics and bioethics, I argue that the relevant scientific investigations and technologies, which have appeared to promote the proliferation of bioethical sub-disciplines to date, are beginning to converge into 1 complex that demands not the division into subspecialities but the novel integration of bioethical inquiries: it is time to attempt the unification of bioethical applied ethics for moral considerations regarding nano-bio-info-cogno convergent technologies.

  6. Making the Right Connections: Perceptions of Human Resource/Personnel Directors Concerning Electronic Job-Search Methods. (United States)

    Hubbard, Joan C.; North, Alexa B.; Arjomand, H. Lari


    Examines methods used to search for entry-level managerial positions and assesses how human resource and personnel directors in Georgia perceive these methods. Findings indicate that few of the directors use electronic technology to fill such positions, but they view positively those applicants who use electronic job searching methods. (RJM)

  7. Global Bioethics and Culture in a Pluralistic World: How does Culture influence Bioethics in Africa? (United States)

    Chukwuneke, Fn; Umeora, Ouj; Maduabuchi, Ju; Egbunike, N


    Bioethics principles and practice can be influenced by different cultural background. This is because the four globally accepted bioethics principles are often based on basic ethical codes such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. Beneficence/nonmaleficence requires us to maximize possible benefits, while minimizing possible harms and consequently secure the well-being of others by refraining from harming them. Autonomy gives individuals the right to self-actualization and decision-making, while justice is concerned with the fair selection and distribution of the burdens and benefits of research among participants. Applications of these principles in cultural settings vary more often from one cultural perspective to the other because of the different understanding and practices of "what is good." The proponents of global ethics may argue that these principles should be universally generalizable and acceptable, but this is not possible because of the existing cultural diversities. In the African set-up, despite the existence of major common cultural practices, there are other norms and practices, which differ from one society to the other within the communities. Therefore, the word "global" bioethics may not be applicable generally in practice except if it can account for the structural dynamics and cultural differences within the complex societies in which we live in. However, the extent to which cultural diversity should be permitted to influence bioethical judgments in Africa, which at present is burdened with many diseases, should be of concern to researchers, ethicist and medical experts taking into considerations the constantly transforming global society. This topic examines the cultural influence on principles and practice of bioethics in Africa.

  8. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  9. In search of bioethics: a personal postscript. (United States)

    Mainetti, J A


    De nobis ipsis silemus: About ourselves-we keep silent. If we violate this prudent rule by the least modest of literary exercises-the autobiography-we must be able to say that we do so to bear witness. From my intellectual vocation of physician and philosopher, I have received the Chinese blessing of "living in interesting times." I received two degrees in 1962 and spent thirty years developing a previously unimaginable encounter between medicine and humanism. That which follows tells the story of the development of bioethics in Ibero-America from the perspective of a testifying witness.

  10. Integrating Bioethics into Clinical and Translational Science Research: A Roadmap (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.


    Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821

  11. Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics. (United States)

    Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L


    Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray.

  12. Coaching bioethically with the purpose of achieving sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Striedinger-Meléndez, Martha Patricia


    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the problematic of teaching and learning bioethics in the context of higher education, with an emphasis in medicine and aiming towards sustainable development. The objective is to expose that one of the alternatives to get to know bioethics in higher education institutions, is to coach each community bioethically. This means that the educator must be a role model for the students: not only teaching, but, living bioethically. In the beginning, it makes reference to the general aspects of bioethics and sustainable development to explain the evolution of these concepts, its situation in the present and the challenges of the future. Further, it focuses on the methodological strategies in the process of educating bio ethically, directed in leading students of higher education institutions with the purpose of achieving sustainable development. Yet, not achieving it in a traditional manner, since sustainable development also refers to wellbeing. Thus, coaching bioethically, which improves the way society functions. The conclusion is that institutions must give educators and students the tools for problem solving the priorities of humanity, such sustainable development. This can be achieved through bioethics.

  13. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav M. Hlynsky


    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical foundation, the creation and implementation of the electronic educational video resources (EEVR in the example of the development and the usage of the collection of video tutorials in event-driven programming theme, which is studied in the framework of the subject "Informatics" by students of many specialties. It offers some development of the existing conceptual and categorical apparatus concerning EEVR development. It is alleged that the video tutorials allow you to automate the process of learning, redistribute instructional time for the benefit of students' independent work, to provide classroom release time for the teaching of the theoretical issues of the course that is aimed at improving the fundamental nature of training. Practical recommendations for the development of the effective EEVR, which may be useful for the authors of e-learning courses for students of different forms of training are proposed.

  15. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath. (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya


    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways.

  16. The bioethical principles and Confucius' moral philosophy. (United States)

    Tsai, D F-C


    This paper examines whether the modern bioethical principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice proposed by Beauchamp and Childress are existent in, compatible with, or acceptable to the leading Chinese moral philosophy-the ethics of Confucius. The author concludes that the moral values which the four prima facie principles uphold are expressly identifiable in Confucius' teachings. However, Confucius' emphasis on the filial piety, family values, the "love of gradation", altruism of people, and the "role specified relation oriented ethics" will inevitably influence the "specification" and application of these bioethical principles and hence tend to grant "beneficence" a favourable position that diminishes the respect for individual rights and autonomy. In contrast, the centrality of respect for autonomy and its stance of "first among equals" are more and more stressed in Western liberal viewpoints. Nevertheless, if the Confucian "doctrine of Mean" (chung-yung) and a balanced "two dimensional personhood" approach are properly employed, this will require both theorists and clinicians, who are facing medical ethical dilemmas, of searching to attain due mean out of competing moral principles thus preventing "giving beneficence a priority" or "asserting autonomy must triumph".

  17. The living dead: fiction, horror, and bioethics. (United States)

    Belling, Catherine


    Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine.

  18. Personhood and Bioethics: An Eastern Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Varghese


    Full Text Available The secular and theological prominence of the word “person” in bioethics creates ambiguity. This is perceptible in the conclusions of the scholars who asses the cognitive abilities of a human to define whether that human is a person or not. The very ancient philosophical thought ‘a human being is a rational being’ is ingrained in the analysis. This article studies how this methodology is pertinent in the light of Eastern Christian theology. The theological anthropology affirms that each human is the image and likeness of God and hence it prevents to separate a human from the state of ‘personhood’. A human should be considered beyond his / her physical and cognitive abilities and understood as a burgeoning being towards theosis. It affirms that a human has the capability to represent the whole universe and to engage in dialogue with the creator. This approach presents a human as a unique person and calls for a holistic perception pertaining to human beings in bioethics discussion.

  19. Risk Society, Bioethics and the Precautionary Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pereira dos Santos


    Full Text Available The dynamics of medicine has causing great shiver in society, given the progress made in the context of biomedicine and genetic events that provided before thoughtless as the assisted reproduction techniques, therapeutic cloning, surgery for transmutation of sex, as well as focused clinical procedures prolonging life. These events do not occur without causing ethical dilemmas that require a reflection on the limits and degrees of acceptability in the methods and practices used by health professionals, biologists, scientists, pharmacists and others involved in the manipulation of genetic material and trials with humans. From this perspective, this paper, from the analytical assessment of the Bioethics paradigms, promotes the correlation between human dignity, scientific progress and rights of future generations under inflows arising from advances in science and technology in a society of risk and the ambivalence. The analysis of the issues is promoted with the use of dialectical-descriptive methodology, based on the literature about the above issues, involving books, articles, dissertations and theses published in the last ten years. The theoretical framework sits in the design of risks and ambivalences, outlined by Ulrich Beck, Franz Josef Brüseke, Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman. The study aims to understand the necessary effect bioethics of the precautionary principle as a guiding ethical beacon of scientific and technical progress and the necessary reconciliation between trials and legitimacy of choices for the maintenance and evolution of the human species.

  20. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke


    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  1. Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II


    A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

  2. The Bioethics and Biosafety technosciences and transcendence of limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, Aquiles von Zuben


    Bioethics as a cultural phenomenon is nowadays presented as a paradigmatic locus of reflection, critical analysis, inquiries and debates about ethical problems and moral dilemmas provoked by scientific researches in the field of Biotechnology, with its innovations and applications. Humanity, since the middle of X X Th Century, lives under uncertainty and fear. Bioethics responds to the need of a ethical reflection which follows such inquiries and technological applications. One of the subjects of Bioethics is the biosafety, which deals with biohazards. In this process, there is a privileged place many questions such as technological evaluation, risk management and, in a special way, the precautionary principle. This study focus on these questions

  3. [Bioethics and the French speaking world: an answer to globalization]. (United States)

    Byk, Christian


    Are we able, today, to take a step closer to bringing together the French speaking world and bioethics by realizing that their association could provide a profound view of the current evolution of our world characterized by what is referred to as globalization? Could we be even more ambitious and register the specificity of the rapport between the French speaking world and bioethics confronted with this global phenomenon of deconstruction/reconstruction of the planetary order by setting as its path a dynamic balance, which is an integral part of the use of the French language and cultural diversity, a central point in a truly pluridisciplinary and pluralist bioethics?

  4. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher


    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  5. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  6. Resources (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973


    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  7. Compilation of a casebook on bioethics and the Holocaust as a platform for bioethics education. (United States)

    Chelouche, Tessa


    The Holocaust arose, in part, because of a profound and pervasive breakdown of medical professional ethics. This history is complex and powerfully instructive. The value judgments and moral actions of the Nazi doctors can inform current debate and practices and also prevent the use of inaccurate analogies in current bioethical debates. Under the auspices of the International Center for Health, Law and Ethics at Haifa University, we are in the process of publishing a casebook on bioethical topics, using personal cases from the Third Reich and the Holocaust. The casebook will provide a platform for deep reflection and discourse on historical ethical issues and their relevance for today. This teaching tool can also inspire healthcare professionals and students to practice with greater compassion, knowledge, tolerance, respect and justice on behalf of their patients.

  8. African Bioethics vs. Healthcare Ethics in Africa: A Critique of Godfrey Tangwa. (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola K


    It is nearly two decades now since the publication of Godfrey Tangwa's article, 'Bioethics: African Perspective', without a critical review. His article is important because sequel to its publication in Bioethics, the idea of 'African bioethics' started gaining some attention in the international bioethics literature. This paper breaks this relative silence by critically examining Tangwa's claim on the existence of African bioethics. Employing conceptual and critical methods, this paper argues that Tangwa's account of African bioethics has some conceptual, methodic and substantive difficulties, which altogether do not justify the idea of African bioethics, at least for now. Contra Tangwa, this article establishes that while African bioethics remains a future possibility, it is more cogent that current efforts in the name of 'African bioethics' be primarily re-intensified towards 'Healthcare ethics in Africa'. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M. Melnyk


    Full Text Available This article proves the need for a comprehensive assessment of electronic educational game resources in mathematics for the primary school students; gives the definition of “the factor-criteria model of the electronic educational game resources (EEGR”. It also describes the created model, which consists of requirements for the content, methodological and program parts of the electronic resources for primary school; identifies the factors and the criteria to each of them. It was proposed to assess the ratios within the group of factors and each group of criteria according to the arithmetic progression. The presented model can be a convenient tool both for primary school teachers and EEGR developers. It can also be a basis for a unified state comprehensive system of assessment of the EEGR.

  10. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  11. Bioethics of protection: a health practice evaluation tool? (United States)

    Schramm, Fermin Roland


    Bioethics of protection (BP) was proposed in the early 21st century in bioethics, built in Latin America following attempts by researchers to work on the possibilities of public health policies being morally legitimate, socially fair (equitable) and respectful of human rights, after noting the limits of traditional bioethical tools, essentially implemented in and restricted to interpersonal conflicts between moral agents and patients involved in the practice of biomedicine. Methodologically, BP tries to negotiate distinct problematic disciplinary realms that are, however, interlinked through interdisciplinary dialogue and common concern with the quality of life of the human population, considered in its natural, technological, social and cultural contexts: Public Health, concerned with the health and well-being of individuals and populations; Bioethics, concerned primarily with the moral legitimacy of practices that affect their quality of life; Biopolitics, concerned with the social effects of health policies.

  12. American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines for Infant Bioethics Committees. (United States)

    College and University, 1985


    Examples are given of points hospitals must consider when adopting and implementing infant bioethics committees, including committee functions (educational, policy development, and consultative), structure, membership, jurisdiction, recordkeeping, and legal issues. (MSE)

  13. Editorials | Dhai | South African Journal of Bioethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Editorial | Dhai | South African Journal of Bioethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Bioethics as a stage in development of humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ketova


    Full Text Available This article uncovers humanistic substance of bioethics - a discipline which originated in 1960's. Bioethics has an interdisciplinary character and presents itself as a reflection on problematic situations, which can appear as a result of biomedical progress. Bioethics in a wider sense can be viewed as ethics of life, which highlights its ecological substance. This article analyses the problem of consequences of radical human transformation and also the article shows significance of leading principle of «personal autonomy of the patient». In the article functions and goals of ethical committees, existing in various countries, are highlighted. In conclusion, the article highlights specifics of bioethics as a syncretic discipline, which assists development of humanism and responds to modern civilization's challenges.

  16. Bioethics, Christian charity and the view from no place. (United States)

    Trotter, Griffin


    This essay contrasts the notions of charity employed by Traditional Christianity and by liberal cosmopolitan bioethics, arguing that: (1) bioethics attempts to reconstruct the notion of charity in a manner that is caustic to the Traditional Christian moral vision, (2) Christians are, on the whole, more charitable than proponents of bioethics' reconstructed view (even given the standards of the latter), and (3) the theistically oriented conception of charity employed by Traditional Christianity cannot be expressed in bioethics' purportedly neutral public vocabulary. The upshot is that, in the name of neutrality and pluralism, liberal cosmopolitan bioethicists seek to impose an impoverished moral vocabulary that reflects liberal cosmopolitan ideology while excluding input from Traditional Christianity and other non-liberal-humanistic moral visions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna V. Chashina


    Full Text Available Introduction: the article discusses significance of use of new technologies in the learning process for realisation of goals of cognitive and affective domain of knowledge. The paper explores the methods of development of educational knowledge, which is achieved by information, reproductive and research means. Based on example of bioethics the paper demonstrates the use of visuals technology (charts, graphs, tables, illustrations, specification, etc., which performs the following tasks: memorising, analysis and synthesis, comparison and differentiation, categorisation and classification, identification of relationships between facts, and for the revision of the material studied, acquisition of the new knowledge, memo risation of educational material. Materials and Methods: on the basis of the dialectical approach the object of research is new technologies in the learning process, in particular the study of bioethics. By using methods of observation, survey, analysis and synthesis in the educational process the authors prove the efficiency of such technologies as the use of visualisation (diagrams, illustrations, problem-based learning (issues, tasks and situations and research tasks (case study method. Results: visual method complements the learning process. It allows a deeper understanding of the subject. This method deals with feelings, emotions and consciousness of students. It encourages creativity. In addition this method of material presentation allows reducing the amount of material of an ordinary lecture. It is underscored that in the study of bioethics it is recommended to use a technology of a problem-based learning, which is able to implement the intellectual activity of students by means of questions¸ case-studies, tasks and situations. The most vivid form of such technology is a case method. The basis for the emergence of technology of problembased learning is a certain contradiction between knowledge and practice. This method can

  18. [The other inequities in health care: A challenge for bioethics]. (United States)

    Bórquez Polloni, B


    Contrary to what one may think health and equity are not issues that have always gone hand in hand following the formal recognition of the former by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). It was not until the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978 when the close ties between both began to be seriously considered, and in 2000 this led to several international organizations formalizing their concern for the factors that determine whether a health system is fair or not. Since then, the term «equity in health» has taken on a special meaning when weighing up the strength or weaknesses of certain health systems. However, over the years, equity in health has gradually been identified almost exclusively with a financial issue that focuses on distributing health resources. As a result, one often forgets to provide the necessary care for those in other unfair situations, which, as regards access to and providing health care, leads to unfair situations that are not directly related to financial reasons and do not require investments, but consensus and the honest determination to make changes. This leads the Bioethics of the 21st century to face two challenges: to warn of these inequities and to promote initiatives that are able to make effective changes. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.


    Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav


    In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other.

  20. Theological Discourse in Bioethics: General and Confessional Differencies


    Basia Nikiforova


    This essay is devoted to the problem of theological discourse in bioethics. We focus both on general positions shared across major existing religions and substantial confessional differences among them. Among the major categories determining relationship between bioethics and religion we studied the following: “image of God” (imago Dei), casuistry, primacy of procreation, “playing God”, artificial procreation and others. After analyzing Christian, Jewish and Islamic positions on the theologic...



    TEMKOV Kiril


    This study explains the appearance of a new ethical branch and practice called Bioethics, which task is life defense and development of human appearances and functions. In compliance with Bioethics, the concept of Special needs Education and Rehabilitation as a science and activity is investigated.Special needs Education and Rehabilitation is considered as a top of contemporary human ethics. The paper exposes the basic meanings professional ethics in Special Education and Rehabilitation. Many...

  2. Bioethics, abortion and public policies in Latin America.


    Piekarewicz Sigal, Mina


    Bioethics in Latin America is strongly influenced by religious beliefs, leading to the most restrictive regulation globally of sexual and reproductive health and, most particularly, of abortion. Legal obstacles donot dissuade women from terminating unwanted pregnancies; each year more than 4 million illegal abortions take place, in which the poorest Latin American women risk their health and lives. This text employs the term bioethics within the meaning given to it by its creator, V. R. Potte...

  3. The Past, Present, and Future of Mexico's National Bioethics Commission. (United States)

    de Chavez, Manuel Ruiz; Orozco, Aidee; Olaiz, Gustavo


    The establishment of Mexico's National Bioethics Commission (Comisión Nacional de Bioética), in 1992, was conceived within the context of a global movement aimed at raising awareness of the ethical implications of technological and scientific development, especially in biomedicine. In 2005, a new decree put the commission under the scope of the Secretariat of Health and granted it technical and operational autonomy, allowing it to become a regulatory agency aimed at promoting a culture of bioethics, encouraging reflection on human health, and developing guidelines for health care, research, and education, through a global, secular, and democratic perspective. The commission became the leading actor in the strategy for institutionalizing bioethics in Mexico after reforms to the country's General Health Act in 2011, which required that public, social assistance, or private health care facilities establish a hospital bioethics committee to address bioethical dilemmas or issues and, when relevant, a research ethics committee to address research with human subjects. This assignment has shifted the focus of the activities and goals of the National Bioethics Commission toward establishing these committees in line with current regulations and developing mechanisms to ensure that they operate with the highest standards of ethical conduct, performance, and accountability. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  4. An undignified bioethics: there is no method in this madness. (United States)

    De Melo-Martín, Inmaculada


    In a recent article, Alasdair Cochrane argues for the need to have an undignified bioethics. His is not, of course, a call to transform bioethics into an inelegant, pathetic discipline, or one failing to meet appropriate disciplinary standards. His is a call to simply eliminate the concept of human dignity from bioethical discourse. Here I argue that he fails to make his case. I first show that several of the flaws that Cochrane identifies are not flaws of the conceptions of dignity he discusses but rather flaws of his, often problematic, understanding of such conceptions. Second, I argue that Cochrane's case against the concept of human dignity goes too far. I thus show that were one to agree that these are indeed flaws that require that we discard our ethical concepts, then following Cochrane's recommendations would commit us not only to an undignified bioethics, i.e. a bioethics without dignity, but to a bioethics without much ethics at all. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Regulation of clinical research and bioethics in Portugal. (United States)

    Carvalho, Fatima Lampreia


    This article presents an overview of the Portuguese transposition of the European Directive on Good Clinical Practice (2001/20/E) concerning scientific and academic debates on bioethics and clinical investigation. Since the Directive was transposed into Portuguese law by its National Assembly, the bureaucracy of clinical trials has been ever more complex. Despite demands for swift application processes by the Pharmaceutical industry, supported by the European Parliament, the Directive's transcription to the national law has not always delivered the expected outcome. However, this has led to an increased number of applications for clinical trials in Portuguese hospitals. In this article I revise bioethical publications and decree-laws enabling an informed appraisal of the anxieties and prospects for the implementation of the clinical trials Directive in Portugal. This article also places the European Directive in the field of sociology of bioethics, arguing that Portuguese bioethical institutions differ from those of the US, and also from Northern European counterparts. The main divergence is that those people in Portugal who claim expertise in 'legal' bioethics do not dominate either the bureaucratic structure of research or ethics committees for health. Even experts in the applied ethics field now claim that 'professional bioethicists do not exist'. The recent creation of a national Ethics Committee for Clinical Investigation (CEIC) in line with the European Directive on Good Clinical Practice (GCP) will not change the present imbalance between different professional jurisdictions in the national bioethical debate in Portugal.

  6. [Clinical bioethics for primary health care]. (United States)

    González-de Paz, L


    The clinical decision making process with ethical implications in the area of primary healthcare differs from other healthcare areas. From the ethical perspective it is important to include these issues in the decision making model. This dissertation explains the need for a process of bioethical deliberation for Primary Healthcare, as well as proposing a method for doing so. The decision process method, adapted to this healthcare area, is flexible and requires a more participative Healthcare System. This proposal involves professionals and the patient population equally, is intended to facilitate the acquisition of responsibility for personal and community health. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. [Education in bioethics, a way for professionalism]. (United States)

    Urionabarrenetxea, K Martínez


    One of the elements that have historically defined professions making them different from mere occupations is the fact that their responsibilities have been defined more in moral than juridical terms. Because it is not the due respect to the law but the tendency to moral excellence the fundamental characteristic of professions. Professionalism is the base of medicine's contract with society and it obliges to put patients' interests above the doctors' ones, supplying competence and integrity standards, and providing expert help to society in health matters. Education in bioethics is an appropriate instrument to reach this goal, as it promotes an interdisciplinary analysis of the problems created by the medical and biological progress and its correspondent technologies, to find what is most human in its practical application. Copyright © 2010 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. [About correlation between bioethics and medical psychology]. (United States)

    Marcolino, José Alvaro Marques; Cohen, Claudio


    The authors make a study about the correlation between bioethics and medical psychology. They divide the study in two parts. The first part they discuss the philosophical concepts about the distinction between morals and ethics, they deal with ethics applied to medicine and they are trying to define what is meant by subject and describe its three basic principles: autonomy, beneficence, non maleficence and justice. Consequently in this part they trace route that started from ethics in its philosophical origins and moved on to ethics in its application to medicine. The second part is dedicated to the definition of the field of study of medical psychology, they study some aspects of the emotional relation of the patient with his illness, the relation of the doctors of his medicine and the relationship between doctor and his patient. They discussed some clinical issues where they observe this correlation. At last, they try to draw some conclusions.

  9. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo


    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  10. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary


    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  11. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings. (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu


    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 16127 - Establishment of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ... expert panel composed of not more than 13 members, who will be drawn from fields of bioethics, science.... The Commission has been established to replace the President's Council on Bioethics. The Council was...

  13. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala


    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  14. An innovative approach to teaching bioethics in management of healthcare. (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Yankulovska, Silviya


    Bioethical courses were introduced in the curricula in medical universities in Bulgaria in 1990s. In the beginning, the courses were mainly theoretical, and systematic case analyses and discussions of movies were introduced later on. The benefits of using films to teach ethics have been previously analyzed in the literature; however, to our knowledge such studies in Bulgaria are yet lacking. The aim of this study was to survey the opinions of students and analyze the results from the application of movies in bioethics teaching in a medical university in the north of Bulgaria. A survey was carried out among 92 students in the management of healthcare. Two movies were used, and separate protocols for film discussion were developed. The study was conducted anonymously and with students' free informed consent. The students distinguished in total 21 different dilemmas and concepts in the first movie. The ethical dilemmas were classified into five groups: general ethical issues, deontological issues, special ethical issues, principles of bioethics, and theories of ethics. The second movie focused students' attention on the issues of death and dying. In total, 18 elements of palliative care were described by the students. The range of different categories was a positive indicator of an increased ethical sensitivity. The students evaluated the movies' discussions as a generally positive educational approach. They perceived the experience as contributing to their better understanding of bioethical issues. The innovative approach was well accepted by the students. The introduction of movies in the courses of bioethics had the potential to provide vivid illustrations of bioethical issues and to contribute to the exploration of specific theses and arguments. The presentation and discussion should be preceded by accumulation of theoretical knowledge. The future of effective bioethics education lays in the interactive involvement of students. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The Evolving Ethics of Dialysis in the United States: A Principlist Bioethics Approach. (United States)

    Butler, Catherine R; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Tonelli, Mark R; Lam, Daniel Y


    Throughout the history of dialysis, four bioethical principles - beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice - have been weighted differently based upon changing forces of technologic innovation, resource limitation, and societal values. In the 1960s, a committee of lay people in Seattle attempted to fairly distribute a limited number of maintenance hemodialysis stations guided by considerations of justice. As technology advanced and dialysis was funded under an amendment to the Social Security Act in 1972, focus shifted to providing dialysis for all in need while balancing the burdens of treatment and quality of life, supported by the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. At the end of the last century, the importance of patient preferences and personal values became paramount in medical decisions, reflecting a focus on the principle of autonomy. More recently, greater recognition that health care financial resources are limited makes fair allocation more pressing, again highlighting the importance of distributive justice. The varying application and prioritization of these four principles to both policy and clinical decisions in the United States over the last 50 years makes the history of hemodialysis an instructive platform for understanding principlist bioethics. As medical technology evolves in a landscape of changing personal and societal values, a comprehensive understanding of an ethical framework for evaluating appropriate use of medical interventions enables the clinician to systematically negotiate and optimize difficult ethical situations. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. 76 FR 48864 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ..., DC 20005. Telephone: 202-233-3960. E-mail: [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory... attendance limited to space available. The meeting will also be webcast at . Under...

  17. A Compulsory Bioethics Module for a Large Final Year Undergraduate Class (United States)

    Pearce, Roger S.


    The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…

  18. 75 FR 52533 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    .... Telephone: 202/233-3960. E-mail: [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained by viewing the Web site: . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory..., including information about access to the Web cast, will be available at . The...

  19. 78 FR 46335 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ..., 2013. At this meeting, the Bioethics Commission will continue to discuss the ethical implications of incidental findings. The Bioethics Commission will also discuss the BRAIN Initiative and ongoing work in.... Telephone: 202-233-3960. Email: [email protected] . Additional information may be obtained at www...

  20. 75 FR 34451 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202/233-3960. E-mail: [email protected] . Web site: . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The meeting agenda will be posted at . The Commission encourages public comment, either in person or in writing. Interested members...

  1. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  2. The intersection between bioethics and human rights in the light of the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Aline Albuquerque S


    This article aims to explore the increasing interconnection between bioethics and human rights that can be observed in recent international norms relating to biomedicine. To this end, the analysis has been focused on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) adopted by UNESCO in 2005. Investigating the meanings of the intersection perceived in the UDBHR has led to the understanding of how bioethics and human rights are in accordance, under the normative perspective. Hence, in normative terms, the intersection between bioethics and human rights is clearly undisputable. However, there is no way to affirm that it is consolidated, as UDBHR's adoption is recent and its consolidation, together with its precepts, depends on state and non-state agents. The efficacy of a norm and its content depends on social, cultural and economic conditions, that is, it depends on a series of factors that influence the normative system. In the case of the UDBHR, its effective application and assimilation of its principles are directly linked to the use that bioethical institutions make of them and to how the community of bioethicists will project them in their thoughts and theory production. If, on the one hand UDBHR symbolizes the intersection confirmation--which is of extreme importance for its consolidation--on the other hand its range and consequent stabilization are submitted to the actions from governments, social institutions and bioethicists. Hence, there is still a lot to do in terms of introducing the human rights precepts into bioethics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this goal. Thus based on the meanings of the intersection between bioethics and human rights identified in the UDBHR, this article presents five ways to understand the connection between these two fields.

  3. International Capacity-Building Initiatives for National Bioethics Committees. (United States)

    Gefenas, Eugenijus; Lukaseviciene, Vilma


    During the last two decades, national bioethics committees have been established in many countries all over the world. They vary with respect to their structure, composition, and working methods, but the main functions are similar. They are supposed to facilitate public debate on controversial bioethical issues and produce opinions and recommendations that can help inform the public and policy-makers. The dialogue among national bioethics committees is also increasingly important in the globalized world, where biomedical technologies raise ethical dilemmas that traverse national borders. It is not surprising, therefore, that the committees are established and active in the technologically advanced countries. There have also been a few international capacity-building initiatives in bioethics that have had a dual task: networking among existing national bioethics committees and helping establish such committees in those countries that still lack them. The problem is that, due to a lack of information, it is not clear what problems and challenges committees face in the transitioning societies often characterized as low- and middle-income countries. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  4. Toward a Child Rights Theory in Pediatric Bioethics. (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Mercer, Raul; Webb, Elspeth; Nathawad, Rita; Shenoda, Sherry; Lansdown, Gerison


    This article offers a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics, applying the principles, standards, and norms of child rights, health equity, and social justice to medical and ethical decision-making. We argue that a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics will help pediatricians and pediatric bioethicists analyze and address the complex interplay of biomedical and social determinants of child health. These core principles, standards and norms, grounded in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provide the foundational elements for the theory and a means for better understanding the complex determinants of children's health and well-being. Rights-based approaches to medical and ethical decision-making provide strategies for applying and translating these elements into the practice of pediatrics and pediatric bioethics by establishing a coherent, consistent, and contextual theory that is relevant to contemporary practice. The proposed child rights theory extends evolving perspectives on the relationship between human rights and bioethics to both child rights and pediatric bioethics.

  5. Chauncey Leake and the development of bioethics in America. (United States)

    Brody, Howard


    Chauncey D. Leake (1896-1978) occupies a unique place in the history of American bioethics. A pharmacologist, he was largely an autodidact in both history and philosophy, and believed that ethics should ideally be taught to medical students by those with philosophical training. After pioneering work on medical ethics during the 1920s, he helped to lay the groundwork for important centers for bioethics and medical humanities at two institutions where he worked, the University of California-San Francisco and the University of Texas Medical Branch-Galveston. Understanding Leake's role in American bioethics requires navigating a number of paradoxes--why he was described respectfully in his time but largely forgotten today; how in the 1920s he could write forward-looking pieces that anticipated many of the themes taken up by bioethics a half-century later, yet played largely a reactionary role when the new bioethics actually arrived; and why he advocated turning to philosophy and philosophers for a proper understanding of ethics, yet appeared often to misunderstand philosophical ethics.

  6. Moral philosophy in bioethics. Etsi ethos non daretur? (United States)

    Pessina, Adriano


    In this paper I intend to put forward some criticism of the purely procedural model of bioethics, which, in fact, leads to delegating to biopolitics and biolaw the finding of a purely pragmatic solution to the issues for which bioethics was "invented" over forty years ago. This delegating takes place after the transition from the thesis, dear to modernity, whereby in ethics reasoning should avoid any discussion regarding its foundation or ultimate justification (Etsi Deus non daretur) to the contemporary affirmation of a substantial ethical agnosticism, which, in the name of the incommensurability of morals, should construct procedures as if no sole substantial moral were possible (Etsi ethos non daretur) and act as a guarantor of ethical pluralism. These theses will be discussed and an attempt will be made to demonstrate why it is necessary to establish a link between true and good, and how this is possible only by referring to ontology. The conclusion points to the need to propose bioethics explicitly in terms of content that satisfies the presumed axiological neutrality of procedural bioethics, which however, turns out to be theoretically weak and practically unable to protect the ethical pluralism for which it would like to be the guarantor. The conclusion is that only by referring to ontology can bioethics, which is a fully fledged form of moral philosophy, act as a guarantor of pluralism within the truth and oppose the authoritarian tendencies concealed under the liberal guise of ethical agnosticism.

  7. Globalization of bioethics as an intercultural social tuning technology. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hyakudai


    Now, in the beginning of the 21st century, bioethics must be urgently globalized into a Global Bioethics which combines the ongoing Bioethics based on the modern European humanism with the newly arising Environmental Ethics based on the rather communitarian (or Asian) ways of thinking. This does not always mean that the new global bioethics is necessarily universalistic, for we should stand on the recognition of the wide spread variety of value systems in the world, north and south, east and west. However, it is not particularistic either, for in order to establish a post-modern global ethics, we have to accept and harmonize every kind of antagonistic values on the Globe. For this purpose we have to cultivate a new social technology of tuning social disorder of not only international but also inter-ethnic and inter-cultural level of ideology beyond the modern European humanism. Here the concept of "human rights" or the concept of "human dignity" may lose its significance as it has held in the past bioethical thinking in the western world.

  8. Confronting moral pluralism in posttraditional Western societies: bioethics critically reassessed. (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram


    In the face of the moral pluralism that results from the death of God and the abandonment of a God's eye perspective in secular philosophy, bioethics arose in a context that renders it essentially incapable of giving answers to substantive moral questions, such as concerning the permissibility of abortion, human embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia, etc. Indeed, it is only when bioethics understands its own limitations and those of secular moral philosophy in general can it better appreciate those tasks that it can actually usefully perform in both the clinical and academic setting. It is the task of this paper to understand and reevaluate bioethics by understanding these limits. Academic bioethicists can analyze ideas, concepts, and claims necessary to understanding the moral questions raised in health care, assessing the arguments related to these issues, and provide an understanding of the different moral perspectives on bioethical issues. In the clinical setting, bioethicists can provide legal advice, serve as experts on IRBs, mediating disputes, facilitating decision-making and risk management, and clarifying normative issues. However, understanding this is only possible when one understands the history, genesis, and foundations of bioethics and its inability to provide a resolution to postmodern moral pluralism.

  9. Critical Realism and Empirical Bioethics: A Methodological Exposition. (United States)

    McKeown, Alex


    This paper shows how critical realism can be used to integrate empirical data and philosophical analysis within 'empirical bioethics'. The term empirical bioethics, whilst appearing oxymoronic, simply refers to an interdisciplinary approach to the resolution of practical ethical issues within the biological and life sciences, integrating social scientific, empirical data with philosophical analysis. It seeks to achieve a balanced form of ethical deliberation that is both logically rigorous and sensitive to context, to generate normative conclusions that are practically applicable to the problem, challenge, or dilemma. Since it incorporates both philosophical and social scientific components, empirical bioethics is a field that is consistent with the use of critical realism as a research methodology. The integration of philosophical and social scientific approaches to ethics has been beset with difficulties, not least because of the irreducibly normative, rather than descriptive, nature of ethical analysis and the contested relation between fact and value. However, given that facts about states of affairs inform potential courses of action and their consequences, there is a need to overcome these difficulties and successfully integrate data with theory. Previous approaches have been formulated to overcome obstacles in combining philosophical and social scientific perspectives in bioethical analysis; however each has shortcomings. As a mature interdisciplinary approach critical realism is well suited to empirical bioethics, although it has hitherto not been widely used. Here I show how it can be applied to this kind of research and explain how it represents an improvement on previous approaches.

  10. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle. (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela


    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.

  11. Legitimacy in bioethics: challenging the orthodoxy. (United States)

    Smith, William R


    Several prominent writers including Norman Daniels, James Sabin, Amy Gutmann, Dennis Thompson and Leonard Fleck advance a view of legitimacy according to which, roughly, policies are legitimate if and only if they result from democratic deliberation, which employs only public reasons that are publicised to stakeholders. Yet, the process described by this view contrasts with the actual processes involved in creating the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and in attempting to pass the Health Securities Act (HSA). Since the ACA seems to be legitimate, as the HSA would have been had it passed, there seem to be counterexamples to this view. In this essay, I clarify the concept of legitimacy as employed in bioethics discourse. I then use that clarification to develop these examples into a criticism of the orthodox view-that it implies that legitimacy requires counterintuitively large sacrifices of justice in cases where important advancement of healthcare rights depends on violations of publicity. Finally, I reply to three responses to this challenge: (1) that some revision to the orthodox view salvages its core commitments, (2) that its views of publicity and substantive considerations do not have the implications that I claim and (3) that arguments for it are strong enough to support even counterintuitive results. My arguments suggest a greater role for substantive considerations than the orthodox view allows. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. [Guidelines in clinical practice. Bioethical considerations]. (United States)

    Mazzon, D


    The adoption of guidelines in clinical practice raises questions that can be answered against a background in which professional conduct is compared with deontology, law, and the specific sociocultural context and health policies of institutions. In the scientific community, doubts are raised regarding the relationships between the general recommendations laid down in the Guidelines and the specific nature of every clinical condition; between the "duty of adhering" to Guidelines and the doctor's autonomy, as well as between the adoption, discrepancy and non-adoption of Guidelines and the juridical evaluation of medical liability. The information and individual consent of patients and citizens is of particular importance both with regard to clinical procedures and choices of allocation. In the light of these comments, the authors conclude that Guidelines should not be reduced to a form of automated procedure lacking any responsibility, but should represent a correct synthesis between the objective nature of scientific findings, the subjective condition of the patient and the doctor's autonomy. The application of correctly formulated Guidelines shared by the community means acting in such a way that the "right to health" and "freedom of treatment" can be exercised in respect of shared bioethical principles based on beneficence, autonomy and justice.

  13. [Bioethical challenges of stem cell tourism]. (United States)

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Erices, Alejandro; Santos, Manuel J


    Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research.

  14. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach. (United States)

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan


    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research.

  15. In defence of academic freedom: bioethics journals under siege. (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo


    This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles.

  16. Theological Discourse in Bioethics: General and Confessional Differencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basia Nikiforova


    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to the problem of theological discourse in bioethics. We focus both on general positions shared across major existing religions and substantial confessional differences among them. Among the major categories determining relationship between bioethics and religion we studied the following: “image of God” (imago Dei, casuistry, primacy of procreation, “playing God”, artificial procreation and others. After analyzing Christian, Jewish and Islamic positions on the theological interpretation of the reproductive technologies and human cloning, we came to a conclusion that differences in views depend rather on orthodox, conservative, traditional or liberal viewpoint within a given church than on differences between particular religions. Despite substantial faith-related differences, occasionally, views on reproductive technologies and other problems of bioethics seem closer between liberal Protestants and liberal Judaists than between orthodox and reformist Judaists. 

  17. Who's arguing? A call for reflexivity in bioethics. (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Dunn, Michael


    In this paper we set forth what we believe to be a relatively controversial argument, claiming that 'bioethics' needs to undergo a fundamental change in the way it is practised. This change, we argue, requires philosophical bioethicists to adopt reflexive practices when applying their analyses in public forums, acknowledging openly that bioethics is an embedded socio-cultural practice, shaped by the ever-changing intuitions of individual philosophers, which cannot be viewed as a detached intellectual endeavour. This said, we argue that in order to manage the personal, social and cultural embeddedness of bioethics, philosophical bioethicists should openly acknowledge how their practices are constructed and should, in their writing, explicitly deal with issues of bias and conflict of interest, just as empirical scientists are required to do.

  18. Bioethics and Climate Change: A Response to Macpherson and Valles. (United States)

    Resnik, David B


    Two articles published in Bioethics recently have explored the ways that bioethics can contribute to the climate change debate. Cheryl Cox Macpherson argues that bioethicists can play an important role in the climate change debate by helping the public to better understand the values at stake and the trade-offs that must be made in individual and social choices, and Sean Valles claims that bioethicists can contribute to the debate by framing the issues in terms of the public health impacts of climate change. While Macpherson and Valles make valid points concerning a potential role for bioethics in the climate change debate, it is important to recognize that much more than ethical analysis and reflection will be needed to significantly impact public attitudes and government policies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre : a case study of Oslo University College


    Rahman, Md. Anisur


    Joint Master Degree in Digital Library Learning (DILL) The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis metho...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Donev


    Full Text Available The ethics in economy is not only a corrector, but also must be initiator if we want to achieve essence of our existence - the human being as “Homo ethicus”, as well as, which is more important for mankind - to achieve a human being as “Homo homine ethica ethicus est”. This remark points on two things. First: we came to the stage where we become aware about the fact that our economies are dehumanized. The second: that’s the reason why we must return to ethics and pull out from it that universal values which will make the managers of natural recourses more ethically awarded, so they will be able to start managing production without endangering bio potentials anymore. Previous remark lead us to conclusion that, no matter if the idiom “business ethics” is oxymoron or not, the present ethics is more a list of rules of conduction or, more precisely, etiquette. This clearly points that this kind of ethics of economy and in economy is not adoptive to the imperative of Bioethics: Don’t misuse recourses if you want to feed yourself and those for which you create the existence! This is so because always when we talk about ethics and ethicizing of those which managing the base of existence, de facto, are discussions about choosing the appropriate model of capitalism. The problem of these “discussions” is that we almost always forget to explain: is the chosen model of capitalization of society applicable considering the local specifics and needs of community? Therefore, the imperative of Bioethics, in this context, is to teach the ethics how to think about bio resource and bio heritage, even if we stop talk of some kinds of ethics and ethicizing of economies and of those which managing with it, because if we reconsider the reactions of the population, it is clear that they are seek of talking about it. But also, it’s recognizable the fact that they who talks just show that the essential thinking about Bioethics is absent and that the

  1. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics. Empirical, conceptual and normative constraints. (United States)

    Bracanovic, Tomislav


    In contemporary debates about the nature of bioethics there is a widespread view that bioethical decision making should involve certain knowledge of and respect for cultural diversity of persons to be affected. The aim of this article is to show that this view is untenable and misleading. It is argued that introducing the idea of respect for cultural diversity into bioethics encounters a series of conceptual and empirical constraints. While acknowledging that cultural diversity is something that decision makers in bioethical contexts should try to understand and, when possible, respect, it is argued that this cultural turn ignores the typically normative role of bioethics and thus threatens to undermine its very foundations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov


    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  3. Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics. (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin


    Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives. (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik


    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко


    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  6. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond


    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969

  7. The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian


    The steps toward the adoption by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights took a number of years and generated considerable controversy. This editorial reviews the principal provisions in the Declaration and argues that the Declaration constitutes an important formalisation on the basis of international consensus of the fundamental attributes of bioethical work undertaken by medical practitioners and scientists. However, the Declaration is only a beginning; many challenges lie ahead to ensure its effective implementation.

  8. The principle of vulnerability and its potential applications in bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demény Enikő


    Full Text Available The principle of vulnerability is a specific principle within European Bioethics. On the one hand, vulnerability expresses human limits and frailty on the other hand it represents moral and ethical action principles. In this paper a discussion on the relationship between the concepts of autonomy, vulnerability and responsibility is proposed and presentation of some possible applications of the principle of vulnerability within bioethics. In conclusion, some potential benefits of applying the principle of vulnerability as well as possible difficulties in its application are highlighted.

  9. Solidarity and the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Gunson, Darryl


    Recent work has stressed the importance of the concept of solidarity to bioethics and social philosophy generally. But can and should it feature in documents such as the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights as anything more than a vague notion with multiple possible interpretations? Although noting the tension between universality and particularity that such documents have to deal with, and also noting that solidarity has a political content, the paper explores the suggestion that solidarity should feature more centrally in international regulations. The paper concludes with the view that when solidarity is seen aright, the UDBHR is an implicitly solidaristic document.

  10. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article. (United States)

    Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina


    Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.

  11. Medical Tourism: Between Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Bioethics Boundaries: Narrative Review Article (United States)



    Abstract Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  12. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle


    UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders—academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives—felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration’s development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045

  13. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J


    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  14. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac


    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  15. Publishing bioethics and bioethics--reflections on academic publishing by a journal editor. (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo


    This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide. (United States)

    Tong, R


    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  17. [Bioethical analysis of the Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics]. (United States)

    Pyrrho, Monique; do Prado, Mauro Machado; Cordón, Jorge; Garrafa, Volnei


    The Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics (DCE), Resolution CFO-71 from May 2006, is an instrument created to guide dentists' behavior in relation to the ethical aspects of professional practice. The purpose of the study is to analyze the above mentioned code comparing the deontological and bioethical focuses. In order to do so, an interpretative analysis of the code and of twelve selected texts was made. Six of the texts were about bioethics and six on deontology, and the analysis was made through the methodological classification of the context units, textual paragraphs and items from the code in the following categories: the referentials of bioethical principlism--autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice -, technical aspects and moral virtues related to the profession. Together the four principles represented 22.9%, 39.8% and 54.2% of the content of the DCE, of the deontological texts and of the bioethical texts respectively. In the DCE, 42% of the items referred to virtues, 40.2% were associated to technical aspects and just 22.9% referred to principles. The virtues related to the professionals and the technical aspects together amounted to 70.1% of the code. Instead of focusing on the patient as the subject of the process of oral health care, the DCE focuses on the professional, and it is predominantly turned to legalistic and corporate aspects.

  18. Appropriate methodologies for empirical bioethics: it's all relative. (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather


    In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, this combination is only required for NPOB. After briefly discussing the debate around the is/ought problem, and suggesting that both sides of this debate are misunderstanding one another (i.e. one side treats it as a conceptual problem, whilst the other treats it as an empirical claim), we outline and defend a methodological approach to NPOB based on work we have carried out on a project exploring the normative foundations of paternal rights and responsibilities. We suggest that given the prominent role already played by moral intuition in moral theory, one appropriate way to integrate empirical data and philosophical bioethics is to utilize empirically gathered lay intuition as the foundation for ethical reasoning in NPOB. The method we propose involves a modification of a long-established tradition on non-intervention in qualitative data gathering, combined with a form of reflective equilibrium where the demands of theory and data are given equal weight and a pragmatic compromise reached.

  19. A Bioethics Course for Biology and Science Education Students. (United States)

    Bryant, John; la Velle, Linda Baggott


    Points out the importance of awareness among biologists and biology teachers of the ethical and social implications of their work. Describes the bioethics module established at the University of Exeter mainly targeting students majoring in biology and science education. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. From bioethics to a sociology of bio-knowledge. (United States)

    Petersen, Alan


    Growing recognition of bioethics' shortcomings, associated in large part with its heavy reliance on abstract principles, or so-called principlism, has led many scholars to propose that the field should be reformed or reconceptualised. Principlism is seen to de-contextualise the process of ethical decision-making, thus restricting bioethics' contributions to debate and policy on new and emergent biotechnologies. This article examines some major critiques of bioethics and argues for an alternative normative approach; namely, a sociology of bio-knowledge focussing on human rights. The article discusses the need for such an approach, including the challenges posed by the recent rise of 'the bio-economy'. It explores some potential alternative bases for a normative sociology of bio-knowledge, before presenting the elements of the proposed human rights-focused approach. This approach, it is argued, will benefit from the insights and concepts offered by various fields of critical scholarship, particularly the emergent sociology of human rights, science and technology studies, Foucaultian scholarship, and feminist bioethics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original articles of 3 000 words or less, with up to 6 tables or illustrations, should normally report observations or research of relevance to bioethics, law, human rights and related topics. References should preferably be limited to no more than 15. Short reports or scientific letters, which include case reports, brief or negative ...

  2. The death of bioethics (as we once knew it). (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth


    Fast forward 50 years into the future. A look back at what occurred in the field of bioethics since 2010 reveals that a conference in 2050 commemorated the death of bioethics. In a steady progression over the years, the field became increasingly fragmented and bureaucratized. Disagreement and dissension were rife, and this once flourishing, multidisciplinary field began to splinter in multiple ways. Prominent journals folded, one by one, and were replaced with specialized publications dealing with genethics, reproethics, nanoethics, and necroethics. Mainstream bioethics organizations also collapsed, giving way to new associations along disciplinary and sub-disciplinary lines. Physicians established their own journals, and specialty groups broke away from more general associations of medical ethics. Lawyers also split into three separate factions, and philosophers rejected all but the most rigorous, analytic articles into their newly established journal. Matters finally came to a head with global warming, the world-wide spread of malaria and dengue, and the cost of medical treatments out of reach for almost everyone. The result was the need to develop plans for strict rationing of medical care. At the same time, recognition emerged of the importance of the right to health and the need for global justice in health. By 2060, a spark of hope was ignited, opening the door to the resuscitation of bioethics and involvement of the global community.

  3. Questioning Engelhardt's assumptions in Bioethics and Secular Humanism. (United States)

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram


    In Bioethics and Secular Humanism: The Search for a Common Morality, Tristram Engelhardt examines various possibilities of finding common ground for moral discourse among people from different traditions and concludes their futility. In this paper I will argue that many of the assumptions on which Engelhardt bases his conclusion about the impossibility of a content-full secular bioethics are problematic. By starting with the notion of moral strangers, there is no possibility, by definition, for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers. It means that there is circularity in starting the inquiry with a definition of moral strangers, which implies that they do not share enough moral background or commitment to an authority to allow for reaching a moral agreement, and concluding that content-full morality is impossible among moral strangers. I argue that assuming traditions as solid and immutable structures that insulate people across their boundaries is problematic. Another questionable assumption in Engelhardt's work is the idea that religious and philosophical traditions provide content-full moralities. As the cardinal assumption in Engelhardt's review of the various alternatives for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers, I analyze his foundationalist account of moral reasoning and knowledge and indicate the possibility of other ways of moral knowledge, besides the foundationalist one. Then, I examine Engelhardt's view concerning the futility of attempts at justifying a content-full secular bioethics, and indicate how the assumptions have shaped Engelhardt's critique of the alternatives for the possibility of content-full secular bioethics.

  4. Functional Measurement in the Field of Empirical Bioethics (United States)

    Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul C.; Teysseire, Nathalie; Nann, Stephanie; Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales; Ahmed, Ramadan; Kamble, Shanmukh; Olivari, Cecilia; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz


    We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from five studies that were conducted in the field of empirical bioethics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) the rationing of rare treatments, (b) adolescents' abortions, (c) end-of-life decision-making regarding damaged neonates, (d) end-of-life…

  5. A global bioethical perspective on organ trafficking: Discrimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there is no national or global declaration that rejects organ trafficking because of the discriminatory and stigmatising results of the medical practice involved. The Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) addresses the ...

  6. Courts as actors of policy making in bioethics. (United States)

    Byk, Christian


    When he is led to intervene in the field of bioethics, the judge tries to find references in both the general principles of law and in the law itself. Although careful, his approach should also show imagination and ensure that all interests involved will be protected as well as possible.

  7. [Health agencies and the every day management of bioethics]. (United States)

    Byk, Christian


    Taking into account their acquired experience, would not health agencies become the place where biomedical practices will be managed on an every day basis? Would in a near future these agencies have the role to interprete the principles of the bioethics law to adapt them to concrete issues?

  8. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism. (United States)

    Racine, Eric


    There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics.

  9. Neonatal bioethics: the moral challenges of medical innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meadow, William L; Lantos, John D


    ... intensive care units. We began collecting data and presenting analyses at various scientific meetings, in particular the Society for Pediatric Research and the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities. Generous grant support from the Greenwall Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the MacLean Family helped continue the inquiries. We hav...

  10. An introduction to aspects of health law: bioethical principles, human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethical principles,1 human rights and the law are interlinked. Aspects of the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are included in the South African Constitution2 and the country's statutory and common law. A breach of these ethical principles and the Constitution may lead to an action for ...

  11. A global bioethical perspective on organ trafficking: Discrimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 21, 2017 ... Global discrimination against and stigmatisation of individuals and groups in the health environment are continually reported.[1]. In 2014, the International Bioethics Committee (IBC) of the United. Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), published the Report of the IBC on the ...

  12. Article 6 of the UNESCO Universal Declaration of Bioethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    judicially enforceable in SA, its universal nature offers a clear moral force in the bioethical debate in SA. S Afr J BL 2014:7(2)51-54. ... of individual consent arises from the right and ethical value of auto- nomy (freedom), while giving ... It is the duty of the person responsible for the medical inter- vention or the research to ...

  13. Private bodies, public texts: race, gender, and a cultural bioethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holloway, Karla F. C


    ... on cultural complexity as the origin of subjectivity. For bioethics, this means a primary and focused consideration of the habits, patterns, and practices in medicine and law that subsequently constitute the discipline's subjects. In other words, cultural ethics acknowledges that the discursive practices of the field- the complexities of history, instituti...

  14. Integrating philosophical and bioethical perspectives in life sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to contextualise and highlight the need for integration of philosophical and bioethical perspectives in curriculation for courses at tertiary level in order to provide students with opportunities to engage with these issues in preparing them to be responsible teaching facilitators. To arrive at norms and values ...

  15. The intellectual challenge of doing bioethics in South Africa | Egan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary bioethics is a complex and multidisciplinary combination of medicine, philosophy and law, made more difficult because few, if any, bioethicists are masters of all three disciplines. To further complicate matters, each discipline contains specialised subdisciplines and internal debates. Philosophy is used to ...

  16. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff


    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  17. Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents (United States)

    Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair


    Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

  18. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW. (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  19. Was bioethics founded on historical and conceptual mistakes about medical paternalism? (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B


    Bioethics has a founding story in which medical paternalism, the interference with the autonomy of patients for their own clinical benefit, was an accepted ethical norm in the history of Western medical ethics and was widespread in clinical practice until bioethics changed the ethical norms and practice of medicine. In this paper I show that the founding story of bioethics misreads major texts in the history of Western medical ethics. I also show that a major source for empirical claims about the widespread practice of medical paternalism has been misread. I then show that that bioethics based on its founding story deprofessionalizes medical ethics. The result leaves the sick exposed to the predatory power of medical practitioners and healthcare organizations with only their autonomy-based rights to non-interference, expressed in contracts, to protect them. The sick are stripped of the protection afforded by a professional, fiduciary relationship of physicians to their patients. Bioethics based on its founding story reverts to the older model of a contractual relationship between the sick and medical practitioners not worthy of intellectual or moral trust (because such trust cannot be generated by what I call 'deprofessionalizing bioethics'). On closer examination, bioethics based on its founding story, ironically, eliminates paternalism as a moral category in bioethics, thus causing bioethics to collapse on itself because it denies one of the necessary conditions for medical paternalism. Bioethics based on its founding story should be abandoned. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local (United States)

    Shadle, Steve


    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  1. Survey of the use of electronic information resources by students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For libraries to continue to lead in this industry generally and academic libraries in particular, deliberate effort must be made to bring the IT education to every potential user of the libraries. This however must be done based on available data. This is what this study sought to provide- a survey of the use of electronic ...

  2. Bringing Up Gopher: Access to Local & Remote Electronic Resources for University Library Users. (United States)

    Brown, Melvin Marlo; And Others

    Some of the administrative and organizational issues in creating a gopher, specifically a library gopher for university libraries, are discussed. In 1993 the Electronic Collections Task Force of the New Mexico State University library administration began to develop a library-based gopher system that would enable users to have unlimited access to…

  3. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments. (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  4. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry


    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ∼105 patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail PMID:23220717

  5. Resource-efficient conception of waste electrical and electronic equipment collection groups


    Gries, Nadja von; Wilts, Claas Henning


    Critical metals are in great demand by the electrical and electronics industry, so waste electrical and eletronic equipment represents a significant source of secondary raw materials. Owing to low recycling rates and the concomitant supply risks associated with critical metals, the closure of the material cycles is highly relevant to the German economy. Losses of these metals occur from collection until their material recovery, along the entire disposal chain of waste electrical and electroni...

  6. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  7. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  8. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics. (United States)

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun


    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach.

  9. Ethics of Surrogacy: A Comparative Study of Western Secular and Islamic Bioethics (United States)

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun


    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach. PMID:23864994

  10. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients. (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I


    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  11. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system


    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy


    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  12. On the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline, as seen from a sociological perspective. (United States)

    Irrazábal, Gabriela


    This article examines the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline from a sociological perspective. This reconstruction helps us to understand on the one hand what is meant by bioethics and what its practices and areas of inquiry are, and on the other to identify various concepts and expert opinions about what the field of study for bioethics should be, opinions which lead in practice to different applications of the discipline in health sciences. This becomes relevant for epistemological discussions about the discipline and for consolidating a sociology of bioethics in the context of Ibero-America.

  13. Merging arts and bioethics: An interdisciplinary experiment in cultural and scientific mediation. (United States)

    Couture, Vincent; Bélisle-Pipon, Jean-Christophe; Cloutier, Marianne; Barnabé, Catherine


    How to engage the public in a reflection on the most pressing ethical issues of our time? What if part of the solution lies in adopting an interdisciplinary and collaborative strategy to shed light on critical issues in bioethics? An example is Art + Bioéthique, an innovative project that brought together bioethicists, art historians and artists with the aim of expressing bioethics through arts in order to convey the "sensitive" aspect of many health ethics issues. The aim of this project was threefold: 1) to identify and characterize mechanisms for the meeting of arts and bioethics; 2) to experiment with and co-construct a dialogue between arts and bioethics; and 3) to initiate a public discussion on bioethical issues through the blending of arts and bioethics. In connection with an exhibition held in March 2016 at the Espace Projet, a non-profit art space in Montréal (Canada), the project developed a platform that combined artworks, essays and cultural & scientific mediation activities related to the work of six duos of young bioethics researchers and emerging artists. Each duo worked on a variety of issues, such as the social inclusion of disabled people, the challenges of practical applications of nanomedicine and regenerative medicine, and a holistic approach to contemporary diseases. This project, which succeeded in stimulating an interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration between bioethics and arts, is an example of an innovative approach to knowledge transfer that can move bioethics reflection into the public space. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: a canon for the ages? (United States)

    Trotter, Griffin


    The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of 2005 purports to articulate universal norms for bioethics. However, this document has met with mixed reviews. Some deny that the elaboration of universal bioethics norms is needed; some deny that UNESCO has the expertise or authority to articulate such norms; some regard the content of the UNESCO document as too vague or general to be useful; and some regard the document as a cog in the effort of like-minded cosmopolitans to codify their particular moral intuitions in international law. This issue examines the potential merits and pitfalls of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

  15. [Human dignity, human rights and bioethics: what is the connection?]. (United States)

    Andorno, Roberto


    Human rights are closely related to the notion of human dignity, to such a point that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to promote them without appealing, at least implicitly, to the idea that each individual has intrinsic worth simply by virtue of being human. This relationship between dignity and rights is even stronger in the field of bioethics, which deals directly with some of the most basic human rights, such as the rights to life and to physical integrity. It is therefore not by chance that the international norms relating to bioethics give a central role to the concept of human dignity. However, one should not expect from dignity more than it can offer; dignity is a "principle", not a "rule"; it embodies a fundamental value, but it alone does not determine the content of a particular decision.

  16. Bioethics mediation: the role and importance of nursing advocacy. (United States)

    Schlairet, Maura C


    Ethics consultations are utilized in health care to identify and manage conflict, difficult decision-making, and ethical issues. In bioethics mediation, a more updated approach using interpersonal, mediative, conflict management, and dispute resolution skills is merged with ethical principles to manage dilemmas arising in healthcare settings. This article argues, based on a professional obligation to advocate for the good of the client, that nurses must assume leadership roles in mediation processes. Nurses can initiate and fully participate in formal bioethics mediation and other mediative interventions. Nurse administrators can work to evolve existing ethics consult models to mediation models. Nonetheless, mediative efforts of individual nurses must be grounded in realization of the multifactorial nature of conflict and dilemma in healthcare settings. Multidisciplinary mediative interventions, framed by sound institutional policies, may best serve the complex needs of ethically vulnerable clients. To best advocate for these at-risk clients, nurses must assume various leadership roles in mediation processes.

  17. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative. (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond


    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures.

  18. Solidarity in contemporary bioethics--towards a new approach. (United States)

    Prainsack, Barbara; Buyx, Alena


    This paper, which is based on an extensive analysis of the literature, gives a brief overview of the main ways in which solidarity has been employed in bioethical writings in the last two decades. As the vagueness of the term has been one of the main targets of critique, we propose a new approach to defining solidarity, identifying it primarily as a practice enacted at the interpersonal, communal, and contractual/legal levels. Our three-tier model of solidarity can also help to explain the way in which crises of solidarity can occur, notably when formal solidaristic arrangements continue to exist despite 'lower tiers' of solidarity practices at inter-personal and communal levels having 'broken away'. We hope that this contribution to the growing debate on the potential for the value of solidarity to help tackle issues in bioethics and beyond, will stimulate further discussion involving both conceptual and empirically informed perspectives. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Johnson


    Full Text Available Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  20. [The bioethical principlism model applied in pain management]. (United States)

    Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pessoa, Ana Paula da Costa; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Pereira, Lilian Varanda


    An integrative literature review was developed with the purpose to analyze the scientific production regarding the relationships between pain and the principles of bioethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice). Controlled descriptors were used in three international data sources (LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE), in April of 2012, totaling 14 publications categorized by pain and autonomy, pain and beneficence, pain and nonmaleficence, pain and justice. The adequate relief of pain is a human right and a moral issue directly related with the bioethical principlism standard model (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). However, many professionals overlook the pain of their patients, ignoring their ethical role when facing suffering. It was concluded that principlism has been neglected in the care of patients in pain, showing the need for new practices to change this setting.

  1. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw


    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  2. A meta-science for a global bioethics and biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Basser


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As suggested by Shook and Giordano, understanding and therefore addressing the urgent international governance issues around globalizing bio-medical/technology research and applications is limited by the perception of the underlying science. Methods A philosophical methodology is used, based on novel and classical philosophical reflection upon existent literature, clinical wisdoms and narrative theory to discover a meta-science and telos of humankind for the development of a relevant and defendable global biomedical bioethics. Results In this article, through pondering an integrative systems approach, I propose a biomedical model that may provide Western biomedicine with leadership and interesting insight into the unity beyond the artificial boundaries of its traditional divisions and the limit between physiological and pathological situations (health and disease. A unified biomedicine, as scientific foundation, might then provide the basis for dissolution of similar reflected boundaries within bioethics. A principled and communitarian cosmopolitan bioethics may then be synonymous with a recently proposed principled and communitarian cosmopolitan neuroethics based on a novel objective meta-ethics. In an attempt to help facilitate equal and inclusive participation in inter-, multi-, and transdisciplinary intercultural discourse regarding the aforementioned international governance issues, I offer: (1 a meta-science derived through considering the general behaviour of activity, plasticity and balance in biology and; (2 a novel thought framework to encourage and enhance the ability for self-evaluation, self-criticism, and self-revision aimed at broadening perspective, as well as acknowledging and responding to the strengths and limitations of extant knowledge. Conclusions Through classical philosophical reflection, I evolve a theory of medicine to discover a telos of humankind which in turn provides an ‘internal’ moral

  3. A meta-science for a global bioethics and biomedicine. (United States)

    Basser, David S


    As suggested by Shook and Giordano, understanding and therefore addressing the urgent international governance issues around globalizing bio-medical/technology research and applications is limited by the perception of the underlying science. A philosophical methodology is used, based on novel and classical philosophical reflection upon existent literature, clinical wisdoms and narrative theory to discover a meta-science and telos of humankind for the development of a relevant and defendable global biomedical bioethics. In this article, through pondering an integrative systems approach, I propose a biomedical model that may provide Western biomedicine with leadership and interesting insight into the unity beyond the artificial boundaries of its traditional divisions and the limit between physiological and pathological situations (health and disease). A unified biomedicine, as scientific foundation, might then provide the basis for dissolution of similar reflected boundaries within bioethics. A principled and communitarian cosmopolitan bioethics may then be synonymous with a recently proposed principled and communitarian cosmopolitan neuroethics based on a novel objective meta-ethics. In an attempt to help facilitate equal and inclusive participation in inter-, multi-, and transdisciplinary intercultural discourse regarding the aforementioned international governance issues, I offer: (1) a meta-science derived through considering the general behaviour of activity, plasticity and balance in biology and; (2) a novel thought framework to encourage and enhance the ability for self-evaluation, self-criticism, and self-revision aimed at broadening perspective, as well as acknowledging and responding to the strengths and limitations of extant knowledge. Through classical philosophical reflection, I evolve a theory of medicine to discover a telos of humankind which in turn provides an 'internal' moral grounding for a proposed global biomedical bioethics.

  4. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.


    The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field – Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs) like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6]), first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of ‘Common Morality’, ‘Specific Morality’, ‘Specification’, ‘Balancing’ and ‘Double Effects’. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts. PMID:28031624

  5. Sin and bioethics: why a liturgical anthropology is foundational. (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram


    The project of articulating a coherent, canonical, content-full, secular morality-cum-bioethics fails, because it does not acknowledge sin, which is to say, it does not acknowledge the centrality of holiness, which is essential to a non-distorted understanding of human existence and of morality. Secular morality cannot establish a particular moral content, the harmony of the good and the right, or the necessary precedence of morality over prudence, because such is possible only in terms of an ultimate point of reference: God. The necessity of a rightly ordered appreciation of God places centrally the focus on holiness and the avoidance of sin. Because the cardinal relationship of creatures to their Creator is worship, and because the cardinal corporate act of human worship is the Liturgy, morality in general and bioethics in particular can be understood in terms of the conditions necessary, so as worthily to enter into Eucharistic liturgical participation. Morality can be summed up in terms of the requirements of ritual purity. A liturgical anthropology is foundational to an account of the content-full morality and bioethics that should bind humans, since humans are first and foremost creatures obliged to join in rightly ordered worship of their Creator. When humans worship correctly, when they avoid sin and pursue holiness, they participate in restoring created reality.

  6. How will the economic downturn affect academic bioethics? (United States)

    Epstein, Miran


    An educated guess about the future of academic bioethics can only be made on the basis of the historical conditions of its success. According to its official history, which attributes its success primarily to the service it has done for the patient, it should be safe at least as long as the patient still needs its service. Like many other academic disciplines, it might suffer under the present economic downturn. However, in the plausible assumption that its social role has not been exhausted yet, it should recover as soon as the economy does. But if, as this paper tries to argue, the success of academic bioethics should be attributed first and foremost to the service it has done for the neoliberal agenda, then its future would have to depend on the fate of the latter. The exact implications of the downturn for the neoliberal agenda are obviously impossible to predict. Among the various options, however, the one of going back to 'normal' seems to be the least likely. The other options suggest that the future of academic bioethics, as we have known it, is bleak.

  7. Global Convergence on the Bioethics of Surgical Implants (United States)

    Monlezun, Dominique J.


    The increasing globalization of mankind with pluralistic belief systems necessitates physicians by virtue of their profession to partner with bioethics for soundly applying emerging knowledge and technologies for the best use of the patient. A subfield within medicine in which this need is acutely felt is that of surgical implants. Within this subfield such recent promising ethics and medicine partnerships include the International Tissue Engineering Research Association and UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights' International Code of Ethics. In this paper, we provide an overview of the emerging human rights framework from bioethics and international law, discussion of key framework principles, their application to the current surgical challenge of implantation of surgical mesh for prolapse, and conclusions and recommendations. Such discussions are meant to facilitate true quality improvement in patient care by ensuring the exciting technologies and medical practices emerging new daily are accompanied by an equal commitment of physicians to ethically provide their services for the chief end of the patient's good. PMID:25973426

  8. Inter-ethics: towards an interactive and interdependent bioethics. (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A; Baur, Vivianne E; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy A M


    Since its origin bioethics has been a specialized, academic discipline, focussing on moral issues, using a vast set of globalized principles and rational techniques to evaluate and guide healthcare practices. With the emergence of a plural society, the loss of faith in experts and authorities and the decline of overarching grand narratives and shared moralities, a new approach to bioethics is needed. This approach implies a shift from an external critique of practices towards embedded ethics and interactive practice improvement, and from a legal defence of rights towards fostering interdependent practices of responsibility. This article describes these transitions within bioethics in relation to the broader societal and cultural dynamics within Western societies, and traces the implications for the methodologies and changing roles of the bioethicist. The bioethicist we foresee is not just a clever expert but also a relationally sensitive person who engages stakeholders in reciprocal dialogues about their practice of responsibility and helps to integrate various sorts of knowledge (embodied, experiential, visual, and cognitive-scientific). In order to illustrate this new approach, we present a case study. It concerns a project focusing on an innovation in elderly care, based on the participation of various stakeholders, especially older people themselves.

  9. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany. (United States)

    Rajtar, Małgorzata


    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health sciences in ghana. (United States)

    Adanu, Rmk; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Opare-Sem, O; Nkyekyer, K; Donkor, P; Lawson, A; Engleberg, N C


    To determine whether a group of Ghanaian students are able to easily use electronic learning material and whether they perceive this method of learning as acceptable. The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) and the School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty third year medical students at SMS and nineteen fifth year medical students at UGMS METHODS: Two e-learning materials were developed, one on the polymerase chain reaction and the other on total abdominal hysterectomy and these were distributed to selected medical students. Two weeks after the distribution of the programmes, a one-page, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target groups of students at the two institutions. Ninety three percent (139) of respondents at KNUST and 95% (18) at UG report having access to a computer for learning purposes. All of the UG students viewed the TAH programme; 82% (130) of the KNUST students viewed the PCR animations. All students who viewed the programmes at both institutions indicated that the e-learning pro-grammes were "more effective" in comparison to other methods of learning. Computer ownership or availability at both medical schools is sufficient to permit the distribution and viewing of e-learning materials by students and the medical students considered both programmes to be very helpful.

  11. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device function and longevity at autopsy: an underestimated resource. (United States)

    Sinha, Sunil K; Crain, Barbara; Flickinger, Katie; Calkins, Hugh; Rickard, John; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald; Tomaselli, Gordon; Marine, Joseph E


    The feasibility and safety of postmortem cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED; pacemaker or defibrillator) retrieval for reuse has been shown. To date, studies indicate a low yield of reusable postmortem CIEDs (17%-30%). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a higher rate of reusable CIEDs would be identified upon postmortem retrieval when an institutional protocol for systematic and routine acquisition, interrogation, reprogramming, and manufacturer analysis was used. Over a 6-year period, all subjects referred for autopsy underwent concomitant CIED pulse generator retrieval and enrollment in the Johns Hopkins Post-Mortem CIED Registry. CIEDs were interrogated, reprogrammed, and submitted for manufacturer analysis. In total, 84 autopsies had CIEDs (37 pacemakers, 47 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators). CIEDs were implanted 2.84 ± 2.32 years before death, with 30% implanted 60% of pacemakers and >50% of defibrillators demonstrated normal functional status with projected longevities >7 years on average. Formation of a national hospital-based "CIED donor network" would facilitate larger scale charitable efforts in underserved countries. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Why bioethics? On the anamnesis of meaning in medicine. (United States)

    Dell'Oro, Roberto


    The history of bioethics rests upon the assumption that, given the growing complexity of medicine, the function of ethics is, first of all, normative: ethics is supposed to help in the solution of concrete problems, and to do so systematically, by relying upon a defined set of principles and rules. The scientific character of such an approach to bioethics complements the very understanding of modern medicine as itself increasingly scientific and technical, that is, as oriented toward the production of effects. Although careful scientific attention to the patho-physiology of disease has unquestionably yielded marvelous advances in modern medicine, its positivist reduction has also created a mind-set that brackets questions of meaning, themselves highly significant to human well-being and to the ethical aspects ofmedicine. The paper claims that, rather than sharing in the "suspension of meaning" pursued by medicine for the sake of scientific objectivity, the main task of bioethics consists in a retrieval, or "anamnesis", of the very questions medicine seems to suspend: the significance of illness and disease, of birth, suffering and death, and of the service to the ethos of generosity that sustains the healing professions. Also, the paper offers a cultural "etiology" of "the suspension of meaning" in bioethics. In addition to a critical integration of positivistic attitudes in medicine and the reduction of moral discourse to the normative, one must mention the basic presumption of a cultural situation that, in the name of post-modernity, raises serious doubts against the possibility of engaging in questions of meaning across moral boundaries. As an alternative, the paper calls for a moral reflection that begins neither with the application of normative principles, nor with an attitude of resignation towards the pursuit of the good; rather with a free and open confrontation with clinical experience that attends to the moral meaning of concrete situations, recognizing

  13. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

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    Jiuh-Biing Sheu


    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  14. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

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    Bakir Mehić


    animals for research, testing, or training in different countries. In the few that have done so, the measures adopted vary widely: on the one hand, legally enforceable detailed regulations with licensing of experimenters and their premises together with an official inspectorate; on the other, entirely voluntary self-regulation by the biomedical community, with lay participation. Many variations are possible between these extremes, one intermediate situation being a legal requirement that experiments or other procedures involving the use of animals should be subject to the approval of ethical committees of specified composition.The International Guiding Principles are the product of the collaboration of a representative sample of the international biomedical community, including experts of the World Health Organization, and of consultations with responsible animal welfare groups. The International Guiding Principles have already gained a considerable measure of acceptance internationally. European Medical Research Councils (EMRC, an international association that includes all the West European medical research councils, fully endorsed the Guiding Principles in 1984. Here we bring the basic bioethical principles for using animals in biomedical research[3]: Methods such as mathematical models, computer simulation and in vitro biological systems should be used wherever appropriate,Animal experiments should be undertaken only after due consideration of their relevance for human or animal health and the advancement of biological knowledge,The animals selected for an experiment should be of an appropriate species and quality, and the minimum number required to obtain scientifically valid results,Investigators and other personnel should never fail to treat animals as sentient, and should regard their proper care and use and the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, or pain as ethical imperatives,Procedures with animals that may cause more than momentary or minimal

  15. A bioethical perspective on risk assessment models for managing toxic wastes, radioactive or non-radioactive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.


    In the interest of developing an adequate and consistent bioethical perspective for reflecting on the ethical issues raised by toxic wastes, this brief paper focuses on the question of whether or not public opposition to past and proposed methods for waste management has been induced as much by technical incompetance as by deficiencies in using risk models for bioethical problem definitions

  16. Hospital Bioethics: A Beginning Knowledge Base for the Neonatal Social Worker. (United States)

    Silverman, Ed


    Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…

  17. Bioethics Cases and Issues: Enrichment for Social Science, Humanities, and Science Courses. (United States)

    Guyer, Ruth Levy; Dillon, Mary Lou; Anderson, Linda; Szobota, Lola


    Discusses the use of bioethics and bioethical dilemmas in different subject areas at the high school level by focusing on the case of Baby K. Includes the story of Baby K, classroom activities for U.S. history, 10th and 11th grade ethics, and anatomy and physiology. (CMK)

  18. Emergency Contraception and RU-486 (Mifepristone): Do Bioethical Discussions Improve Learning and Retention? (United States)

    Bodensteiner, Karin J.


    To systematically investigate whether the inclusion of a bioethical discussion improves the learning and retention of biological content, students in two sections of an introductory zoology class were taught the biology behind emergency contraception and RU-486. Students in one section of the course participated in a bioethical discussion, whereas…

  19. Roles of moral philosophy in appropriated bioethics: a response to Baker and McCullough. (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy


    Strong arguments support the notion that much of modern bioethics is a result of appropriation rather than strict application of traditional moral philosophy. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize these sources and approaches associated with them, even when working with appropriated theories, since traditional ethical theory does and should influence modern bioethics.

  20. Living apart together: reflections on bioethics, global inequality and social justice

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    Mupenda Bavon


    Full Text Available Abstract Significant inequalities in health between and within countries have been measured over the past decades. Although these inequalities, as well as attempts to improve sub-standard health, raise profound issues of social justice and the right to health, those working in the field of bioethics have historically tended to devote greater attention to ethical issues raised by new, cutting-edge biotechnologies such as life-support cessation, genomics, stem cell research or face transplantation. This suggests that bioethics research and scholarship may revolve around issues that, while fascinating and important, currently affect only a small minority of the world's population. In this article, we examine the accusation that bioethics is largely dominated by Anglophone and industrialized world interests, and explore what kinds of positive contributions a 'bioethics from below' (as Paul Farmer calls it can make to the field of bioethics in general. As our guide in this exploration, we make use of some experiences and lessons learned in our collaborative bioethics project in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Building Bioethics Capacity and Justice in Health. We conclude that while there is some evidence of increased attention to bioethical challenges in developing countries, this development should be further cultivated, because it could help expand the horizons of the field and enhance its social relevance wherever it is practiced.

  1. Moral wisdom in the balance. Reflective Equilibrium as a normative empirical model for bioethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, G.J.M.W.


    Many bioethics researchers share the aim to produce moral judgements and theories that actually make a difference in practice. The question of how this aim should be achieved is subject to a longstanding debate. Nonetheless, methodology in bioethics research is still underdeveloped and undervalued.

  2. The four-principle formulation of common morality is at the core of bioethics mediation method. (United States)

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram


    Bioethics mediation is increasingly used as a method in clinical ethics cases. My goal in this paper is to examine the implicit theoretical assumptions of the bioethics mediation method developed by Dubler and Liebman. According to them, the distinguishing feature of bioethics mediation is that the method is useful in most cases of clinical ethics in which conflict is the main issue, which implies that there is either no real ethical issue or if there were, they are not the key to finding a resolution. I question the tacit assumption of non-normativity of the mediation method in bioethics by examining the various senses in which bioethics mediation might be non-normative or neutral. The major normative assumption of the mediation method is the existence of common morality. In addition, the four-principle formulation of the theory articulated by Beauchamp and Childress implicitly provides the normative content for the method. Full acknowledgement of the theoretical and normative assumptions of bioethics mediation helps clinical ethicists better understand the nature of their job. In addition, the need for a robust philosophical background even in what appears to be a purely practical method of mediation cannot be overemphasized. Acknowledgement of the normative nature of bioethics mediation method necessitates a more critical attitude of the bioethics mediators towards the norms they usually take for granted uncritically as valid.

  3. The transformation of (bio)ethics expertise in a world of ethical pluralism. (United States)

    Kovács, József


    Today, bioethics experts have an increasing role in public life. However, the question arises: what does bioethics expertise really mean? Can there be such a thing in our globalised world characterised by ethical pluralism? I will argue that bioethics as a discipline represents the transformation of ethics expertise from a hard to a soft form of it. Bioethics was born as a reaction to the growing awareness of ethical pluralism, and it denied the hard form of normative-prescriptive ethics expertise (the ability to determine what is the right course of action for others), particularly in its medical ethics form. In contrast, the traditional medical ethics model, and pre-modern societies in general, believed in hard normative ethics expertise. From this followed the characteristic paternalism of traditional medical practice: if physicians were experts in moral matters as well, if they knew what the right course of action to choose was, then they had a right to benevolently force this course of action on their patients. The remnants of this doctrine, although rarely stated explicitly, still can often be seen in clinical practice. The whole bioethics movement can be seen as a radical denial of the doctrine of physician's hard expertise in moral matters. Bioethics, however, represents a type of soft ethics expertise (mainly value sensitivity). Hence follows the seeming paradox of bioethics expertise: bioethics is both a denial of ethics expertise (in its hard form) as well as a type of (soft) ethics expertise.

  4. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

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    Masters ET


    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  5. "Help must first come from the divine:" a response to Fr. George Eber's claim of the so-called incommensurability of Orthodox and non-Orthodox Christian bioethics. (United States)

    Keenan, James F


    Orthodox bioethics is distinctive in how it reflects on issues in bioethics. This distinctiveness is found in the relationship of spirituality and liturgy to ethics. Eber's essay, however, treats the distinctiveness as absolute uniqueness. In so focusing on the incommensurability of Orthodox bioethics Eber fails to tell his reader what Orthodox bioethics is about. Furthermore, his description of Western Christian ethics is seriously inaccurate.

  6. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

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    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.

  7. Establishing a framework for a physician assistant/bioethics dual degree program. (United States)

    Carr, Mark F; Bergman, Brett A


    : Numerous medical schools currently offer a master of arts (MA) in bioethics dual degree for physicians. A degree in bioethics enhances the care physicians provide to patients and prepares physicians to serve on ethics committees and consult services. Additionally, they may work on institutional and public policy issues related to ethics. Several physician assistant (PA) programs currently offer a master of public health (MPH) dual degree for PAs. A degree in public health prepares PAs for leadership roles in meeting community health needs. With the success of PA/MPH dual degree programs, we argue here that a PA/bioethics dual degree would be another opportunity to advance the PA profession and consider how such a program might be implemented. The article includes the individual perspectives of the authors, one of whom completed a graduate-level certificate in bioethics concurrently with his 2-year PA program, while the other served as a bioethics program director.


    Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal


    At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics.

  9. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews. (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind


    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Will international human rights subsume medical ethics? Intersections in the UNESCO Universal Bioethics Declaration. (United States)

    Faunce, T A


    The International Bioethics Committee (IBC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is currently drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration ("the declaration"). The content and even the name of the declaration has yet to be finalized, but it is expected to range widely over human and non-human bioethics. It appears likely to include many articles directly related to medical ethics. The declaration may well evolve, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, into a component of international customary law, or be the precursor to an International Convention on Bioethics. This article discusses whether this process will facilitate bioethics and, in particular, medical ethics, being subsumed by the normative system of international human rights.

  11. A theory of international bioethics: multiculturalism, postmodernism, and the bankruptcy of fundamentalism. (United States)

    Baker, Robert


    The first of two articles analyzing the justifiability of international bioethical codes and of cross-cultural moral judgments reviews "moral fundamentalism," the theory that cross-cultural moral judgments and international bioethical codes are justified by certain "basic" or "fundamental" moral priniciples that are universally accepted in all cultures and eras. Initially propounded by the judges at the 1947 Nuremberg Tribunal, moral fundamentalism has become the received justification of international bioethics, and of cross-temporal and cross-cultural moral judgments. Yet today we are said to live in a multicultural and postmodern world. This article assesses the challenges that multiculturalism and postmodernism pose to fundamentalism and concludes that these challenges render the position philosophically untenable, thereby undermining the received conception of the foundations of international bioethics. The second article, which follows, offers an alternative model -- a model of negotiated moral order -- as a viable justification for international bioethics and for transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments.

  12. Teaching bioethics: the tale of a "soft" science in a hard world. (United States)

    Lovy, Andrew; Paskhover, Boris; Trachtman, Howard


    Although bioethics is considered essential to the practice of medicine, medical students often view it as a "soft" subject that is secondary in importance to the other courses in their basic science and clinical curriculum. This perspective may be a consequence of the heavy reliance on students' aptitude in the quantitative sciences as a criterion for entry into medical school and as a barometer of academic success after admission. It is exacerbated by the widespread impression that bioethics is imprecise and culturally relativistic. In an effort to redress this imbalance, we propose an approach to teaching bioethics to medical students which emphasizes that the intellectual basis and the degree of certainty of knowledge is comparable in all medical subjects ranging from basic science courses to clinical rotations to bioethics tutorials. Adopting these pedagogical steps may promote greater integration of the various elements-bioethics and clinical science-in the medical school curriculum.

  13. The value of dignity in and for bioethics: rethinking the terms of the debate. (United States)

    Morrissey, Clair


    The discussion of the nature and value of dignity in and for bioethics concerns not only the importance of the concept but also the aims of bioethics itself. Here, I challenge the claim that the concept of dignity is useless by challenging the implicit conception of usefulness involved. I argue that the conception of usefulness that both opponents and proponents of dignity in bioethics adopt is rooted in a narrow understanding of the role of normative theory in practical ethical thinking. I then offer an alternate understanding of the nature and value of dignity. I begin by recognizing that claims that one's dignity has been violated point to an important difference between "respect for autonomy" and "respect for persons." I then suggest three different conceptions of how dignity can be normatively guiding for bioethics, and conclude that, ultimately, understanding dignity as the cornerstone of a reflective perspective that frames moral reflection and deliberation is valuable for doing bioethics well.

  14. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.


    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  15. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  16. Development of Bioethics and Clinical Ethics in Bulgaria. (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Yankulovska, Silviya S


    Bioethics and clinical ethics emerged from the classical medical ethics in the 1970s of the 20th century. Both fields are new for the Bulgarian academic tradition. The aims of this paper were to demarcate the subject fields of medical ethics, bioethics, and clinical ethics, to present the developments in the field of medical ethics in Bulgaria, to delineate the obstacles to effective ethics education of medical professionals, and to present the results of the application of an adapted bottom-up methodology for clinical ethics consultation in several clinical units in Bulgaria. Extended literature review and application of an adapted METAP methodology for clinical ethics consultation in six clinical units in the Northern Bulgaria between May 2013 and December 2014. Teaching of medical ethics in Bulgaria was introduced in the 1990s and still stands mainly as theoretical expertise without sufficient dilemma training in clinical settings. Earlier studies revealed need of clinical ethics consultation services in our country. METAP methodology was applied in 69 ethics meetings. In 31.9% of them non-medical considerations affected the choice of treatment and 34.8% resulted in reaching consensus between the team and the patient. Participants' opinion about the meetings was highly positive with 87.7% overall satisfaction. Development of bioethics in Bulgaria follows recent worldwide trends. Several ideas could be applied towards increasing the effectiveness of ethics education. Results of the ethics meetings lead to the conclusion that it is a successful and well accepted approach for clinical ethics consultation with a potential for wider introduction in our medical practice.

  17. A Sensitive Period: Bioethics, Human Rights, and Child Development. (United States)

    Denburg, Avram


    This paper explores complementarities between bioethics and human rights in the ethical analysis of early childhood development (ECD) policies. It is argued that conceptual synergies arising from the integration of these fields are considerable, if underexplored, and best illumined through application to specific domains of health policy. ECD represents an especially germane case study: it is characterized by rapidly evolving science whose normative implications are complex, emergent, and understudied, yet whose societal impacts are wide-ranging. The paper first charts the disciplinary evolution of bioethics, demonstrating its gradual social turn: from the individual to collective, from the medical to the societal. It then reviews points of theoretical confluence between bioethics and human rights, to assess the value and feasibility of their joint application to health policy analysis. Finally, it maps these complementarities onto issues provoked by the epigenetics of ECD, in the hopes that both the policy domain and the analysis of theoretical synergies are enriched. It finds that the distinctly relational and emergent nature of ECD science and policy demands novel forms of normative inquiry. Only an ethical approach supple enough to adapt to emergent questions, examine issues from varied theoretical perspectives, and assimilate insights across traditional disciplinary bounds will prove sufficient to the task. Copyright 2015 Denburg. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  18. Tuskegee University experience challenges conventional wisdom: is integrative bioethics practice the new ethics for the public's health? (United States)

    Sodeke, Stephen Olufemi


    The Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care was established in 1999 in partial response to the Presidential Apology for the United States Public Health Service's Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male conducted in Macon County, Alabama, from 1932 to 1972. The Center's mission of promoting equity and justice in health and health care for African Americans and other underserved populations employs an integrative bioethics approach informed by moral vision. Etymological and historical analyses are used to delineate the meaning and evolution of bioethics and to provide a basis for Tuskegee's integrative bioethics niche. Unlike mainstream bioethics, integrative bioethics practice is holistic in orientation, and more robust for understanding the epistemic realities of minority life, health disparities, and population health. The conclusion is that integrative bioethics is relevant to the survival of all people, not just a privileged few; it could be the new ethics for the public's health.

  19. Bioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction. (United States)

    Camporesi, Silvia


    This Bioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction symposium draws together a series of articles that were each submitted independently by their authors to the JBI and which explore the biopower axis in the externalization of reproduction in four contexts: artificial gestation (ectogenesis), PGD for sex selection, women's (reproductive) rights, and testicular cryopreservation (TCCP). While one contribution explores a "future" of reproduction, the other three explore a "present," or better, explore different "presents." What may counts as "present," and what may count as "future," has dramatically different connotations depending on the geographical declination of the tense.

  20. The use of moral deliberation in empirical research in bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Zoboli


    Full Text Available The article presents an integrated empirical ethics research project that used the moral deliberation, according to the theoretical and philosophical conception, and methodical proposal of Diego Gracia, as a theoretical and methodological framework. The application showed the potential to realize the dynamics of the studied object in real life, making it possible, from the situation presented in the vignettes, for participants to include what they considered for dealing with the conflict of values. It also made the integration of philosophical and empirical approaches in bioethics research possible. The analytical category of prudence allowed the results to be assessed in a critical and comprehensive way.