WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioethical issues

  1. Current bioethical issues in parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

    2008-09-01

    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  2. Bioethical issues in the development of biopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immunogenicity. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce NHP use in biopharmaceutical drug development, e.g. study design improvements and changes in regulatory policy. In addition, several expert groups are active in this field (e.g. NC3Rs, BioSafe, and Biopharmaceutical Technical Group. Despite that, there is an increasing trend of use of NHP in preclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals, especially regarding monoclonal antibodies. Other potential bioethical issues related biopharmaceutical drug development are their cost/effectiveness ratio, clinical safety assessment, production of biosimilars, and comparison of their efficacy with placebo in countries without intention to market. Identification of the human genome has opened many new bioethical issues. Development of biopharmaceuticals is an important bioethical issue for several reasons. It connects all aspects of contemporary bioethics: bio­medicine (e.g. clinical trials in vulnerable subjects, animal welfare and the most recent ad­vances in biotechnology. In particular, biopharmaceutical drug development is a challenging issue regarding treatment of rare diseases.

  3. 78 FR 20647 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health... the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its thirteenth meeting on April 30, 2013. At this...

  4. 77 FR 41789 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY... Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its tenth meeting in August. At this meeting,...

  5. 78 FR 46335 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and... Bioethical Issues will conduct its fourteenth meeting on August 19-20, 2013. At this meeting, the...

  6. 77 FR 26012 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health... Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its ninth meeting in May. At...

  7. 77 FR 2298 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues... the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its eighth meeting in February. At this meeting,...

  8. 76 FR 48864 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY... Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its sixth meeting in August. At this meeting,...

  9. Applying theological developments to bioethical issues such as genetic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre; ten Have, Henk

    2005-01-01

    Catholic movements within the centre of Roman Catholic doctrine recently have discussed Trinitarian theology as applied to sciences, arts, economics, health and other social areas. We explore the possibilities Trinitarian theology offers to bioethical debate, concentrating particularly on genetic screening and testing. It is important therefore to analyse the philosophical implications of this approach onto the bioethical world, where much disagreement occurs on fundamental issues. It is Catholic basic teaching to recognize and see God's hand in plurality, not merely as a cliche and then doing what we feel is right, but to recognize how to live in a pluralistic world. We recognize, in agreement with these theologians, that in order for a Trinitarian mode of understanding to be used by those doing bioethical debate, there is a need to depart from fundamentalism.

  10. The Time Is Now: Bioethics and LGBT Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth

    2014-09-01

    Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating

  11. The Time Is Now: Bioethics and LGBT Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth

    2014-09-01

    Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating

  12. Bioethical Issues of Nanotechnology at a Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aala

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is considered as an industrial revolution of the third millennium. Advances have a remarkable impact on differ¬ent fields such as medicine, engineering, economy and even politics. However, a wide range of ethical issues has been raised by this innovative science. Many authorities believe that these advancements could lead to irreversible dis¬asters if not lim¬ited by ethical guidelines. Involvement of developing countries in new fields of science could be as¬sociated with substan¬tial advantages. In this paper, we intend to review main ethical issues of nanotechnology, taking into account the surge of interests in this field and the ever-increasing advances of nanotechnology in Iran. The issue of safety, considering envi¬ronmental and ecological impacts of nanoparticles (smart dust, and standards of customer aware¬ness are important de¬bates. The ‘Grey-goo' scenario and the concerns about ‘post-humanism' are also discussed by bioethicists. There are further con¬cerns about justice, intellectual property rights, accountability, and the probability of military and security misuse.

  13. Artificial nutrition and bioethics issues: medical therapy or basic assistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lesi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial nutrition provides nutrients artificially to those patients who cannot take food by mouth because of their pathological condition. Artificial nutrition is the therapeutical approach in case of protein-energy malnutrition, which is secondary to many conditions which do not allow to take food by mouth. In the last years the use of artificial nutrition has increased, both in hospitals and in the territory, because of the improvement of techniques and of the increasing knowledge of doctors and people and an increasing number of conditions benefit from it. In a temporary or permanent way, artificial nutrition sets important bioethical issues, as it substitutes the function deficit of the gastroenteric system, which is in charge of natural food intake. It is understandable that in human conscience and culture, food and drinking are very strictly related to life more than any other vital function. This concept is stressed by the phrase: ‘‘Give drink to the thirsty and food to the starving’’, that influences the Christian western culture we live in. Materials and methods: The main documents produced by laymen, Italian Catholic Religion institutions, and scientific societies and the medical ethical code have been analyzed with particular attention to whether artificial nutrition should be considered as a medical therapy or as basic assistance, together with the different ethical consequences on its suspension. Conclusions: Even if the doctor is not a specialist of the field and he has to deal with patients subject to artificial nutrition, he must be aware of the bioethical issues that this technique involves, in order to use it in the best way and to develop his own opinion towards it. The review of the documents presented here cannot be considered to be exhaustive, as this topic continuously evolves.

  14. Applying theological developments to bioethical issues such as genetic screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallia, P.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2005-01-01

    Catholic movements within the centre of Roman Catholic doctrine recently have discussed Trinitarian theology as applied to sciences, arts, economics, health and other social areas. We explore the possibilities Trinitarian theology offers to bioethical debate, concentrating particularly on genetic sc

  15. 76 FR 66720 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... B. Martin Conference Center at Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115... Committee Act of 1972, Public Law 92-463, 5 U.S.C. app. 2, notice is hereby given of the seventh meeting of..., ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advises the President on bioethical issues...

  16. 78 FR 71615 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ..., engineering, law, philosophy, theology, or other areas of the humanities or social sciences. The Commission... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY..., Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY:...

  17. 75 FR 16127 - Establishment of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Office of Public Health and Science, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services..., philosophy, theology, and other areas of the humanities or social sciences. Commission members shall...

  18. Clashing Views on Controversial Bioethical Issues. Third Edition. Taking Sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Carol, Ed.

    The student who has thoughtfully examined opposing viewpoints on an issue should perceive what other position can be occupied on that issue and should learn to carefully consider antithetical viewpoints. The development of this critical approach is the purpose of this book. An introduction, postscript summary, and two articles or published…

  19. The development and perspectives of Chinese bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali

    2008-12-01

    Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent. PMID:19492719

  20. The Effects of Decision-Making Activities about Bioethical Issues on Students' Rational Decision-Making Ability in High School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Bok; Kim, Young-Shin; Chung, Wan-Ho

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of decision-making activities on improving decision-making abilities to meet bioethical issues in everyday situations. Uses worksheets for decision making that consists of six steps. Concludes that the resulting scores on decision-making were increased by the activities of the worksheets. (Contains 31 references.)…

  1. On feminist engagements with bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezgić Rada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores two questions: what is feminist bioethics, and how different it is from standard bioethics. Development of feminist bioethics, it is argued, began as a response to standard bioethics, challenging its background values, and philosophical perspectives. The most important contribution of feminist bioethics has been its re-examination of the basic conceptual underpinnings of mainstream bioethics, including the concepts of “universality”, “autonomy”, and “trust”. Particularly important for feminists has been the concept of autonomy. They challenge the old liberal notion of autonomy that treats individuals as separate social units and argue that autonomy is established through relations. Relational autonomy assumes that identities and values are developed through relationships with others and that the choices one makes are shaped by specific social and historical contexts. Neither relational autonomy, nor feminist bioethics, however, represents a single, unified perspective. There are, actually, as many feminist bioethics as there are feminisms-liberal, cultural, radical, postmodern etc. Their different ontological, epistemological and political underpinnings shape their respective approaches to bioethical issues at hand. Still what they all have in common is interest in social justice-feminists explore mainstream bioethics and reproductive technologies in order to establish whether they support or impede gender and overall social justice and equality. Feminist bioethics thus brings a significant improvement to standard bioethics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Bioethical Aspects: Morally Acceptable Within the Biotechnologically and Socially Possible i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  2. How can we help? From "sociology in" to "sociology of" bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Sociology and bioethics have an uneasy relationship. Bioethicists find sociology helpful for describing and analyzing ethical issues, but they are less enthusiastic when bioethics becomes the subject of sociological scrutiny. After review of different sociological approaches to bioethical topics -- descriptive, evaluative, and analytical -- I explain how bioethics will benefit by using the tools of sociology to answer its questions ("sociology in bioethics") and by allowing sociology to use bioethics to answer sociological questions ("sociology of bioethics").

  3. Bioethics for clinicians: 28. Protestant bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C

    2002-02-01

    "Protestant" is a term applied to many different Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight concepts that have emerged from Protestant denominations that are particularly relevant to bioethics. These include the sovereignty of God, the value of autonomy and the idea of medicine as a calling as well as a profession. Most Canadian physicians will find that they share certain values and beliefs with the majority of their Protestant patients. Physicians should be particularly sensitive to their Protestant patients' beliefs when dealing with end-of-life issues, concerns about consent and refusal of care, and beginning-of-life issues such as abortion, genetic testing and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Physicians should also recognize that members of certain Protestant groups and denominations may have unique wishes concerning treatment. Understanding how to elicit these wishes and respond appropriately will allow physicians to enhance patient care and minimize conflict. PMID:11868645

  4. Bioethics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinati......This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second...

  5. Accounting for culture in a globalized bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patricia; Koenig, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    How might a global bioethics account for profound cultural difference in a world marked by porous borders? The authors endorse a critical, self-reflexive bioethics, suggesting that bioethics needs to change its fundamental orientation if it is going to remain relevant and intellectually vibrant throughout the twenty-first century. Bioethics must attend to issue of social justice and public health, while seriously considering the implications of social context for medical morality. Negotiating moral consensus across cultural boundaries will be difficult, but is is more likely to succeed if we critically engage with the cultural assumptions underlying bioethics itself.

  6. Bioethics and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Castillo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.

  7. 76 FR 7569 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Commission will discuss genetics, neuroscience, and neuroimaging for testing, research, diagnosis, risk... actions as appropriate. The main agenda items for this fourth meeting involve genetics, neuroscience, and... exploring social and ethical issues involving genetics, neuroscience, and neuroimaging used for...

  8. 76 FR 21369 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... possibilities for useful international collaboration on these issues; and recommend legal, regulatory, or policy... special assistance, such as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should also... personally identifiable or confidential business information that they contain. Trade secrets should not...

  9. Gender, identity, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    Transgender people and issues have come to the forefront of public consciousness over the last year. Caitlyn Jenner' very public transition, heightened media coverage of the murders of transgender women of color, and the panicked passage of North Carolina's "bathroom bill" (House Bill 2), mean that conversations about transgender health and well-being are no longer happening only within small communities. The idea that transgender issues are bioethical issues is not new, but I think that increased public awareness of transgender people and the ways that their health is affected by systems that bioethics already engages with offers an opportunity for scholarship that works to improve transgender health in meaningful ways. PMID:27417871

  10. Feminism, law, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, K H

    1996-03-01

    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.

  11. [Personalist bioethics and utilitarian bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission.

  12. The European convention on bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wachter, M A

    1997-01-01

    Nearly fifteen years after the Council of Europe first called for a pan-European convention on issues in bioethics to harmonize disparate national regulations, in November 1996 the council's Committee of Ministers approved the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine for formal adoption. The draft convention, released in July 1994, provoked strong public, professional, and governmental debate among European nations, particularly regarding provisions for biomedical research with subjects unable to give informed consent. If ratified, the "bioethics convention" will become the first such document to have binding force internationally.

  13. Bioethics for clinicians: 28. Protestant bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    “PROTESTANT” IS A TERM APPLIED TO MANY DIFFERENT Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight conce...

  14. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......., the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  15. Bioethics of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See-Ching; 陳詩正.

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics has been central to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which mandates a high recipient benefit and an acceptably low donor risk. The double equipoise imposes the contextual features of this already technically complex treatment. This research aimed at looking into key bioethical issues of LDLT in the light of the contemporary practice standards. In adult LDLT, in order to provide a partial graft of adequate size, donor right hepatectomy is often required. This procedure...

  16. Cognitive Enhancement and Beyond: Recommendations from the Bioethics Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Anita L; Strand, Nicolle K

    2015-10-01

    Media outlets are reporting that cognitive enhancement is reaching epidemic levels, but evidence is lacking and ethical questions remain. The US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has examined the issue, and we lay out the commission's findings and their relevance for the scientific community.

  17. Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

  18. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  19. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES OF POTTER'S GLOBAL BIOETHICS AS A BRIDGE BETWEEN CLINICAL (PERSONALIZED) AND PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav

    2015-12-01

    In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other.

  20. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution.

  1. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  2. Toward a postmodern bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David

    2015-04-01

    In this article, postmodernism is presented as posing a challenge to the role of philosophy within bioethics. It is argued that any attempt to develop a postmodern bioethics must respond to arguments concerning power, relational responsibility, and violence. Contemporary work on the topic of relational autonomy and naturalized bioethics is interpreted as engaging with the postmodern challenge. This article proposes that the role of philosophy in bioethics should be not to provide moral guidance but rather to adopt a critical approach to the possible consequences of privileging any position or understanding over others. PMID:25719353

  3. Philosophy as news: bioethics, journalism and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, K W

    1999-04-01

    News media accounts of issues in bioethics gain significance to the extent that the media influence public policy and inform personal decision making. The increasingly frequent appearance of bioethics in the news thus imposes responsibilities on journalists and their sources. These responsibilities are identified and discussed, as is (i) the concept of "news-worthiness" as applied to bioethics, (ii) the variable quality of bioethics reportage and (iii) journalists' reliance on ethicists to pass judgment. Because of the potential social and other benefits of high quality reporting on ethical issues, it is argued that journalists and their bioethics sources should explore and accommodate more productive relationships. An optimal journalism-ethics relationship will be one characterized by "para-ethics," in which journalistic constraints are noted but also in which issues and arguments are presented without oversimplification and credible disagreement is given appropriate attention.

  4. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  5. Basic principles of bioethics and orthodox ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The galloping progress in genetic and medical technology has led to the birth of the new science of bioethics. Bioethics examines the ethical dimension of problems arising from the application of the discoveries in the fields of biology and genetics and the effects they may have on nature and people in particular, from the aspect of anthropological teaching of the church Fathers.Aim: The aim of this article is: a the delimitation of the scientific field of bioethics and its historical background, b the emergence of the principles of the science of bioethics, c the determination of the principles of orthodox morality though which the issues arising from the application of genetic engineering in human are faced.Material and Method: The method used to collect material for the writing of this article “principles of bioethics and orthodox morality”, was the widespread review of international and Greek bibliography. For the collection of the English bibliography the electronic database CINAHL was used. The keywords used in combination were Bioethics orthodox ethics. Results: The basic principle of bioethics are: a the principle of autonomy, b the principle of equivalence, c the principle of not causing harm and pain, d the principle of utility or beneficence, e the principle of justice. The orthodox approach to the issues arising from the application of genetics human is based on the Orthodox anthropology, as expressed in the Bible and the texts of the Fathers of the Church. The centerpieces of the Biblical and Patristic anthropology are: a that man was created as the exact replica of the Triune God and b that man is a single psychosomatic entity.

  6. Bioethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  7. Bioethical pluralism and complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Frederick; Bishop, Jeffrey P; McCullough, Laurence B

    2002-01-01

    This essay presents complementarity as a novel feature of bioethical pluralism. First introduced by Neils Bohr in conjunction with quantum physics, complementarity in bioethics occurs when different perspectives account for equally important features of a situation but are mutually exclusive. Unlike conventional approaches to bioethical pluralism, which attempt in one fashion or another to isolate and choose between different perspectives, complementarity accepts all perspectives. As a result, complementarity results in a state of holistic, dynamic tension, rather than one that yields singular or final moral judgments.

  8. Moral experience: a framework for bioethics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Carnevale, Franco A

    2011-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical research in bioethics frequently focuses on ethical dilemmas or problems. This paper draws on anthropological and phenomenological sources to develop an alternative framework for bioethical enquiry that allows examination of a broader range of how the moral is experienced in the everyday lives of individuals and groups. Our account of moral experience is subjective and hermeneutic. We define moral experience as "Encompassing a person's sense that values that he or she deem important are being realised or thwarted in everyday life. This includes a person's interpretations of a lived encounter, or a set of lived encounters, that fall on spectrums of right-wrong, good-bad or just-unjust". In our conceptualisation, moral experience is not limited to situations that are heavily freighted with ethically-troubling ramifications or are sources of debate and disagreement. Important aspects of moral experience are played out in mundane and everyday settings. Moral experience provides a research framework, the scope of which extends beyond the evaluation of ethical dilemmas, processes of moral justification and decision-making, and moral distress. This broad research focus is consistent with views expressed by commentators within and beyond bioethics who have called for deeper and more sustained attention in bioethics scholarship to a wider set of concerns, experiences and issues that better captures what is ethically at stake for individuals and communities. In this paper we present our conceptualisation of moral experience, articulate its epistemological and ontological foundations and discuss opportunities for empirical bioethics research using this framework.

  9. Islamic bioethics: between sacred law, lived experiences, and state authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I

    2013-04-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the field of "Islamic" bioethics within public and professional circles, and both healthcare practitioners and academic scholars deploy their respective expertise in attempts to cohere a discipline of inquiry that addresses the needs of contemporary bioethics stakeholders while using resources from within the Islamic ethico-legal tradition. This manuscript serves as an introduction to the present thematic issue dedicated to Islamic bioethics. Using the collection of papers as a guide the paper outlines several critical questions that a comprehensive and cohesive Islamic bioethical theory must address: (i) What are the relationships between Islamic law (Sharī'ah), moral theology (uṣūl al-Fiqh), and Islamic bioethics? (ii) What is the relationship between an Islamic bioethics and the lived experiences of Muslims? and (iii) What is the relationship between Islamic bioethics and the state? This manuscript, and the papers in this special collection, provides insight into how Islamic bioethicists and Muslim communities are addressing some of these questions, and aims to spur further dialogue around these overaching questions as Islamic bioethics coalesces into a true field of scholarly and practical inquiry.

  10. Parental responsibility and the Infant Bioethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, A R

    1990-01-01

    The prognosis is not good for an infant whose entire intestine has been destroyed by necrotizing enterocolitis. An infant bioethics committee is asked to advise whether the parents should be offered the option of total parenteral intravenous nutrition, with its ultimately fatal complications, for their child. Committee members agree that the option of intravenous feeding should be offered, and that it is morally acceptable for the parents to refuse it. Fleischman reviews the issues that an infant bioethics committee must consider when it is asked to help decide what treatment options will be discussed with the family of a seriously ill neonate. PMID:2108103

  11. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  12. Bioethics and cara sui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2005-01-01

    Cara sui (care of the self) is a guiding thread in Foucault's later writings on ethics. Following Foucault in that inquiry, we are urged beyond our fairly superficial conceptions of consequences, harms, benefits, and the rights of persons, and led to examine ourselves and try to articulate the sense of life that animates ethical reasoning. The result is a nuanced understanding with links to virtue ethics and post-modern approaches to ethics and subjectivity. The approach I have articulated draws on the phenomenology of Levinas and Heidegger, the Virtue ethics of Baier, and the post-structuralist writing of Michel Foucault. The subject is seen as negotiable, embodied, provisional and able to be transformed in a way that denies essentialism about human beings, their moral status, and the idea of the good. The human being emerges as responsible because, properly, responsive to the context of discourse in which morality becomes articulated. When we import this style of thinking into bioethics we find that it reaches beyond issues of policy or right conduct and allows us to use the biomedical sciences and the clinical world to revise and interrogate our understanding of ourselves and the theoretical foundations of health care ethics.

  13. Strange bedfellows: the Bundestag’s free vote on pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD reveals how Germany’s restrictive bioethics legislation is shaped by a Christian Democratic/New Left issue-coalition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Arzheimer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s bioethical legislation presents a puzzle: given structural factors, the country should be at the forefront of reproductive medicine, but its embryology regime remains one of the strictest in Western Europe. Past research has linked this fact to an unusual coalition of Christian and New Left groups, which both draw a connection from modern embryology to eugenics under the Nazis. In this article, the workings of this alleged alliance are demonstrated at the micro-level for the first time. The behaviour of individual MPs in a crucial free vote on pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is modelled using data on their political, sectoral and religious affiliations. Identifying as a Catholic and membership in Christian organisations are strong predictors of resistance to PGD. Even more importantly, net of religious and professional ties, affiliation with either the Christian Democrats or the left-libertarian Green party is closely linked to restrictive bioethical preferences. The modest liberalisation in 2011 was contingent on external factors and the overwhelming support of the historically unusually large FDP delegation. With the FDP no longer represented in parliament and the Christian Democratic/New Left issue coalition even stronger than before, further liberalisation is unlikely.

  14. The Bioethics of Music, the Music of Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Bioethics is rarely referenced in the scholarship of performing arts medicine (PAM). This essay argues that bioethical concerns loom far larger in the care of PAM patients than might typically be understood. This essay presents Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of bioethics, with examples pertinent to PAM, drawn from the author's research and personal experience.

  15. The bioethics and law paradox: an argument to maintain separateness with a hint of togetherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werren, Julia

    2007-10-01

    This article analyses how bioethics and law interact and work together. The first half of the article provides definitions of both ethics and bioethics. The article then considers a number of different bioethical standpoints to demonstrate the variance of views in relation to bioethics. In addition, the first half of the article focuses on the different regulatory possibilities in regard to bioethical contexts. This demonstrates that law is of central importance to bioethics. This part also shows that even though law and ethics are often used simultaneously to achieve bioethical goals, law and ethics cannot be used interchangeably. Thus, even though it is somewhat inevitable that law will be used in the pursuit of the goals of bioethics, bioethics and bioethical principle should not be merely a vehicle for law-makers to utilise. The second half of the article focuses on the issues of autonomy and consent to demonstrate how law and ethics have developed in one of the foundation areas of bioethics.

  16. Mapping Queer Bioethics: Space, Place, and Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance

    2016-01-01

    This article, which introduces the special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," begins by offering an overview of the analytical scope of the issue. Specifically, the first half of this essay raises critical questions central to the concept of a space-related queer bioethics, such as: How do we appreciate and understand the special needs of queer parties given the constraints of location, space, and geography? The second half of this article describes each feature article in the issue, as well as the subsequent special sections on the ethics of reading literal, health-related maps ("Cartographies") and scrutinizing the history of this journal as concerns LGBT health ("Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality").

  17. Bioethics in Catholic Theology and Scientific Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Tomašević, PhD, ScD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Every creature is good and subject to the principle of solidarity that everyone has been blessed and gifted with life by God. Therefore, we cannot have one without the other, and no man exists without an animal.Over the last several decades, our world has been confronted with many ethical problems and ethics is being more and more sought after in spheres of human conduct and profession. Man has acquired enormous power over the world and over life itself, but he has also, willingly or not, become more responsible for 'the threats' against his very life, as well as against the life of other creatures. Within this context a discussion on biocentrism has ensued, which should replace Christian biblical anthropocentrism. At any rate, man has encountered a challenge to expand his moral sphere because nature needs his protection, whereas he no longer needs to protect himself from nature. It is exactly this point that poses a paradox: only man can give protection to nature and the whole of life within it. Having crossed all limits, he has to establish them yet again. Once again, he has to search for these limits within himself, which is exactly what original Christianity demands: to act according to one's pure belief (St. Peter. The aim of this work lies in trying to answer the questions of how to preserve life and healthy environment, how to achieve harmony between the development and modern ideas and trends as well as to establish the right relationship between man and his environment. The author primarily points out to the rising of pastoral medicine in Catholic theology, whose emergence was caused by the development of medical science and which gradually transforms into today's bioethics that is acknowledged by the theology. He then proceeds to discuss the disharmony between man and nature, about the rising of the 'animal rights' movement, and finally, about the beginnings of scientific and global bioethics which has developed in USA and which has

  18. Social responsibilities of bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsen, Albert R.

    2001-01-01

    Urban bioethics can draw on elements of city life and view them under the moral perspective of social responsibility of creating the personal, cultural, social, and economic environment in which persons can be responsible personally as they interpret actions on themselves and creatively respond to them in an ongoing community of agents.

  19. Theological discourse and the postmodern condition: the case of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Oro, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Bioethics reflects--like many other disciplines--the cultural fragmentation and the complexity of what has come to be known as the postmodern condition. The case of bioethics is particularly acute because of its epistemological indeterminacy and the moral pluralism characterizing postliberal societies. A provisional solution to this situation is the retrieval of a neo-Kantian version of ethical formalism in which concern for a consensus on rules replaces universal dialogue on moral content. The article analyzes the possible consequences of this solution with reference to theological ethics. In particular, the reduction of ethical rationality to a function of political regulation on the one hand, and the implicit legitimization of ethical relativism on the other, push any theological contribution to bioethics to the margins. The central methodological issue for the articulation of theological discourse in bioethics is how to avoid the pitfall of privatism while creating the conditions for ethical dialogue across different traditions.

  20. Bioethics for clinicians: 25. Teaching bioethics in the clinical setting

    OpenAIRE

    McKneally, Martin F.; Peter A Singer

    2001-01-01

    BIOETHICS IS NOW TAUGHT IN EVERY CANADIAN MEDICAL SCHOOL. Canada needs a cadre of teachers who can help clinicians learn bioethics. Our purpose is to encourage clinician teachers to accept this important responsibility and to provide practical advice about teaching bioethics to clinicians as an integral part of good clinical medicine. We use 5 questions to focus the discussion: Why should I teach? What should I teach? How should I teach? How should I evaluate? How should I learn?

  1. Contemporary Bioethics: The Promethean Challenges of Reprogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Natacha Salomé; Cicovacki, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary bioethics presents to us major challenges in several fields of knowledge. The ever-increasing technological power to interfere with the nature of things (including human nature) demands our increasing ethical awareness and considerations. How are we going to respond to these demands? Our proposal is to address this complex issue by revisiting one of the founding myths of Western civilization, that of Prometheus. Among numerous variations of this myth, we will address in the first...

  2. Christian bioethics, secular bioethics, and the claim to cultural authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David

    2005-12-01

    Though the papers in this volume for the most part address the question, "What is Christian about Christian Bioethics", this paper addresses instead a closely related question, "How would a Christian approach to bioethics differ from the kind of secular academic bioethics that has emerged as such an important field in the contemporary university?" While it is generally assumed that a secular bioethics rooted in moral philosophy will be more culturally authoritative than an approach to bioethics grounded in the contingent particularities of a religious tradition, I will give reasons for rejecting this assumption. By examining the history of the recent revival of academic bioethics as well as the state of the contemporary moral philosophy on which it is based I will suggest that secular bioethics suffers from many of the same liabilities as a carefully articulated Christian bioethics. At the end of the paper I will turn briefly to examine the question of how, in light of this discussion, a Christian bioethics might best be pursued. PMID:16423736

  3. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  4. On nature and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul Silas

    2010-01-01

    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.

  5. Bioethics and the national security state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    2004-01-01

    In previous work, I have described the history and ethics of human experiments for national security purposes during he cold war and developed the bioethical issues that will be apparent in the "war on terror". This paper is an attempt to bring these two previous lines of work together under the rubric of the "national security state," a concept familiar to Cold War historians and political scientists. The founding of the national security state was associated with the first articulations of informed consent requirements by national security agencies. My analysis indicates that strengthened consent standards, though conventionally thought to be antithetical crisis, can be seen as an attempt by the postwar national security state to protect itself from critics of expanded governmental power. During the coming years the renewed mission of the national security state in the war on terror should impel students of bioethics to consider its implications for the field.

  6. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F

    2016-01-01

    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions.

  7. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F

    2016-01-01

    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions. PMID:26786036

  8. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  9. Geneticization and bioethics: advancing debate and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the role that the concept of geneticization has played in the discussion about health care, bioethics and society. The concept is discussed and examples from the evolving discourse about geneticization are critically analyzed. The relationship between geneticization, medicalization and biomedicalization is described, emphasizing how debates about the latter concepts can inspire future research on geneticization. It is shown how recurrent themes from the media coverage of genetics portray typical traits of geneticization and thus contribute to the process. We look at examples of small-scale studies from the literature where geneticization of medical practice has been demonstrated. Methodological disputes about the relevance of empirical evidence for the geneticization thesis and the normative status of the concept are discussed. We consider arguments to the effect that ideas from mainstream bioethics have facilitated geneticization by emphasizing individualistic notions of autonomy and responsibility while ignoring the role of genetics in the wider social context. It is shown how a concept like geneticization, which can be used to draw the attention of philosophers, social scientists and others to challenges that tend to be neglected by mainstream bioethics, also has the potential to move people's attention away from other pertinent issues. This may happen if researchers become preoccupied with the transformative effects of genetics, and we argue that a wider reading of geneticization should inspire critical analysis of the sociocultural preconditions under which genetics is currently evolving. PMID:17705026

  10. On the issue of the content of notion of “Human Being” from the Perspective of Medical Law and Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Ponkin

    2016-05-01

    SUMMARY: 1. Problem description – 2. Practical Importance of the issue of the content of “Human Being” Concept – 3. Conceptual Approaches to Interpretation of the Concept of “Human Being” – 4. Conclusion.

  11. Establishing a framework for a physician assistant/bioethics dual degree program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Mark F; Bergman, Brett A

    2014-01-01

    : Numerous medical schools currently offer a master of arts (MA) in bioethics dual degree for physicians. A degree in bioethics enhances the care physicians provide to patients and prepares physicians to serve on ethics committees and consult services. Additionally, they may work on institutional and public policy issues related to ethics. Several physician assistant (PA) programs currently offer a master of public health (MPH) dual degree for PAs. A degree in public health prepares PAs for leadership roles in meeting community health needs. With the success of PA/MPH dual degree programs, we argue here that a PA/bioethics dual degree would be another opportunity to advance the PA profession and consider how such a program might be implemented. The article includes the individual perspectives of the authors, one of whom completed a graduate-level certificate in bioethics concurrently with his 2-year PA program, while the other served as a bioethics program director. PMID:25650878

  12. Moral philosophy in bioethics. Etsi ethos non daretur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I intend to put forward some criticism of the purely procedural model of bioethics, which, in fact, leads to delegating to biopolitics and biolaw the finding of a purely pragmatic solution to the issues for which bioethics was "invented" over forty years ago. This delegating takes place after the transition from the thesis, dear to modernity, whereby in ethics reasoning should avoid any discussion regarding its foundation or ultimate justification (Etsi Deus non daretur) to the contemporary affirmation of a substantial ethical agnosticism, which, in the name of the incommensurability of morals, should construct procedures as if no sole substantial moral were possible (Etsi ethos non daretur) and act as a guarantor of ethical pluralism. These theses will be discussed and an attempt will be made to demonstrate why it is necessary to establish a link between true and good, and how this is possible only by referring to ontology. The conclusion points to the need to propose bioethics explicitly in terms of content that satisfies the presumed axiological neutrality of procedural bioethics, which however, turns out to be theoretically weak and practically unable to protect the ethical pluralism for which it would like to be the guarantor. The conclusion is that only by referring to ontology can bioethics, which is a fully fledged form of moral philosophy, act as a guarantor of pluralism within the truth and oppose the authoritarian tendencies concealed under the liberal guise of ethical agnosticism.

  13. Epistocracy for online deliberative bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Mameli, Matteo; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The suggestion that deliberative democratic approaches would suit the management of bioethical policymaking in democratic pluralistic societies has triggered what has been called the "deliberative turn" in health policy and bioethics. Most of the empirical work in this area has focused on the allocation of healthcare resources and priority setting at the local or national level. The variety of the more or less articulated theoretical efforts behind such initiatives is remarkable and has been accompanied, to date, by an overall lack of method specificity. We propose a set of methodological requirements for online deliberative procedures for bioethics. We provide a theoretical motivation for these requirements. In particular, we discuss and adapt an "epistocratic" proposal and argue that, regardless of its merits as a general political theory, a more refined version of its normative claims can generate a useful framework for the design of bioethical forums that combine maximal inclusiveness with informed and reasonable deliberation. PMID:26059953

  14. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  15. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  16. Who is buying bioethics research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Richard R; Scott, Angela L; Landy, David C; Kicklighter, Laura A

    2008-08-01

    Growing ties to private industry have prompted many to question the impartiality of academic bioethicists who receive financial support from for-profit corporations in exchange for ethics-related services and research. To the extent that corporate sponsors may view bioethics as little more than a way to strengthen public relations or avoid potential controversy, close ties to industry may pose serious threats to professional independence. New sources of support from private industry may also divert bioethicists from pursuing topics of greater social importance, such as the needs of medically underserved communities. To inform ongoing debates about the financing of bioethics and its transparency to those concerned about potential sources of bias, we examined funding disclosures appearing in original research reports in major bioethics journals. Reviewing research published over a 15-year period, we found little evidence that for-profit corporations are influencing bioethics research directly. Instead, we found evidence that a great number of organizations, both public and private, support bioethics research. These findings suggest that worries about the cooption of bioethics research by a few interested stakeholders are greatly overstated and undersupported by available data. PMID:18802867

  17. Evolutionary Theology and Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Georgievich Yushchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential theses of evolutional theology are set forth here, which assume biological evolution to be either a technology of the Creator or His own evolution towards understanding His own intentions and attributes. The paradigm of evolutional Christianity is reviwed along with the position and the role of humans in the psychophysical megasynthesis of the Universe and the attibutes of religious and scientifically-atheistic world-view. Biological evolution is interpreted as an ascending row of divine embodiments in biological organisms culminated in the most cephalized  living forms:  human being (terrestrial form and higher dolphins (water form. The establishment of communication between these living forms is considered a necessary stage of integration of Noospheric consciousness. It is suggested to use the ethics of the Creator’s attitude to human beings, as a basis of bio-ethical attitude of humans to animals, especially to higher ones possessing advanced intellect and soul.

  18. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Marian A; Lindemann, Hilde

    2011-02-01

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical resources that are up to the task. This paper identifies four distinct understandings of 'globalised' in the bioethics literature: (1) a focus on global issues; (2) an attempt to develop a universal ethical theory that can transcend cultural differences; (3) an awareness of how bioethics itself has expanded, with new centres and journals emerging in nearly every corner of the globe; (4) a concern to avoid cultural imperialism in encounters with other societies. Each of these approaches to globalisation has some merit, as will be shown. The difficulty with them is that the standard theoretical tools on which they rely are not designed for cross-cultural ethical reflection. As a result, they leave important considerations hidden. A set of theoretical resources is proposed to deal with the moral puzzles of globalisation. Abandoning idealised moral theory, a normative framework is developed that is sensitive enough to account for differences without losing the broader context in which ethical issues arise. An empirically nourished, self-reflexive, socially inquisitive, politically critical and inclusive ethics allows bioethicists the flexibility they need to pick up on the morally relevant particulars of this situation here without losing sight of the broader cultural contexts in which it all takes place. PMID:21109698

  19. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  20. Dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in bioethics: Selective abortion debates and issues of self-determination in Japan and 'the West'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masae; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in the debates on the selective abortion of disabled fetuses, which have occurred over the last four decades in Japan. Disagreements in debates on abortion in Japan have often revolved around the concept of self-determination (jiko-kettei). These debates usually focus on whether this 'foreign' concept is appropriate in a Japanese context, as the dominant Japanese discourse stereotypes the Japanese as making decisions in a harmonious manner. Both in public debates and in academic writing on abortion, the idea that the West is devoid of harmonious collectivism is often presented in an uncritical manner. In this article, we argue that the notion of 'self-determination' is borrowed from 'reverse Orientalist' and Occidentalist discourses that portray Westerners as individualistic or ego-centric and the Japanese as collectivist. The concept of 'self-determination' was remolded and projected onto Japanese public and academic debates on abortion. The relevance of this concept lies in the ways in which dichotomous views of 'Japan as harmonious' versus 'the West as individualistic' influence guidelines concerning prenatal testing and its daily practice. By critically analyzing the narratives of policy-makers and academic studies on self-determination and prenatal testing, this study traces these polarizing views back to the processes of national identity formation. These processes underlie political debates and academic work associated with the search for 'Japanese-ness'. This article further demonstrates that policy-makers' criticism of self-determination in prenatal testing derives from gender bias, which is also related to issues of Japanese identity. This article is based on both archival and field research materials collected between 1997 and 2008. We also refer to interviews with medical doctors, policy-makers, journalists, counselors, nurses, participants in various social movements and

  1. Community treatment orders: Bioethical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Bertolín Guillén

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Numerous opinions and medico-legal controversies have arisen up to the date from community treatment orders in Western countries, but underlying bioethical questions have not been specifically studied. The aim of this work is to contribute to further clarify the bioethical conflicts arising from community treatment orders. Methods: The bioethical deliberation of the author is principally based on what can be considered the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm. These principles, as first described by Beauchamp and Childress in 1979, will be applied in this work to the actual situation of involuntary outpatient treatment. Results: The author's deliberation considers that community treatment orders are consistent first with the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm of practical reason, respecting its four general categories of basic principles. It also respects the principles of the medical ethics of virtue, subsumed in the personalism of ontological matrix, in the same way as its ethos affects the intrinsic purpose which is the dignity of the person; and with the consequentialist utilitarianism because it seeks the proportionality of the common good. A community treatment order prescription must ultimately be based on a bioethical exercise of responsibility by the clinician, judiciously weighing up the classic principal prima facie duties which must necessarily be translated into a real duty referring to a specific patient and context. Conclusions: Community treatment orders are seen as a method of therapeutic intervention with a bioethical basis resistant to criticism.

  2. Towards a bioethics of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Axler, Renata

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine might be beneficial, it also raises serious moral, legal, economic and sociopolitical questions that require further scrutiny. In this article, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be accompanied by a dedicated 'bioethics of innovation' that attends systematically to the goals, process and outcomes of biomedical innovation as objects of critical inquiry. Using the example of personalised or precision medicine, we then suggest a preliminary framework for a bioethics of innovation, based on the research policy initiative of 'Responsible Innovation'. We invite and encourage critiques of this framework and hope that this will provoke a challenging and enriching new bioethical discourse.

  3. On the nature and sociology of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Much has been written in the last decade about how we should understand the value of the sociology of bioethics. Increasingly the value of the sociology of bioethics is interpreted by its advocates directly in terms of its relationship to bioethics. It is claimed that the sociology of bioethics (and related disciplinary approaches) should be seen as an important component of work in bioethics. In this paper we wish to examine whether, and how, the sociology of bioethics can be defended as a valid and justified research activity, in the context of debates about the nature of bioethics. We begin by presenting and arguing for an account of bioethics that does justice to the content of the field, the range of questions that belong within this field, and the justificatory standards (and methodological orientations) that can provide convincing answers to these questions. We then consider the role of sociology in bioethics and show how and under what conditions it can contribute to answering questions within bioethics. In the final section, we return to the sociology of bioethics to show that it can make only a limited contribution to the field.

  4. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style. PMID:25574290

  5. Topics in bioethics: a development of student perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  6. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  7. The living dead: fiction, horror, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belling, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine. PMID:20639610

  8. The living dead: fiction, horror, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belling, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine.

  9. An experience of teaching bioethics at secondary schools in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahjabeen

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics is the "critical analysis of emerging moral issues in health". The term was first used to refer to "the moral problems of the life sciences encompassing medicine, biology, environment, population and social sciences". Teaching bioethics is complex and challenging within multi-system educational program as in Pakistan for secondary schools. The objectives are difficult as bioethics teaching require changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes along with strong improvement in moral reasoning. The objectives of the study were to teach bioethics and evaluate comprehension and skills of ethical reasoning in students of secondary school in Karachi. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two schools (public and private-sector) of Karachi from January 2007 to December 2009. This was a preliminary study and used simple random sampling to recruit one hundred and ten students. The qualitative analysis of comprehension and skills were evaluated on numeric scales. The study found higher comprehension and skills level in females (66%) compared to male students during class-room sessions. PMID:23286632

  10. Education for values and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina

    2015-01-01

    "Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences. PMID:25694860

  11. Bioethics in the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  12. Bioethics education for practicing nurses in Taiwan: Confucian-Western clash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey; Chao, Co-Shi Chantal; Lai, Wei-Shu

    2010-07-01

    To understand the gaps between current bioethics education and the requirements of practicing nurses, a semistructured questionnaire was used to invite the directors of nursing departments at all 82 teaching hospitals in Taiwan to participate in this survey. The response rate was 64.6%. Through content analysis we obtained information about previous bioethical training, required themes and content, recommended teaching strategies, and difficulties with education and its application. The results suggest that Taiwanese nursing personnel need to be instilled with both self-cultivation of morality and mental cultivation to acquire nursing virtues and the right attitudes toward bioethical issues. Good communication skills to prevent damage to the harmonious relationships between patients, their families and medical team members, policies that support the provision of systematic formal knowledge of ethics, small group training, and clarification of values were also shown to be important in bioethics education. PMID:20610584

  13. The moral organization of the professions: Bioethics in the United States and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond; Dingwall, Robert; Orfali, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Bioethics is a relatively new endeavor, emerging as a discourse distinct from considerations of moral responsibility occurring within the professions of medicine and science. We use the 'de-centered comparative method' to examine how the emergence and development of bioethics varies across different social and cultural settings. In particular, we look at bioethical work in the United States and France, exploring these different manifestations of the movement toward external oversight of those working in medicine and the life sciences. The study of these varied processes of occupational development allows us to address two important issues. One is the way in which pathways of professionalisation are shaped by contingent cultural and historical factors. The other is the degree to which the increasing prominence of the bioethical occupation is the result of the professional desires of bioethicists and/or a concern for the public good.

  14. Don't blame the 'bio'--blame the 'ethics': varieties of (bio)ethics and the challenge of pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Max

    2005-01-01

    We tend to think that the difficulties in bioethics spring from the novel and alarming issues that arise due to discoveries in the new biosciences and biotechnologies. But many of the crucial difficulties in bioethics arise from the assumption we make about ethics. This paper offers a brief overview of bioethics, and relates ethical 'principlism' to 'ethical fundamentalism.' It then reviews some alternative approaches that have emerged during the second phase of bioethics and argues for a neo-Aristotelian approach. Misconceptions about ethical principles and ethical reasoning not only distort our views of the business of bioethics, but they also prevent us from facing up to the formidable problems posed by ethical pluralism in so-called liberal societies.

  15. Personal experience narratives by students: a teaching-learning tool in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Radhika H; Shukla, Radha; Gor, Alpa P; Ganguly, Barna

    2016-01-01

    The principles of bioethics have been identified as important requirements for training basic medical doctors. Till now, various modalities have been used for teaching bioethics, such as lectures, followed by a small case-based discussion, case vignettes or debates among students. For effective teaching-learning of bioethics, it is necessary to integrate theory and practice rather than merely teach theoretical constructs without helping the students translate those constructs into practice. Classroom teaching can focus on the theoretical knowledge of professional relationships, patient-doctor relationships, issues at the beginning and end of life, reproductive technologies, etc. However, a better learning environment can be created through an experiencebased approach to complement lectures and facilitate successful teaching. Engaging students in reflective dialogue with their peers would allow them to refine their ideas with respect to learning ethics. It can help in the development both of the cognitive and affective domains of the teaching of bioethics. Real-life narratives by the interns, when used as case or situation analysis models for a particular ethical issue, can enhance other students' insight and give them a moral boost. Doing this can change the classroom atmosphere, enhance motivation, improve the students' aptitude and improve their attitude towards learning bioethics. Involving the students in this manner can prove to be a sustainable way of achieving the goal of deep reflective learning of bioethics and can serve as a new technique for maintaining the interest of students as well as teachers. PMID:27474694

  16. Bioethics and its gatekeepers: does institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Myser, Catherine; De Vries, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    Who are the gatekeepers in bioethics? Does editorial bias or institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals? We analyzed the composition of the editorial boards of 14 leading bioethics journals by country. Categorizing these countries according to their Human Development Index (HDI), we discovered that approximately 95 percent of editorial board members are based in (very) high-HDI countries, less than 4 percent are from medium-HDI countries, and fewer than 1.5 percent are from low-HDI countries. Eight out of 14 leading bioethics journals have no editorial board members from a medium- or low-HDI country. Eleven bioethics journals have no board members from low-HDI countries. This severe underrepresentation of bioethics scholars from developing countries on editorial boards suggests that bioethics may be affected by institutional racism, raising significant questions about the ethics of bioethics in a global context.

  17. [Interface between bioethics and international relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei

    2016-08-01

    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics. PMID:27599082

  18. [Bioethical language in the law and jurisprudence about bioethical problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral García, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The impact is analyzed that on the Spanish Law relative to questions bioethics--as the Law on artificial reproduction, the Law of biomedical investigation, and the Law on sexual and reproductive health--can have the conception of human embryo enunciated by the Court of Justice of the European Union in his judgment of October 18, 2011, considering it to be any ovum fertilized with independence of the degree of reached development. PMID:24206251

  19. Analysis and critical review of the development of bioethics in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishneuskaya, Yuliya A

    2012-11-01

    The main trends of the bioethics development in Belarus have been analyzed on the basis of the materials collected by the Ethics Documentation Center (ISEU, Minsk, Belarus). A critical review of the most important publications in the field since 2000 suggests that development of bioethics in Belarus has occurred in two parallel directions distantly connected to each other: a theoretical direction and a practical one. Despite there are objective and subjective reasons for introducing bioethics in Belarus as an institutionally-organized system based on liberal values such as individual rights and freedom, a range of essential problems could be identified. Non-equivalent regulation of ethical issues in health care and other fields of biomedical research has been emphasized, as well as the problem of unclear hierarchical relationships among institutions dealing with various aspects of bioethics in the country and low ethical and educational level of the social and professional groups involved in further expansion of bioethical knowledge. The contextual aspects of the development of bioethics in the country such as the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the prevalence of the authoritarian social morality and traditionally paternalistic nature of the relations between physicians and their patients are discussed.

  20. [Building and teaching bioethics in French-speaking countries: at the crossroads of disciplines and practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Moubé, Zéphirin

    2013-01-01

    It is inmportant to emphasize three aspects concerning the construction and teaching of 'French bioethics: the maintenance and promotion ofa multidisciplinary approach; a greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs; positioning a power of attraction and development in French-speaking countries. Bioethics is defined as a field of interdisciplinary studies at the junction of the health sciences and the humanities and, more importantly, directly connected to the reality of the health community, research and public Policy. A greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs is also capital. The danger of being dominated by one discipline involved whether medicine, law, philosophy, theology is real and prevents from promoting methodological approaches that are both theoretical and empirical. Finally, compliance with local and national, but also disciplinary diversity is essential to the construction and teaching of French bioethics. As such, the University of Montreal has positioned itself as a leader in the French-speaking countries: at the junction of North America and European countries, Quebec has developed its own specificity in bioethics, which is a force of attraction for many countries of the French-speaking world. In this context, the Bioethics Programs at the University of Montreal rely heavily on knowledge transfer to other cultures. Moreover, the internationalization of training programs in French bioethics is a major issue in the current context of globalization and transmission of knowledge. PMID:23991544

  1. The Philosophical Basis of Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this article, I consider in what sense bioethics is philosophical. Philosophy includes both analysis and synthesis. Analysis focuses on central concepts in a domain, for example, informed consent, death, medical futility, and health. It is argued that analysis should avoid oversimplification. The synthesis or synoptic dimension prompts people to explain how their views have logical assumptions and implications. In addition to the conceptual elements are the evaluative and empirical dimensions. Among its functions, philosophy can be a form of prophylaxis--helping people avoid some commonly accepted questionable theories. Generally, recent philosophy has steered away from algorithms and deductivist approaches to ethical justification. In bioethics, philosophy works in partnership with a range of other disciplines, including pediatrics and neurology. PMID:26358430

  2. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Salzano, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group’s biological and cultural history; however, in their ur...

  3. TEACHING METHODOLOGY IN THE STUDY OF BIOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna V. Chashina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article discusses significance of use of new technologies in the learning process for realisation of goals of cognitive and affective domain of knowledge. The paper explores the methods of development of educational knowledge, which is achieved by information, reproductive and research means. Based on example of bioethics the paper demonstrates the use of visuals technology (charts, graphs, tables, illustrations, specification, etc., which performs the following tasks: memorising, analysis and synthesis, comparison and differentiation, categorisation and classification, identification of relationships between facts, and for the revision of the material studied, acquisition of the new knowledge, memo risation of educational material. Materials and Methods: on the basis of the dialectical approach the object of research is new technologies in the learning process, in particular the study of bioethics. By using methods of observation, survey, analysis and synthesis in the educational process the authors prove the efficiency of such technologies as the use of visualisation (diagrams, illustrations, problem-based learning (issues, tasks and situations and research tasks (case study method. Results: visual method complements the learning process. It allows a deeper understanding of the subject. This method deals with feelings, emotions and consciousness of students. It encourages creativity. In addition this method of material presentation allows reducing the amount of material of an ordinary lecture. It is underscored that in the study of bioethics it is recommended to use a technology of a problem-based learning, which is able to implement the intellectual activity of students by means of questions¸ case-studies, tasks and situations. The most vivid form of such technology is a case method. The basis for the emergence of technology of problembased learning is a certain contradiction between knowledge and practice. This method can

  4. The Confucian bioethics of surrogate decision making: its communitarian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2011-10-01

    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician.

  5. The Confucian bioethics of surrogate decision making: its communitarian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2011-10-01

    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician. PMID:21858670

  6. Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Laura Specker

    2016-03-01

    Much of bioethical discourse now takes place across cultures. This does not mean that cross-cultural understanding has increased. Many cross-cultural bioethical discussions are marked by entrenched disagreement about whether and why local practices are justified. In this paper, I argue that a major reason for these entrenched disagreements is that problematic metaethical commitments are hidden in these cross-cultural discourses. Using the issue of informed consent in East Asia as an example of one such discourse, I analyze two representative positions in the discussion and identify their metaethical commitments. I suggest that the metaethical assumptions of these positions result from their shared method of ethical justification: moral principlism. I then show why moral principlism is problematic in cross-cultural analyses and propose a more useful method for pursuing ethical justification across cultures.

  7. [The bioethical principlism model applied in pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pessoa, Ana Paula da Costa; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2013-03-01

    An integrative literature review was developed with the purpose to analyze the scientific production regarding the relationships between pain and the principles of bioethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice). Controlled descriptors were used in three international data sources (LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE), in April of 2012, totaling 14 publications categorized by pain and autonomy, pain and beneficence, pain and nonmaleficence, pain and justice. The adequate relief of pain is a human right and a moral issue directly related with the bioethical principlism standard model (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). However, many professionals overlook the pain of their patients, ignoring their ethical role when facing suffering. It was concluded that principlism has been neglected in the care of patients in pain, showing the need for new practices to change this setting.

  8. Integrative Bioethics: A Conceptually Inconsistent Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Viktor; Savić, Lovro

    2016-06-01

    This article provides a critical evaluation of the central components of Integrative Bioethics, a project aiming at a bioethical framework reconceptualization. Its proponents claim that this new system of thought has developed a better bioethical methodology than mainstream Western bioethics, a claim that we criticize here. We deal especially with the buzz words of Integrative Bioethics - pluriperspectivism, integrativity, orientational knowledge, as well as with its underlying theory of moral truth. The first part of the paper looks at what the claims of a superior methodology consist in. The second reveals pluriperspectivism and integrativity to be underdeveloped, hazy terms, but which seem to be underpinned by two theses - the incommensurability and the inclusiveness theses. These theses we critically scrutinize. We then consider strategies the project's proponents might apply to curb these theses in order to acquire minimal consistency for their framework. This part of the article also deals with the conception of moral truth that drives the theory, a position equally burdened with inconsistencies. In the last part of the article, we observe the concept of orientational knowledge, and develop two interpretations of its possible meaning. We claim that, following the first interpretation, Integrative Bioethics is completely descriptive, in which case it is informative and important, but hardly bioethics; if it is normative, following the second interpretation, it is bioethics as we already know it, but merely clad in rhetorical embellishments. We conclude that there is nothing new about this project, and that its inconsistencies are reason enough for its abandonment. PMID:26644388

  9. Bioethics in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2016-07-01

    This article examines ethical issues debated in Iceland concerning population genetic research, specifically methods of collecting biosamples and ways to return clinically relevant results to participants. Also discussed are scientific research in the health sector, a bill on surrogacy, and a policy on consent for organ donation. PMID:27348827

  10. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  11. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence. PMID:22830450

  12. Negotiating international bioethics: a response to Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    1998-12-01

    Can the bioethical theories that have served American bioethics so well, serve international bioethics as well? In two papers in the previous issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, I contend that the form of principlist fundamentalism endorsed by American bioethicists like Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin will not play on an international stage. Deploying techniques of postmodern scholarship, I argue that principlist fundamentalism justifies neither the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg, nor, as the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) demonstrates, condemnation of Cold War radiation researchers. Principlist fundamentalism thus appears to be philosophy bankrupt. In this issue of the Journal, Beauchamp and Macklin reject this claim, arguing that I have misread the ACHRE report and misunderstood Nazism. They also argue that the form of post-postmodern negotiated human rights theory that I proffer is adequate only insofar as it is itself really fundamentalist; insofar as I take postmodernism seriously, however, I mire international bioethics in relativism. In this response, I reaffirm my anti-fundamentalism, provide further evidence in support of my reading of the ACHRE report, and defend my post-postmodern version of rights theory. I also develop criteria for a minimally adequate theoretical framework for international bioethics.

  13. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

  14. [SIBIL: an information tool for the information retrieval on bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracos, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the main features of the website SIBIL (Sistema Informativo per la Bioetica In Linea) implemented within the framework of a research project of the ISS for collecting, indexing and disseminating Italian literature on bioethics since 1995 through an integrated electronic system. The site, addressed to a wide range of people interested at different degrees and levels in bioethics, offers a comprehensive overview of the activities, such as courses and meetings, on the major ethical issues at stake in Italy, as well as a survey of the most important activities both at national and international level. The main feature of SIBIL is a database of a large collection of documents retrieved through sources or exploitation of the most important international electronic databases. A thesaurus of 1,600 terms, available in Italian and English, was created in order to organize documents with standardized criteria currently adopted in the Italian scientific environment. Future trends of the website are also discussed for sharing experiences with other countries and laying the basis for a European portal on bioethics.

  15. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  16. Publishing bioethics and bioethics--reflections on academic publishing by a journal editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2011-02-01

    This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories. PMID:21175707

  17. Online Resources for Introducing Bioethics through Case-Studies and Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan K. Kiely

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative review of: Bioethics 101 https://www.nwabr.org/sites/default/files/NWABR_Bioethics_101_5.13.pdf and Exploring Bioethics https://www.nwabr.org/teacher-center/bioethics-101#overview.

  18. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons. PMID:25575494

  19. IAB presidential address: bioethics in a globalized world: creating space for flourishing human relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2011-10-01

    Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world. PMID:21929701

  20. Aboriginal Health Care and Bioethics: A Reflection on the Teaching of the Seven Grandfathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Martin, Gerry

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary bioethics recognizes the importance of the culture in shaping ethical issues, yet in practice, a process for ethical analysis and decision making is rarely adjusted to the culture and ethnicity of involved parties. This is of a particular concern in a health care system that is caring for a growing Aboriginal population. We raise the possibility of constructing a bioethics grounded in traditional Aboriginal knowledge. As an example of an element of traditional knowledge that contains strong ethical guidance, we present the story of the Gifts of the Seven Grandfathers. We note a resemblance of this Ojibway teaching to virtue ethics in European traditions, but we suggest that there are also important differences in how these two traditions are currently presented. We hope that further engagement with a variety of indigenous moral teachings and traditions could improve health care involving Aboriginal patients and communities, and enrich the discipline of bioethics. PMID:27111368

  1. Bioethics: why philosophy is essential for progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    It is the JME's 40th anniversary and my 20th anniversary working in the field. I reflect on the nature of bioethics and medical ethics. I argue that both bioethics and medical ethics together have, in many ways, failed as fields. My diagnosis is that better philosophy is needed. I give some examples of the importance of philosophy to bioethics. I focus mostly on the failure of ethics in research and organ transplantation, although I also consider genetic selection, enhancement, cloning, futility, disability and other topics. I do not consider any topic comprehensively or systematically or address the many reasonable objections to my arguments. Rather, I seek to illustrate why philosophical analysis and argument remain as important as ever to progress in bioethics and medical ethics.

  2. [Contribution of Stein's Anthropology to Personalistic Bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Morejón, Jeannette Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Juan Manuel Burgos proposes ″a challenge″ to whom aims to consolidate the dignity of the human person as the center of a thought structure. Burgos presents a well-founded trilogy, citing Wojtyla, Sgreccia and he himself, as a perfect combination to support personalist bioethics. However, the possibility of giving a solid anthropological support to this bioethics remains open provided that a substantial list of personalistic authors is revised. This research seeks to collate Stein's anthropological proposal to personalist bioethics needs expressed by Burgos. The study aims to prove how Stein's anthropology can be assembled to the characteristics of personalism, and thus infer that more specific levels of the personalist bioethics can be based on this anthropology.

  3. The 'voice of care': implications for bioethical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carse, A L

    1991-02-01

    This paper examines the 'justice' and 'care' orientations in ethical theory as characterized in Carol Gilligan's research on moral development and the philosophical work it has inspired. Focus is placed on challenges to the justice orientation--in particular, to the construal of impartiality as the mark of the moral point of view, to the conception of moral judgment as essentially principle-driven and dispassionate, and to models of moral responsibility emphasizing norms of formal equality and reciprocity. Suggestions are made about the implications of these challenges, and of the care orientation in ethics, for the ethical theory taught, the issues addressed, and the skills and sensitivities encouraged through bioethical education.

  4. [Reasons for an intercultural perspective of bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Aguilar, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics must have an intercultural perspective. This is based on three facts: The principles and values around which reflection is made are related to world views and traditions, human beings are cultural beings, and current societies are considerably diverse. Based on this, bioethics will seek an adequate balance between ethical universalism and contextualism. This is a fundamental step for unconditional respect for human dignity and mutual recognition, dialogue, correlation and complementarity among diverse cultures. PMID:23338647

  5. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. PMID:26847836

  6. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self.

  7. Creating the ‘ethics industry': Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as ‘bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the concerns of several groups. My analysis centres on the moral philosopher Mary Warnock, who chaired a government inquiry into human fertilization and embryology between 1982 and 1984, and became a strong advocate of bioethics. I detail how Warnock's promotion of bioethics tallied with the Conservative government's desire for increased surveillance of hitherto autonomous professions – while fulfilling her own belief that philosophers should engage in public affairs. And I also show that Warnock simultaneously promoted bioethics to doctors and scientists as an essential safeguard against declining political and public trust. This stance, I argue, framed bioethics as a vital intermediary between politics, the public, and biomedicine, and explains the growth and endurance of what the Guardian identified as an ethics industry. PMID:22563348

  8. Identity and status of the Italian National Bioethics Committee: contrasting paradigms (1990-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvati, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    So far the activities of the Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) have been subject to desultory and fragmentary analyses, stuck to the paradigm (in the way Kuhn means it) which claims the division between the issues of "frontier bioethics" and those of "everyday bioethics" (and between the respective types of communication). According to the above mentioned paradigm, bioethics should just deal with the problems coming from the application of technological progress to extreme cases (which imply a type of communication internal to the scientific communities), and only subordinately with other issues, even if of a more general interest and widespread public involvement. Nonetheless, in the last years another paradigm has come out and it is emphasizing the importance of the interaction between the two models of bioethics and of a type of external communication not just limited to the scientific communities in the strict sense of the word, but based on "open opinions ". The present notes are supposed to be an introduction to a historical comprehension of the CNB activity and of its impact, in the light of the rising of the new paradigm and of the Italian adherence to the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe.

  9. Bioética: aspectos de interesse do anestesiologista Bioética: aspectos de interés del anestesiólogo Bioethics: issues regarding the anesthesiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Udelsmann

    2006-06-01

    observados durante el ejercicio de la Anestesiología. CONTENIDO: Después de la introducción histórica y la definición de bioética como una ciencia de sello filosófico, se demuestran sus interconexiones con el Derecho. Los principios de la beneficencia, de la no maldad, del respeto a la autonomía y a la justicia se presentan como puntos esenciales de la práctica de la Anestesiología, cuyo objetivo es, primordialmente, la preservación de la dignidad del ser humano. La observación de esos principios protege al paciente de resultados inesperados, indeseables y también al anestesiólogo de implicaciones en la esfera ética o jurídica frente a complicaciones fortuitas. CONCLUSIONES: La bioética se hizo inseparable en el ámbito de las discusiones de la salud; para el progreso de la Anestesiología y de la investigación hacen necesarios conocimientos de esa área en la práctica de la especialidad. Aunque de sello filosófico, de una cierta manera un poco lejos de la especialidad que prima por una atención aguda al paciente, los anestesiólogos tienen todo el interés en conocer esa nueva ciencia que cada día más, seguramente, influirá en la práctica de la especialidad, para proteger sus pacientes y evitar más trastornos en la práctica de una especialidad ya bastante difícil en el país.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medical evolution requires from health professionals the exercise of ethical reflections faced to daily situations, to avoid transgressing moral, ethical and legal rules. This article aimed at addressing bioethics principles to be observed during the Anesthesiology practice. CONTENTS: After bioethics historical introduction and definition as a philosophic science, its interface with Law is demonstrated. Beneficence, non-malfeasance, respect to autonomy and justice principles are presented as critical points for the anesthetic practice, the primary objective of which is to preserve human dignity. The adherence to these principles protects patients

  10. Dealing with bioethical dilemmas: A survey and analysis of responses from ministers in the Reformed Churches in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena (Leentie C. de Lange

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements in Bioethics have been rapid and incremental, leaving little time for Christian ethicists to reflect or develop a coherent methodological approach. To assess the situation in the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA, a bioethical questionnaire was developed and administered during the synod in 2009. Three practical questions served as point of departure, viz. which bioethical issues confronted ministers in their work environment, which value judgement trends are evident when counselling members of their congregations and what theoretical frameworks or resources do they call upon when reflecting on these difficult situations? The survey consisted of 19 questions with several subquestions that sought demographic information to determine the population and information about bioethical issues confronting them, methodological strategies they apply and how they think they can contribute to the resolution of any such bioethical dilemmas. The results were tabulated and it was concluded that recent advancements in biotechnology cannot be ignored or dealt with in a piecemeal fashion any longer, either by the RCSA or its ministers. The need for clarity and analysis of the principles underlying those theories that guide or should guide their decision-making and pastoral care in dealing with bioethical dilemmas was emphasised. The findings highlighted the need for appropriate courses in Bioethics to be taught during initial theological training, as well as the need to keep the debate alive by offering workshops, seminars and short courses for practicing ministers to enhance awareness and allay fears and uncertainties in this very dynamic and morally challenging field of human and scientific endeavour.

  11. Outlining a Serious Moral Games in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Christen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution discusses the possibilities and limits of using video games for apprehending and reflecting on the moral actions of their players. We briefly present the results of an extended study that introduces the conceptual idea of a Serious Moral Game (SMG. Then, we outline its possible application in the domain of bioethics for training medical professionals such that they can deal better with moral problems in medical practice. We briefly sketch major components of a SMG Bioethics. The contribution should demonstrate how such an instrument may improve psychological competences that are needed for dealing with various ethical questions within healthcare. The contribution is an intermediate step of a project that aims at actually creating a SMG for training in moral competences that are needed for putting bioethics in practice.

  12. On the Christian in Christian bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Stephen A

    2005-12-01

    What is Christian about Christian bioethics? And is an authentically Christian bioethics a practical possibility in the world in which we find ourselves? In my essay I argue that personhood and the personal are so fundamental to the Christian understanding of our humanity that body, soul, and spirit are probably best understood as the components of a triune (as opposed to dual) aspect theory of personhood. To confess to a Christian bioethics is to admit that Christians cannot pretend fully to understand either cures or their meaning. However effective and "knowledge-based" contemporary medical interventions are, a Christian must humbly and honestly confess a lack of complete knowledge on both levels. At the same time, a Christian bioethicist must express a total personal commitment to Christian Faith. PMID:16423731

  13. A Study on Dignity Issues of the Compulsory Isolation Detoxification Personnel Based on Bioethics%生命伦理视域下我国强制隔离戒毒人员的尊严问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩跃红; 龙昆平

    2013-01-01

    当前,我国实行强制隔离戒毒的效果并不理想。从生命伦理学的视角看,强制隔离戒毒长期限制戒毒人员的人身自由,戒毒人员的人身安全和医疗救治得不到保障,有偿劳动难以落实,从而严重伤害了戒毒人员的心理尊严、生命尊严和劳动尊严。进行有尊严的戒毒改革,需变强制性、大规模隔离戒毒为自愿的、社区服务治疗为主的小规模隔离戒毒,变劳动康复与社区戒毒就业安置为行为治疗及与社会接轨的职业技能培训,并发放最低生活保障金,鼓励其参与正常就业竞聘、实现自我价值,以保护戒毒人员“做人”的尊严和生命尊严,重塑戒毒人员的社会尊严和人格尊严。有尊严的戒毒将成为未来社会戒毒的主导模式和戒毒改革的努力方向。%At present,China’s compulsory isolation detoxification is not very effective from the perspective of bioethics in that compulsory isolation detoxification restricts the personal freedom of the addicts for so long a time that the personal safety and medical treatment of the patients abstained from drugs cannot be guaranteed and it is difficult to implement the system of paid laboring,thus seriously injuring their psychological dignity, life dignity and labor dignity.In order to reform the current detoxification system,it is necessary to change the large-scale isolation detoxification for the small-scale voluntary and mandatory community-oriented service treatment,to change the laboring rehabilitation and community rehabilitation of job -providing to behavioral therapy and society-adaptation-oriented vocational skill training,and to offer the minimum living allowance to them so as to encourage their participation in employment competition and the realization of self value after they are released.In this way,the "human"dignity and life dignity of the patients abstained from drugs can be maintained,and their social dignity and

  14. Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics. PMID:26833492

  15. The Hastings Center and the early years of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The Hastings Center was founded in 1969 to study ethical problems in medicine and biology. The Center arose from a confluence of three social currents: the increased public scrutiny of medicine and its practices, the concern about the moral problems being generated by technological developments, and the desire of one of its founders (Callahan) to make use of his philosophical training in a more applied way. The early years of the Center were devoted to raising money, developing an early agenda of issues, and identifying a cadre of people around the country interested in the issues. Various stresses and strains in the Center and the field are identified, and some final reflections are offered on the nature and value of the contributions made by bioethics as an academic field. PMID:22198414

  16. Aging and transplantation - a topic for biomedicine or bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, William J; Dashti, Nassrin

    2011-04-01

    The aged patient stands at the nexus of significant biomedical and bioethical issues in transplantation. This in itself can be seen as a microcosm of an imminent global tempest, stemming from expanding numbers and longer lives of the aged population. As a candidate for receiving organ and tissue transplants, the geriatric patient is challenging because they present unique physiology for medical management. As organ and tissue donors, the aged are perceived of as providing "marginal" organs, which drives the fear that the graft will fail before the recipient. Such difficulties lead inexorably to several unique bioethical considerations for transplantation with this population. The thorny conundrums for society hinge on fairness versus discrimination based on age, played out under the enormous and probably intractable problem of severe donor organ shortages. Fortunately, recent findings offer some rather unexpected new and favorable prospects. Notably, aged donors can provide organs with good, lifesaving function, even though there are nonetheless age-related compromises present. On the other side of the coin, there is less doubt that recipients can have their lives extended with high quality through transplantation. Here they benefit from some (counterintuitively) positive attributes for aging, such as reduced immune function, making immunosuppression less rigorous. Finally, the pressure of organ and tissue shortages plus the lifting of bans on embryonic stem cell research have portents for an explosive alternative to transplantation of adult organs. Stem cells also lend credibility to prospects for realizing regenerative medicine, assuming ethical and religious concerns can be satisfied. PMID:22396872

  17. Theology and bioethics in the film: Mar adentro, Spain, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Franco Taitson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on euthanasia and its consequences for which seeks to shorten the life of a patient known to be incurable. Film and Literature are equivalent here, being arts narratives that convey a story, and it is natural that the first has appropriated the second to boost its development. Through its own strategy, the two arts narratives met, making a discussion of the privilege of one over the other, which yields fruit until today. This practice can be seen in the Spanish film The Sea Inside, with theological reflections front the valuation of life issues, death, suffering and moral action. In the days of the time today is very rich, due to infinite horizons data by science and technology, which enable the creation and implementation of projects related to the protection and care of the reading of the death. But we know, at the same time that the pathway for degradation and even the establishment of a culture of death is also set. This is exactly why we cannot do without when we talk about death, to make a bioethical exercise and dialogue. Thus, theology, film and literature converge the light of the bioethical studies.

  18. The dual role of human dignity in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorno, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    This paper argues that some of the misunderstandings surrounding the meaning and function of the concept of human dignity in bioethics arise from a lack of distinction between two different roles that this notion plays: one as an overarching policy principle, and the other as a moral standard of patient care. While the former is a very general concept which fulfils a foundational and a guiding role of the normative framework governing biomedical issues, the latter reflects a much more concrete and context-specific understanding of the patient as a "person". The importance of dignity as a policy principle will be described by appealing to the distinction between principles and rules as developed by some legal philosophers. The value of dignity as a standard of patient care will be illustrated with the help of concrete examples and by drawing on the taxonomies of dignity proposed by Jonathan Mann and other scholars. The overall scope of the article is to highlight this double and complementary role of human dignity in bioethics. PMID:22173655

  19. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N; Collins, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (pskills that help prepare an informed citizenry.

  20. Epigenetics and the environment in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Charles; Ravitsky, Vardit; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2014-09-01

    A rich literature in public health has demonstrated that health is strongly influenced by a host of environmental factors that can vary according to social, economic, geographic, cultural or physical contexts. Bioethicists should, we argue, recognize this and--where appropriate--work to integrate environmental concerns into their field of study and their ethical deliberations. In this article, we present an argument grounded in scientific research at the molecular level that will be familiar to--and so hopefully more persuasive for--the biomedically-inclined in the bioethics community. Specifically, we argue that the relatively new field of molecular epigenetics provides novel information that should serve as additional justification for expanding the scope of bioethics to include environmental and public health concerns. We begin by presenting two distinct visions of bioethics: the individualistic and rights-oriented and the communitarian and responsibility-oriented. We follow with a description of biochemical characteristics distinguishing epigenetics from genetics, in order to emphasize the very close relationship that exists between the environment and gene expression. This then leads to a discussion of the importance of the environment in determining individual and population health, which, we argue, should shift bioethics towards a Potterian view that promotes a communitarian-based sense of responsibility for the environment, in order to fully account for justice considerations and improve public health.

  1. What feminism can do for bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, L M

    2001-01-01

    Feminist criticism of health care and of bioethics has become increasingly rich and sophisticated in the last years of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, this body of work remains quite marginalized. I believe that there are (at least) two reasons for this. First, many people are still confused about feminism. Second, many people are unconvinced that significant sexism still exists and are therefore unreceptive to arguments that it should be remedied if there is no larger benefit. In this essay I argue for a thin, "core" conception of feminism that is easy to understand and difficult to reject. Core feminism would render debate within feminism more fruitful, clear the way for appropriate recognition of differences among women and their circumstances, provide intellectually compelling reasons for current non-feminists to adopt a feminist outlook, and facilitate mutually beneficial cooperation between feminism and other progressive social movements. This conception of feminism also makes it clear that feminism is part of a larger egalitarian moral and political agenda, and adopting it would help bioethics focus on the most urgent moral priorities. In addition, integrating core feminism into bioethics would open a gateway to the more speculative parts of feminist work where a wealth of creative thinking is occurring. Engaging with this feminist work would challenge and strengthen mainstream approaches: it should also motivate mainstream bioethicists to explore other currently marginalized parts of bioethics. PMID:11561992

  2. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ting Chowning

    Full Text Available Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001 between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001 in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student

  3. Bioethics education on deliberation--a view of a novel: Blue Gold, by Clive Cussler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Susana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2011-03-01

    Since the focus of Bioethics is the bridge between Humanities and the Life Sciences and bearing in mind that this bridge is often difficult to build, those who believe that this dialogue is important in our days should promote it through Education. By educating in Bioethics it is possible to improve the participation of the citizens in debates on the ethical issues raised by new technologies and scientific research. It is our conviction that literary texts are laboratories of ethical judgment, where the ethical questions concerning specific scientific/ technological issues are addressed in an imaginary world. Therefore our purpose is to present a framework for ethical deliberation through the use of literature. Fiction allows us to "practise" ethical decision making, by focusing on the particular cases of the characters of the story and by checking how the principles/theories working in the background apply to the narrated cases. PMID:21528799

  4. Bioethics of life programs: Taking seriously moral pluralism in clinical settings

    OpenAIRE

    Niebroj, L

    2010-01-01

    Background In the more and more globalized world, the experience of moral pluralism (often related to, or based upon, religious pluralism) has become a common issue which ethical importance is undeniable. Potential conflicts between patients' and therapeutic teams' moral views and between moral beliefs of the particular member of this team are being resolved in the light of bioethical theories, among which principlism remains the mainstream approach to biomedical ethics. The question arises, ...

  5. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in...

  6. Accounting for context: future directions in bioethics theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M

    1996-06-01

    Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639

  7. PHENOMENOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF BIOETHICAL REALITY (THE SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina Marina Alekseevna

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of social reality is a classical problem of sociology, which solution helps perception and understanding of social phenomena. In the article phenomenological interpretation of bioethical reality is shown. Phenomenological sociology, being one of the perspective directions of development of social knowledge, it is characterized by aspiration to show «artificial», that is designed, nature of bioethical reality, its semantic structure, and thus, to «humanize» bioethical realit...

  8. The role of philosophy in global bioethics: introducing four trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Sirkku K

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the relationship between philosophy and culture in global bioethics. First, it studies what is meant by the term "global" in global bioethics. Second, the author introduces four different types, or recognizable trends, in philosophical inquiry in bioethics today. The main argument is that, in order to make better sense of the complexity of the ethical questions and challenges we face today across the globe, we need to embrace the universal nature of self-critical and analytical philosophical analysis and argumentation, rather than using seemingly philosophical approaches to give unjustified normative emphasis on different cultural approaches to bioethics.

  9. Bioethics, Religion, and Public Policy: Intersections, Interactions, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    Bioethics in America positions itself as a totalizing discipline, capable of providing guidance to any individual within the boundaries of a health or medical setting. Yet the religiously observant or those driven by spiritual values have not universally accepted decisions made by "secular" bioethics, and as a result, religious bioethical thinkers and adherents have developed frameworks and rich counter-narratives used to fend off encroachment by policies perceived as threatening. This article uses brain death in Jewish law, the case of Jahi McMath, and vaccination refusal to observe how the religious system of ethics is presently excluded from bioethics and its implications. PMID:26525211

  10. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, la...

  11. Religion and bioethics: toward an expanded understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Macdonald, Arlene

    2013-04-01

    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what "religion" means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion as lived experience as well as a body of doctrine and to see that religious differences and controversies should be welcomed in the public square of a diverse democratic society rather than merely tolerated.

  12. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  13. [Bioethics today: Heidegger’s questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    Bioethics was born not only as an aftermath of medical technological advance but also from underlying philosophical conceptions about man, that determine scientific research. Analyzing occidental ethics, Heidegger showed that animalism was the only human dimension considered and thereby the domain of measurable objectiveness. He postulated that the essence of human existence as being-in-the-world is ethical and revealed through an original consciousness. Unlike moral conscience, original conscience calls to authenticity, to hear his constitutive nihilism as a "Being-referred-to-death". The founding ground of bioethics may be to listen to this primary being-guilty prior to the derived guilts, e.g. faults, deficiencies and shortcomings of specific daily actions. PMID:22286741

  14. Right to health, biopower and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Junges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to health is being more and more affected by the Biopower new configurations, no more only determined by the State, as in Foucault's analyses, but mainly by the symbolic power of the market. The biotechnological enterprises stir up increasing claims for consuming in health. These products are techno-semiotic agencies of the subjectivity in health, rendering their use as a right. In this situation it is important to return to the Right to Health comprehension of the International Conventions and the Alma-Ata Conference, proving the interdependence between Human Rights in general and the Right to Health in particular, mainly aiming at the social determinants of health that define more basic rights. The Human Rights perspective permits the proposal of a public health bioethics, different from the clinical bioethics, more appropriate for considering the collective implications of the right to Health, not reduced to a mere consumption of technologies.

  15. Bioethics and Emergency Medicine: problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.

  16. Four themes in recent Swedish bioethics debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    A wide variety of bioethical themes have recently been debated and researched in Sweden, including genetic screening, HPV vaccination strategies, end-of-life care, injustices and priority setting in healthcare, dual-use research, and the never-ending story of scientific fraud. Also, there are some new events related to Swedish biobanking that might be of general interest. Here we will concentrate on four themes: end-of-life care, dual-use research, scientific fraud, and biobanking. PMID:21676328

  17. [Cultural background of the Japanese bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, H; Terazawa, K

    1994-09-01

    We attended the 11th Liaison Society of Ethics Committees in Medical Schools in Japan. Three symposiums were held under the themes of quality of life (QOL), stopping medical cure and the Japanese bioethics. Symposists were medical practitioners, teaching staffs in universities and a person of religion. In the first symposium, the definition of QOL, the usage of the term and the method of its evaluation were discussed. In the second symposium, an internist and a neonatologist reported several cases and stated problems and countermeasures in terminal care in cases that they could not maintain QOL. A person of religion made his opinion on the problems. In the final symposium were stated Japanese bioethics from the aspects of ethics and cultural anthropology. They emphasized differences in bioethical view between the Japanese and the Europeans and Americans, and a need to reform medical education in Japan. It is difficult to define QOL and to care patients at terminal stage, because present-day persons have various senses of value. Especially, Japanese have taken Western culture into our traditional social structures with its original style. Therefore, we have dual culture, as recognized in communication. Although it is very important to communicate sufficiently between patients and doctors, we consider that the dual communication has interrupted their mutual understandings. Incidentally, Western medicine had originally dual structure of art and technology. But we have taken only the technological aspect. That is probably the reason why human relations have been getting worse. It would be necessary for us to attend to these two dual structures in order to solve bioethical problems in Japan. PMID:7868050

  18. Thanatophoric dysplasia: case-based bioethical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Abarca López; Alejandra Rodríguez Torres; Donovan Casas Patiño; Esteban Espíndola Benítez

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.

  19. Thanatophoric dysplasia: case-based bioethical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Abarca López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.

  20. Cultivating Synergy in Nursing, Bioethics, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Nursing and bioethics have a lot in common because they share concerns about life and death, illness and health, the rights of individuals and communities, ethical patient care, health care delivery, and public health. Nurses and bioethicists contribute to ethical practice, ethics scholarship, and health policy-making in a variety of ways. Some nurses have bioethics education or experience, some bioethicists study or collaborate closely with nurses, and some of us proudly identify as both bioethicists and as nurses. Despite certain shared and interwoven aims, bioethicists and nurses often accomplish their goals in dissimilar ways, have diverse educational and training trajectories as well as distinct roles and responsibilities, and are viewed differently within health care organizations. Yet the work of bioethics and nursing can be, and in my view should more often be, synergistic. That synergism may be especially critical in the arena of health policy and ethics. Nurses can bring extraordinary insights and real-world experiences to the policy table but are not always considered essential contributors. PMID:27649922

  1. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm. PMID:22033813

  2. [Bioethical arguments in Joseph Ratzinger's thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carbonell López, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In the dense theological thought of Joseph Ratzinger before his election as pope, we find fundamental contributions to contemporary bioethics. Starting from the assumption of the close relationship between faith and science he incorporates a necessary theological dimension in the bioethical dialogue that illuminates and clarifies the answers to the real questions raised in bioethical actions. On the one hand, there is the question of the origin of man that is understood as God's creation as opposed to a purely biological origin to which a modern pseudoscientific stance wants to confine it. On the other hand, there is the question about man's identity, which is understood as the image of God, from which stems the inviolable dignity and sacredness of human life, overcoming scientistic materialism. Finally, we find the question of how to treat the ″other″, even the embryo, as a result of its lofty dignity, analyzing the ethical and legal consequences that exude from their nature and are summarized in the duty to protect and respect the other which the law should protect against the abuse of those who are stronger. PMID:25329412

  3. Cultivating Synergy in Nursing, Bioethics, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Nursing and bioethics have a lot in common because they share concerns about life and death, illness and health, the rights of individuals and communities, ethical patient care, health care delivery, and public health. Nurses and bioethicists contribute to ethical practice, ethics scholarship, and health policy-making in a variety of ways. Some nurses have bioethics education or experience, some bioethicists study or collaborate closely with nurses, and some of us proudly identify as both bioethicists and as nurses. Despite certain shared and interwoven aims, bioethicists and nurses often accomplish their goals in dissimilar ways, have diverse educational and training trajectories as well as distinct roles and responsibilities, and are viewed differently within health care organizations. Yet the work of bioethics and nursing can be, and in my view should more often be, synergistic. That synergism may be especially critical in the arena of health policy and ethics. Nurses can bring extraordinary insights and real-world experiences to the policy table but are not always considered essential contributors.

  4. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  5. Hard times, hard choices: founding bioethics today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    1995-07-01

    The discussions of these past twenty years have significantly improved our knowledge about the foundation of bioethics and the meaning of the four bioethical principles with concern to at least three different points: that they are organised hierarchically, and therefore not "prima facie" of the same level; that they have exceptions, and consequently lack of absolute character; and that they are neither strictly deontological nor purely teleological. The only absolute principle of moral life can be the abstract and unconcrete respect of human beings. But when determining the material content of this respect, principles become contingent and relative. Therefore, moral reasoning must have necessarily no less than three moments, one absolute but merely formal, namely respect for all human beings, and the other two relative and material. The first material moment is comprised of the four bioethical principles, divided into two levels, one private, including the principles of autonomy and beneficence, and the other one public, including those of nonmaleficence and justice. The second material moment deals with specific cases, and requires analysis of their context, including their circumstances and consequences. Only when following these steps, and therefore balancing principlism and contextualism, can moral reasoning be correct and complete. PMID:11653036

  6. Freestanding pragmatism in law and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arras, J D

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first installment of a larger project devoted to the relevance of pragmatism for bioethics. One self-consciously pragmatist move would be to return to the classical pragmatist canon of Peirce, James and Dewey in search of substantive doctrines or methodological approaches that might be applied to current bioethical controversies. Another pragmatist (or neopragmatist) move would be to subject the regnant principlist paradigm to Richard Rorty's subversive assaults on foundationalism in epistemology and ethics. A third pragmatist method, dubbed "freestanding pragmatism" by its proponents, embraces a "pragmatist" approach to practical reasoning without discernable moorings either to the classical canon or to Rorty's neopragmatism. This third pragmatist approach to method in practical ethics is the subject of this article. I begin with an examination of freestanding pragmatism in the theory of judicial decision making. I argue that this version of legal pragmatism--so described on account of its commitments to contextualism, instrumentalism, eclecticism, and freedom from grand theory--bears a striking resemblance to much self-described pragmatist work in bioethics today. I further argue that if this is what we mean by "pragmatism," then in a certain sense "we are all pragmatists now." PMID:11437273

  7. Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Sylvester C; Mduluza, Takafira; Kipkemboi, Julius

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we

  8. FORMATION AND USE OF ILLUSTRATIVE IMAGES IN THE “BIOETHICS AND QUESTIONS OF BIO SAFETY” COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the experience of formation and creating illustrative images for the course called «Bioethics and questions of bio safety». The peculiarity of this course is to review bioethical problems in the context of concrete scientific activities of the biologist – research, experimental work. The part of the course issues related to Bio safety, is revealed as an interdisciplinary area of knowledge focusing on the identification, study and understanding of biological practice and biological research associated with broad philosophical and moral component. The main blocks have been identified, which form visual resources: animals in the experiment, the questions of bioethics in the media; the metamorphosis of the human body; chimeras in works of art. In the selection of illustrative images we have taken into account several aspects: illustration, as an information resource for the analysis of the studied phenomenon; illustration, as a form of motivation to seek information, the answer to the question; illustration, as an element of ethical education of the student to different issues of bioethics. For each semantic unit collected 20-30 illustrative images within two years. They are used both when reading a lecture course and as material for independent work of students. It is shown that the presented visual resources for the course reflect the basic components of visual thinking: linear; structural; combinatorial and functional

  9. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  10. Bioethics methods in the ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair

    2014-11-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations).

  11. Bioethics methods in the ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair

    2014-11-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  12. Localized past, globalized future: towards an effective bioethical framework using examples from population genetics and medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Heather

    2011-02-01

    This paper suggests that many of the pressing dilemmas of bioethics are global and structural in nature. Accordingly, global ethical frameworks are required which recognize the ethically significant factors of all global actors. To this end, ethical frameworks must recognize the rights and interests of both individuals and groups (and the interrelation of these). The paper suggests that the current dominant bioethical framework is inadequate to this task as it is over-individualist and therefore unable to give significant weight to the ethical demands of groups (and by extension communal and public goods). It will explore this theme by considering the inadequacy of informed consent (the 'global standard' of bioethics) to address two pressing global bioethical issues: medical tourism and population genetics. Using these examples it will show why consent is inadequate to address all the significant features of these ethical dilemmas. Four key failures will be explored, namely, • That the rights and interests of those related (and therefore affected) are neglected; • That consent fails to take account of the context and commitments of individuals which may constitute inducement and coercion; • That consent alone does not have the ethical weight to negate exploitation or make an unjust action just ('the fallacy of sufficiency'); • That consent is a single one-off act which is inappropriate for the types of decision being made. It will conclude by suggesting that more appropriate models are emerging, particularly in population genetics, which can supplement consent. PMID:21175711

  13. The value and pitfalls of speculation about science and technology in bioethics: the case of cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Martin Rubio, Tristana; Chandler, Jennifer; Forlini, Cynthia; Lucke, Jayne

    2014-08-01

    In the debate on the ethics of the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals for cognitive performance enhancement in healthy individuals there is a clear division between those who view "cognitive enhancement" as ethically unproblematic and those who see such practices as fraught with ethical problems. Yet another, more subtle issue, relates to the relevance and quality of the contribution of scholarly bioethics to this debate. More specifically, how have various forms of speculation, anticipatory ethics, and methods to predict scientific trends and societal responses augmented or diminished this contribution? In this paper, we use the discussion of the ethics of cognitive enhancement to explore the positive and negative contribution of speculation in bioethics scholarship. First, we review and discuss how speculation has relied on different sets of assumptions regarding the non-medical use of stimulants, namely: (1) terminology and framing; (2) scientific aspects such as efficacy and safety; (3) estimates of prevalence and consequent normalization; and (4) the need for normative reflection and regulatory guidelines. Second, three methodological guideposts are proposed to alleviate some of the pitfalls of speculation: (1) acknowledge assumptions more explicitly and identify the value attributed to assumptions; (2) validate assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) adopt a broad perspective to promote more comprehensive reflection. We conclude that, through the examination of the controversy about cognitive enhancement, we can employ these methodological guideposts to enhance the value of contributions from bioethics and minimize potential epistemic and practical pitfalls in this case and perhaps in other areas of bioethical debate.

  14. Localized past, globalized future: towards an effective bioethical framework using examples from population genetics and medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Heather

    2011-02-01

    This paper suggests that many of the pressing dilemmas of bioethics are global and structural in nature. Accordingly, global ethical frameworks are required which recognize the ethically significant factors of all global actors. To this end, ethical frameworks must recognize the rights and interests of both individuals and groups (and the interrelation of these). The paper suggests that the current dominant bioethical framework is inadequate to this task as it is over-individualist and therefore unable to give significant weight to the ethical demands of groups (and by extension communal and public goods). It will explore this theme by considering the inadequacy of informed consent (the 'global standard' of bioethics) to address two pressing global bioethical issues: medical tourism and population genetics. Using these examples it will show why consent is inadequate to address all the significant features of these ethical dilemmas. Four key failures will be explored, namely, • That the rights and interests of those related (and therefore affected) are neglected; • That consent fails to take account of the context and commitments of individuals which may constitute inducement and coercion; • That consent alone does not have the ethical weight to negate exploitation or make an unjust action just ('the fallacy of sufficiency'); • That consent is a single one-off act which is inappropriate for the types of decision being made. It will conclude by suggesting that more appropriate models are emerging, particularly in population genetics, which can supplement consent.

  15. Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L

    2016-04-19

    Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray. PMID:27089070

  16. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ghaiath MA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries.

  17. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421

  18. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way.

  19. The Bioethics and Biosafety technosciences and transcendence of limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioethics as a cultural phenomenon is nowadays presented as a paradigmatic locus of reflection, critical analysis, inquiries and debates about ethical problems and moral dilemmas provoked by scientific researches in the field of Biotechnology, with its innovations and applications. Humanity, since the middle of X X Th Century, lives under uncertainty and fear. Bioethics responds to the need of a ethical reflection which follows such inquiries and technological applications. One of the subjects of Bioethics is the biosafety, which deals with biohazards. In this process, there is a privileged place many questions such as technological evaluation, risk management and, in a special way, the precautionary principle. This study focus on these questions

  20. African Bioethics vs. Healthcare Ethics in Africa: A Critique of Godfrey Tangwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola K

    2016-08-01

    It is nearly two decades now since the publication of Godfrey Tangwa's article, 'Bioethics: African Perspective', without a critical review. His article is important because sequel to its publication in Bioethics, the idea of 'African bioethics' started gaining some attention in the international bioethics literature. This paper breaks this relative silence by critically examining Tangwa's claim on the existence of African bioethics. Employing conceptual and critical methods, this paper argues that Tangwa's account of African bioethics has some conceptual, methodic and substantive difficulties, which altogether do not justify the idea of African bioethics, at least for now. Contra Tangwa, this article establishes that while African bioethics remains a future possibility, it is more cogent that current efforts in the name of 'African bioethics' be primarily re-intensified towards 'Healthcare ethics in Africa'. PMID:25912979

  1. [Reflections for having bioethics involved in the human rights culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussino, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics can be interpreted as a critical reflection on life and health, a new way to make decisions in these fields, a social reform movement, and an academic discipline. In any case, Bioethics implies an interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue. At the same time, human rights, as universal moral guidelines, provide a plausible basis for this intercultural dialogue, for they enable the identification of a core of transcultural values that can work as "moral minima" in the dialogue among different cultures and the search for international consensuses. This article sets forth the triple connection (historical-genealogical, conceptual and practical) between bioethics and human rights, and reflects on some of the conditions that should be taken into account for bioethics to be involved in the human rights culture. PMID:23338646

  2. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-01-01

    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents. PMID:26665351

  3. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-01-01

    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents.

  4. [Is it possible a bioethics based on the experimental evidence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    For years there are different types of criticism about principialist bioethics. One alternative that has been proposed is to introduce empirical evidence within the bioethical discourse to make it less formal, less theoretical and closer to reality. In this paper we analyze first in synthetic form diverse alternative proposals to make an empirical bioethics. Some of them are strongly naturalistic while others aim to provide empirical data only for correct or improve bioethical work. Most of them are not shown in favor of maintaining a complete separation between facts and values, between what is and what ought to be. With different nuances these proposals of moderate naturalism make ethical judgments depend normative social opinion resulting into a certain social naturalism. Against these proposals we think to make a bioethics in that relates the empirical facts with ethical duties, we must rediscover empirical reality of human action. Only from it and, in particular, from the activity of discernment that makes practical reason, when judged on the object of his action, it is possible to integrate the mere descriptive facts with ethical judgments of character prescriptive. In conclusion we think that it is not possible to perform bioethics a mode of empirical science, as this would be contrary to natural reason, leading to a sort of scientific reductionism. At the same time we believe that empirical data are important in the development of bioethics and to enhance and improve the innate ability of human reason to discern good. From this discernment could develop a bioethics from the perspective of ethical agents themselves, avoiding the extremes of an excessive normative rationalism, accepting empirical data and not falling into a simple pragmatism. PMID:24206254

  5. Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin

    2016-05-01

    Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211

  6. The bioethics of separating conjoined twins in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Gosain, Arun K; Becker, Devra

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of craniopagus twins approximates four to six per 10 million births. Although rare, surgical separation of conjoined twins poses significant technical and ethical challenges. The present report uses the case of craniopagus twins AD and TD to examine the bioethical issues faced by a multidisciplinary medical team in planning the separation of craniopagus twins. AD and TD are craniopagus twins conjoined at the head. TD's head is conjoined to the back of AD's head. Neurologically, AD has the dominant cerebral circulation. TD has two normal kidneys, whereas AD has none. AD depends on TD's renal function and, on separation, will require either a kidney transplant or lifelong dialysis. This case report reviews one approach to analyzing and solving complex ethical dilemmas in pediatric plastic surgery. The principles reviewed are (1) autonomy and informed consent, focusing especially on the role of children in the informed consent process; (2) beneficence and nonmaleficence, two intricately intertwined principles because separation could potentially cause irreversible harm to one twin while improving the quality of life for the other (as separation is not a life-saving procedure, is it ethical to perform a procedure with unknown surgical risk to improve children's quality of life?); and (3) justice (is it fair to allocate excessive medical resources for the twins' separation?). The present report explores the ethics behind such decisions with respect to the separation of conjoined twins.

  7. Bioethical – Theological and Legal approach in genetic testing of adult persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thorough genetic testing gives possibility's diagnosis of genetic diseases or identity individuals, who genetic predisposed for disease outbreak Aims: To present/identify the ethical and religious issues, which arise from the application of genetic testing in humans. Furthermore, the principles from the European and Greek legislation regarding genetic testing will be discussed. Materials & Methods: A literature review based on both review and research literature, conducted during the period of (1993-2010, derived from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ΙΑΤΡΟΤΕΚ databases using as key words: Bioethics, genetic testing, bioethics, access, genetic information, orthodox ethics, Legislation. Results: Genetic testing for disease prevention is of primary importance. The main ethical concerns however, are related to the dissemination/ disclosure and use of this information from insurance companies, healthcare authorities, scientists, forensic departments/services and employers. Similarly, the orthodox religion accepts the use of genetic testing for the prevention and treatment of diseases as long as there is no break of confidentiality. Finally, considering the legal issues, it is apparent that genetic information is regarded as personal information and as such it is protected from the national (Greek and international law. Conclusions: It is necessary to ensure that the public authorities protect the rights of their citizens regarding genetic testing and all insurance companies, employers, schools etc. should not be allowed to have access to genetic information. Such an approach will ensure that social discrimination, obstructions or other inequalities between people on the basis of genetic information is avoided.

  8. Toward a Child Rights Theory in Pediatric Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Mercer, Raul; Webb, Elspeth; Nathawad, Rita; Shenoda, Sherry; Lansdown, Gerison

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics, applying the principles, standards, and norms of child rights, health equity, and social justice to medical and ethical decision-making. We argue that a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics will help pediatricians and pediatric bioethicists analyze and address the complex interplay of biomedical and social determinants of child health. These core principles, standards and norms, grounded in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provide the foundational elements for the theory and a means for better understanding the complex determinants of children's health and well-being. Rights-based approaches to medical and ethical decision-making provide strategies for applying and translating these elements into the practice of pediatrics and pediatric bioethics by establishing a coherent, consistent, and contextual theory that is relevant to contemporary practice. The proposed child rights theory extends evolving perspectives on the relationship between human rights and bioethics to both child rights and pediatric bioethics. PMID:27157347

  9. Globalization of bioethics as an intercultural social tuning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hyakudai

    2005-01-01

    Now, in the beginning of the 21st century, bioethics must be urgently globalized into a Global Bioethics which combines the ongoing Bioethics based on the modern European humanism with the newly arising Environmental Ethics based on the rather communitarian (or Asian) ways of thinking. This does not always mean that the new global bioethics is necessarily universalistic, for we should stand on the recognition of the wide spread variety of value systems in the world, north and south, east and west. However, it is not particularistic either, for in order to establish a post-modern global ethics, we have to accept and harmonize every kind of antagonistic values on the Globe. For this purpose we have to cultivate a new social technology of tuning social disorder of not only international but also inter-ethnic and inter-cultural level of ideology beyond the modern European humanism. Here the concept of "human rights" or the concept of "human dignity" may lose its significance as it has held in the past bioethical thinking in the western world. PMID:16634177

  10. [Biology and ethics of bioethics: an urgent need of realism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Tenets and recommendations of bioethics should be based on a profound knowledge of biological processes and at the same time deeply integrated with their human significance. Integration has been usually distorted by those implied in disciplines involved with human nature. Biology of fertilization and embryo development have been often fodder of science fiction, when considering that techniques can achieve any aim without acknowledging natural limits, and often handling data, and accepting without any critical attitude pseudoscientific dogma. In the middle of that pseudo-biology bioethics has suffered the onslaught of the ideology of man believing himself autonomous and claiming he is the only one who dictates the rules of reality of world and man, and leading development and progress with this technological power in his hands. The profoundly different response to this deep question of whether what is properly human and essential to each man emerges as a consequence of his own construction and development or, on the contrary, is inherent to the constitution of each man, has caused the splitting of bioethics into two really irreconcilable bioethics. And that because of their different reasoning and criteria. The Ethics of Bioethics requires a new thinking on this crucial point allowing it to grow as an unprejudiced Science. Serious consequences derive from taking one perspective or another. Adopting one or another perspective confront us with a serious problem. Is human life disposable? Or should it be elegantly preserved? PMID:24206252

  11. Toward a Child Rights Theory in Pediatric Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Mercer, Raul; Webb, Elspeth; Nathawad, Rita; Shenoda, Sherry; Lansdown, Gerison

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics, applying the principles, standards, and norms of child rights, health equity, and social justice to medical and ethical decision-making. We argue that a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics will help pediatricians and pediatric bioethicists analyze and address the complex interplay of biomedical and social determinants of child health. These core principles, standards and norms, grounded in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provide the foundational elements for the theory and a means for better understanding the complex determinants of children's health and well-being. Rights-based approaches to medical and ethical decision-making provide strategies for applying and translating these elements into the practice of pediatrics and pediatric bioethics by establishing a coherent, consistent, and contextual theory that is relevant to contemporary practice. The proposed child rights theory extends evolving perspectives on the relationship between human rights and bioethics to both child rights and pediatric bioethics.

  12. Parental authority and pediatric bioethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Mark J

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, I offer a view beyond that which would narrowly reduce the role of parents in medical decision making to acting as custodians of the best interests of children and toward an account of family authority and family autonomy. As a fundamental social unit, the good of the family is usually appreciated, at least in part, in terms of its ability successfully to instantiate its core moral and cultural understandings as well as to pass on such commitments to future generations. The putative rights of children to expression, information, freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and to freedom of association with others are, in this essay, assessed from the perspective of those conditions necessary for the family to function as a moral community. In so doing, I respond to the move to liberate children from parental authority and to effect the transformation of the family as implied by the United Nations' "Convention on the Rights of the Child" and the pediatric bioethics it supports.

  13. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.

  14. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect. PMID:23912730

  15. Theological Discourse in Bioethics: General and Confessional Differencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basia Nikiforova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to the problem of theological discourse in bioethics. We focus both on general positions shared across major existing religions and substantial confessional differences among them. Among the major categories determining relationship between bioethics and religion we studied the following: “image of God” (imago Dei, casuistry, primacy of procreation, “playing God”, artificial procreation and others. After analyzing Christian, Jewish and Islamic positions on the theological interpretation of the reproductive technologies and human cloning, we came to a conclusion that differences in views depend rather on orthodox, conservative, traditional or liberal viewpoint within a given church than on differences between particular religions. Despite substantial faith-related differences, occasionally, views on reproductive technologies and other problems of bioethics seem closer between liberal Protestants and liberal Judaists than between orthodox and reformist Judaists. 

  16. Contribution of Ayurveda in foundation of basic tenets of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawalare, Kiran A; Nanote, Kalpana D; Gawai, Vijay U; Gotmare, Ashish Y

    2014-01-01

    Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as "principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics. PMID:26195897

  17. Comprehending Bioethics%理解生命伦理学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱仁宗

    2015-01-01

    The author analyzed the peculiarity of bioethics from standardability , rationality , practicability/ap-plicability , evidence/experience , secularity these five five aspects .Based on this , how to understand bioethics was alsodiscussed in this paper from the viewpoints of right path of bioethics , de -ethics trend and building culture brand.%从规范性、理性、实用/应用性、证据/经验知情性、世俗性五个方面分析研究了生命伦理学学科的独特性,并结合生命伦理学的合适进路,去伦理学倾向以及“打文化牌”这三个角度分析探讨了如何理解生命伦理学这一问题。

  18. In defence of academic freedom: bioethics journals under siege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2013-05-01

    This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles. PMID:23637435

  19. The Challenge of Defining Success in Bioethics' Humanist Wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Paul

    2016-09-01

    In "Reason and the Republic of Opinion," Leon Wieseltier bemoaned an age that reduces reason to utilitarian calculation and requires almost ritual genuflection before the altar of numbers. The spirit of this age is at work in the field of bioethics where, as Debra Mathews and colleagues point out in "A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship," researchers and scholars are increasingly "being asked to demonstrate and also forecast the value and impact of their work." Despite the reductionism that typically accompanies the movements imbued with this spirit, the concern for accountability that stands behind the call for measuring success is legitimate. The bioethics community is thus fortunate to have such a distinguished group of scholars wrestling with these matters. Indeed, the effort of Mathews et al. to articulate a framework for determining success in bioethics research and scholarship is especially admirable precisely because they resist the temptation to reduce success to quantitative measures alone. That said, it is also important to say that it is nearly impossible to engage with the task these scholars have set for themselves and not succumb to a kind of data fetishism. It is well and good to talk about the complexity of bioethics as a field, but the language of "metrics," "outputs," "feedback loops," "stakeholders," and the like is not the language of the disciplines of history, literature, philosophy, or religious studies-all fields that Mathews et al. rightly credit with making important contributions to bioethics research and scholarship. PMID:27649830

  20. Clinical use of amyloid-positron emission tomography neuroimaging: Practical and bioethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Michael M; Foster, Norman L; Fleisher, Adam S; Williams, Monique M; Quaid, Kimberly; Wasserman, Michael; Hunt, Gail; Roberts, J Scott; Rabinovici, Gil D; Levenson, James L; Hake, Ann Marie; Hunter, Craig A; Van Campen, Luann E; Pontecorvo, Michael J; Hochstetler, Helen M; Tabas, Linda B; Trzepacz, Paula T

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, estimation of β-amyloid plaque density as a key element for identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as the cause of cognitive impairment was only possible at autopsy. Now with amyloid-positron emission tomography (amyloid-PET) neuroimaging, this AD hallmark can be detected antemortem. Practitioners and patients need to better understand potential diagnostic benefits and limitations of amyloid-PET and the complex practical, ethical, and social implications surrounding this new technology. To complement the practical considerations, Eli Lilly and Company sponsored a Bioethics Advisory Board to discuss ethical issues that might arise from clinical use of amyloid-PET neuroimaging with patients being evaluated for causes of cognitive decline. To best address the multifaceted issues associated with amyloid-PET neuroimaging, we recommend this technology be used only by experienced imaging and treating physicians in appropriately selected patients and only in the context of a comprehensive clinical evaluation with adequate explanations before and after the scan. PMID:27239516

  1. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Badulescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services, and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.

  2. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.

  3. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Faria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists′ and the Nazi doctors′ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ′collective′ or ′greater good.′ Thus in the 20 th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  4. Bioethical responsibilities of the health authority in health care and biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflection on bioethical contents of health policies and their effects on the demands for social justice has been a preferred concern of those who have driven the health reforms that were behind the creation of the National Health Service and, more recently, the regime of health guarantees. In the course of the years, the concern for the vindication of individual rights in the context of health care and research has joined to citizen demands for equitable access to health actions. For this purpose, in 2006 and 2012, specific laws addressing these matters were enacted and in the last year, regulations that make them operative emerged and are being implemented. The wording of the articles of both laws, in the effort to rescue individual rights, raises an imbalance in some respects, with regard to the social impact of their implementation. In certain subjects, its provisions run counter to existing codes of professional ethics in the country and in others; its implementation allows the privatization of the process of ethical review of pharmacological research, which was restricted to public health services. The absence of starting up of the National Bioethics Commission, pending since 2006, has prevented the creation of a pluralistic spaTce for deliberation on these issues and others as provided by law.

  5. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market. PMID:17146900

  6. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  7. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  8. Medical Tourism: Between Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Bioethics Boundaries: Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    BADULESCU, Daniel; BADULESCU, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  9. 78 FR 33843 - Request for Comments on Issues Related to Incidental Findings That Arise in the Clinical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... practices that ensure ethically responsible conduct of scientific research and healthcare delivery..., including any personally identifiable or confidential business information that they contain. Trade secrets... for the Study of Bioethical Issues. BILLING CODE 4154-06-P...

  10. From bioethics to a sociology of bio-knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Growing recognition of bioethics' shortcomings, associated in large part with its heavy reliance on abstract principles, or so-called principlism, has led many scholars to propose that the field should be reformed or reconceptualised. Principlism is seen to de-contextualise the process of ethical decision-making, thus restricting bioethics' contributions to debate and policy on new and emergent biotechnologies. This article examines some major critiques of bioethics and argues for an alternative normative approach; namely, a sociology of bio-knowledge focussing on human rights. The article discusses the need for such an approach, including the challenges posed by the recent rise of 'the bio-economy'. It explores some potential alternative bases for a normative sociology of bio-knowledge, before presenting the elements of the proposed human rights-focused approach. This approach, it is argued, will benefit from the insights and concepts offered by various fields of critical scholarship, particularly the emergent sociology of human rights, science and technology studies, Foucaultian scholarship, and feminist bioethics.

  11. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics. PMID:18251769

  12. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  13. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Frans W A

    2002-01-01

    The use of live animals for experiments plays an important role in many forms of research. This gives rise to an ethical dilemma. On the one hand, most of the animals used are sentient beings who may be harmed by the experiments. The research, on the other hand, may be vital for preventing, curing or alleviating human diseases. There is no consensus on how to tackle this dilemma. One extreme is the view taken by adherents of the so-called animal rights view. According to this view, we are never justified in harming animals for human purposes - however vital these purposes may be. The other extreme is the ruthless view, according to which animals are there to be used at our discretion. However, most people have a view situated somewhere between these two extremes. It is accepted that animals may be used for research - contrary to the animal rights view. However, contrary to the ruthless view, that is only accepted under certain conditions. The aim of this presentation is to present different ethical views which may serve as a foundation for specifying the circumstances under which it is acceptable to use animals for research. Three views serving this role are contractarianism, utilitarianism and a deontological approach. According to contractarianism, the key ethical issue is concern for the sentiments of other human beings in society, on whose co-operation those responsible for research depend. Thus it is acceptable to use animals as long as most people can see the point of the experiment and are not offended by the way it is done. According to utilitarianism, the key ethical issue is about the consequences for humans and animals. Thus it is justified to use animals for research if enough good comes out of it in terms of preventing suffering and creating happiness, and if there is no better alternative. In the deontological approach the prima facie duty of beneficence towards human beings has to be weighed against the prima facie duties not to harm animals and to

  14. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Telles de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.

  15. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J L; Schramm, F R

    1999-01-01

    Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care) beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.

  16. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups. PMID:22984748

  17. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  18. Desafios históricos da enfermagem à luz do pensamento bioético Desafíos históricos de la enfermería a la luz del pensamiento bioético Historical challenges of nursing through bioethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane Viana Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão teórica sobre a bioética do cuidar, a partir da perspectiva histórica do cuidado em saúde e suas contribuições para a ampliação da produção de conhecimentos em Enfermagem, como proposta de intervenção mais humana e democrática no exercício do cuidar; através de conceitos baseados no respeito à pessoa humana, na formação de profissional comprometido com realidade social. A enfermagem como profissão priorizou os avanços técnico-científicos, em detrimento ao cuidado humanizado, decorrentes das demandas impostas pelo mundo capitalista. Neste sentido, se coloca como desafio a sistematização do cuidado, o que possibilitará a melhoria da qualidade de vida da clientela, sendo necessário para isto o estabelecimento de interlocuções de saberes com outros profissionais, consolidando a legitimidade da enfermagem como profissão.Reflexión teórica sobre la bioética del cuidar, a partir de la perspectiva histórica del cuidado en salud y sus contribuciones para la ampliación de la producción de conocimientos en Enfermería, como propuesta de intervención más humana y democrática en el ejercicio del cuidar, a través de los conceptos basados en el respeto de la persona humana en la formación del profesional comprometido con la realidad social. La enfermería como profesión priorizó los avances técnico-científicos en detrimento al cuidado humanizado, como consecuencia de las demandas impuestas por el mundo capitalista. En este sentido, se coloca como desafío la sistematización del cuidado, lo que posibilita la mejoría de la calidad de vida de la clientela siendo necesario para esto el establecimiento de interlocutores de saberes con otros profesionales, consolidando la legitimidad de la enfermería como profesión.This is a theoretical discussion of the bioethics of care from the historical perspective of health care and its contribution to the expansion of knowledge roduction in Nursing, which is presented

  19. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach.

  20. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  1. On the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline, as seen from a sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrazábal, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    This article examines the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline from a sociological perspective. This reconstruction helps us to understand on the one hand what is meant by bioethics and what its practices and areas of inquiry are, and on the other to identify various concepts and expert opinions about what the field of study for bioethics should be, opinions which lead in practice to different applications of the discipline in health sciences. This becomes relevant for epistemological discussions about the discipline and for consolidating a sociology of bioethics in the context of Ibero-America. PMID:26625913

  2. Pragmatism, metaphysics, and bioethics: beyond a theory of moral deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamental, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Pragmatism has been understood by bioethicists as yet another rival in the "methods wars," as yet another theory of moral deliberation. This has led to criticism of pragmatic bioethics as both theoretically and practically inadequate. Pragmatists' responses to these objections have focused mainly on misunderstandings of pragmatism's epistemology. These responses are insufficient. Pragmatism's commitment to radical empiricism gives it theoretical resources unappreciated by critics and defenders alike. Radical empiricism, unlike its more traditional ancestors, undercuts the gaps between theory and practice, and subjective and objective accounts of experience, and in so doing provides the metaphysical and epistemological basis for a thoroughgoing empirical naturalism in ethics. Pragmatism's strength as an approach to moral problems thus emerges as a result of a much wider array of resources than contemporary interpreters have acknowledged, which makes it a richer, deeper framework for understanding moral deliberation in general and bioethical decision making in particular. PMID:23878348

  3. “Eugenics talk” and the language of bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-01-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most...

  4. Novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas: bioética e controvérsias New reproductive conception technologies: bioethics and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de alguns dos múltiplos aspectos éticos/bioéticos e de gênero no campo das novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas (NTRc. A literatura nele apresentada aponta para a pluralidade de situações e abordagens possíveis em um campo multidimensional e controvertido. Explicita alguns princípios éticos/bioéticos do agir biomédico encontrados durante pesquisa com casais heterossexuais que fizeram reprodução assistida e com médic@s especialistas em reprodução humana no Sul do Brasil.1 Apresenta os pressupostos éticos/bioéticos sancionadores do agir médico e da continuidade dos chamados tratamentos para engravidar, e analisa os mecanismos utilizados para reerguer as expectativas dos casais em situação de desconfiança ou de insucesso.This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  5. 什么是生命伦理学?——从历史发展的视角%What is bioethics: from perspective of historical development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡林英

    2012-01-01

    生命伦理学是20世纪60年代兴起于美国的一门新兴学科,旨在应对生命科学和生物技术的发展或医疗保健的演变使人类面临的种种伦理难题.生命伦理学的兴起有着特殊的社会历史背景.它在发展过程中出现的一些里程碑式的案例,对生命伦理学的发展产生了深远的影响.从其发展特征上看,生命伦理学和医学伦理学紧密联系,有着更为广泛的研究内容和独特的专业特性.生命伦理学要有效回应现代医学和生命科学的发展给人类带来的伦理难题,既要准确地界定伦理问题,又要以适当的方式将伦理学基础理论应用到具体问题当中.对生命伦理学的基本理论进行概述.%Bioethics is an emerging discipline originating in America of the 1960s, aiming to bridge between life science, biomedical technology, health care and ethics. Bioethics originated under particular social historical contexts; Some events or cases which happened as the cornerstone in the history have profound influences on the development of bioethics. With respect to its developmental features, even though bioethics historical linked with medical ethics, it owns broader contents and unique characteristics. In order to answer ethical dilemmas caused by the developments of contemporary medicine and life science, bioethics firstly needs to define ethical issues correctly, then apply fundamental theories of ethics to concrete scenarios in appropriate ways. This paper also makes a briefly introduction of the basic theories of bioethics.

  6. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Marian A.; Lindemann, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical re

  7. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline ALBUQUERQUE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.

  8. [BIOETHICS FACED WITH SOCIOCULTURAL DIVERSITY, THE IMPACT OF THE MEANING GIVEN TO AN UNFINISHED CONCEPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal

    2015-10-01

    At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics. PMID:26911078

  9. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mathúna Dónal P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi

  10. La bioéthique sauvage Savage bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Baud

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En Occident, on semble généralement persuadé que ce qui y est appelé la bioéthique peut s’exporter mondialement. En fait les excellentes études qui ont été consacrées aux indiens Hopi montrent que notre bioéthique y serait totalement incompréhensible. Et l’enquête faite chez les Hopis donnerait des résultats très semblables dans d’autres sociétés dites « traditionnelles », dénomination qui signale l’autre aspect du problème. L’Occident, qui prétend étendre la bioéthique, en plus de ce qu’il appelle le droit, la démocratie et d’autres valeurs qui sont en fait une façon d’afficher sa supériorité et sa stratégie de conquête, cet Occident dissimule derrière son discours civilisateur la réalité d’une pensée sauvage qui se perçoit fort bien lorsque le prêche bioéthique dissimule mal les interdits des sacralités primitives.The Western world seems generally convinced that what is labelled as bioethics can be exported throughout the world. In fact the excellent research devoted to Hopi indians shows that our bioethics would be there totally impossible for them to understand. And the study carried out among the Hopis would produce very similar results in other so-called « traditional » societies. When the West claims the extension of bioethics in addition to law, democracy and other values, this may in fact be analyzed as a way of displaying its superiority and its strategy of conquest. It conceals behind its civilizing discourse the reality of a savage mind which is clearly perceptible, for its bioethical sermonising barely hides the taboos of its primitive sacrednesses .

  11. 全球生命伦理学%Global Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henk A M J ten Have; Bert Gordijn; 陈月芹(译)

    2015-01-01

    This paper started the discussion of the origin of bioethics ,demonstrated the opinions of believers of different stories ,and led to the conclusions .Whatever the precise historic provenance of bioethics ,it has currently turned into a truly global phenomenon .It is very important around the world ,because people are not only European or Asian ,but also residents of the world and members of a global moral community .Bioethics is important for everyone everywhere ,not because it is imported or imposed ,but it provides a universal framework to interpret and manage the constantly changes ,in which all countries and cultures are involved currently .However ,the interpretation and application of this framework must respect the local circumstance .Therefore ,modern bioethics must be characterized by both its global nature and local characteristics .%探讨生命伦理学的起源,并阐述了不同理论支持者的观点,发现无论准确的生命伦理学历史起源是什么,目前生命伦理学已经变成了一种真正的全球现象。它在全世界具有重要的意义,因为人类不仅仅是欧洲人或亚洲人,也是世界公民和一个全球道德共同体的成员。生命伦理学对任何地方、任何人都是重要的,并不是因为它是“拿来”的,而是因为它提供了一个普遍的框架去解释和管理正在经历的变化,这个变化包括了目前所有的国家和文化。然而,这个框架的解释和应用必须依据本土环境。因此,现代生命伦理学具有全球性和本土特征的特点。

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Challenges and Opportunities for Education About Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences workshop was held to engage the life sciences community on the particular security issues related to research with dual use potential. More than 60 participants from almost 30 countries took part and included practicing life scientists, bioethics and…

  13. The bioethics and biosafety of gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    universally adopted principles on which risk assessments are based. Despite this focus on risk prevention, genetically modified (GM) crops have given rise to controversies over the last 10–15 years. It is argued that one reason for this is that the early regulatory frameworks did not adequately address......From the early stages of genetic engineering legal frameworks were set up to ensure the safe development of this technology. These regulatory frameworks focus primarily on risks to human health and the environment, and the concepts of substantial equivalence and familiarity seem to be the two...... the concerns that seem to underlie public resistance to GM crops. Some of these concerns are about risks which lie beyond the issues addressed by the authorities who approve GM crops. Awareness of these concerns has led to a tightening of the regulatory requirements in the European Union where, among other...

  14. A method of reflexive balancing in a pragmatic, interdisciplinary and reflexive bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of 'empirical' (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but can perhaps best be understood as a substantive attempt to engage with the nature of that interdisciplinarity and to articulate the relationship between the many different disciplines (some of them empirical) that contribute to the field. It can also be described as an endeavour to explain how different disciplinary approaches can be integrated to effectively answer normative questions in bioethics, and fundamental to that endeavour is the need to think about how a robust methodology can be articulated that successfully marries apparently divergent epistemological and metaethical perspectives with method. This paper proposes 'Reflexive Bioethics' (RB) as a methodology for interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics, which utilizes a method of 'Reflexive Balancing' (RBL). RBL has been developed in response to criticisms of various forms of reflective equilibrium, and is built upon a pragmatic characterization of Bioethics and a 'quasi-moral foundationalism', which allows RBL to avoid some of the difficulties associated with RE and yet retain the flexible egalitarianism that makes it intuitively appealing to many. PMID:23444909

  15. A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Debra J H; Hester, D Micah; Kahn, Jeffrey; McGuire, Amy; McKinney, Ross; Meador, Keith; Philpott-Jones, Sean; Youngner, Stuart; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2016-09-01

    While the bioethics literature demonstrates that the field has spent substantial time and thought over the last four decades on the goals, methods, and desired outcomes for service and training in bioethics, there has been less progress defining the nature and goals of bioethics research and scholarship. This gap makes it difficult both to describe the breadth and depth of these areas of bioethics and, importantly, to gauge their success. However, the gap also presents us with an opportunity to define this scope of work for ourselves and to help shape the broader conversation about the impact of academic research. Because of growing constraints on academic funding, researchers and scholars in many fields are being asked to demonstrate and also forecast the value and impact of their work. To do that, and also to satisfy ourselves that our work has meaningful effect, we must understand how our work can motivate change and how that change can be meaningfully measured. In a field as diverse as bioethics, the pathways to and metrics of change will likewise be diverse. It is therefore critical that any assessment of the impact of bioethics research and scholarship be informed by an understanding of the nature of the work, its goals, and how those goals can and ought to be furthered. In this paper, we propose a conceptual model that connects individual bioethics projects to the broader goals of scholarship, describing the translation of research and scholarly output into changes in thinking, practice, and policy. One of the key implications of the model is that impact in bioethics is generally the result of a collection of projects rather than of any single piece of research or scholarship. Our goal is to lay the groundwork for a thoroughgoing conversation about bioethics research and scholarship that will advance and shape the important conversation about their impact. PMID:27649827

  16. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  17. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Lu, Guangxiu; Döring, Ole; Cong, Yali; Laska-Formejster, Alicja; He, Jing; Chen, Haidan; Gottweis, Herbert; Rose, Nikolas

    2013-12-01

    One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered 'emerging biotech' locations. As a result, cross-continental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal standardisation under the rubric of 'global bioethics'. Such a 'global', 'Western' or 'universal' bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four 'spheres' - deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction - as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges arising from cross-continental research collaborations: (1) ambiguity as to which regulations are applicable; (2) lack of ethical review capacity not only among ethical review board members but also collaborating scientists; (3) already complex, researcher-research subject interaction is further complicated when many nationalities are involved.

  18. 论中国生命伦理学发展的本土化要求%Bioethics Development Research of Concise Principles, Local Roots and Focus on Real

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2012-01-01

      Vigorously development of the Chinese localization of bioethics is not only the Chinese bioethics of their native development needs of today's cultural construction, and further the need to promote socialist cultural progress and prosperity. To develop localization bioethics theoretical system with Chinese characteristics, there must be a high degree of awareness on the methodology, it is necessary to pay attention to the absorption of Western ethical culture, refining the principles of Bioethics, also based on Chinese cultural traditions, to seek the basis of theoretical logic, but it must also be departed from China's actual bioethical issues.%  大力发展中国本土化生命伦理学不仅是中国生命伦理学自身发展的需要,也是当今中国进行文化建设,进一步推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣的需要。而发展具有中国特色的本土化生命伦理学理论体系,必须有方法论上的高度自觉,既要注意吸收西方伦理文化,提炼生命伦理原则,也要立足中国文化传统,寻求理论逻辑基础,同时还必须从中国实际生命伦理问题出发。

  19. Lessons Learned from Undergraduate Students in Designing a Science-Based Course in Bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.

    2013-01-01

    Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre–health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically address these bioethical dilemmas. These courses incorporate innovative pedagogical methods, case studies, and class discussions to stimulate the stu...

  20. Human rights and bioethics: competitors orallies? The role of international law in shaping the contours of a new discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Judit

    2008-03-01

    Bioethical norms that had constituted only a rather short chapter in the medical curricula are now integrated into universal human rights. This paper seeks to demonstrate the normative convergence between the fields of bioethics and human rights by discussing the recently adopted relevant international documents and some applicable cases from international law. Human rights case law relevant in this emerging legal domain is analyzed with the aim to tackle changes that have occurred in the fields of human rights and bioethics due to the convergence and interdependence between them. Bioethics and human rights are two different systems of norms but bioethics can enrich human rights by extending the traditional catalogue of rights in certain new fields. The theory of human rights nevertheless dictates some discipline in formulating new and new rights. Therefore it offers to bioethics, as an exchange, a more sufficient enforcement mechanism and international recognition.

  1. The historical development of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales: a symbiotic relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2014-04-01

    The paper explores the backward and forward linkage between HCL and bioethics. Indeed, the relationship between the two is so close that it can be considered one of symbiosis. This is particularly the case when an account is taken of how HCL and bioethics positively benefitted from each other in diverse ways during their development into their present status as discrete disciplines. In the first place, the aftermath of the Second World War, such as the Nuremberg trial and unprecedented medical experiment scandals in the 1960s/70s fuelled the increasing participation of lay scholars in exploring and critiquing medical ethics which culminated in the emergence ofbioethics.2 This in turn facilitated the evolution of HCL as a discipline, since academic lawyers involved in early bioethical discourse developed interest in exploring the interface between law and bioethics at the same time that society was waking up to the ethical implications of medical advances. As HCL emerged as a discrete discipline, it consolidated the status of bioethics as a field of inquiry by projecting the relevance of the latter in adjudication of novel cases with significant slippery moral undertones. Thus, the chicken and egg paradox finds a perfect reflection in the emergence of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales. PMID:24946511

  2. [Qualitative research into the scientific production in the field of bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia; Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Un, Julio Wong

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the character and use of qualitative research methods in the field of bioethics. A systematic review of articles published in Latin American countries and selected from the SciELO database was conducted, with special emphasis on articles that employed qualitative research methodology. The set of articles reveals a field of bioethics composed of three distinct vectors. The first refers to the dual characterization of bioethics that can be defined as a social movement or as a discipline; the second differentiates bioethics from other fields of ethics, especially from predominantly deontology-based professional ethics; and the third is related to ethical approaches adopted in the analyses conducted in the research. A relatively insignificant part of these texts result from qualitative research and they can be divided into four categories according to their themes and guidelines: bioethics as a field and/or discourse; training in health; ethics, care, and clinical practice; formulation of health policy. The production shows, on the one hand, a relatively timid approach of social science researchers to the field of bioethics and, on the other hand, little use of qualitative methodologies in research in the field and, in some cases, a certain lack of precision regarding use of the methods. PMID:25014298

  3. The evolving idea of social responsibility in bioethics: a welcome trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies.

  4. [Qualitative research into the scientific production in the field of bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia; Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Un, Julio Wong

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the character and use of qualitative research methods in the field of bioethics. A systematic review of articles published in Latin American countries and selected from the SciELO database was conducted, with special emphasis on articles that employed qualitative research methodology. The set of articles reveals a field of bioethics composed of three distinct vectors. The first refers to the dual characterization of bioethics that can be defined as a social movement or as a discipline; the second differentiates bioethics from other fields of ethics, especially from predominantly deontology-based professional ethics; and the third is related to ethical approaches adopted in the analyses conducted in the research. A relatively insignificant part of these texts result from qualitative research and they can be divided into four categories according to their themes and guidelines: bioethics as a field and/or discourse; training in health; ethics, care, and clinical practice; formulation of health policy. The production shows, on the one hand, a relatively timid approach of social science researchers to the field of bioethics and, on the other hand, little use of qualitative methodologies in research in the field and, in some cases, a certain lack of precision regarding use of the methods.

  5. The 'four principles of bioethics' as found in 13th century Muslim scholar Mawlana's teachings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenik Ali

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been different ethical approaches to the issues in the history of philosophy. Two American philosophers Beachump and Childress formulated some ethical principles namely 'respect to autonomy', 'justice', 'beneficence' and 'non-maleficence'. These 'Four Principles' were presented by the authors as universal and applicable to any culture and society. Mawlana, a great figure in Sufi tradition, had written many books which not only guide people how to worship God to be close to Him, but also advise people how to lead a good life to enrich their personality, as well as to create a harmonious society and a peaceful world. Methods In this study we examined the major works of Mawlana to find out which of these 'Four Principles of Bioethics' exist in Mawlana's ethical understanding. Results We have found in our study that all these principles exist in Mawlana's writings and philosophy in one form or another. Conclusions We have concluded that, further to Beachump and Childress' claim that these principles are universal and applicable to any culture and society, these principles have always existed in different moral traditions in different ways, of which Mawlana's teaching might be presented as a good example.

  6. Knowledge and positions on bioethical dilemmas in a sample of Spanish nursing students: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Palacios Ceña, Domingo; Fuentes, Paloma Salvadores

    2011-01-01

    This study, performed in Madrid, Spain, evaluates nursing students' understanding and attitudes about bioethical dilemmas that they will likely confront as health care providers. We asked 86 juniors in the King Juan Carlos University Nursing baccalaureate program about their knowledge of and personal attitudes on five biomedical advances: eugenics, experimentation with unimplanted embryos, human cloning, abortion, and euthanasia. Students reported being most knowledgeable about abortion and euthanasia and least familiar with eugenics. Examining the data for a correlation between the two phenomenon (knowledge and position) with respect to each of these five biomedical issues, the students reported significantly Conversely, they held significantly neutral positions on eugenics, a virtually unfamiliar topic for them (r = 0.618, p < 0.0001). The data also revealed a significantly direct correlation between knowledge and position for experimentation with non-implanted embryos (correlation coefficient = 0.380, p < 0.0001), that is, little knowledge and neutral attitudes. The trend findings for abortion and cloning were not significant. Based on these data, we concluded that the nursing program would benefit from additional biomedical curriculum.

  7. The West's dismissal of the Khabarovsk trial as 'communist propaganda': ideology, evidence and international bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2004-01-01

    In late 1949 the former Soviet Union conducted an open trial of eight Japanese physicians and researchers and four other military servicemen in Khabarovsk, a city in eastern Siberia. Despite its strong ideological tone and many obvious shortcomings such as the lack of international participation, the trial established beyond a reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that Japanese researchers had conducted cruel experiments on living human beings. However, the trial, together with the evidence presented to the court and its major findings--which have proved remarkably accurate--was dismissed as communist propaganda and totally ignored in the West until the 1980s. This paper reviews the 1949 Khabarovsk trial, examines the West's dismissal of the proceedings as mere propaganda and draws some moral lessons for bioethics today. As an important historical case, set in the unique socio-political context of the Cold War, the West's dismissal of the trial powerfully illustrates some perennial ethical issues such as the ambivalence of evidence and power of ideology in making (or failing to make) cross-national and cross-cultural factual and moral judgments.

  8. The significance of the concept of sin for bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievernich, Michael

    2005-08-01

    After a period during which the theological categories of sin and forgiveness were ignored or trivialized, presently these notions are being rediscovered. What could their impact be on bioethics, either in the narrow sense of medical ethics, or in the more encompassing sense of the ethics of the life sciences? This essay begins with describing the processes of transcending and ethitization, which gave rise to the biblical notion of sin. It portrays the theological foundation of sin in terms of a twofold refusal of proper relations to God and other humans. Through the practise of confession in the face of God (coram deo), sin is placed into a horizon of hope for forgiveness and reconciliation. The heuristic and hermeneutical significance of these categories results from their introducing a "surplus value," which transcends biological and ethical considerations. This additional dimension is illustrated in view of care (cura) for the injured, and in view of individual as well as collective willingness to forgive. PMID:16266971

  9. Balancing cultural pluralism and universal bioethical standards: a multiple strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioce, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    If we want to take firm the importance of universal principles in Bioethics, but at the same time we want to take seriously the importance of cultural diversity and pluralism, it is necessary to adopt a multifaceted approach. In the article I argue that a possible way out is a sort of hermeneutic approach, in order to reduce the ambivalence that stems from the dual recognition of cultural diversity and universal value of human rights. Through this approach conflicting principles and traditions can be harmonized within a common framework, at least to some extent. Such an approach, in my perspective, can be implemented as a strategy of interpretation, which can hold together different conceptions and common principles. PMID:26860625

  10. HIV/AIDS and bioethics: historical perspective, personal retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Charles S

    2002-01-01

    Problems posed by HIV/AIDS differ from those of past epidemics by virtue of unique properties of the causative agent, dramatic societal changes of the late 20th century, and the transition of medical practice from a professional ethic to a technology-dependent business ethic. HIV/AIDS struck during the coming-of-age of molecular biology and also of bioethics, and the epidemic stimulated the growth of both disciplines. The number of articles published about AIDS and ethics (as identified by a MEDLINE search) peaked in 1990, just before the peak incidence of AIDS in the United States. The character of ethical dialogue has now shifted from familiar moral quandaries such as civil liberty versus public welfare to concerns about vaccine trials and public policy toward the developing world. Physicians and other health care workers who were involved from the onset endured something of an emotional roller coaster. Their compassion-based work ethic was to a large extent replaced by a competence-based work ethic after the introduction in 1996 of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The abundant recent literature on "professionalism" in medicine makes scant mention of AIDS/HIV. The disruptive effect of AIDS/HIV on society would have been substantially greater had relevant technology such as the ability to isolate retroviruses and potent therapy against tuberculosis not been in place. This sobering consideration, along with such recent events as the use of bioterrorism against civilian populations, suggests new relevance for Potter's definition of "bioethics" as a science of survival in which the biology of ecosystems must be taken into account. PMID:15971565

  11. Child Rights and Clinical Bioethics: Historical Reflections on Modern Medicine and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Why might pediatric bioethicists in the United States reject the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as a framework for resolving ethical issues? The essays in this issue present arguments and counterarguments regarding the usefulness of the CRC in various clinical and research cases. But underlying this debate are two historical factors that help explain the seeming paradox of pediatric bioethicists' arguing against child's rights. First, the profession of clinical bioethics emerged in the 1970s as one component of modern medicine's focus on improving health through the application of technologically sophisticated treatments. The everyday work of U.S. bioethicists thus usually involves emerging technologies or practices in clinical or laboratory settings; the articles of the CRC, in contrast, seem better suited to addressing broad policy issues that affect the social determinants of health. Second, U.S. child health policy veered away from a more communitarian approach in the early 20th century for reasons of demography that were reinforced by ideology and concerns about immigration. The divide between clinical medicine and public health in the United States, as well as the relatively meager social safety net, are not based on a failure to recognize the rights of children. Indeed, there is some historical evidence to suggest that "rights language" has hindered progress on child health and well-being in the United States. In today's political climate, efforts to ensure that governments pledge to treat children in accordance with their status as human beings (a child right's perspective) are less likely to improve child health than robust advocacy on behalf of children's unique needs, especially as novel models of health-care financing emerge. PMID:27157355

  12. Bioethics in popular science: evaluating the media impact of The Immortal Llife of Henrietta Lacks on the biobank debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ethicists and advocates to elevate attention to donor control, compensation, patenting, privacy, and other ethical issues. Still, ethicists should view the book and a pending major TV film translation as opportunities to highlight through media outreach, consultation exercises and public forums a broader range of bioethical concerns that would otherwise be under-emphasized in news coverage. Such efforts, however, need to be carefully planned and evaluated. PMID:23446115

  13. Bioética e as diretrizes curriculares nacionais do curso de medicina Bioethics and national medical school curriculum guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise dos aspectos bioéticos contidos nas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN do curso de medicina, documento aprovado em 2001 pelos Ministérios da Educação e da Saúde e que propõe diretrizes para a formação do profissional médico. O campo da Bioética permeia todas as diretivas das DCN do curso de Medicina. Isso credita à disciplina um status de eixo integrador no processo de formação de médicos. Considerando as observações que reforçam a tese de que a sociedade é que conforma a educação, esse novo paradigma contribui para efetivação do sistema de saúde brasileiro, o Sistema Único de Saúde, com todos os nuances e hibridizações de modelos de atenção. A Bioética está legitimada nas DCN. Resta ao aparelho formador garantir que ela se consolide na academia, enquanto ciência propositiva imprescindível para se alcançar a necessária prudência ao conhecimento biológico, associando aos valores humanos a ética da vida.The article discusses various bioethical issues addressed by the National Curriculum Guidelines (DCN for medical schools, a document approved in 2001 by the Ministries of Health and Education, which sets out guidelines for medical training. Bioethics permeates all the DCN guidelines for medical schools. This means that the discipline performs an integrating role in the medical training process. In view of observations backing the hypothesis that education is determined by society, this new paradigm helps to instill the new Brazilian health system, the Unified Health System, with its nuanced and mixed models of health care. Bioethics is given legitimacy by the DCN. It remains for the teaching profession to ensure that it is consolidated in academic circles, as an indispensible discipline, if biological knowledge is to be pursued in a prudent fashion promoting humane values and an ethics of life.

  14. Web-Facilitated Learning for Bioethics Principles on Human Dignity and Human Rights

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    Sivapalan Selvadurai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With the advent of globalization and information and communication technology (ICT, web-facilitated learning strategy has taken an important role in the learning and teaching process. This paper examines how bioethics principles on human dignity and human rights can be learned through web-facilitated learning strategies among tertiary level International Relations students. Bioethics is an emerging field that concerns states and inter-state relations. It is about thinking globally about ethics and about our moral judgment about life, the environment and other species. The objective of this study is to provide an assessment on how graduate students of International Relations use web-based tools to gather information about global bioethics principles. Approach: The research data is collected through feedbacks solicited from some 40 post-graduate students of International Relations on (i self-assessment on the learning acquired regarding the bioethics principles using web resources and (ii through a set of pre- and post-tests to test the knowledge acquired on the subject matter. Results: The findings reveal that through the use of web-facilitated learning strategy respondents’ showed increased comprehension and receptiveness towards bioethics principles on human dignity and human rights. Conclusion: Therefore the study concludes that the use of web-facilitated learning strategy can emphasize the importance of bioethics principles in understanding the ethical framework in dealing with human dignity and human rights. The research findings may provide useful information for scholars and researchers developing teaching strategies using bioethics resources.

  15. Bioethical considerations about water fluoridation: a critical review.

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    María Elisa Quinteros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the oral pathologies with greater burden of disease in the Chilean population. Fluoridation of drinking water has been used as a caries prevention strategy. However, its application as a public policy has been questioned since its implementation. The aim of this article is to analyze whether fluoridation of drinking water is a justified measure in reducing the incidence and prevalence of caries from the perspective of bioethics, taking into account the current evidence on its effectiveness. The arguments reviewed are based on the belief that water fluoridation is effective and, in general terms, ethically acceptable. A recent systematic review concludes that there is not enough evidence to support fluoridation as a public policy. There is a gap of knowledge that ought to be closed so that public health authorities can assess the significance of the intervention and make a democratic decision on its continuation or suspension based on scientific evidence. This decision should be informed and disseminated within the community.

  16. Rethinking the Bioethics of Pregnancy: Time for a New Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Ashish; Gates, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Within the realm of bioethics, the construction of pregnancy classically has focused on principle-based ethics, essentially separating maternal and fetal interests. Respect for maternal autonomy becomes distinct from an obligation of fetal beneficence, placing practitioners in complicated ethical situations when the goals of pregnant women may be at odds with the best health interests of the fetus as defined by both professional groups and society in general. As a result, clinical care is framed by an ethical "maternal-fetal conflict," with important downstream legal and policy consequences for the well-being of pregnant women. Developments in the social sciences highlight the value of attending to the biosocial realm that a pregnant woman inhabits rather than relating to her and to her fetus as discrete entities. By understanding the needs, concerns, and context within which a woman lives, clinicians can practice an ethics of accompaniment. With a focus on an ethics of accompaniment, assumptions about the maternal moral responsibility to fetal health made by practitioners and society in general can directly affect not only clinical care, but also the way policy surrounding reproductive health is constructed and implemented. PMID:27400011

  17. Towards clinical bioethics (or a return to clinical ethics?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics has traditionally been oriented towards the clinical setting. Since the middle of the last century, however, various circumstances (associated mainly, though not exclusively, with rapid advances in technology and knowledge) have considerably broadened both the field of enquiry and the scope of this discipline. This is due partly to the overlap between medical ethics and bioethics, which in recent decades has acquired its own identity and concerns a multitude of ethical aspects in the biomedical field. Clinical ethics taps into the vast wealth of deontology, so that it has no need for additional criteria or principles, or for the definition of new values: rather, it recognizes the need to apply existing criteria, principles and values to contingent circumstances and contexts. A special role is reserved for ethics committees and, above all, for clinical ethics consultants, although in some countries the former are concerned mainly with authorisations for clinical trials. Clinical ethics consultants, however, may have a more incisive influence in clinical decisions: the special requisites and skills they need have been defined and discussed in various documents which are mentioned briefly in the present article. The presence of these consultants does not exonerate clinical physicians from their responsibilities or from liability for their decisions, in the formation of which they must refer constantly to codes of professional ethics. PMID:24424236

  18. A sociological analysis of ethical expertise: The case of bioethics

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    Nathan Emmerich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of ethical expertise and does so in the context of bioethics or, more accurately, applied ethics and the ethical governance of the life sciences. This analysis builds on a perspective set out in a previous paper and develops it further such that it relates to democratic processes. I argue that the academic practice of applied ethics exhibits a particular logic, way of thinking or eidos. Drawing on work in the history of science I present the logic of this practice as underpinned by a particular set of values or ethos. This can be contrasted with what Bernstein calls the democratic ethos as well as that of everyday moral agents. Using the framework of expertise developed by Collins and Evan’s—which differentiates between ubiquitous, contributory, and interactional expertise—I suggest that (bioethicists should modulate their expertise depending on the particular nature of the fora—academic, public, and policy-making—they are speaking in.

  19. Initiating palliative care conversations: lessons from Jewish bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2013-03-01

    What are the ethical responsibilities of the medical staff (doctors, nurses, social workers, and chaplains) regarding the preservation of meaningful life for their patients who are approaching the end of life (EOL)? In particular, what is the staff's ethical responsibility to initiate a conversation with their patient regarding palliative care? By subjecting traditional Jewish teachings to an ethical analysis and then exploring the underlying universal principles, we will suggest a general ethical duty to inform patients of the different care options, especially in a manner that preserves hope. The principle that we can derive from Jewish bioethics teaches that the medical staff has a responsibility to help our patients live in a way that is consistent with how they understand their task or responsibility in life. For some patients, the best way to preserve a meaningful life in which they can fulfill their sense of purpose in the time that remains is to focus on palliation. For this reason, although palliative and supportive care are provided from the time of diagnosis, it is critical we make sure our patients realize that they have the opportunity to make a decision between either pursuing additional active treatments or choosing to focus primarily on palliative therapies to maximize quality of life. The Jewish tradition and our experience in spiritual care suggest the importance of helping patients preserve hope while, simultaneously, honestly acknowledging their situation. Staff members can play a vital role in helping patients make the most of this new period of their lives. PMID:23089233

  20. Reframing bioethics education for non-professionals: lessons from cognitive anthropology and education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation. Two of these perspectives have been particularly fruitful in understanding the processes of teaching and learning in a variety of domains. The third perspective has been developed in relation to the formal ethical education of medical students. I examine their relevance for 'non-professional' bioethics education suggesting that if we take seriously the idea that it is part of 'educating for citizenship' then the distinction between 'ethics' and 'politics' is blurred as such programmes aim at the development of student's political subjectivity.

  1. Bioethical aspects of the management of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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    Maria de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioethical aspects related with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with AIDS are present in the Cuban strategy to fight the epidemic. Through the revision of the essentials and principles of Bioethics, we analyze the problems that doctors face when treating these patients and aspects related with education for health in the case of this disease. It also outlines the association between these principles and the disposition, manifested or not, of theses patients to be part of some researches. This infection should be the target of permanent analysis by the Bioethics due to the constant challenges that it represent for medical staff and for society, either for the prevention, treatment and care, or for other kids of actions. Cuba has exceptional results in this field.

  2. Reframing bioethics education for non-professionals: lessons from cognitive anthropology and education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation. Two of these perspectives have been particularly fruitful in understanding the processes of teaching and learning in a variety of domains. The third perspective has been developed in relation to the formal ethical education of medical students. I examine their relevance for 'non-professional' bioethics education suggesting that if we take seriously the idea that it is part of 'educating for citizenship' then the distinction between 'ethics' and 'politics' is blurred as such programmes aim at the development of student's political subjectivity. PMID:25344014

  3. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendelevich Vladimir D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.

  4. I want to hold your hand: abstinence curricula, bioethics, and the silencing of desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Abby

    2013-06-01

    The abstinence approach to sex education remains influential despite its demonstrated ineffectiveness. One bill forbids the "promotion" of "gateway sexual activity," while requiring outright condemnation of "non-abstinence," defined so loosely as to plausibly include handholding. Bioethics seldom (if ever) contributes to sex-ed debates, yet exploring the pivotal role of medical discourse reveals the need for bioethical intervention. Sex-ed debates revolve around a theory of human flourishing based on heteronormative temporality, a developmental teleology ensuring the transmission of various supposed social goods through heterosexual marriage (Halberstam, 2005). Heteronormative temporality also constitutes a moralized discourse in which the values of health and presumed certainties of medicine serve to justify conservative religious dictates that otherwise would appear controversial as the basis for public policy. Overall, this analysis explores how moralized medical discourses compound existing injustices, while suggesting bioethics' potential contributions to moral and political analysis of sex-ed policies. PMID:23468394

  5. Estratégias de enfrentamento dos dilemas bioéticos gerados pela violência na escola Coping strategies to bioethical dilemmas generated by school violence

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    Flavia Pedro dos Anjos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A violência na escola é um problema social que perpassa o âmbito da educação e da saúde pública, envolve aspectos bioéticos e requer mecanismos de enfrentamento, a partir da educação em saúde. Este estudo objetiva discutir estratégias fundamentadoras da educação em saúde, sobre aspectos bioéticos no domínio da violência escolar. Consiste em uma revisão bibliográfica crítico-reflexiva por meio do acesso a banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS, utilizando os descritores "violência and bioética" e "violência na escola", considerando os estudos publicados no período de 2004 a 2009. Realizamos também levantamento das obras de Paulo Freire e Pedro Demo, teóricos da Educação Libertadora. A leitura do material conduziu-nos a definição e discussão de três eixos temáticos: 1 bioética como instrumento reflexivo para a retomada dos valores morais na sociedade; 2 escola como formadora ética e de exercício de cidadania; 3 educação em saúde como instrumento para o enfrentamento da violência na escola. Acreditamos que a violência escolar envolve questões bioéticas que devem ser alvo de intervenções educativas na perspectiva libertadora, no intuito de gerar reflexões sobre o caráter negativo da violência escolar, tanto para o ensino-aprendizagem, como para o adoecimento dos atores envolvidos nessa problemática. Os profissionais da saúde poderão estabelecer a intersetorialidade com a educação e contribuir na prevenção da violência na escola, por meio de ações educativas em saúde, mobilizando cidadãos para uma sociedade comprometida em promover a vida; e que os profissionais da educação sejam receptivos e coparticipantes do processo intersetorial de educação e saúde.School violence is a social problem that pervades the educational and public health context, involving bioethical issues and requires coping mechanisms from health education. This study aims to discuss strategies that

  6. 75 FR 66378 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... meeting, the Commission will continue discussing the emerging science of synthetic biology, including its... public of the ] emerging science of synthetic biology, the challenges and risks, and the...

  7. 77 FR 76042 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... of the nation's leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission... science and technology. The Commission seeks to identify and promote policies and practices that...

  8. 75 FR 52533 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... challenges and risks, and the ethical boundaries that may be important to formulation of public policy with... and risks, and appropriate ethical boundaries and principles. DATES: The meeting will take...

  9. Helen Flanders Dunbar, John Dewey, and clinical pragmatism: reflections on method in psychosomatic medicine and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines the method utilized by physicians and major figures in the founding of Clinical Pastoral Education, Helen Flanders Dunbar, in her work of 1943, Psychosomatic Diagnosis, and relates it to the currently evolving approach in bioethics known as clinical pragmatism. It assesses Dewey's influence on both Dunbar in psychosomatic medicine and clinical pragmatism in bioethics, and illustrates the breadth of influence of the school of philosophical thought known as pragmatism with which Dewey's name and those of William James and Charles Sanders Pierce are most often identified. PMID:12385140

  10. Transplant of bone marrow and cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in pediatric practice, revisited according to the fundamental principles of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, G R; Locatelli, F

    1997-06-01

    The two most widely used sources of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplants in pediatric practice are bone marrow (BM) and cord blood (CB). While bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is reaching its 30th year of application, human umbilical cord blood transplantation (HUCBT) is approaching its 10th. Although these procedures have basically the same purpose, a number of biological differences distinguish them. In particular, the intrinsically limited quantity of CB stem cells and their immunological naiveté confer peculiar characteristics to these hematopoietic progenitors. From a bioethical point of view, the problems which have repeatedly been raised when the BM donor is a child are well-known. Different but no less important ethical problems are raised when one considers HUCBT; in this regard the most important issues are the easier propensity of programming a CB donor in comparison with a BM donor (clearly due to the shorter time interval needed to collect the hematopoietic progenitors); the in utero HLA-typing; the implication of employing 'blood belonging to a neonate' for a third party; the need to perform a number of investigations both on the CB of the donor and on the mother and the implications that the discovery of disease may have for them, but also the need to establish banks for storing CB, with the accompanying administration and management problems. All these different aspects of UCBT will be discussed in the light of the four fundamental and traditional principles of bioethics, namely autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. PMID:9208108

  11. The ethics of clinical innovation in psychopharmacology: Challenging traditional bioethics

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    Goodwin Frederick K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the scientific and ethical basis for clinical innovation in psychopharmacology. Methods We conducted a literature review, utilizing MEDLINE search and bibliographic cross-referencing, and historical evidence regarding the discovery and development of new medications in psychiatry. Clinical innovation was defined as use of treatments in a clinical setting which have not been well-proven in a research setting. Results Empirical data regarding the impact of clinical innovation in psychopharmacology are lacking. A conceptual and historical assessment of this topic highlights the ethical and scientific importance of clinical innovation. Ethically, it touches a borderline that, in our judgment, is not adequately framed in contemporary mainstream bioethics. Currently, research is viewed as not at all benefiting the patients who participate in it, while clinical care is viewed as being solely for the benefit of patients. Clinical innovation straddles these two worlds, uncomfortably at times. While many argue that clinical innovation should either be avoided or folded into research projects, we argue that clinical innovation is necessary for progress in psychopharmacology research, and that it can prosper best when guided by the following ethical principles: 1. The treatment should be based on a viable hypothesis. 2. Whenever possible, one's clinical observations should be reported so they can be evaluated by the scientific community. 3. One should be willing to report unexpected observations of drug effects. 4. A high standard of informed consent should be maintained. Again, this proposal goes against the standard view among bioethicists that research and clinical care are categorically opposed activities, as made clear by the either-or dichotomy of the Belmont Report on bioethics. This approach has so polarized our profession into clinicians versus researchers, that many clinicians will not apply new knowledge produced by

  12. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists' management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping.

  13. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)...

  14. Psicoterapia e bioética: aproximando conceitos, aperfeiçoando práticas Psychotherapy and bioethics: linking concepts, improving practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Wallig Brusius Ludwig

    2007-12-01

    rmino de Consentimiento Libre y Aclarado (TCLA en el proceso psicoterápico, la formación profesional y otros. Se pretende, con este artículo, presentar algunos cuestionamientos poco trabajados, haciendo una contribución reflexiva, pero no determinante.Issues on the link between Psychology, therapy, training and Bioethics are provided and discussed. Current discussion is justified due to the fact that Bioethics has become an important subject in the context of contemporary technological and scientific improvements as a whole. It is thus essential to discuss Bioethics in all its specialties, taking the human being as its focus and center. Since Psychology deals with human beings, it may be highly contribute towards the solution of dilemmas in Bioethics and its importance may be highlighted within this area. Consequently, the manner bioethical principles may be transposed to the psychotherapeutic process is of paramount importance. Current essay reflects on the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist may face, on the use of the Term of Free and Clear Consent (TCLE in the psychotherapeutic process, professional training, among others. It shall also shed some light on less discussed issues for reflective, albeit not determinant, contributions.

  15. The orthodontist′s responsibility and the bioethical aspects in the current jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The orthodontists usually have to manage patient′s expectations and treatment plans at the same time. Consequently, the civil responsibility and the bioethics involved on orthodontic routine are matters of relevance. Therefore, the importance of adequate conducts is addressed in this research. Aim: The present aim is to analyze the tendency of the courts judging the orthodontists′ responsibility and to observe the bioethical aspects on the current jurisprudence. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 108 lawsuits related to the orthodontist′s civil responsibility, dated from 2003 to 2009. The qualitative data were obtained by the Bardin′s method for detailed reading. The quantitative collection was performed by observing statistical distribution of the following variables: (1 reason of the complaint against the orthodontist, (2 type of obligation designated to the professional, (3 presence of expert′s examination, and (4 jury decision. The correlations between the jury decision and the other variables were verified by applying the Chi-square test. Results: The main reason of the complaints against the orthodontist was the personal dissatisfaction (32%. Subjective and objective obligations had pair incidence (26% and 27%, respectively. The experts′ examination was present in 63, 89%, of the cases, and the jury decision acquitted 57, 78%, of the orthodontists. The passages involving bioethical principles supported properly the qualitative approach. Conclusion: The orthodontists show deviations from the correct daily attitudes. In order to avoid further conflicts, more attention must be given to the principles of bioethics.

  16. [The European Convention of Bioethics. Objectives, guiding principles and possible limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present work a detailed study is given of the European Convention on Bioethics, with discussion of its guiding principles--protection of human beings, their dignity and identity-, its objectives and the limits imposed by the Convention on the exercise of rights and freedoms in the case of the application of biology and medicine.

  17. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  18. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research. PMID:26325424

  19. Who Guards the Guardians? Ian Kennedy, Bioethics and the ‘Ideology of Accountability’ in British Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Summary This article charts the history of bioethics in Britain through the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy. From the late 1970s, Kennedy claimed that external oversight, which he termed ‘bioethics’, was needed to make medicine accountable to patients and the public. I believe these arguments provide a window onto the historical factors that generated the demand for bioethics, and help us determine why it became influential in recent decades. I detail how Kennedy's argument resonated with the Conservative enthusiasm for audit and consumer choice in the 1980s. Contrary to traditional portrayals of bioethics as a critique of medicine, I also show that Kennedy promised it would benefit doctors by improving decision making and maintaining public confidence. This analysis reframes bioethics as an important constituent of the ‘audit society’: fulfilling the neo-liberal demand for oversight and the medical demand for legitimacy.

  20. Openings: On the Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 1, Issue 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkin, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines Volume 1, Issue 1 of the Journal of Homosexuality and asks whether the journal's first contributors might reveal a historically problematic relationship whereby the categories of front-line LGBT health advocates in the 1970s might be incommensurate with the post-AIDS, queer politics that would follow in decades to come.

  1. Bioética e pesquisa na Fisioterapia: aproximação e vínculos Bioethics and research in physical therapy: approximation and bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Viero Badaró

    2008-12-01

    bibliography published in 2002 and to contact with authors, searching for articles published from 2000 on that addressed ethics and bioethics issues related to physical therapy. Books, comments on and/or book reviews, articles in non-indexed journals as well as texts having a commercial or advertising focus were excluded. Twenty-three articles, two editorials and a magazine section have been selected. Results show that the evolution of bioethics research in physical therapy is ever-increasing in the international scenario, but there is a lack of such studies in the national scope. This points to the urgent need to include this theme in physical therapists education and debate, in order to contribute to the development of professional identity.

  2. Ecumenical in spite of ourselves: a Protestant assessment of Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican Catholic approaches to bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Darrel W; Mandahl, Otto W

    1995-09-01

    A Christian approach to the issues that constitute bioethics is inevitable for us who cherish the truth of historic, creedal, trinitarian Christianity. Scripture teaches and the Greek and Latin Church Fathers as well as the Reformers aver that man, created in the image of God, has an inherent, if vestigial, sense of right and wrong and a conscience however marred by the fall and by rebellion. We must believe that we share this most basic ecumenism with all humanity, not because of rational observation and analysis of nature, but because Scripture reveals it. We who are convinced of the truth of historic, creedal, trinitarian Christianity have a high view of Scripture and hold it to be infallible and utterly trustworthy irrespective of the importance we assign to our specific post-biblical traditional distinctives. This is a narrower but much more vital ecumenism than the first. Faithful adherence to Scripture inevitably manifests itself in remarkably similar priorities and values, often, lamentably, not because of, but in spite of, ourselves. PMID:11654508

  3. Review of Feminist Bioethics At the Center, On the Margins, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, Petya Fitzpatrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander-Staudt Maureen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anthology, Feminist Bioethics, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, and Petya Fitzpatrick, examines how feminist bioethics theoretically and methodologically challenges mainstream bioethics, and whether these approaches are useful for exploring difference in other contexts. It offers critical conceptual analyses of "autonomy", "universality", and "trust", and covers topics such as testing for hereditary cancer, prenatal selection for sexual orientation, midwifery, public health, disability, Indigenous research reform in Australia, and China's one child policy.

  4. Bioethics and Human Rights in the Constitutional Formation of Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atina Krajewska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “Global health” is an increasingly important area of research and practice, concerned with the profound implications of globalisation for individual and communal health (particularly in developing countries and focused on achieving health equity for all people worldwide. As such, it is often viewed as overlapping with public health and, thus, conceptually distinct from the field of biomedicine and bioethics. Both fields bear an uneasy relationship with the field of human rights, which remains largely unexplored. The paper constructively utilises insight derived from theories of global legal pluralism and global constitutionalism to argue, perhaps controversially, that recent developments in international biomedical law and bioethics, constitute an important phase in the constitutional construction of a global health law system. In doing so, the paper analyses the role of human rights in the growing constitutional autonomy and organization of global health.

  5. Using a Scoring Rubric to Assess the Writing of Bioethics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Labrecque, Cory A; Schonfeld, Toby

    2016-04-01

    Educators in bioethics have struggled to find valid and reliable assessments that transcend the "reproduction of knowledge" to target more important skill sets. This manuscript reports on the process of developing and grading a minimal-competence comprehensive examination in a bioethics master's degree program. We describe educational theory and practice for the creation and deployment of scoring rubrics for high-stakes performance assessments that reduce scoring inconsistencies. The rubric development process can also benefit the program by building consensus among stakeholders regarding program goals and student outcomes. We describe the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy as a mechanism for rubric design and provide an example of how we applied that taxonomy to define pass/fail cut scores. Details about domains of assessment and writing descriptors of performance are also presented. Despite the laborious work required to create a scoring rubric, we found the effort to be worthwhile for our program.

  6. Using a Scoring Rubric to Assess the Writing of Bioethics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Labrecque, Cory A; Schonfeld, Toby

    2016-04-01

    Educators in bioethics have struggled to find valid and reliable assessments that transcend the "reproduction of knowledge" to target more important skill sets. This manuscript reports on the process of developing and grading a minimal-competence comprehensive examination in a bioethics master's degree program. We describe educational theory and practice for the creation and deployment of scoring rubrics for high-stakes performance assessments that reduce scoring inconsistencies. The rubric development process can also benefit the program by building consensus among stakeholders regarding program goals and student outcomes. We describe the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy as a mechanism for rubric design and provide an example of how we applied that taxonomy to define pass/fail cut scores. Details about domains of assessment and writing descriptors of performance are also presented. Despite the laborious work required to create a scoring rubric, we found the effort to be worthwhile for our program. PMID:26957455

  7. Informed consent under the European Convention on Biomedicine and the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, Solomon E

    2011-03-01

    The desirability of obtaining freely given consent is universally accepted. The point, however, is that there is no unanimity on the definition of informed consent or its application in bioethics. Whether informed consent is based on principalism or casuistry or the virtue theory, the problem is how to handle the ethically complex situation created in the interface between informed consent and social justice under international biomedical instruments. This article will proceed by offering detailed historical and critical analyses of informed consent under the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine 1997 and The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights 2005. Three conceptions of justice will be utilised to show that the doctrine of informed consent has driven the ethos of research on human beings and shaped the physician-patient relationship; and that casuistry and virtue theory are consistent with and not rivals of a principle-based account of informed consent.

  8. [The bioethics of protection and the state's role: moral problems in unequal access to drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Carlos Antonio Alves; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine unequal access to drinking water as a public health problem in terms of normative and analytical tools in the bioethics of protection. Therefore, we analyze both the moral implications of unequal treatment of primary needs, such as situations of vulnerability and threat to population groups, and the public sector's responsibility in supplying safe water. In addition, solutions are proposed for the protection of public health and the promotion of legitimate personal development projects. The bioethics of protection reaffirms the state's role in maintaining the drinking water supply and recommends avoiding a policy of privatization of this public good, meanwhile justifying public policies to correct situations of social injustice.

  9. Bioethics and its dimensions in the actions of the health professional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sánchez Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is made a historical recount of the evolution of Bioethics from the origins of this discipline in the United States of North America, by Van Rensselaer Potter, medical oncologist of the University of Wisconsin, and their ulterior development in the Latin America as well as their development in Cuba... Emphasis is made in the necessity of contributing, decisively, to the reinforcement of the national identity, the social commitment, the love to the university, and the invigoration of social ethical values, the construction of values ethical professionals evidenced in acting with bigger civic responsibility and professional. Some reflections are exposed about the dimensions of the Bioethics that should characterize the doctor's professional formation in their performance contexts whose mission is the preparation of professionals able to assure the historical continuity of the Cuban system of health.

  10. Clinical bioethics integration, sustainability, and accountability: the Hub and Spokes Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, S; Chidwick, P; Berry, S; Secker, B; Hébert, P; Shaul, R Zlotnik; Faith, K; Singer, P A

    2005-05-01

    The "lone" clinical bioethicist working in a large, multisite hospital faces considerable challenges. While attempting to build ethics capacity and sustain a demanding range of responsibilities, he or she must also achieve an acceptable level of integration, sustainability, and accountability within a complex organisational structure. In an effort to address such inherent demands and to create a platform towards better evaluation and effectiveness, the Clinical Ethics Group at the Joint Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto is implementing the Hub and Spokes Strategy at seven hospitals. The goal of the Hub and Spokes Strategy is to foster an ethical climate and strengthen ethics capacity broadly throughout healthcare settings as well as create models in clinical bioethics that are excellent and effective.

  11. Bioethics as a second-order discipline: who is not a bioethicist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2006-12-01

    A dispute exists about whether bioethics should become a new discipline with its own methods, competency standards, duties, honored texts, and core curriculum. Unique expertise is a necessary condition for disciplines. Using the current literature, different views about the sort of expertise that might be unique to bioethicists are critically examined to determine if there is an expertise that might meet this requirement. Candidates include analyses of expertise based in "philosophical ethics," "casuistry," "atheoretical or situation ethics," "conventionalist relativism," "institutional guidance," "regulatory guidance and compliance," "political advocacy," "functionalism," and "principlism." None succeed in identifying a unique area of expertise for successful bioethicists that could serve as a basis for making it a new discipline. Rather expertise in bioethics is rooted in many professions, disciplines and fields and best understood as a second-order discipline.

  12. Rethinking ethical and legal issues at the end of life in the U.K. and Brazil: a role for solidarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla A Arena; Gallagher, Ann; Jago, Robert; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2013-12-01

    There are currently high profile debates about legal and ethical aspects of end of life care and treatment in the U.K. and Brazil. Unlike some other jurisdictions, neither country has legalised assisted dying or euthanasia. We argue that it is timely to consider the issues from the perspectives of an evolving concept in bioethics, that of solidarity.

  13. Interpretation and implementation of UNESCO's Universal declaration on bioethics and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Todorovska, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Th e beginning of the 21 century imposes the need of synchronising the practical and the academic approach in the interpretation of bioethical problems and the implications of their solving. Some of the goals of the Declaration are the education of health-care professionals, the creation the infrastructure necessary for biomedical research and the education of the scientists involved in it, and the foundation of ethical committees. Th e Declaration provides with a legal and political guidelin...

  14. Bioethical perspectives for ageing: the documents produced by the Ethics Councils

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Lucília

    2015-01-01

    Aging attracted keen interest in research, health, education as well as cross-sectors approaches. We researched what has been produced by the National Bioethics/Ethics Councils in the form of opinions or other documents, relating to aging and elderly people. In the websi-tes of the 28 EU councils and 12 other countries, we identified 4 documents relating to aging and 8 opinions, which we analyse. The Councils have proposed to draw the attention and reflection of public opinion ...

  15. Developing a bioethics curriculum for medical students from divergent geo-political regions

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Rebecca A.; Kim, Celine; Stolte, Helen; Hellmann, Jonathan; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Valani, Rahim; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization calls for stronger cross-cultural emphasis in medical training. Bioethics education can build such competencies as it involves the conscious exploration and application of values and principles. The International Pediatric Emergency Medicine Elective (IPEME), a novel global health elective, brings together 12 medical students from Canada and the Middle East for a 4-week, living and studying experience. It is based at a Canadian children’s hospital and,...

  16. LA BIOÉTICA EN LOS ESPACIOS DE APRENDIENCIA (BIOETHICS IN THE LEARNING SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segura Castillo Mario

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo pretendo presentar concepciones a cerca del abordaje de la bioética, desde las teorías del caos y del pensamiento complejo. La bioética es un modo de estar en el dominio del consenso, de coordinaciones de sentires, que requiere de una gran plasticidad, desde lo humano, comprometido con su historia y las futuras generaciones. Además, concibo la aprendiencia como un proceso bioético de vida, en la convivencia, en ese lenguajear perpetúo, que permite la aceptación del otro y la otra. En ese sentido, todos los seres, que crecemos en el lenguaje, somos capaces de aprender y de reconocer nuestros propios errores, como los que hemos cometido con la naturaleza, en todas sus formas. Por lo tanto, una idea personal de la bioética es aprehender los sentires y los pensamientos, con compromiso, en el devenir sostenible de la Tierra.Abstract:In this essay I try to present conceptions which deal with bioethics, from the chaos theories and complex thinking. Bioethics is a mode of being dominated by consensus, the coordination of feelings, which require great flexibility from the human, committed to its history and future generations. Furthermore, I conceive learning as a bioethical process of life, within coexistence, in this perpetual language which permits the acceptation of the other. In this sense, all beings, we who grow up with language, are capable of learning and recognizing our own mistakes, and those which we have committed in nature, and in all forms. Therefore, a personal idea of bioethics is to seize feelings and thoughts, with commitment, in order for earth’s sustainability to come about.

  17. In the Context of Bioethics and Biopolitics with Keeping Track of the Helsinki Declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Yaşar Öztoprak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethics and biopolitics derive from ethics, which con­stitutes their denominator but their choice and the appli­cation of the moral principles ranges from being simply different to being outright contradictory. In order to under­stand the interaction between bioethics and biopolitics, which has been repeatedly mentioned, we believe that it is important to examine the Declaration of Helsinki. When the revisions of the declaration are analyzed thoroughly, especially when the differences between the 2008 and 2013 revisions are examined, it is possible to see how bioethics and politics contradict and/or overlap each other in the world of clinical research. In 1952 ethics commission was established under WMA (World Medical Association, in 1961 an outline of text about use of human subjects and researches on human being was created to be a guideline for physicians. This text has been declared at the 18th General Assembly of the WMA (Helsinki 1964. In our study, in the light of this document, we will evaluate with a critical perspective, the revision in 2013 and the WMA’s biopolitics concerns relating to reserch on human subject. We will scent out the traces of the capitalism on the health and health care era. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 111-119

  18. Ethical Issues in Canadian Gastroenterology: Resluts of a Survey of Canadian Gastroenterology Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Malhotra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specialty-specific bioethical education is a mandated component of gastroenterology training programs in Canada, but no gastroenterology-specific bioethical curriculum is available.

  19. Pharmacogenetics: the bioethical problem of DNA investment banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Oonagh P; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2006-09-01

    Concern about the ethics of clinical drug trials research on patients and healthy volunteers has been the subject of significant ethical analysis and policy development--protocols are reviewed by Research Ethics Committees and subjects are protected by informed consent procedures. More recently attention has begun to be focused on DNA banking for clinical and pharmacogenetics research. It is, however, surprising how little attention has been paid to the commercial nature of such research, or the unique issues that present when subjects are asked to consent to the storage of biological samples. Our contention is that in the context of pharmacogenetic add-on studies to clinical drug trials, the doctrine of informed consent fails to cover the broader range of social and ethical issues. Applying a sociological perspective, we foreground issues of patient/subject participation or 'work', the ambiguity of research subject altruism, and the divided loyalties facing many physicians conducting clinical research. By demonstrating the complexity of patient and physician involvement in clinical drug trials, we argue for more comprehensive ethical review and oversight that moves beyond reliance on informed consent to incorporate understandings of the social, political and cultural elements that underpin the diversity of ethical issues arising in the research context. PMID:16980194

  20. From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies. [Commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back

  1. Cooperação em saúde na perspectiva bioética Cooperation in health from the bioethical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paranaguá de Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo considera o cenário das relações internacionais na transição para o Século XXI como pano de fundo para uma reflexão sobre a perspectiva bioética da cooperação internacional em saúde. Apresenta uma análise exploratória sobre a produção científica interdisciplinar da bioética com a saúde pública no contexto internacional, revelando que o enfoque de ambas, ou mesmo das articulações entre esses dois temas, tem parca abordagem do ponto de vista das relações diplomáticas. Descreve a metodologia que permitiu selecionar publicações catalogadas nessa área interdisciplinar em duas fontes bibliográficas disponíveis na Web (93 artigos na BVS/Bireme e 161 na PubMed, apontando dificuldades na recuperação dessa literatura. Advoga o potencial da vertente epistemológica que floresceu na América Latina sob a designação da Bioética de Intervenção na abordagem dos desafios que afrontam o sistema de cooperação internacional, acenado como referencial de análise da cooperação sul-sul em saúde. Conclui propondo a sistematização e o aprofundamento do conhecimento na interseção da bioética com a saúde pública e a diplomacia, cuja projeção no âmbito político-institucional poderá contribuir para a redução das desigualdades das condições de saúde entre as nações.This study considers the scenario of international relations in the transition to the twenty-first century as a backdrop for reflection on the bioethical perspective of international cooperation in health. It presents an exploratory analysis of the interdisciplinary scientific production in bioethics and public health in the international context, revealing that the focus and confluence of both issues has scant coverage in terms of diplomatic relations. It describes the methodology used to select publications cataloged in this interdisciplinary area from two bibliographic sources available on the web (93 articles in BVS/BIREME and 161 in Pub

  2. A Modern Twist on the Beaumont and St. Martin Case: Encouraging Analysis and Discussion in the Bioethics Classroom with Reflective Writing and Concept Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C. Goller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont's experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course's structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas.

  3. A modern twist on the beaumont and st. Martin case: encouraging analysis and discussion in the bioethics classroom with reflective writing and concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Carlos C

    2014-12-01

    Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont's experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course's structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas.

  4. [Dignity of human beings as regulatory principle in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J

    2000-01-01

    New discoveries and advances in biotechnology are producing new social realities which must be appraised properly from the ethical point of view. Vitally important in this task is the principle of human dignity, which is examined here by the author. Human dignity is crucial in seeking to resolve the conflicts that might arise as a result of the new possibilities opened up by modern biotechnology, such as embryo research, predictive diagnosis, gene therapy, human cloning or the issue of xenotransplants. PMID:11284123

  5. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics.

  6. Patient Autonomy in Talmudic Context: The Patient's "I Must Eat" on Yom Kippur in the Light of Contemporary Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Zackary; Cahan, Rabbi Joshua

    2016-10-01

    In contemporary bioethics, the autonomy of the patient has assumed considerable importance. Progressing from a more limited notion of informed consent, shared decision making calls upon patients to voice the desires and preferences of their authentic self, engaging in choice among alternatives as a way to exercise deeply held values. One influential opinion in Jewish bioethics holds that Jewish law, in contradistinction to secular bioethics, limits the patient's exercise of autonomy only in those instances in which treatment choices are sensitive to preferences. Here, we analyze a discussion in the Mishna, a foundational text of rabbinic Judaism, regarding patient autonomy in the setting of religiously mandated fasting, and commentaries in the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds, finding both a more expansive notion of such autonomy and a potential metaphysical grounding for it in the importance of patient self-knowledge. PMID:27357582

  7. Ethical and Social Issues in Health Research Involving Incarcerated People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Lewis, Sharon R; Smith, Selina A

    2016-01-01

    The use of inmates in research in the U.S. was restricted by the recommendations of the National Commission and by federal regulations and guidelines that followed. By the 1980s, many health care officials became concerned about the exclusion of inmates from experimental treatments for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). These developments in ethics occurred in the context of racial/ethnic disparities in health. In this article, ethical considerations in clinical and public health research on HIV in prison and jail settings are considered. Ethical considerations in mental health research are summarized as well as issues pertaining to research involving female inmates. Issues related to oversight of research involving incarcerated people are considered along with the ethics of public health research. The ethics of research involving incarcerated people extends beyond traditional issues in human subjects ethics to include issues within the domains of bioethics and public health ethics.

  8. Pessoas com deficiência e políticas de saúde no Brasil: reflexões bioéticas Persons with disabilities and Brazilian healthcare policies: thoughts about bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cristina Gonçalves Bernardes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe reflexões, à luz da bioética, acerca do dilema da alocação de recursos públicos para a assistência à saúde das pessoas com deficiência no Brasil. Para tanto, o conceito de deficiência e o marco legal brasileiro de assistência às pessoas com deficiência são apresentados; faz-se uma análise sobre a escassez de recursos; discutem-se referenciais teóricos atinentes e destaca-se o aporte da bioética de proteção e da bioética de intervenção. Conclui-se que, em razão de sua vulnerabilidade, as pessoas com deficiência devem ser protegidas pelo Estado e recursos devem ser empregados para garantir seu acesso aos serviços de saúde. Enfatiza-se, também, que apesar da previsão legal já existente, a efetiva destinação de recursos depende de outros fatores, tais como a participação sociopolítica das pessoas com deficiência na " pactuação" das políticas de saúde.The purpose of this article is to analyze the dilemma of allocation of public funds to the healthcare of people with disabilities in Brazil from a bioethical standpoint. The concept of disability and the legal framework are presented; the question of budgetary constraints and theoretical bioethics references about this issue are discussed; and the role of Bioethics of Protection and Bioethics of Intervention is stressed. It is concluded that, because of their vulnerability, people with disabilities should be protected by the state and funds must be allocated to guarantee their access to healthcare services. However, in spite of the existing legal basis, the actual destination of public funds to people with disabilities still depends on other factors, among others social and political participation of the disabled persons themselves in the negotiation of healthcare policies.

  9. Human cloning: category, dignity, and the role of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Evelyne

    2003-10-01

    Human cloning has been simultaneously a running joke for massive worldwide publicity of fringe groups like the Raelians, and the core issue of an international movement at the United Nations in support of a treaty to ban the use of cloning techniques to produce a child (so called reproductive cloning). Yet, even though debates on human cloning have greatly increased since the birth of Dolly, the clone sheep, in 1997, we continue to wonder whether cloning is after all any different from other methods of medically assisted reproduction, and what exactly makes cloning an 'affront to the dignity of humans.' Categories we adopt matter mightily as they inform but can also misinform and lead to mistaken and unproductive decisions. And thus bioethicists have a responsibility to ensure that the proper categories are used in the cloning debates and denounce those who try to win the ethical debate through well-crafted labels rather than well-reasoned argumentations. But it is as important for bioethicists to take a position on broad issues such as human cloning and species altering interventions. One 'natural question' would be, for example, should there be an international treaty to ban human reproductive cloning?

  10. Pragmatic principles--methodological pragmatism in the principle-based approach to bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Felzmann, Heike

    2003-01-01

    In this paper it will be argued that Beauchamp and Childress' principle-based approach to bioethics has strongly pragmatic features. Drawing on the writings of William James, I first develop an understanding of methodological pragmatism as a method of justification. On the basis of Beauchamp's and Childress' most recent proposals concerning moral justification in the fifth edition of their Principles of Biomedical Ethics (2001), I then discuss different aspects that the principle-based approach and methodological pragmatism have in common. PMID:14972762

  11. [Science fiction and the Brave New World: predictions fulfilled in our century and bioethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Carolina Clemente Dos; Amorim Neto, Thomaz Pereira de; Goes, Andrea Carla de Souza

    2013-06-01

    The speed with which science generates results in modern society requires reflection on the limits of scientific progress. This is the foundation of Brave New World, a book published by Aldous Huxley in 1932 that portrays a future technological society along the lines of Fordism. This article establishes a relationship between our current technocratic society and that described by Huxley, discussing the viability of the technical and biological aspects of the manipulations narrated in the book in light of current knowledge. Some bioethical considerations with respect to the procedures 'invented' by the author - and which are already or could be developed in modern society - will also be addressed.

  12. [Science fiction and the Brave New World: predictions fulfilled in our century and bioethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Carolina Clemente Dos; Amorim Neto, Thomaz Pereira de; Goes, Andrea Carla de Souza

    2013-06-01

    The speed with which science generates results in modern society requires reflection on the limits of scientific progress. This is the foundation of Brave New World, a book published by Aldous Huxley in 1932 that portrays a future technological society along the lines of Fordism. This article establishes a relationship between our current technocratic society and that described by Huxley, discussing the viability of the technical and biological aspects of the manipulations narrated in the book in light of current knowledge. Some bioethical considerations with respect to the procedures 'invented' by the author - and which are already or could be developed in modern society - will also be addressed. PMID:23739805

  13. IS THE ETHICS OF ECONOMIES ADAPTED OR NOT TO THE IMPERATIVE OF BIOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Donev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethics in economy is not only a corrector, but also must be initiator if we want to achieve essence of our existence - the human being as “Homo ethicus”, as well as, which is more important for mankind - to achieve a human being as “Homo homine ethica ethicus est”. This remark points on two things. First: we came to the stage where we become aware about the fact that our economies are dehumanized. The second: that’s the reason why we must return to ethics and pull out from it that universal values which will make the managers of natural recourses more ethically awarded, so they will be able to start managing production without endangering bio potentials anymore. Previous remark lead us to conclusion that, no matter if the idiom “business ethics” is oxymoron or not, the present ethics is more a list of rules of conduction or, more precisely, etiquette. This clearly points that this kind of ethics of economy and in economy is not adoptive to the imperative of Bioethics: Don’t misuse recourses if you want to feed yourself and those for which you create the existence! This is so because always when we talk about ethics and ethicizing of those which managing the base of existence, de facto, are discussions about choosing the appropriate model of capitalism. The problem of these “discussions” is that we almost always forget to explain: is the chosen model of capitalization of society applicable considering the local specifics and needs of community? Therefore, the imperative of Bioethics, in this context, is to teach the ethics how to think about bio resource and bio heritage, even if we stop talk of some kinds of ethics and ethicizing of economies and of those which managing with it, because if we reconsider the reactions of the population, it is clear that they are seek of talking about it. But also, it’s recognizable the fact that they who talks just show that the essential thinking about Bioethics is absent and that the

  14. Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Care for Duchenne / Emotional Issues Print Email Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a ... important things you can provide to ensure the emotional health of your child. Parents of a child ...

  15. Following the Yellow Brick Road: Next Steps in the Synthesis of Pediatric Bioethics and Child Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The Symposium on "The Interface of Child Rights and Pediatric Bioethics in the Clinical Setting" brought together a diverse group of pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates to explore how the junction of these disciplines could inform their respective work. In retrospect, it is clear how the diversity of personal histories, professional disciplines, knowledge, experience, language, culture, and politics of the participants influenced the outcomes of the Symposium and provided both challenges and opportunities for further collaboration. Several themes emerged from the meeting, including the relevance of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the role of the family, and consideration of the best interests of the child to complex medical decision-making; research ethics; and the applicability of the principles of bioethics and child rights to the social determinants of health. This essay poses questions related to each of these themes that can serve as a framework for further collaboration. It concludes with a statement by Da Silva and his coauthors that the CRC and the principles of child rights can provide "increased conceptual clarity and a widely endorsed language that can assist pediatric bioethicists in clinical, organizational, and international consultations, as well as in education and policy development." PMID:27157356

  16. Are gay and lesbian people fading into the history of bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    In many ways, we live in propitious times for gay and lesbian people. In 1996, the Supreme Court struck down Colorado law prohibiting any kind of protected status based on sexual orientation. In 2003, the Supreme Court held that states may not criminalize sexual conduct between consenting adults of the same sex in private, so long as no money changes hands. In 2010, the Congress repealed the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy that excluded openly gay men and lesbians from military service. In 2013, the Supreme Court struck down key elements of the Defense of Marriage Act that prohibited any federal recognition of same-sex marriage. Most states do not allow same-sex marriage, but more and more states are joining the fold. Likewise, most U.S. states do not forbid discrimination based on sexual orientation, but the number that does is increasing. Arguably, no other social minority has made as much legal progress in so short a time. Despite these advances, the story of gay and lesbian people and the law is not yet finished, and the meaning of homosexuality for bioethics is still being written too. Concerns about gay and lesbian people remain important to bioethics in key domains, especially in seeing to the conferral of optimal health care benefits and in sorting through the priorities and social effects of research. Progress in these domains still involves lifting certain burdens of medical and social misjudgments about same-sex attraction. PMID:25231791

  17. Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross-Cultural Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, we do not want to backslide into a form of cultural relativism that is unable to critically appraise cultural practices that are harmful, unjust, or oppressive. I examine two prominent attempts - the principlism of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress and the Contractarianism of Robert Baker - to frame cross-cultural bioethics between these two extremes and argue that both approaches have significant flaws. The principlist approach fails to provide a non-question begging way to identify cross-cultural norms that does not already assume the universal legitimacy of moral principles dominant in North American society. Baker's contractarianism cannot grapple with the realities of political power imbalances that often characterize cross-cultural moral disputes. I suggest that a naturalized feminist framework, though not free of its own theoretical difficulties, provides the best alternative for approaching moral diversity respectfully and critically. PMID:24750579

  18. Brain death: the challenges of translating medical science into Islamic bioethical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Basser, Taha A

    2012-09-01

    Islamic ethico-legal assessments of brain death are varied and controversial. Some Islamic ethico-legal bodies have concluded that brain death is equivalent to cardiopulmonary death; others regard it as an intermediate state between life and death, and a few opine that it does not meet the standards for legal death according to Islamic law. Yet this translation of the concept of brain death into the Islamic ethico-legal domain has generated multiple ethical complexities that receive insufficient attention within the extant medical and fiqh literature. How do Islamic legists understand brain death as a clinical phenomenon? How does the Islamic ethico-legal system treat medical uncertainty? What Islamic ethico-legal principles should apply to bioethical questions about life and death? In this paper, we analyze the arguments for, and against, the acceptance of brain death within the context of the deliberation of a representative juridical council. In our discussion we focus on areas in which the legists' ethico-legal reasoning hinges upon clinical conceptions of the state of the individual when diagnosed as brain dead. As Islamic ethics continues to engage scientific and technological advancements in these areas, such exploration of internal workings is necessary if we wish to better understand how Islamic ethical principles can contribute to bioethical deliberation. PMID:23248843

  19. The Evolving Ethics of Dialysis in the United States: A Principlist Bioethics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Catherine R; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Tonelli, Mark R; Lam, Daniel Y

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the history of dialysis, four bioethical principles - beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice - have been weighted differently based upon changing forces of technologic innovation, resource limitation, and societal values. In the 1960s, a committee of lay people in Seattle attempted to fairly distribute a limited number of maintenance hemodialysis stations guided by considerations of justice. As technology advanced and dialysis was funded under an amendment to the Social Security Act in 1972, focus shifted to providing dialysis for all in need while balancing the burdens of treatment and quality of life, supported by the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. At the end of the last century, the importance of patient preferences and personal values became paramount in medical decisions, reflecting a focus on the principle of autonomy. More recently, greater recognition that health care financial resources are limited makes fair allocation more pressing, again highlighting the importance of distributive justice. The varying application and prioritization of these four principles to both policy and clinical decisions in the United States over the last 50 years makes the history of hemodialysis an instructive platform for understanding principlist bioethics. As medical technology evolves in a landscape of changing personal and societal values, a comprehensive understanding of an ethical framework for evaluating appropriate use of medical interventions enables the clinician to systematically negotiate and optimize difficult ethical situations. PMID:26912540

  20. Ethical issues in the management of thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Sara

    2014-06-01

    The focus of this article is on clinical ethics issues in the thyroid disease context. Clinical ethics is a subspecialty of bioethics that deals with bedside ethical dilemmas that specifically involve the provider-patient relationship. Such issues include consent and capacity; weighing therapeutic benefits against risks and side-effects; innovative therapies; end of life care; unintended versus intentional harms to patients or patient populations; and healthcare access. This article will review core ethical principles for practice, as well as the moral and legal requirements of informed consent. It will then discuss the range of unique and universal ethical issues and considerations that present in the management of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer.

  1. Ethics and bioethics concerning challenges in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo De Freitas Drumond

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world is characterized by a formidable accumulation of scientific knowledge, which is responsible for developing the technology that permeates all latitudes of the planet and is incorporated, so virtually irreplaceably, to the daily life of human beings. However, the world is in a borderline: serious responsibilities determined by the process of increasingly aggressive human intervention in the biosphere (accelerating its deterioration and the very human biology, reaching its genetic identity. Humanity is wrapped in a moral dilemma, since it is found that most of the benefits offered by human knowledge —the whole set of scientific and technological progress of humanity— remains inaccessible to most of the universal family. A recurring issue in today’s society is to establish the boundaries between normal and abnormal, between natural and artificial. Is the human being willing, once again, to transgress the parameters established by her concerning what is normal, anatomically and physiologically? Will she not be satisfied by merely making her biological structure sufficiently adapted to the current practices of the species? Will she want more? In the singular historical transition experienced by contemporary society, the emergence of a new ethical reflection to modulate human behavior has become imperative, so that the actions of men and women can converge to the achievement of universal benefits, so as not to endanger the very survival of human beings on the planet.

  2. Curricular aspects of the Fogarty bioethics international training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Amal; Garner, Sam; Millum, Joseph; Sina, Barbara; Silverman, Henry

    2014-04-01

    The curriculum design, faculty characteristics, and experience of implementing masters' level international research ethics training programs supported by the Fogarty International Center was investigated. Multiple pedagogical approaches were employed to adapt to the learning needs of the trainees. While no generally agreed set of core competencies exists for advanced research ethics training, more than 75% of the curricula examined included international issues in research ethics, responsible conduct of research, human rights, philosophical foundations of research ethics, and research regulation and ethical review process. Common skills taught included critical thinking, research methodology and statistics, writing, and presentation proficiency. Curricula also addressed the cultural, social, and religious context of the trainees related to research ethics. Programs surveyed noted trainee interest in Western concepts of research ethics and the value of the transnational exchange of ideas. Similar faculty expertise profiles existed in all programs. Approximately 40% of faculty were female. Collaboration between faculty from low- and middleincome countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs) occurred in most programs and at least 50% of HIC faculty had previous LMIC experience. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24782069

  3. An integrated ethical approach to bioethical decision-making: A proposed model for ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena C. de Lange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined a model for guidance in ‘doing’ bioethics in a Reformed context. The proposed model suggested that in order to arrive at responsible ethical decisions, one must refer to both contextual elements and theory. The theoretical grounding for this model was based on the integration of a deontological and virtue ethics approach, arguing that virtue enables persons to know and desire the right moral ends and motivates them to carry out appropriate action toward achieving these ends. An integrative model opens up the possibility whereby bioethics as a systematic tool provides the individual decision-maker with the critical-reflective skills and justification for the ultimate choice that is lacking in the general decision-making processes. This could lead to clearer thinking and increased confidence in the justification of decisions within the Reformed tradition. The proposed hermeneutical perspective on ethical decision-making represents a shift in views about the nature of knowledge and the process of how we come to know. The key to this hermeneutical approach is to acknowledge the dialectic between the universal and the subjectivity of human relations. Working in specific religious communities, one needs to take cognisance of the fact that knowledge is situated in the context of human relationships in which the interpreter participates when articulating the meaning of bioethical experiences. Another aspect that is anticipated lies in the realisation that people struggling with bioethical dilemmas should not be viewed as isolated individuals, but as members of a broader faith community.‘n Geïntegreerde etiese benadering tot bioetiese besluitneming: Voorgestelde model vir predikante. Hierdie artikel het ‘n model geskets wat moontlike riglyne aantoon vir die  beoefening  van  bioetiek  binne  ‘n  Gereformeerde  konteks.  Die  voorgestelde  model argumenteer dat verwysing na beide kontekstuele elemente en teorie

  4. Law and bioethics in Israel: between liberal ethical values and Jewish religious norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Amos

    2006-01-01

    In Israel, the bulk of the population leads an essentially secularist, liberal, and permissive individual lifestyle. At the same time, certain cultural-religious values, institutions, practices, and injunctions are formally woven into the Israeli communal fabric. Consequently, the bioethical discourse in Israel has evolved in a sociocultural context which manifests a unique mix of orthodoxy and secularism, of communal paternalism and assertive individualism, of proscription and permissiveness, of religious norms and liberal ethical values. There can be no denying of the impact of Jewish religious tenets, and the political groups that champion them, on the shaping of Israeli biomedical jurisprudence. Yet it would be wrong to assume that such impact invariably has been prohibitive and restrictive. To illustrate the diverse influence of religious attitudes on normative postures regarding biomedical dilemmas in Israel, I will focus on end-of-life medical decision making, on the one hand and on embryonic stem cells research, on the other.

  5. Why would medical publishers not incorporate core bioethical values into their Ethics Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watine, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    It is quite universally acknowledged by bioethicists, at least in the western world, that respect for the patients' autonomy, non-malevolence, beneficence, and justice (also called equity) are four core ethical values in medicine. The Ethics Guidelines of key journals in laboratory medicine are not explicit about the first three of these values, and even implicitly, they seem to miss values of justice. Health equity being one of the main objectives of public health policy across the world, we suggest that values of equity explicitly become part of the Ethics Guidelines of laboratory medicine journals. Biochemia Medica could show the way to other medical publishers by incorporating into its Ethics Guidelines these very important core bioethical values.

  6. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MORAL, ETHICS, BIO-ETHICS AND WHAT IS IN BETWEEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Daniella; Yagoda, Arie

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the study of emotions has broadened its scope and established its standing as a new scientific discipline. Humanity has become increasingly conscious of the seminal role played by the emotional components in both intrapersonal and interpersonal behavior. A deeply rooted and inherent correlation exists between emotional intelligence (E.I. - Emotional Intelligence) and positive social results: social adaptation, quality social relationships, the capacity for healthy social behaviors, caring, altruism, empathy, enlightened communication and the efficacy and personal coherence essential to moral and ethical behavior, including its manifestation in the sphere of bio-ethics. The importance of the personal relationship between the doctor and the patient is especially fundamental in the current era of immense and accelerated scientific-technological development, forcing doctors to cope with an increasingly complicated technical environment. Precisely because of this reality, it is essential that a doctor's actions and interpersonal relationship with the patient proceed from an ethical base, grounded in both professional and emotional responsibility. Emotional responsibility is one of the central elements underlying bioethical conduct and is the element that provides the guideposts for the treatment of others. The symbiotic connection between emotional intelligence and the sphere of ethics and morals is what delineates human beings. Human beings, by definition and in essence, bear responsibility for their actions. The beginning of ethics is in the human being's consciousness of choice in relation to self and to others. An individual's choices integrate emotion and cognition. That ability to integrate alongside the capacity for choice enables the human race to act in accordance with ethical and moral codes. At work, on a daily basis, a doctor is positioned opposite to the physical, emotional, cognitive and ethical entirety of the patient. Beyond the doctor

  7. Problems related to the use of animals for therapeutic and care purposes: the document of the National Committee for Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Santori

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Ministry of Health, in 2002, instructed the National Committee for Bioethics to carefully review and ultimately provide evidence for future legislative bills in various aspects. One such matter was that of the subject of "Pet Therapy", generically viewed as a "man-animal" relationship, with the purpose of proving beneficiary to both human health and welfare. The necessity of a bioethical approach was deemed important in establishing the concrete benefits for mankind (and the research required to demonstrate this whilst also considering any possible malaise inflicted on those animals participating. The final recommendations decided upon, took into consideration effectiveness, cost, suitable alternatives, discussion of the intervention with the patient.

  8. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dedi Afandi; Yuli Budiningsih; Oktavinda Safitry; Agus Purwadianto; Dwi Novitasari; Ivan R. Widjaja

    2009-01-01

    Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with pa...

  9. Fundamental Ethical Issues in Unnecessary Surgical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayade, Motilal Chandu; Dalvi, Shashank D

    2016-04-01

    In clinical practice performing any surgical procedure is inconsistent because all surgical procedures carry definitely some degree of risk. Worldwide every year millions of patients go under knife, but many of them are enduring great pain and shelling out thousands and dollars for surgeries they don't really need. This review work was planned with an intention to focus attention towards it with reporting cited evidences of unnecessary surgical operations and discuss ethical issues concern with it. In present review the references search included standard citations Google scholar, MEDLINE and PUBMED. We also used Google search engine for screening various news concern with highlighting this topic in community and online media. For articles we go through more than 60 articles from worldwide and 12 news media views from Google search in last one year. We used following quotes for their search-unnecessary surgeries, second opinion, ethical issues in unnecessary surgeries. Geographical variations were also kept in view. Our intension was highlighting ethical issues concern with unnecessary surgical operations. Henceforth we excluded such work that does not concern with ethical issues. Unnecessary surgery is that which is medically unjustifiable when the risks and costs are more than the likely therapeutic benefits or relief to the patient based on the patient's lifestyle requirements. To avoid or minimize such interventions basic seeding of ethics in curriculum and strict laws will definitely helpful in clinical practice. In conclusion, our aim was to highlight this major issue and underline need of competency based medical bioethics education in Indian scenario. PMID:27190833

  10. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  11. Transplants: bioethics and justice Transplantes: bioética e justiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cohen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethics, as a branch of philosophy that focuses on questions relative to health and human life, is closely tied to the idea of justice and equality. As such, in understanding the concept of equality in its original sense, that is, in associating it to the idea to treat "unequals" (those who are unequal or different, in terms of conditions or circumstances unequally (differentially, in proportion to their inequalities (differences, we see that the so-called "one-and-only waiting list" for transplants established in law no. 9.434/97, ends up not addressing the concept of equality and justice, bearing upon bioethics, even when considering the objective criteria of precedence established in regulation no. 9.4347/98, Thus, the organizing of transplants on a one-and-only waiting list, with a few exceptions that are weakly applicable, without a case by case technical and grounded analysis, according to each particular necessity, ends up institutionalizing inequalities, condemning patients to happenstance and, consequently, departs from the ratio legis, which aims at seeking the greatest application of justice in regards to organ transplants. We conclude, therefore, that from an analysis of the legislation and of the principles of bioethics and justice, there is a need for the creation of a collegiate of medical experts, that, based on medical criteria and done in a well established manner, can analyze each case to be included on the waiting list, deferentially and according to the necessity; thus, precluding that people in special circumstances be treated equal to people in normal circumstances.A bioética, como ramo da filosofia que enfoca as questões relativas a saúde e a vida humana, está intimamente ligada à idéia de justiça e igualdade. Desta forma, entendendo o conceito de igualdade em sua acepção original, ou seja, associando-o à idéia de tratar desigualmente os desiguais na medida de suas desigualdades, observamos que a denominada

  12. Educação em biossegurança e bioética: articulação necessária em biotecnologia Education on biosafety and bioethics: necessary articulation in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos De Bonis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A educação científica tem sido debatida em alguns segmentos da sociedade e organizações internacionais têm estimulado as nações a investirem nessa área tão estratégica. Nesse contexto, a educação em biossegurança e bioética explora um conteúdo rico em prevenção, normas e princípios éticos, que servem para nortear os caminhos trilhados pela biotecnologia. A valorização da biossegurança e da bioética como parte de uma política educacional científica, efetiva e consistente, pode estimular a formação de indivíduos com uma consciência científica e cidadã, em condições de participar das questões de natureza ética e tecnológica produzidas pela biotecnologia.Science education has been discussed in some segments of the society and, international organizations have encouraged nations to invest in this strategic area. In this context, education in bioethics and biosafety explores a rich content on prevention, standards and ethical principles which serve to guide the paths track by biotechnology. The recovery of bioethics and biosafety, as part of an educational policy scientific, effective and consistent, can stimulate the formation of individuals with a scientific and citizen awareness, in a position to participate on ethical and technological issues produced by biotechnology.

  13. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  14. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  15. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  16. Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation

  17. Tattoos, piercings and re-configuration of the body. A path between bioethical and educational profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Bianco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos and piercings can become a mask to hide behind? Everything can become a mask if we use it for masquerading. The tattoo is the anthropological roots of ancient and modern makeup that refers to the mask understood as that which creates the face, which gives it its social being. The tattoo is also an artistic decoration that should be born by the deep desire to communicate yourself to others. Tattoos must be able to "tell" the people who wear them, but if the latter decorate their body with a message or image that does not belong, it can cause the destruction of individuality. The tattoo is immortal. It can be a permanent dress, a way to resist the unwanted transformations using a piece of subjective identity, non-imitable, from which one cannot be excluded. Along with careful identification of psycho-sociological motivations that drive a young man to want a tattoo, you need to traverse an education that not only form a personality, teaches the knowledge of his own body. Getting a tattoo means not only change the morphology of the body but the risk of jeopardizing their health. Responsibility for their own health also means being aware that a tattoo can procure mild side effects or more severe depending on the initial state of health of the subject. Then a tattoo only after a careful history following the favorable opinion of the doctor and after a personal assessment aware. These initial objectives of a path bioethical-pedagogical significant.

  18. Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1977-07-15

    Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation.

  19. [Cesarean section on request because of labor pain--bioethical and legal views].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frković, Aleksandra; Bosković, Zvonko

    2010-03-01

    Non-medical reasons that influence the decision to perform cesarean section are the subject of numerous medical and bioethical debates. The questions to be answered are: can a pregnant woman demand cesarean section based on her right to make decisions, i.e. on patient rights? Do such a request and permission given by the woman justify the physician to perform the procedure without clear medical indication, knowing that cesarean section is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality rate than vaginal delivery? Among the numerous reasons stated by pregnant women or their families when demanding cesarean section, this paper is focused on labor pain. The experience of pain during delivery is the result of many complex physiologic and psychosocial factors that act on the woman's personal interpretation of the nociceptive delivery stimuli. A mother's request for cesarean section should not be motivated by the lack of efficiency of pain management. Such motivation points to inadequate prenatal care and patient education offered by the obstetrician and anesthesiologist. Decisions to perform cesarean section upon request are not in accordance with the guidelines of declarations and codes of medical ethics, and have no legal basis in our country.

  20. [Individual versus collective protection: bioethical analysis of the national program of mass child vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Sérgio de Castro; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is considered one of the most efficient and cost-effective public health policies most used in the control and prevention of disease. However, it is also one of the most polemic and controversial biomedical techniques, making it difficult to avoid an ethical dilemma, especially when vaccination is compulsory for the entire population. Indeed, since vaccines are not totally effective and safe, there is an ethical conflict between the individual and the collective interest, because children effectively carry the burden of vaccination for the benefit of public health when they are affected with serious adverse reactions and do not benefit from the care that should be offered by the government. The objective of this article was to demonstrate that the tools of bioethics are relevant in this discussion to understand and analyze these dilemmas critically by providing convincing arguments to underpin the development of biopolitics that consider prevention not only rigorously, but also the joint responsibility of all as fundamental for individual and collective protection.

  1. Systemic Negligence: Why It Is Morally Important for Developing World Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chhanda

    2015-12-01

    In the context of clinical and non-clinical biomedical practices, negligence is usually understood as a lapse of a specific professional duty by a healthcare worker or by a medical facility. This paper tries to delineate systemic negligence as another kind of negligence in the context of health systems, particularly in developing countries, that needs to be recognized and addressed. Systemic negligence is not just a mere collection of stray incidences of medical errors and system failures in a health system, but is proposed in this paper as a more pervasive kind of neglect. Several non-medical factors, such as lack of social and political will, also contribute to it and hence is more difficult to address in a health system. This paper argues that recognizing systemic negligence and including it research agenda have special moral importance for researchers in developing world bioethics, public health ethics and for health activists in the developing world. For, it can be a potent health system barrier, and can seriously impair efforts to ensure patient safety, particularly in the weaker health systems. As it erodes accountability in a health system, addressing it is also important for the twin goals of ensuring patient safety and improving health system performance. Above all, it needs to be addressed because the tolerance of its persistence in a health system seems to undervalue health as a social good. PMID:24761790

  2. A philosophical and critical analysis of the European convention of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottois, G

    2000-04-01

    The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine is now one of the most important bioethics texts from the point of view of international policy and law. It is the result of five years of discussions and negotiations between the different instances of the Council of Europe. In this article I analyze several problems. First, there are problems of articulation between the Convention and the joint Explanatory Report. The oriented exegesis of the Explanatory Report raises suspicion about the Convention, which appears as a smooth facade for an instrument actually serving ideological positions many people do not share. Second, there are problems of formulation within the Convention. These are mainly problems with articles that state prohibitions without any distinction, relativization, contextualization or sense of evolution. Finally, there are problems of substance, leading to the conclusion that the Convention is not a good illustration of the human rights philosophical tradition in the name of which it has been proclaimed. This tradition is the one of Enlightenment. And when Kant summarizes the motto of Enlightenment, the injunction is "Sapere Aude!": "Dare to know!" It is difficult to hear such a message through the Convention, and the Explanatory Report includes too many passages and sentences that mean the opposite.

  3. [The terminal patient: Jewish religious law, the Steinberg report and the bioethical discourse in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2003-07-01

    This article surveys key texts in contemporary orthodox Jewish law (Halakha) with regard to end-of-life decision making. The author proposes twelve principles that govern Jewish law in that matter. The article proceeds to examine the Steinberg report in the light of Halakha. Orthodox Judaism regards human life as a prime value, which is always beyond consideration of economical means or quality of life. The avoidance of suffering is the only justification to shorten the life of the sufferer, provided that the acts performed do not fall within the Halakhic definition of murder, namely active and direct action that shortens life. It is argued that the main challenge of bioethics in Israel is the bridging between the positive law of Halakha whose fundamental value is submission to God's will as manifested in Halakha, and the rationalism, universalism, and egalitarianism which constitute naturalistic ethics. This challenge may produce ideas such as the "clock machine". It is too early to know if this is a trickery, or genuine ethical creativity.

  4. General Issue

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ORDERING INFORMATION The issue can be ordered by contacting at the Presses Universitaires d'Angers. It will be online in Spring 2015. CONTENTS Linda Collinge-Germain Foreword Mathilde La Cassagnère Heavy nothings in Virginia Woolf’s “Kew Gardens" Daniel Thomières Being and Time in Ernest Hemingway’s “Cat in the Rain” Stella Deen E.H. Young’s “The Stream,” Good Housekeeping, and the Cultivation of Active Readers Alice Clark-Wehinger The p...

  5. 试论健康伦理对生命伦理的拓新%Analysis of the innovation of health ethics to bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉美

    2012-01-01

    健康伦理以健康利益为关注支点,拓展了生命伦理的研究对象、研究内容和价值维度,补充、丰富了其原则内涵,展露出新的生命力。健康伦理是在医学发展新阶段对医学伦理、生命伦理的延续和提升。%Taking health interest as its focus, health ethics develops research object, content and value dimension of bioethics. It enrichs bioethics principle and connotation, and shows new vitality. Health ethics lasts and upgrades medical ethics and bioethics at the new stage of medicine development.

  6. 我国生命伦理学研究现状探讨%Discussion on the Status of Bioethics Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳; 张忠元; 范菲菲; 雷虹艳; 郑红朝; 李恩昌

    2013-01-01

    As an emerging discipline imported Irom the west, Chinese bioethics has achieved great development in the last three decades. Experts introduced the new progress of the foreign Bioethics, and combined with China's national conditions. Chinese Bioethics should look for her own direction actively, should have a close connection with the development of society, medical technology, and thehot focus on bioethics, and should pay attention to the organic combination of local and western culture, combine the Bioethics and the medical ethics alucation. It's useful the development of the bioethics in China.%生命伦理学作为一门新兴学科,从西方引入中国已有三十多年的时间,在我国取得了巨大的发展.我国相关学者的论文不仅介绍国外生命伦理学研究的新进展,而且紧密结合中国的国情促进了生命伦理学的发展.中国生命伦理学在发展过程中,应当紧密结合社会、医学技术的发展而研究相关生命伦理学的热点问题,同时也应当将中国传统医德文化与生命伦理学有机结合,有利于我国生命伦理学的发展.

  7. Bioethics committee%生命伦理学委员会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国英; 邹和建; 伍蓉

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics committee is a decision-making and consulting organization which mainly reviews the studies and trials involved human participants and protects the welfare of participants according to Declaration of Helsinki. It is generally composed of the members whose disciplines are law, ethics, medicine and pharmacology. Recently, more and more ethics committees have been set up. However, the review quality is not uniform. To promote benign development of ethics committees in China, continuous training for the members of ethics committees and supervisor for the ethics committees are needed by related administrations.%生命伦理学委员会是从伦理学角度审查人体试验研究,保护受试者权益的决策咨询组织.该委员会一般由来自法学、伦理学、医学、药学等领域的专家学者组成,其审查遵循的重要依据是世界医学会制订的《赫尔基辛宣言》.近年来,伦理委员会快速发展,但各伦理委员会审查质量参差不齐.因此,相关部门尚需加强对伦理委员会成员的培训,并加强对伦理委员会的监管,方能促进我国伦理委员会的良性发展.

  8. Bioethics of Universal Knowledge: How Space Science is Transforming Global Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kala

    A new universal culture is championing the human race; never before has immersion in the cosmological environment been so clearly presented nor invited as revolutionary a sense of participatory identity to the human race. We are delving into the awareness of a complex relatedness with the expanse of spatial architectures and life that astrophysics and cosmology are revealing. History is marked by waves of interest and inquiry into the possibilities of the existence of other worlds. Since the Renaissance, building of telescopes has been pursued in their quest; now Kepler and other space missions are leading us into direct apprehension of these worlds, scattered across the cosmological landscape. This affords a unique repertoire of dimensionalities in which to re-construe our global cultural evolution and identity. Spatial education, with related social science and humanities, are facilitating the actualization of a universal culture, redefining the collective global heritage, with infinity as our home. The potential significance of space sciences to the human cognitive environment is yet to be fully ascertained. We now understand that the entire history of the universe informs each and every particle and spin of the fabric of existence. The implications of this knowledge have the power to facilitate our overcoming many social diseases such as racism, nationalism and the ideological delusions that tolerate such activities as warfare. Space sciences may help to purge the human cognitive atmosphere of those ills and ignorance that sap global resources, challenging global sustainability, from the economic to the psychosocial. Were the full implications of our united origins and destiny as a cosmic organism to be applied to how we live as a species on the Earth, there would be adequate funds for all manner of science and education such as to transform the global human and ecological landscape in ways as yet only dreamt or fictionalized. The bioethics of universal

  9. Razones para una perspectiva intercultural en bioética Reasons for an intercultural perspective of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Chávez Aguilar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La bioética debe tener una perspectiva intercultural. Ello se fundamenta en tres hechos: los principios y valores sobre los que reflexiona pertenecen a cosmovisiones y tradiciones, el ser humano es en sí mismo un ser cultural y las sociedades actuales son enormemente diversas. Para ello, la bioética ha de buscar un adecuado equilibrio entre el universalismo ético y el contextualismo. Esto es un fundamento necesario para el respeto incondicionado a la dignidad humana y para el mutuo reconocimiento, el diálogo, la correlación y la complementariedad entre las diversas culturas.Bioethics must have an intercultural perspective. This is based on three facts: The principles and values around which reflection is made are related to world views and traditions, human beings are cultural beings, and current societies are considerably diverse. Based on this, bioethics will seek an adequate balance between ethical universalism and contextualism. This is a fundamental step for unconditional respect for human dignity and mutual recognition, dialogue, correlation and complementarity among diverse cultures.

  10. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child: Relevance and Application to Pediatric Clinical Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Lundy, Laura; Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the relevance and import of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) to child health practice and pediatric bioethics. We discuss the four general principles of the CRC that apply to the implementation of all rights contained in the document, the right to health articulated in Article 24, and the important position ascribed to parents in fulfilling the rights of their children. We then examine how the CRC is implemented and monitored in law and practice. The CRC and associated principles of child rights provide strategies for rights-based approaches to clinical practice and health systems, as well as to policy design, professional training, and health services research. In light of the relevance of the CRC and principles of child rights to children's health and child health practice, it follows that there is an intersection between child rights and pediatric bioethics. Pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates should work together to define this intersection in all domains of pediatric practice.

  11. Conflicts Between Parents and Health Professionals About a Child's Medical Treatment: Using Clinical Ethics Records to Find Gaps in the Bioethics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind; Notini, Lauren; Phillips, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child's medical treatment. We identified, analysed, and compared cases of this type from the clinical ethics records with cases of this type discussed in bioethics journals. While the cases from journals tended to describe situations involving imminent risk to the child's life, a significant proportion of the clinical ethics records cases involved different stakes for the child involved. These included distress, poorer functional outcome, poorer psychosocial outcome, or increased risk of surgical complications. Our analysis suggests that one type of case that warrants more detailed ethics research is parental refusal of recommended treatment, where the refusal does not endanger the child's life but rather some other aspect of the child's well-being.

  12. 运动生理学研究中的道德伦理与困境——基于生命伦理学视阈的研究%Ethics and Moral Dilemma in the Study on Physiology of Sport and Exercise --On the Perspective of Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金岭; 张淑香

    2012-01-01

    Exercise physiology has some distinct features such as intercross and so on, research methods of medical and other related disciplines are introduced by many researchers of contemporary exercise physiology, which lead to the research field of exercise physiology is broadened as well as the content of it is enriched contin- uously. It is just the application of new science and technology, combined with intervention and application of ways and means in medical, triggering a series of new ethical issues. Ensuing moral and ethical issues have caught our exercise physiology researchers in a dilemma. Based on the issues talked above, study ron the ethics and dilemma produced in the research of exercise physiology from the Perspective of bioethics is one of the social responsibilities which a sport scientist must take of. In this paper, by means of literature review, field survey, interview, etc. , the evolution of bioethics and research status in China are described. After that, the study on many problems of moral and ethical dilemma exercise physiology researcher faced has been conducted. And final- ly, some constructive suggestions were put forward in the paper.%运用文献资料、专家访谈法等研究方法,对生命伦理学的演进及其在我国的研究状况进行了阐述。在此基础上,对我国运动生理学研究中的道德伦理与面临的困境进行了深入剖析,最后,针对存在的问题提出了一些富有建设性的对策与意见。

  13. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  14. Ética y moral en la bioética || Ethics and Moral at the Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús López Baroni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La bioética es un campo del conocimiento con un difuso poso ideológico en el que coexisten con no pocas tensiones las religiones y las corrientes de pensamiento político clásicas. A la hora de defender argumentos, la expresión que se ha impuesto es la de “ética”, probablemente por el sesgo pretendidamente objetivo y paracientífico de dicha expresión. Pues bien, estudiaremos en el presente artículo qué relación hay entre las diferentes corrientes del pensamiento y la forma en que emplean los conceptos de “ética” y de “moral”. Para ello, hemos creado cuatro modelos con los que pretendemos recoger todas las posibilidades existentes. El objetivo último es clarificar qué queremos decir en bioética cuando se afirma que algo es ético o moral, qué relación hay entre las ideologías y los enunciados axiológicos y cómo influye en la composición ideal de los comités de bioética. Abstract: Bioethics is a field of knowledge with a widespread ideological background in which religions and current classic political thoughts coexist with tension. At the moment of defending arguments, the expression that has been imposed is "ethics", probably for the alleged objective and parascientific bias of the expression mentioned above. Well then, we will study in the present article the relation between the different currents of thought and the form in which they use the concepts of "ethics" and of "moral". For this, we have created four models with which we try to gather all the existing possibilities. The last aim is to clarify what we want to say in bioethics when one affirms that something is ethical or moral, what relation is between the ideologies and the terms of axiological references and how it influences the ideal composition of the committees of bioethics.

  15. Nonegalitarian Social Responsibility for Health: A Confucian Perspective on Article 14 of the UNESCO: Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2016-06-01

    This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level.

  16. Educação: nova fronteira da bioética Education: new frontier of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ribeiro Pires

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a opinião de professores quanto à introdução de conteúdo sobre bioética no currículo do ensino médio. Foram selecionadas seis escolas: três públicas e três particulares da principal região administrativa de Brasília. De um universo de 340 professores, 150 aderiram à pesquisa. Foi apresentado um questionário com alternativas versando sobre a existência ou não de conteúdo relacionado com a construção de valores nos estudantes. O segundo momento contou com 140 dos professores que participaram da primeira fase. Foi-lhes entregue um texto que resumia o que era a bioética. Ao final, havia um espaço à pergunta se uma nova disciplina de bioética preencheria a lacuna curricular na formação de valores e atitudes éticas nos estudantes. A análise dos dados demonstrou que: (a a escola não tem cumprido a função de instrumentar a formação da consciência ética; (b na opinião dos docentes, isto vem acontecendo em razão da inexistência de uma disciplina que se responsabilize pela abordagem destas questões; (c 51% dos entrevistados se posicionaram a favor da introdução de uma disciplina que trate da bioética na estrutura curricular do ensino médio, por acreditarem que ela poderia contribuir à construção de valores morais e atitudes afirmativas dos estudantes.This study analyses the opinion of teachers regarding the inclusion of contents on Bioethics in the curricular structure of high school. Six schools were selected: three public and three private in the main administrative region of Brasília. In a universe of 340 teachers, 150 joined the research. They were given a questionnaire with answers about the existence or not of curricular contents related to the construction of values in the students. The second phase counted with 140 teachers out of those who joined the first part of the research. These teachers received a text briefly explaining what Bioethics is with a closed space for answering if

  17. Nonegalitarian Social Responsibility for Health: A Confucian Perspective on Article 14 of the UNESCO: Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2016-06-01

    This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level. PMID:27477196

  18. Ethical issues in stem cell research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nancy Mp; Perrin, Jacob

    2014-07-07

    Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy. Although debate about the moral status of the embryo in human embryonic stem cell research continues to have relevance, the discovery of other highly multipotent stem cell types and alternative methods of isolating and creating highly multipotent stem cells has raised new questions and concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise, but care is needed to ensure their safety in translational clinical trials, despite the temptation to move quickly from bench to bedside. A variety of highly multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, or urine - present the opportunity for widespread biobanking and increased access. With these increased opportunities, however, come pressing policy issues of consent, control, and justice. The imperatives to minimize risks of harm, obtain informed consent, reduce the likelihood of the therapeutic misconception, and facilitate sound translation from bench to bedside are not unique to stem cell research; their application to stem cell research and therapy nonetheless merits particular attention. Because stem cell research is both scientifically promising and ethically challenging, both the application of existing ethical frameworks and careful consideration of new ethical implications are necessary as this broad and diverse field moves forward.

  19. Le droit musulman en pratique : genre, filiation et bioéthique Islamic Jurisprudence in Practice: Gender, Filiation and Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Fortier

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Les modifications récentes des Codes de statut personnel ou pénal de certains pays musulmans qui touchent en particulier au mariage, au divorce, à l’adultère et aux crimes d’honneur réinterrogent les notions fondamentales que sont la dot, le lien conjugal, l’autorité des hommes, le contrôle de la sexualité des femmes. De plus, les réformes législatives liées à « l’adoption », aux procréations médicalement assistées, au désaveu et à la reconnaissance de paternité, à l’usage de tests ADN, font apparaître le rapport du biologique et du social dans la détermination de la filiation en islam. Par ailleurs, les nouvelles questions de bioéthique comme la contraception, l’avortement, ou encorele don d’organes, ont amené les juristes musulmans à émettre des avis juridiques (fatâwâ sur ces questions inédites en puisant leurs réponses dans l’esprit des textes de droit musulman classique. Le droit musulman (fiqh loin d’être intangible et immuable, comme on a tendance à le penser, se situe dans une dynamique pragmatique et évolutive permanente ainsi que le montre la diversité des avis juridiques produits par les juristes musulmans sur des questions sans cesse renouvelées.Recent modifications of personal status and of penal codes in some Muslim countries question fundamental patriarchal ideas and practices about marriage such as bridewealth, conjugal relations, male authority and sexual control of women. These modifications specifically concern weddings, divorce, adultery, and honor crimes. Furthermore, legislative reforms connected to «adoption», medically assistedprocreation, denial or recognition of paternity, use of genetic tests, illustrate the relation of biological and social in the determination of filiation in Islam. Besides, new questions of bioethics such as contraception, abortion, or organ donation, have led Muslim jurists to express legal opinions (fatâwâ on these new questions while

  20. Sobre a correlação entre a bioética e a psicologia médica About correlation between bioethics and medical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alvaro Marques Marcolino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizam um estudo a respeito de uma correlação entre a bioética e a psicologia médica. Dividem o trabalho em duas partes. A primeira discute os conceitos filosóficos sobre a distinção entre moral e ética, trata da ética ligada à medicina e dedica-se à bioética, procurando definir o que se compreende por essa disciplina, descrevendo seus três princípios básicos: a autonomia, a beneficência, não-maleficência e a justiça. Portanto, traça nesta parte do trabalho, uma trajetória que partiu da ética em sua vertente filosófica até chegar à ética em sua aplicação à medicina. A segunda parte é dedicada a definição do campo da psicologia médica, estudando aspectos da relação emocional do indivíduo doente com a sua doença, da relação do médico com a medicina e enfoca o relacionamento do médico com seu paciente. Discutem algumas situações clínicas em que se observa essa correlação. No final, buscam elaborar algumas conclusões.The authors make a study about the correlation between bioethics and medical psychology. They divide the study in two parts. The first part they discuss the philosophical concepts about the distinction between morals and ethics, they deal with ethics applied to medicine and they are trying to define what is meant by subject and describe its three basic principles: autonomy, beneficence, non maleficence and justice. Consequently in this part they trace route that started from ethics in its philosophical origins and moved on to ethics in its application to medicine. The second part is dedicated to the definition of the field of study of medical psychology, they study some aspects of the emotional relation of the patient with his illness, the relation of the doctors of his medicine and the relacionship between doctor and his patient. They discusse some clinical issues where they observe this correlation. At last, they try to draw some conclusions.

  1. Whose dignity? Resolving ambiguities in the scope of "human dignity" in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald

    2007-10-01

    In October 2005, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR). A concept of central importance in the declaration is that of "human dignity". However, there is lack of clarity about its scope, especially concerning the question of whether prenatal human life has the same dignity and rights as born human beings. This ambiguity has implications for the interpretation of important articles of the delcaration, including 2(c), 4, 8, 10 and 11. The paper applies relevant provisions of the UDBHR to specific cases, addresses problems of internal consistency and considers attempts at clarifying the scope of "human dignity" by the negotiating parties. An analysis of the important relationship between the UDBHR and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to which the UDBHR refers in its title and elsewhere, shows that because of a crucial emphatic asymmetry, a broad reading according to which the UDBHR must be understood to ascribe human rights and dignity to prenatal life is untenable. However, the view that the UDBHR confers human rights and dignity on humans from the moment of birth onwards is robust and defensible. This conclusion is important for a proper understanding of the declaration and its use, as stated in Articles 1(2) and 22, the latter urging states ".. to give effect to the principles .. in this declaration". Similarly, it has implications for the use of the declaration in the wider context of bioethics-related law and policy, as well as in academic and other discussions where increasing reference to the UDBHR is likely.

  2. Unresolved legal and ethical issues in research of adults with severe traumatic brain injury: analysis of an ongoing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Theresa Louise-Bender; Jaffe, Nancy Oddi; Savage, Teresa; Collins, Eileen; Warden, Deborah

    2004-03-01

    This paper synthesizes federal and state laws and bioethics literature with observations from an ongoing research protocol to identify, define, and clarify the unresolved legal and ethical issues regarding research involving adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Solutions that protect rights and minimize unnecessary impediments to valuable clinical and scientific inquiry are also illustrated using the same protocol. Research was performed at intensive care, inpatient rehabilitation, and long-term acute chronic hospitals. Our research protocol identified five areas of law impacting adults with TBI: advanced directives, healthcare surrogacy acts, probate acts, power of attorney acts, and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. The published bioethics literature and responses from local human subject institutional review boards (IRBs) suggest that some of the unresolved ethical issues in research include defining vulnerability, defining informed voluntary consent, determining competency and/or decision-making capacity, using caregivers as subjects, and conducting multisite cooperative studies. Collaboration with IRB members and administrators as well as legal and research ethic scholars developed procedures that protect rights while avoiding unnecessary impediments to research. Investigations of persons with TBI and other cognitive impairments are governed by complicated and inconsistent regulations within the Common Rule and federal and state statues. A need for clear and consistent regulatory guidance regarding multisite studies of TBI persists. In lieu of regulatory guidance, carefully researched solutions for critical peer review are needed to guide future multisite investigations of TBI. PMID:15558370

  3. Reflexiones para una bioética implicada en la cultura de los derechos humanos Reflections for having bioethics involved in the human rights culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Brussino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La Bioética puede entenderse como una reflexión crítica sobre la vida y la salud, como una nueva forma de tomar decisiones en esos ámbitos, como un movimiento de reforma social y también como una disciplina académica. En cualquiera de los casos, la Bioética implica un diálogo interdisciplinario e intercultural. A su vez, los derechos humanos, como pautas morales universales, proporcionan una base plausible para el diálogo intercultural, permitiendo identificar un núcleo de valores transculturales que funcionen como “mínimos morales” en las arenas del diálogo entre culturas diversas y la búsqueda de consensos internacionales. En este trabajo se plantea la triple vinculación (histórico-genealógica, conceptual y práctica de la bioética y los derechos humanos y se reflexiona sobre algunas condiciones que deberían tomarse en cuenta para una bioética implicada en la cultura de los derechos humanos.Bioethics can be interpreted as a critical reflection on life and health, a new way to make decisions in these fields, a social reform movement, and an academic discipline. In any case, Bioethics implies an interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue. At the same time, human rights, as universal moral guidelines, provide a plausible basis for this intercultural dialogue, for they enable the identification of a core of transcultural values that can work as “moral minima” in the dialogue among different cultures and the search for international consensuses. This article sets forth the triple connection (historical-genealogical, conceptual and practical between bioethics and human rights, and reflects on some of the conditions that should be taken into account for bioethics to be involved in the human rights culture.

  4. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-12-01

    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm.

  5. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-12-01

    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm. PMID:24750562

  6. Preliminary Report of a Pilot Tele-Health Palliative Care and Bioethics Program for Residents in Skilled Nursing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O’Mahony

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently about 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, many with poorly controlled pain and other symptoms, with minimal provisions for psychosocial support. New models are necessary to lessen structural and process barriers to give effective end-of-life care in nursing homes. Objectives: 1 To extend hospital-based Bioethics Consultation Services (BCS and Palliative Care Services (PCS at Montefiore Medical Center (MMC in the Bronx to two local Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs, Morningside House Aging in America (MSH using direct face-to-face consultations and Beth Abraham Health Systems (BAHS via video consultations (VC; 2 Achieve improvements in quality of life and comfort for elderly residents and their families; 2a Improve the level of practice and increase staff satisfaction with palliative care content-related knowledge and bioethical analysis. Methods: We report preliminary findings of this two group quasi experimental project with results of pre- and post- tests rating content-related knowledge in aspects of end-of-life care for staff. Select pre-test and post-test questions were given to physicians and other staff, but were re-configured for, registered and licensed practice nurses, social workers, and certified nursing assistants from the End-of-Life Physician Education Resource Center (EPERC. Patient, family, and staff ratings of the quality of palliative care were measured with a Palliative Outcomes Scale (POS one week prior to and post consultation. Results: 72 staff attended in-services; 53 completed pre-tests and 49 post-tests. Overall knowledge scores increased for 9 of the 16 items that were analyzed. There were improvements in knowledge scores in 12 of 16 items tested for staff content related knowledge which were statistically significant in regard to management of cancer pain from 63.8% to 81.5% (p = 0.03 and a trend to significance for assessment and management of delirium from 31.6% to 61.9% (p = 0.073. Seventy five POS

  7. Bioética de la actividad pericial médica Bioethics of Medical Expert-Witness Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aso Escario

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La Bioética implica hoy en día a toda la actividad médica, habiéndose convertido en un factor crucial a la hora de orientar la acción en muchas situaciones clínicas y evaluar materias médicas tales como publicaciones, artículos y conferencias. Sin embargo, hasta el momento, la Bioética ha prestado poca atención a la actividad pericial médica. Ello a pesar de los importantes problemas que surgen en los peritajes ante los Tribunales. Factores como la cualificación del perito, sesgo, error, confidencialidad, conflictos entre actividad asistencial y pericial, están entre las principales materias potenciales de discusión ética. En España, en particular, hay una falta de regulación de estos aspectos, causando importantes consecuencias sobre todo en casos de litigación por cuestiones de responsabilidad médica. El presente trabajo intenta revisar la situación en España, comparada con las posiciones en el extranjero, y enfatizar la necesidad de una regulación legal, profesional pero sobre todo ética de la actividad pericial médica ante los Tribunales.Bioethics involves the entire medical activity, becoming, in recent years, a crucial factor in evaluating medical matters such as publications, conferences, articles, and clinical cases analysis. Nevertheless, expert-witness testimony is sheldomly included in Bioethic discussions, despite the important problems that arise from medical testimonies in tribunals. Factors as expert qualification, bias, error, confidentiality, conflict between clinical and expert activities, are among the main potential subjects of Ethical discussion. In Spain in particular, there is a lack of regulation in these matters, determining important consequences mainly in professional responsability judgement cases. The present paper tries to review the Spanish situation, compared to abroad positions, and enphasize the need of a more extensive legal, professional but mainly ethical regulation of medical expert

  8. Argumentation Based Bioethics Education: Sample Implementation on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer Keskin, Melike; Keskin Samanci, Nilay; Yaman, Hale

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a need in science education to consider scientific research and its applications alongside ethical consensus. Even though classroom debates of value issues have been demonstrated to significantly contribute to the raising of social consciousness and awareness, research shows that neither academics in higher education nor…

  9. Reflections on Egg Bank and Its Bioethical Issues%卵子库及其生命伦理问题思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭飞; 张洪江

    2013-01-01

    人类卵子库的建立主要用于解决不孕不育问题,促进了辅助生殖技术的发展,具有重要的医学与社会意义.回顾卵子库及其相关技术的发展历程,讨论卵子库存在的价值,分析卵子库存在的对捐献者的伤害、商品化、人性尊严等主要伦理问题,最后指出应为卵子库的建立和发展制定相应的生命伦理原则加以规范.%The establishment of human egg bank is mainly to solve the problem of infertility and promote the development of assisted reproductive technology.It is of significant medical and social meanings.Through reviewing the development histories of egg bank and relevant technologies, this article discussed the existence value of egg bank, and analyzed main ethical considerations of harm to subjects, commercialization and human dignity due to the existence of egg bank.Eventually it has pointed out that the corresponding ethical principles of life for the establishment and development of egg bank should be formulated as the regulation.

  10. Dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in bioethics: selective abortion debates and issues of self-determination in Japan and 'the West'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kato; M. Sleeboom-Faulkner

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in the debates on the selective abortion of disabled fetuses, which have occurred over the last four decades in Japan. Disagreements in debates on abortion in Japan have often revolved around the concept of self-determination (j

  11. Explaining the emergence of euthanasia law in the Netherlands: how the sociology of law can help the sociology of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Heleen

    2006-09-01

    The debate over the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia is most often seen to be the result of three changes in society: individualisation, diminished taboos concerning death and changes in the balance of power in medicine. The fact that these changes occurred in many western countries but led to legalisation in only a few makes this claim problematic. I examine whether socio-legal propositions, with respect to the emergence of laws which focus on social control, offer a better approach to understanding the development of rules allowing and governing euthanasia. After a short sketch of the history of the Dutch law regulating euthanasia, I discuss these three societal changes in the light of shifts in the social control of medical behaviour that shortens life. I show that the Dutch relaxation of the prohibition of euthanasia goes together with new forms of social control: doctors' self control is complemented with second-party control (by patients), professional third-party control and governmental control. My work calls attention to the fact that bioethics is part of larger systems of social control. PMID:17184419

  12. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23445524

  13. In vitro fertilization (IVF) in mammals: epigenetic and developmental alterations. Scientific and bioethical implications for IVF in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Irarrázaval, Isabel; Rolle, Augusto J; Gutiérrez, Juan I; Moreno, Ricardo D; Santos, Manuel J

    2015-12-18

    The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in animals and humans implies an extraordinary change in the environment where the beginning of a new organism takes place. In mammals fertilization occurs in the maternal oviduct, where there are unique conditions for guaranteeing the encounter of the gametes and the first stages of development of the embryo and thus its future. During this period a major epigenetic reprogramming takes place that is crucial for the normal fate of the embryo. This epigenetic reprogramming is very vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions such as the ones implied in IVF, including in vitro culture, nutrition, light, temperature, oxygen tension, embryo-maternal signaling, and the general absence of protection against foreign elements that could affect the stability of this process. The objective of this review is to update the impact of the various conditions inherent in the use of IVF on the epigenetic profile and outcomes of mammalian embryos, including superovulation, IVF technique, embryo culture and manipulation and absence of embryo-maternal signaling. It also covers the possible transgenerational inheritance of the epigenetic alterations associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including its phenotypic consequences as is in the case of the large offspring syndrome (LOS). Finally, the important scientific and bioethical implications of the results found in animals are discussed in terms of the ART in humans.

  14. [Ethical problems experienced by dentists: dealing with bioethics to wide the view on the daily professional practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Adriana Gomes; Souza, Elizabethe Cristina Fagundes de

    2010-05-01

    Bioethics strives for humanization in health services along with promoting the rights of patients. In view of the lack of dental research dealing with this topic, the present study was undertaken to identify, from the viewpoint of dental surgeons, ethical problems experienced in dental practice. It is a descriptive exploratory investigation within a qualitative approach. Empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews performed with 15 dental surgeons in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The results indicate that many of the ethical problems coincide with infringements of the norms and rules of the Dental Code of Ethics, confirming a dental ethic acquired during professional formation and therefore, inadequate for solving the problems that emerge in professional practice. We concluded that the ethical problems identified in professional practice need to be understood beyond the dental dimension, towards a human approach. It is therefore necessary to incorporate health care management technologies into health practices which imply recognizing the different dimensions that surround individuals and their health needs.

  15. Ethics literacy and 'ethics university'. Two intertwined models for public involvement and empowerment in bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel eStrech; Irene eHirschberg; Antje eMeyer; Annika eBaum; Tobias eHainz; Gerald eNeitzke; Gabriele eSeidel; Marie-Luise eDierks

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informing lay citizens about complex health-related issues and their related ethical, legal and social aspects (ELSA) is one important component of democratic health care/research governance. Public information activities may be especially valuable when they are used in multi-staged processes that also include elements of information and deliberation. Objectives: This paper presents a new model for a public involvement activity on ELSA (ethics university) and evaluation data for a...

  16. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics Transição paradigmática, metamorfose da ética médica e emergência da bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Telles de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.A crescente incorporação de tecnologia médica e as novas demandas sociais, inclusive de saúde, que tiveram início nos anos 60, impuseram importantes transformações na prática médica. Tal situação tem estimulado crescente debate filosófico em torno de problemas de ética prática que não mais encontram respostas no âmbito do modelo ético hipocrático. Para os autores, a crise da ética hipocrática poderia ser caracterizada como um período de transição paradigmática em que se estaria formando um novo conjunto de valores. A partir do movimento da bioética, os autores apresentam as diferentes teorias éticas aplicadas à prática médica, concluindo que a abordagem principialista seria mais adequada à resolução dos novos dilemas morais postos à prática clínica.

  17. On industrialization of transgenic crops from the perspective of bioethics%生命伦理学视野下的转基因作物产业化问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新志; 李俊

    2012-01-01

    转基因作物的产业化作为当前生命伦理学的重要问题之一日益受到我国学术界、政府和广大公众的关注.转基因作物产业化不仅关涉到我国13亿人的吃饭问题,也与我国公众的身心健康、基本权利密切相关.转基因作物产业化的生命伦理意蕴主要体现在:转基因作物产业化的基础是确保公众健康与生命安全,关键是尊重公众权利,核心是促进社会公正.%As one of the significant issues of bioethics, the industrialization of transgenic crops has been paid more attention by the academia, the government and the public. The industrialization of transgenic crops is not only related with the food problem of 1.3 billion people in China, but also with the public's physical and mental health as well as basic rights. The ethical significance of the industrialization of transgenic crops are mainly embodied as follows: the foundation is to ensure safety of the health and safety of the public, the key is to respect the rights of the public, and the core is to promote social justice.

  18. Post-Adolescent Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search COPING & HEALING CARING FOR A CHILD: POST-ADOLESCENT ISSUES As your child reaches adulthood, there will ... intake. New issues that you and your post adolescent child may want to discus together with his/ ...

  19. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Sleep Issues and Sundowning Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | ... Sleep Changes Back to top Coping strategies for sleep issues and sundowning If the person is awake ...

  20. Emotional and Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed Newsletters ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed Newsletters ...

  1. Bioethical common factors amidst Krause masonry and Saint Francis of Assisi systems of thought appeal to respectful dialogue, nature and understanding: the Jahr’s dialogue beyond the age of "enlightment" and the metadisciplinary "dark" ages

    OpenAIRE

    Roa-Castellanos, Ricardo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    It has been known that the fi rst reference of the word Bioethics in the twentieth century was due to German theologist Fritz Jahr in 1927. In that surprising paper Jahr, a protestant Lutheran university professor, proposes humble catholic deacon, Saint Francis of Assisi (1181-1226), as the first discoverer of Bioethics in Western Civilization. At the same time, Jahr quotes K.C.F Krause, a Masonic mathematics and philosophy doctor, who is referred within this manuscript because of his ideas o...

  2. Bioética e avaliação tecnológica em saúde Bioethics and health care technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A vigência simultânea do paradigma biotecnocientífico (que incentiva a incorporação tecnológica e da cultura dos limites (que seleciona as tecnologias constitui um grande desafio aos sistemas sanitários atuais, suscitando debates éticos e políticos sobre as escolhas a serem feitas. A avaliação tecnológica em saúde diz respeito à análise das conseqüências dos cuidados em saúde e das políticas de saúde, e apresenta pontos de interseção com a bioética, apesar de serem campos distintos. A importância das implicações éticas e sociais da avaliação tecnológica é cada vez mais reconhecida, mas a maioria das publicações tem enfatizado apenas os aspectos metodológicos e científicos. Existem vários tipos de interesses envolvidos na incorporação tecnológica, fontes de conflitos de valores. As implicações éticas incluem aquelas relativas aos ensaios clínicos para aferir sua eficácia; à avaliação da boa ou má prática médica; à forma de incorporar as novas tecnologias e à sua efetividade; ao acesso e à alocação de recursos disponíveis. A incorporação da dimensão ética na avaliação tecnológica possibilitará melhor compreensão da prática de saúde e um avanço em direção ao seu aprimoramento.The simultaneous existence of a biotechnoscientific paradigm (which emphasizes technological incorporation and a culture of limits (which selects technologies challenges current health systems, raising ethical and political discussions as to the choices to be made. Health care technology assessment is mainly concerned with the consequences of health care and health care policies. Thus, there is significant overlap between this activity and bioethics, even though they are different fields of knowledge. Although the importance of ethical and social issues arising in technology assessment has been recognized, most publications emphasize only methodological and scientific aspects. There are different interests

  3. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  4. Issues in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that there are selected issues in mathematics instruction that educators should be well aware of when planning lessons and units of study. These issues provide a basis for thought and discussion when assisting pupils to attain more optimally. Purposeful studying of issues guides mathematics teachers in…

  5. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  6. The Right of Life under the Perspective of Bioethics%生命伦理视野下的生命权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯改

    2012-01-01

    生命权是生命伦理学中的主要概念.生命权在生命伦理学中存在的问题主要表现为:把生命权简单地理解为生的权利和死的权利;不同文化对生命权的理解不同;生命权与其他权利之间存在冲突.为了更好地实现对生命权的尊重与保障,需要大力弘扬社会主义核心价值观,树立以人为本的理念;促进生命伦理学的跨文化交流;加强对生命权的法律研究与制度建设.%Right of life is the main concept of Bioethics. Problems of the right of life in bioethics mainly are: the right of life is simply understood as right of living and right of death; different culture has different understanding of right of life; conflicts exist between right of life and other rights. In order to realize the respect and safeguard for right to life, it needs to carry forward the socialist core values t and set up the people - oriented idea; to promote cross - cultural communication of Bioethics; to strengthen the legal research on right of life and system construction.

  7. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  8. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift) and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low-and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care.

  9. Abortamento provocado na adolescência sob a perspectiva bioética Abortion among adolescents: a bioethical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Belmino Chaves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever características sócio-demográficos, comportamentais, clínicos, analise anatomopatológica, e o tipo de abortamento em adolescentes, de modo a discuti-los bioeticamente. MÉTODOS: aplicou-se questionário estruturado no atendimento a 201 adolescentes com abortamento incompleto submetidas à curetagem uterina, em uma maternidade pública no nordeste do Brasil. RESULTADOS: idade média de 16,1 anos; parceiro estável; mulatas; não usavam preservativos nas relações sexuais; média de idade de início de atividade sexual de 15 anos; não planejaram a gestação; desejavam a gravidez; idade gestacional média de 13,2 semanas. O desfecho da gravidez, quanto ao tipo de abortamento 1,99% abortamento espontâneo e 81,59% certamente provocados, dados obtido através da classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Tecidos embrionários e maternos no anatomopatológico 88,56% e 11,44%, respectivamente. Entre os abortamentos certamente provocados, um caso de mola hidatiforme. CONCLUSÕES: recomenda-se urgência nos programas estratégicos de planejamento familiar; realização do anatomopatológico no material proveniente de aborto; a bioética refletindo pró-ativamente se apresenta como instrumento para diretrizes mínimas de proteção e assistência a adolescente, e auxilio ao profissional de saúde.OBJECTIVES: to describe the socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and anatomical-pathological characteristics and the type of abortion in adolescents as a way of discussing the subject from a bio-ethical perspective. METHODS: a structured questionnaire was applied to 201 adolescent girls receiving treatment for incomplete abortion and being subjected to uterine curretage, at a public maternity unit in the Northeast region of Brazil. RESULTS: the mean age was 16.1 years; most girls had a stable partner, were of mixed race, and were not accustomed to using condoms during sexual intercourse. The mean age for initiation of

  10. Assessing the public's views in research ethics controversies: deliberative democracy and bioethics as natural allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y H; Wall, Ian F; Stanczyk, Aimee; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    In a liberal democracy, policy decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a longstanding research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed.

  11. [Bioethics and nutrition in adult patients with cancer in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroz, Monica de Oliveira; Faillace, Giovanna Borges Damião; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto

    2009-09-01

    Cancer constitutes a major group of chronic diseases and is the second leading cause of death in the developed countries. Palliative care proposes to offer comprehensive support to control symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and their families. Nutrition is an important tool in palliative care, helping patients with their physical, psychological, and social issues and promoting comfort and quality of life. However, in the context of palliative care, nutritional support rarely achieves its role of fully recovering and assuring nutritional status. At this point, the nutritionist must consider the individual patient's needs, preferences, and eating habits, which are essential both for controlling symptoms and assuring satisfaction and comfort. The impossibility of conventionally applying established management and the development of a new perception of the patient often raise dilemmas for professional nutritionists. PMID:19750375

  12. Bioethical Biobanks: Three Concerns in Designing and Using Law Enforcement DNA Identification Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.H. Kaye

    2006-10-19

    Federal and state law enforcement authorities have amassed large collections of DNA samples and the identifying profiles derived from them. These databases help to identify the guilty and to exonerate the innocent, but as the databanks grow, so do fears about civil liberties. The research reported here discusses three legal and social policy issues that have been raised in regard to these biobanks—the choice of loci to type for identifying individuals, the indefinite retention of DNA samples, and the use of the DNA samples or the identifying profiles for research purposes. It also considers the possible value of the databases for research into the genetics of human behavior and the ethics of using them for this purpose. It rejects the broad claim that such research is inherently unethical but proposes procedures for ensuring that the value of the proposed research justifies any psychosocial or other risks to the subjects of the research.

  13. Desigualdades na distribuição da cárie dentária no Brasil: uma abordagem bioética Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries in Brazil: a bioethical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou analisar a problemática da cárie dentária, enquanto uma questão de saúde pública de relevância epidemiológica, tendo como suporte analítico a visão da Bioética da Proteção. Trata-se de estudo de caso realizado a partir de análise documental dos inquéritos epidemiológicos em saúde bucal, de base nacional, 1986, 2003 e 2010. Os levantamentos apontam desigualdades entre grupos populacionais. Essa desigualdade foi analisada, com relação à redução da doença na população mais jovem, no acesso ao atendimento, e na perda dentária, pior desfecho para a cárie dentária. Os bons resultados apresentados, nos levantamentos, não atinge toda a população, apresentando desigualdades por renda familiar e região brasileira. Constatou-se a partir de 2003 intervenções do Estado em ações protetoras, como adoção de critérios de equidade na destinação dos recursos na saúde e inclusão de populações em vulneração, contribuindo para redução da cárie. No entanto, considera-se necessário avançar mais nos modelos assistenciais em saúde bucal usando a Epidemiologia como uma ferramenta estruturante, já que as diferenças regionais ainda permaneceram marcantes, em interface com uma bioética protetora e socialmente responsável.The scope of this paper was to analyze the problem of dental caries as a public health issue of epidemiological relevance. It is a case study based on documentary analysis of national epidemiological surveys on oral health in the years 1986, 2003 and 2010, with the Bioethics of Protection as an analytical support. The surveys revealed inequalities between population groups; and such inequalities were analyzed with respect to the reduction of the disease in the younger population, access to oral health care, and tooth loss, which is the worst outcome for tooth decay. The good results presented in the surveys have not reached the whole population; data have shown inequalities

  14. O modelo bioético principialista aplicado no manejo da dor El principialismo bioético modelo aplicado en el tratamiento del dolor The bioethical principlism model applied in pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layz Alves Ferreira Souza

    2013-03-01

    regarding the relationships between pain and the principles of bioethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. Controlled descriptors were used in three international data sources (LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, in April of 2012, totaling 14 publications categorized by pain and autonomy, pain and beneficence, pain and nonmaleficence, pain and justice. The adequate relief of pain is a human right and a moral issue directly related with the bioethical principlism standard model (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. However, many professionals overlook the pain of their patients, ignoring their ethical role when facing suffering. It was concluded that principlism has been neglected in the care of patients in pain, showing the need for new practices to change this setting.

  15. Ethical Issues in Neuromarketing: "I Consume, Therefore I am!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Yesim Isil; Cakar, Tuna; Yildiz, Gokcen

    2015-10-01

    Neuromarketing is a recent interdisciplinary field which crosses traditional boundaries between neuroscience, neuroeconomics and marketing research. Since this nascent field is primarily concerned with improving marketing strategies and promoting sales, there has been an increasing public aversion and protest against it. These protests can be exemplified by the reactions observed lately in Baylor School of Medicine and Emory University in the United States. The most recent attempt to stop ongoing neuromarketing research in France is also remarkable. The pertaining ethical issues have been continuously attracting much attention, especially since the number of neuromarketing companies has exceeded 300 world-wide. This paper begins with a brief introduction to the field of neurotechnology by presenting its current capabilities and limitations. Then, it will focus on the ethical issues and debates most related with the recent applications of this technology. The French Parliament's revision of rules on bioethics in 2004 has an exemplary role in our discussion. The proposal by Murphy et al. (2008) has attracted attention to the necessity of ethical codes structuring this field. A code has recently been declared by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. In this paper, it is argued that these technologies should be sufficiently discussed in public spheres and its use on humans should be fully carried out according to the ethical principles and legal regulations designed in line with human rights and human dignity. There is an urgent need in the interdisciplinary scientific bodies like ethics committees monitoring the research regarding the scientific and ethical values of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, right to privacy and protection of vulnerable groups.

  16. Ethical Issues in Neuromarketing: "I Consume, Therefore I am!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Yesim Isil; Cakar, Tuna; Yildiz, Gokcen

    2015-10-01

    Neuromarketing is a recent interdisciplinary field which crosses traditional boundaries between neuroscience, neuroeconomics and marketing research. Since this nascent field is primarily concerned with improving marketing strategies and promoting sales, there has been an increasing public aversion and protest against it. These protests can be exemplified by the reactions observed lately in Baylor School of Medicine and Emory University in the United States. The most recent attempt to stop ongoing neuromarketing research in France is also remarkable. The pertaining ethical issues have been continuously attracting much attention, especially since the number of neuromarketing companies has exceeded 300 world-wide. This paper begins with a brief introduction to the field of neurotechnology by presenting its current capabilities and limitations. Then, it will focus on the ethical issues and debates most related with the recent applications of this technology. The French Parliament's revision of rules on bioethics in 2004 has an exemplary role in our discussion. The proposal by Murphy et al. (2008) has attracted attention to the necessity of ethical codes structuring this field. A code has recently been declared by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. In this paper, it is argued that these technologies should be sufficiently discussed in public spheres and its use on humans should be fully carried out according to the ethical principles and legal regulations designed in line with human rights and human dignity. There is an urgent need in the interdisciplinary scientific bodies like ethics committees monitoring the research regarding the scientific and ethical values of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, right to privacy and protection of vulnerable groups. PMID:25150848

  17. Therapeutic versus genuine cloning: what are the real moral issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    In order to answer the question raised in the title of my paper, I first put forward a general ethical theory, which is based on the traditional maxim neminem laedere. Second, I show how this principle in conjunction with certain assumptions concerning the value of life entails certain fundamental bioethical principles. Thus killing a living being Y is morally wrong whenever the intrinsic value of the life that Y would otherwise live is positive. But procreating a living being Y is prima facie (i.e., with regard to the interests of Y) morally neutral, i.e. neither bad nor good. Third I will argue that the question of moral rights should always be reduced to the question of the morality of certain corresponding actions. In particular, granting Y a right to life should be taken to mean that it would be morally wrong if someone else were to put an end to Y's life. In a similar vein, I suggest answers to some other questions of the reproductive rights issue. Fourth, with respect to the controversial issue of genuine cloning, I do not see any compelling moral reasons against this utopian way of procreating full-grown individuals. Nevertheless, I think there are a lot of other good (pragmatic, rational) reasons not to try to produce a human Dolly. Finally, as regards the use or abuse of human embryos as potential suppliers of stem-cells for the cure of other people's diseases, it seems morally safe to perform experiments at least with those embryos which, like spare embryos that remained from measures of in vitro fertilization, would not have a life anyway. It's more difficult to decide, however, whether it would be morally safe to produce embryos (for instance through cloning) only for the sake of using them in the aforementioned way.

  18. Seven Issues Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul;

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility...... and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited several times, by Halasz in his 1991 Hypertext keynote talk, and by Randy Trigg in his 1996 Hypertext keynote...... five years later. Additionally, over the intervening 15 years, many research systems have addressed the original seven issues, and new research avenues have opened up. The goal of this panel is to begin the process of developing a new set of seven issues for the next generation of hypertext system...

  19. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  20. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  1. Retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI Challenges of bioethics in twenty-first century medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para plantear posibles retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI es necesario considerar que existieron algunos retos en el pasado (en el origen de esa nueva disciplina llamada bioética; que los retos se han ido modificando con el avance científico, biomédico y humanístico; considerando que los retos que pueden plantearse para el futuro serán, de diferentes maneras, resultado de este devenir histórico. Se plantean como grandes retos: los problemas no resueltos de justicia, equidad y pobreza; los retos que plantea la introducción de nuevas tecnologías con el paradigma de la nanomedicina y los retos que plantea el avance de las neurociencias con el paradigma de la neuroética.In order to propose possible challenges of bioethics in the twenty-first century medicine, it is necessary to consider that there were some past challenges (at the origin of this new discipline called bioethics, that the challenges have been modified with scientific, biomedical and humanistic breakthroughs, considering at the same time that challenges that may arise in the future will be, in different ways, a result of this historical evolution. The major challenges would be in the future: the unsolved problems of justice, equity and poverty; the challenges posed by the introduction of new technologies with the nanomedicine paradigm; and finally, the challenges driven by breakthroughs in neurosciences with the neuroethics paradigm.

  2. Ethics and Bioethics. Bases for Informed Consent in Orthodontics La ética y la bioética. Bases del consentimiento informado en Ortodoncia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledys Mary Herrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality and scientific development of health assistance in Cuba are reflected in its health index which is an expression of respect for all those who give and receive health services in the country. Thus human dignity, which is widely represented in the informed consent should be a premise while practicing a high quality health service according to the principles of Bioethics, constituting it an ethical challenge for all the health staff. This paper reviews the principles of Bioethics with regards to informed consent in Orthodontics. La calidad que se ha logrado en la atención médica y el desarrollo científico alcanzado por Cuba, se reflejan en nuestros indicadores de salud, lo cual se manifiesta en el respeto a quien recibe los servicios y a quienes lo ofertan, por lo que el cuidado de la dignidad humana representada ampliamente en el consentimiento informado debe ser una premisa para ofrecer servicios de salud con calidad según los principios de la bioética, lo cual constituye un reto ético de primer orden para los profesionales del sector de la salud. En este trabajo se hace una revisión sobre el consentimiento informado en Ortodoncia.

  3. Bioethics, culture and infanticide in Brazilian indigenous communities: the Zuruahá case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.

  4. Challenges of traditional bioethical principles in the implementation of contemporary standards of medical law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on issues of development dimensions of Medical Law and its ongoing process of standardization and harmonization on one hand, versus the traditionally rooted and available principles of biomedical ethics, on the other. The collision of new legal institutes and the spread of human rights protections is evident. This paper follows the theory and practice of medical ethics and medical law. The theoretical aspect points out medical ethics as one of the sources of medical law. Legal theory makes a distinction between formal and autonomous sources of medical law. Even though ethics is morally much higher, law prevails because it has stronger sanctions and legal power. In its practical aspect, this paper gives examples of different situations of medical decision-making processes. Ethical rules are of the utmost relevance in the domain of confidentiality and options of medical treatment. But, in concrete medical procedures, where legal positions of patients are evidently very significant, law has a more distinct function. Therefore, explaining particular cases from medical malpractice, such as cases of penal, civil or professional liability have an ethical dimension as well. Members of medical professions in Serbia often find these cases unfair. Mostly this is the consequence of ignorance in this kind of medical law and ethics relations. A discussion about practical cases has in that sense a self-learning component, which could be developed to strengthen ethical reasoning and judgment.

  5. Beyond Bioethics: A Child Rights-Based Approach to Complex Medical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine; Melamed, Irene; Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This analysis adopts a child rights approach-based on the principles, standards, and norms of child rights and the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)-to explore how decisions could be made with regard to treatment of a severely impaired infant (Baby G). While a child rights approach does not provide neat answers to ethically complex issues, it does provide a framework for decision-making in which the infant is viewed as an independent rights-holder. The state has obligations to develop the capacity of those who make decisions for infants in such situations to meet their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill their rights as delineated in the CRC. Furthermore, a child rights approach requires procedural clarity and transparency in decision-making processes. As all rights in the CRC are interdependent and indivisible, all must be considered in the process of ethical decision-making, and the reasons for decisions must be delineated by reference to how these rights were considered. It is also important that decisions that are made in this context be monitored and reviewed to ensure consistency. A rights-based framework ensures decision-making is child-centered and that there are transparent criteria and legitimate procedures for making decisions regarding the child's most basic human right: the right to life, survival, and development. PMID:27157351

  6. The Right Way Through the Region of Sin: Islam, Bioethics and New Reproductive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pišev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s numerous debates were held in the House of Lords on the scientific research of embryos, with certain participants attempting to point out the difference between two styles of thought, namely, religious and scientific thought. Yet was the conflict in the House of Lords between two styles of thinking, or rather between the proponents of the scientific approach, on the one hand, and the proponents of religious thought, on the other, for intellectual and moral domination in society? Clearly, these debates hinted at something beyond and something more complex than a mere concern about embryos. What was actually being problematized? Or, to put it differently, to what extent does the use of bioreproductive technologies call into question the notions and issues of ethics, procreation and kinship, regardless of the religious dogma that considers the possibilities of their application? This paper will be confined to an analysis of Islamic dogma and any correspondences between this dogma and certain aspects of the new reproductive technologies. Still, in order to be able to discuss the relation between the new reproductive technologies and Islamic ethics, it is necessary to devote the greater part of this paper to an interpretation of how man is perceived in the context of the Koran.

  7. Beyond Bioethics: A Child Rights-Based Approach to Complex Medical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine; Melamed, Irene; Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This analysis adopts a child rights approach-based on the principles, standards, and norms of child rights and the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)-to explore how decisions could be made with regard to treatment of a severely impaired infant (Baby G). While a child rights approach does not provide neat answers to ethically complex issues, it does provide a framework for decision-making in which the infant is viewed as an independent rights-holder. The state has obligations to develop the capacity of those who make decisions for infants in such situations to meet their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill their rights as delineated in the CRC. Furthermore, a child rights approach requires procedural clarity and transparency in decision-making processes. As all rights in the CRC are interdependent and indivisible, all must be considered in the process of ethical decision-making, and the reasons for decisions must be delineated by reference to how these rights were considered. It is also important that decisions that are made in this context be monitored and reviewed to ensure consistency. A rights-based framework ensures decision-making is child-centered and that there are transparent criteria and legitimate procedures for making decisions regarding the child's most basic human right: the right to life, survival, and development.

  8. On the Law Policy of Bioethics: from the Angle of Luhmann's Systems Theory%生命伦理的法政策论析——以卢曼的社会系统论为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑荣; 王玉柱

    2012-01-01

    运用卢曼系统论原理;将医疗、法律、政治等作为分析对象对生命伦理的法律政策问题进行探讨;把生命伦理问题与政治法律系统置于系统论中进行阐释;通过生命伦理、法、政策系统关联性;找出生命伦理与政治、法律系统的切合点;为生命伦理的法政策论题可持续研究提供了新的切入点.%This paper discusses the law and policy problems on bioethics from the angle of Luh-mann's systems theory; it tries to interpret the problems of bioethics in the systematology. This article intends to find the relevancy between the bioethics and law policy, and tries to provide a new angle on the study of the problem of law policy on bioethics.

  9. 中国传统文化视野下对西方生命伦理学的批判性反思%Critical Reflection on Western Bioethics Under View-field of Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    峗怡; 任正安; 贺加

    2011-01-01

    H.Tristram Engelharts The Foundations of Bioethics is the classic representative of western bioeth-ics, in which he attempt to sets up "procedure morals" for the moral practice of secular ethics with poly element vision field of post mordernity, to find a channel to communicate for " stranger". However, there are somewhat biases in the western bioethics based on cognition of "the rational person". This paper presents a critical scrutiny, in the perspective of Chinese traditional culture, on the western bioethics advocated view, of "People" as the centre, the moral construction and the lap between Chinese and western culture circumstances.%恩格尔哈特的《生命伦理学基础》是西方生命伦理学的经典之作,他用后现代的多元视域,尝试为俗世伦理学的道德实践构建“程序道德”,为道德“异乡人”找到沟通渠道.但是,基于“理性人”认知下的西方的生命伦理学仍有偏颇,以中国传统文化为视阈,对西方生命伦理以“人”为中心的视角、道德的建构以及中西医文化落差境遇予以批判性审视.

  10. Introduction: issue ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lefevere; A. Tresch; S. Walgrave

    2015-01-01

    Although issue ownership theory - the idea that voters consider specific parties to be better able to deal with some issues - had already emerged in the 1980s, it is only in the past 10 years that the theory has gained prominence in the study of voter and party behaviour. Despite the steep increase

  11. Ethical issues in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, T A

    1999-03-01

    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  12. Issue Brief on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  13. Navigating "thorny" issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    In their article Mindfulness and discussing `thorny' issues in the classroom Konstantinos Alexakos et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As women from different backgrounds, we engage in a metalogue, which expands on our thoughts and emotions the thorny issues evoked. Our discussion is grounded in theoretical frameworks of mindfulness, wellness, and safe space for learning. We also reflect on our experiences of facing some of the thorny issues in our academic and personal lives. Having trust and respect for one another and being aware of thorny issues allows for a meaningful conversation about the complexity and nuances involved in discussing difficult topics in a classroom setting.

  14. Exhaust All Measures: Ethical Issues in Pediatric End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieleman, Kara J; Wallace, Cara; Cimino, Andrea N; Rueda, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    The death of a child may have a profound impact on parents, family members, and health care providers who provided care for the child. Unique challenges are faced by parents of seriously ill children as they must serve as the legal authority for health care decisions of children under age 18, although the child's wishes must also be considered. Social workers must balance core social work values, bioethical values, and psychosocial issues presented by such situations. While studies have been conducted with physicians and nurses regarding ethical issues in pediatric end-of-life care settings, little is known about how social workers experience these conflicts. This article utilizes two vignettes to illustrate potential ethical issues in this setting and applies the National Association of Social Workers Standards for Palliative and End of Life Care (NASW, 2004 ) to explore options for their resolution. These vignettes provide descriptions of possible reactions in this setting and can be used as a basis for further exploration of ethics in pediatric end-of-life care from a social work perspective.

  15. Clinical genetic research 3: Genetics ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Daryl; Etchegary, Holly

    2015-01-01

    ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) is a widely used acronym in the bioethics literature that encompasses a broad range of research areas involved in examining the various impacts of science and technology on society. In Canada, GE3LS (Genetics, Ethical, Economic, Environmental, Legal, Social issues) is the term used to describe ELSI studies. It is intentionally more expansive in that GE3LS explicitly brings economic and environmental issues under its purview. ELSI/GE3LS research has become increasingly important in recent years as there has been a greater emphasis on "translational research" that moves genomics from the bench to the clinic. The purpose of this chapter is to outline a range of ELSI-related work that might be conducted as part of a large scale genetics or genomics research project, and to provide some practical insights on how a scientific research team might incorporate a strong and effective ELSI program within its broader research mandate. We begin by describing the historical context of ELSI research and the development of GE3LS research in the Canadian context. We then illustrate how some ELSI research might unfold by outlining a variety of research questions and the various methodologies that might be employed in addressing them in an area of ELSI research that is encompassed under the term "public engagement." We conclude with some practical pointers about how to build an effective ELSI/GE3LS team and focus within a broader scientific research program.

  16. Care of critically ill newborns in India. Legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, K N; Paul, V K

    1995-06-01

    The nature of neonatal care in India is changing. While the quality of care will most likely improve as the economy grows, the eventual scope of change remains to be seen. Attitudinal and behavioral changes, in addition to better economic conditions, are needed to realize more appropriate interventions in neonatal care. Economic, cultural, religious, social, political, and other considerations may limit or affect neonatal care, especially for ELBW infants or infants with congenital malformations or brain injury. Various protections for critically ill newborns exist under Indian law and the Constitution of India. New laws are being enacted to enhance the level of protection conferred, including laws which ban amniocentesis for sex determination and define brain death in connection with the use of human organs for therapeutic purposes. The applicability of consumer protection laws to medical care is also being addressed. It is noted, however, that India lacks a multidisciplinary bioethics committee. An effort should be made to discuss the legal and ethical issues regarding the care of critically ill newborns, with discussions considering religious, cultural, traditional, and family values. Legal and ethical guidelines should be developed by institutions, medical councils, and society specific to newborn care, and medical, nursing, and other paramedical schools should include these issues as part of the required coursework. Physicians, nurses, philosophers, and attorneys with expertise in law and ethics should develop and teach these courses. Such measures over the long term will ensure that future health care providers are exposed to these issues, ideally with a view toward enhancing patient care.

  17. 中国传统文化中朴素生命伦理思想的启示%Analysis of Simple Bioethics in the Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋菊

    2015-01-01

    This article started with the different views to death in Confucianism , Taoism, and Buddhism .And then explore the simple bioethics spirit in Chinese traditional culture , such as cherishing life , equal spirit , the spir-it of benevolence .Finally the research significance is summarized .In the bioethics development era background , researching naive ethics thought in the Chinese traditional culture has important significance to tamp multicultural foundation of bioethics , promote the development of bioethics in China , transform the ancient Chinese bioethics wisdom into the common wealth of mankind and perfectly handle ethical confusion in the development of biology and medicine.%从发掘传统文化中儒家、道家、佛家对生、死的基本态度入手,通过探寻、提炼中国传统文化中珍视生命、众生平等、仁爱精神等朴素的生命伦理思想的分析,总结该领域研究的现实意义:传统文化中蕴涵的生命伦理思想是中国生命伦理学发展创新的文化渊源,传统文化中的朴素生命伦理智慧可以为解决现实伦理问题提供思想启迪,对我国传统文化中生命伦理思想的梳理有利于中国生命伦理学的发展。

  18. Fusion Canada issue 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs

  19. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  20. Medicaid Issue Briefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MS, in collaboration with Mathematica, has started the MAX Medicaid policy issue brief series, which highlights the essential role MAX data can play in analyzing...

  1. Ethical issues in immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette

    2009-01-29

    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes.

  2. United Kingdom; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1999-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines the operational independence and the conduct of monetary policy in the United Kingdom. The paper describes the inflation targeting framework and the analytics of the decision-making process. It suggests that inflation targeting, although not entirely new in terms of the basic idea, is a rather significant step toward establishing a workable and well-defined framework for monetary policy. The paper also describes structure, mandate, and policy issues associa...

  3. Volume 5, Issue 1

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Nelson; John Clarke; Tracy Creagh

    2014-01-01

    The Feature in this issue is a conversation with Richard James, a highly respected Australian academic with extensive experience in research and policy development on the First Year Experience. Richard discusses the inevitability of universal participation in tertiary education and its impact on the style of participation, student diversity, the shifting focus of decision-making on standards and credentialism; and addresses the challenges posed by these and related issues for universities and...

  4. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper is a wide-ranging survey of the conditions for, and obstacles to, the growth in Mexico. It frames the issue of Mexico’s growth record, and presents the paper’s prior assumptions and approach. It highlights the main observations and conclusions emerging from the survey of growth conditions in Mexico. It also presents an overview of remittances in Mexico, motivated by their recent increase and possible macroeconomic implications.

  5. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d how are mind and brain related; (e what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b issues in psychiatric ethics; (c social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a antipsychiatry revisited; (b basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  6. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2013-01-01

    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  7. Vulnerabilidade e vida nua: bioética e biopolítica na atualidade Vulnerability and bare life: bioethics and biopolitics today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arán

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a noção de vulnerabilidade utilizada pela bioética para debater as pesquisas com seres humanos na atualidade, a partir de uma reflexão acerca da biopolítica na cultura contemporânea. Para isto, partiu-se da leitura de Giorgio Agamben dos modelos de poder foucaultianos - Soberania e Biopolítica - para, em seguida, analisar a noção de vida nua - "vida sem nenhum valor". Se os dispositivos de poder nas democracias modernas conjugam estratégias biopolíticas com a emergência da força do poder soberano que transforma a vida em vida nua, é fato que a bioética deve ser um instrumento de proteção das pessoas vulneradas. No entanto, além do território do estado do direito, a bioética também deve poder penetrar nas zonas de indiferenciação, onde soberania e técnica se misturam, profanando a fronteiras biopolíticas e problematizando a própria condição de vulnerabilidade.The study had the objective of analyzing the notion of vulnerability that is used by bioethics to debate research involving human beings today, from reflections on biopolitics in contemporary culture. For this, the starting point was Giorgio Agamben's reading of Foucault's model of power (Sovereignty and Biopolitics, with the aim of subsequently analyzing the notion of bare life: "life without any value". If the devices of power in modern democracies conjoin biopolitical strategies with the emergence of the strength of sovereign power that transforms life into bare life, in fact bioethics must be an instrument for protecting people who have become vulnerable. Nevertheless, beyond the territory of the rule of law, bioethics must also penetrate the undifferentiated zones where sovereignty and techniques become mixed, disrespecting the frontiers of biopolitics and questioning the condition of vulnerability itself.

  8. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain. PMID:20067901

  9. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomĂŠdecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  10. Saúde mental, mudança social e discurso bioético: uma face da desinstitucionalização revelada em uma notícia de jornal Mental health, social change and bioethical discourse: a view of deinstitutionalization revealed in a newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andrade Pinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na contemporaneidade, desafios e dilemas bioéticos em saúde mental estão exigindo estudos e reflexões. Este trabalho pretende contribuir com a discussão sobre a atual política de saúde mental, especialmente a questão da reinserção social de portadores de transtornos mentais. É importante que essa construção na comunidade e na cultura avance em sintonia com uma "rede" de saúde mental que possa responder por essa assistência e, assim, afrontar o risco de uma mera desospitalização irresponsável, pois, caso contrário, estaremos diante de um quadro de desassistência. Por acreditar que o discurso jornalístico possibilita uma compreensão mais abrangente de certos aspectos acerca dos significados, recursos e práticas que vêm sendo utilizadas no cotidiano, propõe-se aqui analisar um texto jornalístico, tendo como referencial a Análise do Discurso Crítico que, juntamente com os conceitos bioéticos, permitirá o entendimento da forma pela qual esse processo vem ocorrendo.Nowadays, challenges and bioethical dilemmas in mental health are demanding studies and reflections. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the current mental health policy, especially the issue of social reintegration of people with mental disorders. It is important that this construction in community and culture go in line with a mental health "network" able to account for such assistance and thus face the risk of a mere irresponsible dehospitalization; otherwise, we will face a situation of lack of assistance. Believing that media discourse provides a more comprehensive understanding of certain aspects about the meanings, practices and resources that have been used in everyday life, it is proposed here to analyze a journalistic text, taking in consideration the Critical Discourse Analysis which, together with the bioethical concepts, would allow the understanding of the way in which this process is occurring.

  11. Ética mundial e cultura da paz: desafios da Bioética (World-wide ethics and culture of the peace: dialleenges of the Bioethics - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n14p31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Antonio Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O projeto de ética mundial, desenvolvido pelo teólogo ecumênico Hans Küng, propõe que somente por meio de um diálogo inter-religioso é possível estruturar princípios básicos que sejam válidos globalmente e que proporcionem a construção de uma cultura da paz. Essa possibilidade no campo da ética estabelece um amplo diálogo com diferentes autores. No entanto, como o próprio autor assume, o projeto possui limitações, sendo que uma delas é a exclusão de temas que envolvem questões de Bioética que são importantes para as relações em sociedade. Os temas hoje avaliados na área de Bioética são de difícil consenso, entre eles: aborto, uso de embriões, reprodução assistida, questão de gênero. Desse modo, novas frentes de diálogo se fazem necessárias, principalmente no tocante às ciências biológicas, ou seja: a relação entre religião e ciência e cultura e ciência. Para que esse diálogo se torne possível, é necessário reconhecer as possibilidades e os limites do diálogo, numa exigente proposta de transcendência do individualismo, das culturas e da própria religião. Por isso é necessário aprofundar a reflexão começando pela identificação dessas novas questões para se buscar novos espaços de diálogo. Palavras-chave: Ética mundial; Cultura da paz; Bioética; Ética da transcendência. AbstractThe world ethics project, developed by the ecumenical teologian Hans Küng, indicates that only by a inter-religious dialogue is possible to built basic principles that would be wordly accepted and helpfull in the building of a culture of peace. This possibility on ethics research brings a large dialogue with several thinkers. Although, as the author himself accepts, the project has some limitations, being one of them the exclusion of themes that are discussed in Bioethics and are important to relationship in society. The issues that are studied in Bioethics are of rare consensus, like: abortion, utilization

  12. O preparo bioético na graduação de Fisioterapia Bioethical education in physical therapy undergraduate course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Degilio Alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento da Fisioterapia, aliado às mudanças na educação e na saúde, faz com que a autonomia e os dilemas éticos do fisioterapeuta sejam maiores a cada dia, expandindo seu papel no cuidado do paciente. Para além do Código de Ética, as noções de Bioética são centrais no preparo de graduandos para os desafios profissionais. Este estudo verificou a capacidade de tomar decisões éticas de alunos no último ano de Fisioterapia de duas universidades na cidade de São Paulo, das quais uma oferece no currículo a disciplina Bioética e a outra não. Cinqüenta alunos de cada universidade responderam a um questionário sobre dilemas éticos correspondentes a artigos do Código de Ética; cada questão oferecia três alternativas de resposta: uma bioética, outra referente ao Código e uma não-ética. As respostas foram analisadas estatisticamente. Os resultados mostraram um bom preparo ético em pouco mais de metade dos alunos das duas universidades, sugerindo que ambas oferecem preparo ético similar aos graduandos, independente da diferença curricular. No entanto, os alunos da universidade que oferece Bioética tiveram resultados significantemente melhores nos quesitos referentes à relação com outros profissionais da saúde, sugerindo que essa disciplina oferece melhores condições para o relacionamento interprofissional, fator importante tanto na prática clínica quanto para elevar o status da Fisioterapia.Physical therapy recent expansion, along with changes in education and health, enhance physical therapists' role in patient care, while increasing both their autonomy and the ethical challenges they face in daily clinic. In addition to knowledge of the professional ethical code, notions of Bioethics are thought to be central to students training. This study analysed the ability to make ethical decisions among 100 physical therapy undergraduate students at two universities in São Paulo, of which only one offers the

  13. How Bioethics is Complementing Human Rights in Realizing Health Access for Clinical Trial Participants: The Case of Formative PrEP Access in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome

    2015-06-11

    Following the demise of apartheid, human rights in South Africa are now constitutionally enshrined.The right to health in South Africa's Constitution has been credited with transforming the lives of millions of people by triggering programmatic reforms in HIV treatment and the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV.However, a constitutionally enshrined right to health offers no guarantee that clinical trial participants will enjoy post-trial access to beneficial interventions. Using access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in South Africa as an example, this paper argues that adherence to bioethics norms could realize the right to health for trial participants following the end of a clinical trial.

  14. Health care ethics consultation: an update on core competencies and emerging standards from the American Society For Bioethics and Humanities' core competencies update task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzian, Anita J

    2013-01-01

    Ethics consultation has become an integral part of the fabric of U.S. health care delivery. This article summarizes the second edition of the Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation report of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. The core knowledge and skills competencies identified in the first edition of Core Competencies have been adopted by various ethics consultation services and education programs, providing evidence of their endorsement as health care ethics consultation (HCEC) standards. This revised report was prompted by thinking in the field that has evolved since the original report. Patients, family members, and health care providers who encounter ethical questions or concerns that ethics consultants could help address deserve access to efficient, effective, and accountable HCEC services. All individuals providing such services should be held to the standards of competence and quality described in the revised report.

  15. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Dove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science; and consortia ethics (Big Ethics. These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  16. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  17. Volume 7 Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Creagh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuing interest and commitment to improving the student experience in the tertiary sector was reflected in yet another successful Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention and Success (STARS Conference recently held in Perth, Western Australia (June 29-July 2, 2016.  As is customary, this issue of the journal publishes the top research papers selected via a peer review process and the top Emerging Initiatives selected by the Conference Committee.  As well, a Good Practice Report was selected for this issue.  The Invited Feature in this issue republishes an article from Professor Sally Kift, President of the Australian Learning and Teaching Fellows (and one of the Editors of Student Success. The statement draws on and is representative of the national reaction to the closure of the OLT, highlighting the substantial role it has played in developing and disseminating innovation and good practice in tertiary teaching and learning.

  18. SPECIAL ISSUE EDITORIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy J.C.TRAPPEY; Fataneh Taghaboni DUTTA; Kai-Ying CHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ This special issue of Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering recognizes the contributions of authors and participants in the 16th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering (CE2009), 2009 ASME International Manufacturing - Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC) and 2009 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Among related papers presented in these conferences, the guest editors have selectively identified and invited the authors to re-write and extend their works to full-length papers for re-submission to the special issue.

  19. Investigation of nursing students’ and professional nurses’ attitudes towards ethical issues of assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balari C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and Χ2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,41±7,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,83±3,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.

  20. 克隆技术引发的伦理之争%Bioethical argument by cloning technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔中东; 王莲芸

    2012-01-01

    Since Dolly was born, the ethical argument of the human cloning keeps chackling. Almost all of political organisms as well as governments worldwide clearly claimed their opposite opinions to clone a person for the reproductive purpose; moreover, scientists delivered their qualm about faultiness of the clone technique. In order to overcome the technical obstruction and ethical limitation, scientists developed heterogenetical nuclear transfer and induced pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells could develop into tissues, or even an individual, which avoids destroying embryo. Although the technique of cloning has been ameliorated, the puzzlement about cloning human still exists. This review discussed the possibility of cloning human from four major principles of bioethics. In spite that human cloning would not confuse the balance of relationship of people, would not deliver a next Hitler, and would not reduced the genetic polymorphism, it would deprive the autonomy of the cloned individual, bring physical and mental damages to them, and naturally violate the principles of beneficence and justice. Hence, in ethics, there are many problems to be solved in future.%自从克隆羊多莉诞生以来,有关克隆人的伦理学争论就一直喋喋不休.世界上的各种政治组织和各国政府都明确反对生殖性克隆,而科学家们则对克隆技术的不完善心存疑虑.为了克服克隆过程中的伦理学障碍和技术缺陷,科学家们在核移植技术的基础上,又发展了异种核移植技术、诱导多能干细胞技术等.诱导的多能干细胞可以分化成各种组织,甚至能发育成个体,这些方法使克隆技术不再破坏胚胎,避免了伦理学纠纷.尽管科学技术在进步,但是人们对克隆人仍有很多不解和困惑.从自主、不伤害、行善和公正等四大生命伦理学原则着手,在技术层面上提出了尽管克隆人不会搞乱人际关系,不会减少人类基因多样性,也不

  1. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  2. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that focuses on hearing loss and hearing issues. Miracle Ear Children’s Foundation P.O. Box 59261 Minneapolis, MN 55459-0261 (800) 234-5422 www.miracle-ear.com Miracle Ear Children’s Foundation provides free ...

  3. Emerging Issues in Duoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Rick A.

    2016-01-01

    Duoethnography is a relatively new research method in which two participants interrogate the cultural contexts of autobiographical experiences in order to gain insight into their current perspectives on and experience of issues related to personal and professional identities. Commonly explored themes include race, gender, pedagogy, professional…

  4. Workplace Diversity Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  5. New Cooperative Development Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Hardesty, Shermain D.; Shultz, Madeline; Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the increased interest in new cooperative development, factors for successful cooperative development, and strategies to improve the performance of new and emerging cooperatives. The article highlights issues identified by a panel of cooperative leaders, USDA specialists and academic experts

  6. Career Issues in HRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on career issues in human resource development (HRD). "Are Careers What They Used To Be: A Factor Analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory" (Gerri Mukri, Sharon Confessore) is a statistical analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory that finds the inventory to be a statistically…

  7. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  8. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  9. International Issues in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Kai; Diaz, Carmen; Kelley, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Dempster, Martin; Hanna, Donncha

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety, negative attitudes, and attrition are all issues presented in the teaching of statistics to undergraduates in research-based degrees regardless of location. Previous works have looked at these obstacles, but none have consolidated a multilingual, multinational effort using a consistent method. Over 400 Spanish-, English-, and…

  10. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  11. Fusion Canada issue 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs

  12. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  13. Bioethics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese civilization has a long history of 5,000years. It is China's fine tradition to attach importance to ethics and morality, that is "All must regard self-cultivation as the root." Confucius once said that "Benevolence means love of people." He advocated respecting people, concerning about people and caring for people.

  14. Eight years of bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que significó el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la investigación biomédica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile (2003–2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integración de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comités de ética y programas académicos de ética de investigación. Asimismo, en la elaboración de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluación ética y científica. PMID:23172984

  15. Bioethics and caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, S

    1996-04-01

    The author agrees with the critiques of moral theory offered by such writers as Bernard Williams and Alasdair MacIntyre, and uses ideas from Heidegger and Levinas to argue that caring is an ontological structure of human existence which takes two forms: caring about on self (which he calls our "self-project") and caring-about-others. This dual form of caring is expressed on four Aristotelian levels of human living which the author describes and illustrates with reference to the phenomenon of pain. It is concluded from this analysis that traditional notions of morality as imposing obligations should give way to an understanding of ethics as the social forms given to our caring for ourselves and for others. A number of implications for ethical theory are sketched out with the conclusion that virtue theory should be preferred and that the model could be worked out more fully to show that virtue theory can be internalist, particularist, pluralist, personalist and objectivist. PMID:8731533

  16. Center for Practical Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TPOPP Transportable Physician Orders for Patient Preferences Compassion Sabbath Life Sciences Events & Education Events & Education Dinner and ... TPOPP Transportable Physician Orders for Patient Preferences Compassion Sabbath Life Sciences Events & Education Dinner and Symposium Flanigan ...

  17. Patch repair: compatibility issues

    OpenAIRE

    Garbacz, Andrzej; Courard, Luc; Bissonnette, Benoît; Głodkowska, W.

    2014-01-01

    Repair of any concrete structure results in formation of complex, at least two-component repair systems. Compatibility approach is treated as a basic requirement during selection of repair material. Recently, the understanding for compatibility requirements in repair systems approach is demonstrated in many papers. The aim of this paper is analyzing the compatibility between repair materials and concrete substrate in the case of patch repair. The compatibility issues were discussed in light o...

  18. United Kingdom; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper of the United Kingdom analyzes the official projections of public pension spending and risks, as well as the strategy to increase private pension provision. It provides a comparison of stylized facts regarding business cycle developments in the three economies, and an analysis of how these cyclical differences reflect the way monetary policy changes impact the three economies. It analyzes the policy on Economic and Monetary Union membership; and also the interest ra...

  19. Azerbaijan Republic; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Azerbaijan Republic reports that the government has made substantial progress in dealing with energy-related subsidies. The domestic market for oil products has been tightly regulated by the government since Azerbaijan gained independence. Azerbaijan is largely self-sufficient in oil products because of its substantial endowment of exhaustible mineral deposits and existing refining capacity. Although Azerbaijan is self-sufficient in oil products, it needs to impo...

  20. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Indonesia uses a small structural macroeconomics model of the Indonesian economy to analyze the inflation outlook and monetary policy challenges. The Bank of Indonesia (BI) introduced its Inflation Targeting Framework in July 2005 with the goal to reduce inflation in the medium term to 3 percent. BI’s official mandate is stability of the rupiah, both internal and external, and BI views the inflation targeting regime with a floating exchange rate as the best st...

  1. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper looks at links between Indonesia’s commodities sector and recent corporate sector and banking system performance. On the production side, oil and natural gas output has fallen since 2010, with existing fields in decline, while production of coal, palm oil, and rubber output has increased steadily. Recent trends in commodity exports have had a significant impact on corporate revenues and profits. For corporations operating in the nonrenewable commodities sector, li...

  2. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper assesses Indonesia’s trade integration relative to underlying country characteristics. The paper analyzes Indonesia’s vulnerabilities, especially compared with the eve of the crisis in 1997. Various indicators suggest that the underlying fundamentals are significantly stronger. The paper examines key features of the financial safety net (FSN) in view of international standards and concludes that the current system is capable of timely addressing bank problems. I...

  3. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This study estimated Indonesia’s potential growth rate and examined its underlying determinants. Implementing a comprehensive program to address key influencing issues can improve the effectiveness of monetary policy, increase financial stability, and support capital market development. This paper also reviews the level and structure of tax revenues in Indonesia, estimates tax effort and tax efficiency, and discusses potential areas of revenue mobilization. Indonesia’s financial linkages ...

  4. Peru; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper describes recent investment dynamics in Peru, and assesses the relationship between private investment and its fundamentals. Over the last decade, average growth in Peru exceeded 6 percent, anchored by a substantial contribution from investment. A series of structural reforms in the 1990s, growing political stability, and the implementation of a solid macroeconomic framework in the early 2000s set the stage for this investment boom. Actions were also taken to streng...

  5. Peru; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines application of fiscal framework alternatives to the case of Peru. Although growth has been at historical highs over the last decade, Peru still has an important infrastructure gap and a quarter of its population still lives in poverty. This paper applies illustratively new modified frameworks recently developed by the IMF to the case of Peru. It takes stock of analytical considerations to resource management, and analyzes Peru’s natural resource wealth an...

  6. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...

  7. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  8. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...

  9. ECMR’13 Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Frese, Udo; Moritz, Tenorth

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains extended versions of the best papers from the 6th European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR). ECMR is a biennial European forum, internationally open, that allows roboticists throughout Europe to become acquainted with the latest research accomplishments and innovations in mobile robotics and mobile human–robot systems. ECMR covers most aspects of mobile robotics research and machine intelligence, including (but not limited to) the following topics: multi-sensor f...

  10. Sweden; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper discusses capital and liquidity regulations in Sweden. It recaps the recent debates on capital and liquidity buffers, and discusses a way to consider appropriate levels of capital and liquidity buffers in the case of Sweden. The paper estimates the government’s contingent liabilities from banks by different capital and liquidity levels. Also examined are options for Sweden in case the authorities face constraints to set buffers at their desirable levels.

  11. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    McHenry, L

    2006-01-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment.

  12. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the impact of Mexico’s energy reform on hydrocarbons production. These reforms aim to increase oil and gas production by eliminating the state oil company’s (PEMEX) monopoly on exploration and production of hydrocarbons, while retaining the prime directive that these resources are the property of the Mexican nation. This paper focuses on the nature of reforms and what problems these reforms are addressing. It presents illustrative production scenarios f...

  13. Introduction to Special Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This special issue presents the Italian approach to planned interventions by the Government and public institutions to counteract disability and handicap.Analysis of the provisions and laws which have followed on in time highlight the diversity between two types of approach:one that only considers physical or mental disability and one that also takes into consideration,besides these limitations,aspects linked to the social participation and integration of people with disabilities.

  14. Accelerating News Issue 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    In this summer issue we look at how developments in collimator materials could have applications in aerospace and beyond, and how Polish researchers are harnessing accelerators for medical and industrial uses. We see how the LHC luminosity upgrade is linking with European industry and US researchers, and how the neutrino oscillation community is progressing. We find out the mid-term status of TIARA-PP and how it is mapping European accelerator education resources.

  15. Issues of English Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫焕然

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, the complexity of the present situation of world Englishes, comments on the spread of the language, de-bate over standardized variants in English and the pedagogical implication relating to what types of English should be taught will be discussed. The expansion of English in China is then analyzed concerning issues such as attitudes towards local variety, desirable teaching models, and future adjustment.

  16. Australia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines the role that government policy in Australia plays in influencing household saving, both directly through its own saving and the structure of the tax, social security and welfare systems, and indirectly through the influence of the policy environment on factors that affect saving such as economic growth. The determinants of household saving in a sample of 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries are also investigated, using ...

  17. Cambodia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Cambodia explores the implications for long-term sustainable growth from cross-country analysis of the sources of growth. Cambodia’s low labor productivity, inadequate and expensive infrastructure, and a cumbersome regulatory environment do not bode well for future sustainable growth. Favorable external conditions, including foreign aid flows and trade agreements, have helped propel growth. As with other transition economies, Cambodia lags in institutional and...

  18. Governance Issues for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Clarke; Alice Klettner

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on research into the corporate governance practices of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Interviews were conducted with the directors and/or company secretaries of 19 SMEs. The aim of the research was to explore not only SME corporate governance structures and processes but how SMEs had chosen to implement the Principles and the reasons for their choices. The paper addresses the issue of whether the ASX Corporate Governance Prin...

  19. IPPs: The Real Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Anjum Siddiqui

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1998, an important issue facing Pakistan policy-makers has been whether independent power producers (IPPs) produce expensive electricity. It is contended that IPPs’ expensive power has rendered the state utility, Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), bankrupt. It is also alleged that IPPs indulged in corruption and colluded with WAPDA officials to get their signatures on contracts which allowed procurement of expensive power by WAPDA and which it can ill afford now. This pa...

  20. Greece; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper provides updates on Greece’s financial stability framework. The paper highlights that the Bank of Greece (BoG) has strengthened the financial stability framework over recent years. In addition to the liquidity provided by the euro system through its regular refinancing operations and standing facilities, the BoG can provide emergency liquidity assistance (ELA) to financial institutions. In response to the global financial crisis, the authorities have assisted bank...

  1. Iceland; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines implications of capital account liberalization in Iceland. Capital controls were critical in 2008 to avoid a more severe collapse of the Icelandic economy. Six years later, capital inflows have been liberalized, but most outflows remain restricted. Iceland has used the breathing room to reduce flow and stock vulnerabilities, strengthen institutions, and prepare for the lifting of capital controls. Simulations using the central bank’s Quarterly Macroeconom...

  2. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper assesses the potential financial vulnerabilities of the corporate sector in Mexico. It provides an overview of salient features of the Mexican corporate sector. The paper also presents the formal stress tests that estimate the potential effects of some macroeconomic and financial shocks, such as a sharp depreciation of the exchange rate, a sustained increase in interest rates, a slowdown in demand, and a prolonged international market closure on the corporate sector.

  3. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Mexico presents econometric investigation of the cyclical determinants of remittances to Mexico. The aggregate U.S. business cycle is not necessarily relevant for remittances. Remittances to Mexico do show a significant relationship with employment conditions in certain regions of the United States. Employment conditions in the U.S. construction sector seem to be especially important as well as remittances for certain regions of Mexico with high rates of emigrati...

  4. Mexico; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the global crisis and potential growth in Mexico. The paper uses two methodologies to assess to what extent the global crisis is likely to weigh on Mexico’s growth potential. The first approach is sectoral, examining the historical relationship between financial stress and growth in manufacturing industries. The second approach uses a growth-accounting framework to take a closer look at likely developments in the factors that drive potential growth. The p...

  5. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper considers the “informal sector†in Mexico. In Mexico and many other countries, the informal sector represents a large share of total employment. The paper reviews the literature on informality, with special focus on findings for Mexico, and develops a theoretical model that highlights the importance of externalities and the distortion associated with the informal sector. The analysis provides insight into the kinds of policy measures that might sustainably reduce...

  6. GLOBALIZATION – ECONOMIC ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Elzbieta Harach

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has brought new challenges and changes, in terms of both new risk and new opportunities. It is one of the key drivers of economic and environmental change. The impact can be both positive and negative. This paper explains the impact of globalization and the fundamental issues and current controversies related to globalization (trade, investment, the IMF and the World Bank, technology, media, culture, education, development, migration, health, the role of women, human rights). In...

  7. Ergonomics Issues in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    H. S. Loo; Stanley Richardson

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Ergonomics so far has had little impact in Malaysia. For most Malaysian managers, ergonomics is not considered to be associated with performance, but rather with occupational health and safety and legislation. Approach: This study reviews the development of ergonomics in Malaysia and the underlying issues related to national development. Results: Many changes need to be made within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by integrating concepts from the so...

  8. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...

  9. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  10. 对当代学者恩格尔哈特俗世生命伦理学的中国化解读%The Chinese Reading to the Contemporary Scholar Engelhardt's Secular Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉宇

    2012-01-01

    对当代美国生命伦理学家恩格尔哈特的俗世生命伦理学思想进行中国化解读:对文化背景之差异性解读和对人伦关系的历史理解之差异性解读.在此基础上;认识允许原则及其恩氏俗世生命伦理学在中国应用中的有限性.其对中国生命伦理学的发展具有重要的启示作用.%The article makes a Chinese reading to the contemporary scholar Engelhardt' s secular bioethics: the reading to the difference of the cultural background and the reading to the difference of the history understanding to the human relations. And, on the basis of the cognition, the limitation of the permission principle and the secular bioethics in the Chinese application are known. They have the important enlightenment to the Chinese bioethics.

  11. Confucian Ethics in the Vision of Bioethics and Its Contemporary Value%生命伦理学视野中的儒家伦理及其当代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步臻

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Confucian ethics can provide profound cultural foundation for bioethics.From the perspective of bioethics, this paper discusses Confucian ethics including view of life and death, the overall concept of heaven and human, the principle of human relations and orders, and Confucian principle of getting the profit by the right way, aiming to absorb the essence of traditional Confucian culture, discard the dross, and provide reference for contemporary bioethical study.%中国传统儒家伦理可以为生命伦理学提供深厚的文化根基.从生命伦理学的视野探讨儒家的生死观、天人整体现、人伦秩序原则和儒家的见利思义原则,吸取儒家传统文化中的有益成分,剔除其糟粕,为当代生命伦理学研究提供借鉴.

  12. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  13. Ethical issues in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field.

  14. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes reforms to Mexico’s fiscal framework. Mexico’s resilient economic performance would be consolidated by increasing fiscal policy buffers and preparing for challenges associated with long-term budget pressures. In the short term, reducing public debt levels can create space to implement countercyclical fiscal policies and reduce exposure to high financing and hedging costs, which would protect Mexico’s credit rating at times of distress. The paper highl...

  15. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  16. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  17. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    Indonesia’s external borrowing spreads increased by more than 1000 bps from mid-2007 to late 2008, before subsiding in recent months. The large increase in spreads prompted questions about whether the spreads adequately reflect the improvements in fundamentals made over the past few years. This Selected Issues paper examines the determinants of Indonesia’s spreads, and finds that fundamentals can explain both the level of and the increase in spreads. It uses a cross-country panel regressi...

  18. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper takes stock of the progress made in meeting the objectives under Indonesia’s Extended Arrangements (1998–2003) program. The paper addresses progress in achieving the programs’ core macroeconomic objectives, with an emphasis on how Indonesia’s economic recovery compares with those of the other major Asian “crisis†countries. A major conclusion of the paper is that, while significant progress has been made against many of the key objectives of the arrangeme...

  19. Kenya; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Kenya reviews Kenya’s external stability in a context where the exchange rate has strengthened and capital inflows are playing an increasingly important role. Kenya’s external current account deficit has widened, reflecting strong import volumes as well as rising import prices, particularly for oil, but external debt as a percent of GDP has declined steadily. Underlying these developments have been a steady increase in capital inflows and a remarkable rebound...

  20. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the sources of Mexico’s economic growth since the 1960s, and compares various decompositions of historical growth into trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflation process is assessed. The paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative productivity growth rates. The paper also describes the significant steps Mexico has taken to strengthen the structure of its public debt in recent years, both in terms ...