WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioethanol quality assessment

  1. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  2. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Ed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52% in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (inorganic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane, whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion, yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per

  3. Bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Abubackar, H.N.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from cellulosic biomass plays an important role to support energy policies. To produce cellulosic ethanol via fermentation it is required to first break the lignocellulosic complex. Numerous technologies for such pretreatment are under development or in a pilot plant stage.

  4. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  5. Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatiwada, Dilip

    2010-10-15

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal. Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production. The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine Anker; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense of......Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030, regardless of...

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Katrine; Wenzel, Henrik

    , regardless of whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense......Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol for transport, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030...

  8. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass......, were considered. Material and energy flows were assessed to evaluate the bioethanol yield, the production efficiency in terms of Emergy used compared to energy produced (transformity), and the environmental load (ELR) in terms of use of non-renewable resources. These three indicators varied among...... the four feedstock production scenarios to the same extent as among the three different industrial production scenarios and in each case the efficiency was lower and the use of non-renewables higher for the non-recycling system. The system most efficient for production of bioethanol (lowest transformity...

  9. Hybrid optical fiber sensor and artificial neural network system for bioethanol quality control and productivity enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusken, Edmilton; Salgado, Ricardo M.; Rossell, Carlos E. V.; Ohishi, Takaaki; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    2008-04-01

    Bioethanol is produced by bio-chemical process that converts sugar or biomass feedstock into ethanol. After bio-chemical process, the solution is distilled under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature, in order to obtain an ethanol-water solution. However, the ethanol concentration analysis is generally performed off-line and, sometimes, a re-distillation process becomes necessary. In this research, an optical apparatus based on Fresnel reflection has been used in combination with artificial neural networks for determination of bioethanol concentration in hydro-alcoholic solution at any temperature. The volumetric concentration and temperature effect was investigated. This intelligent system can effectively detect and update in real-time the correction of distillation parameters to reduce losses of bioethanol and also to improve the quality in a production plant.

  10. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts; Bioethanol aus Lignozellulose. Eine oekologische und oekonomische Bewertung ausgewaehlter Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-08-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  11. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Velazquez-Marti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioethanol based on direct measurements of Brix grades, instead of the concentration of alcohol, during the process of cane juice bio-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This avoids the application of expensive sensors that increase the investment costs. Fermentation experiments with three concentrations of yeast and two temperatures were carried out in a laboratory reactor. In each case Brix grades, amount of ethanol and alcoholic degree were measured. A mathematical model to predict the quality and production of bioethanol was developed from Brix grade measurements, obtaining an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.97. The model was validated in a pilot plant.

  12. Assessing the potential of wild yeasts for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Ruyters, Stefan; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Verstrepen, Kevin; Thevelein, Johan; Willems, Kris; Lievens, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Bioethanol fermentations expose yeasts to a new, complex and challenging fermentation medium with specific inhibitors and sugar mixtures depending on the type of carbon source. It is, therefore, suggested that the natural diversity of yeasts should be further exploited in order to find yeasts with good ethanol yield in stressed fermentation media. In this study, we screened more than 50 yeast isolates of which we selected five isolates with promising features. The species Candida bombi, Wicke...

  13. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has always been the pioneer in the application of bioethanol as a main fuel for automobiles, hence environmental and economic analyses of the Brazilian ethanol industries are of crucial importance. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on gasoline and ethanol as fuels, and with two types of blends of gasoline with bioethanol, all used in a midsize car. The focus is on a main application in Brazil, sugarcane based ethanol. The results of two cases are presented: base case - bioethanol production from sugarcane and electricity generation from bagasse; future case - bioethanol production from both sugarcane and bagasse and electricity generation from wastes. In both cases sugar is co-produced. The life cycles of fuels include gasoline production, agricultural production of sugarcane, ethanol production, sugar and electricity co-production, blending ethanol with gasoline to produce E10 (10% of ethanol) and E85 (85%), and finally the use of gasoline, E10, E85 and pure ethanol. Furthermore, a life cycle costing (LCC) was conducted to give an indication on fuel economy in both cases. The results show that in the base case less GHG is emitted; while the overall evaluation of these fuel options depends on the importance attached to different impacts. The future case is certainly more economically attractive, which has been the driving force for development in the ethanol industry in Brazil. Nevertheless, the outcomes depend very much on the assumed price for crude oil. In LCC a steady-state cost model was used and only the production cost was taken into account. In the real market the prices of fuels are very much dependent on the taxes and subsidies. Technological development can help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  14. Addressing land use change and uncertainty in the life-cycle assessment of wheat-based bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the significant growth in the number of published life-cycle assessments of biofuels, important aspects have not captured sufficient attention, namely soil carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) and uncertainty analysis. The main goal of this article is to evaluate the implications of different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the life-cycle energy renewability efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gases) intensity of wheat-based bioethanol replacing gasoline. A comprehensive assessment of different LUC scenarios (grassland or cropland converted to wheat cultivation) and agricultural practices is conducted, which results in different carbon stock change values. The types of uncertainty addressed include parameter uncertainty (propagated into LC (life-cycle) results using Monte-Carlo simulation) and uncertainty concerning how bioethanol co-product credits are accounted for. Results show that GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values, mainly due to soil carbon emissions from direct LUC and N2O release from cultivated soil. Moreover, LUC dominates the GHG intensity of bioethanol. Very different GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario considered. Conversion of full- or low-tillage croplands to wheat cultivation results in bioethanol GHG emissions lower than gasoline emissions, whereas conversion of grassland does not contribute to bioethanol GHG savings over gasoline in the short- to mid-term. -- Highlights: ► We address different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the LCA of wheat bioethanol. ► GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values. ► Bioethanol contributes to primary energy savings over gasoline. ► Very different life-cycle GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario. ► GHG savings over gasoline are only achieved if cropland is the reference land use.

  15. Prioritization of Bioethanol Production Pathways in China based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study objectives are two-fold: (i) combining the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework and the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology for sustainability assessment; (ii) determining the most sustainable scenario for bioethanol production in China according......’s proposed method investigates an illustrative case about three alternative bioethanol production scenarios (wheat-based, corn-based and cassava-based): the prior sequence (based on the sustainability performances) in descending order is cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based. The proposed methodology...... is to test the combination of a MCDM methodology and LCSA for sustainability decision-making by studying three alternative pathways for bioethanol production in China. The proposed method feasibly enables the decision-makers/stakeholders to find the most sustainable scenario to achieve their objectives among...

  16. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×105 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×105 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  17. Microsatellite marker-based assessment of the biodiversity of native bioethanol yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonangelo, Ana Teresa B F; Alonso, Diego P; Ribolla, Paulo E M; Colombi, Débora

    2013-08-01

    Although many Brazilian sugar mills initiate the fermentation process by inoculating selected commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, the unsterile conditions of the industrial sugar cane ethanol fermentation process permit the constant entry of native yeast strains. Certain of those native strains are better adapted and tend to predominate over the initial strain, which may cause problems during fermentation. In the industrial fermentation process, yeast cells are often exposed to stressful environmental conditions, including prolonged cell recycling, ethanol toxicity and osmotic, oxidative or temperature stress. Little is known about these S. cerevisiae strains, although recent studies have demonstrated that heterogeneous genome architecture is exhibited by some selected well-adapted Brazilian indigenous yeast strains that display high performance in bioethanol fermentation. In this study, 11 microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of the native autochthonous S. cerevisiae strains in various Brazilian sugar mills. The resulting multilocus data were used to build a similarity-based phenetic tree and to perform a Bayesian population structure analysis. The tree revealed the presence of great genetic diversity among the strains, which were arranged according to the place of origin and the collection year. The population structure analysis revealed genotypic differences among populations; in certain populations, these genotypic differences are combined to yield notably genotypically diverse individuals. The high yeast diversity observed among native S. cerevisiae strains provides new insights on the use of autochthonous high-fitness strains with industrial characteristics as starter cultures at bioethanol plants. PMID:23765797

  18. Life cycle assessment of advanced bioethanol production from pulp and paper sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Diogo; Gonçalves, Margarida S; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco; Oliveira, Ana C; Matos, Cristina T

    2016-05-01

    This work evaluates the environmental performance of using pulp and paper sludge as feedstock for the production of second generation ethanol. An ethanol plant for converting 5400 tons of dry sludge/year was modelled and evaluated using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The sludge is a burden for pulp and paper mills that is mainly disposed in landfilling. The studied system allows for the valorisation of the waste, which due to its high polysaccharide content is a valuable feedstock for bioethanol production. Eleven impact categories were analysed and the results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis and neutralisation of the CaCO3 are the environmental hotspots of the system contributing up to 85% to the overall impacts. Two optimisation scenarios were evaluated: (1) using a reduced HCl amount in the neutralisation stage and (2) co-fermentation of xylose and glucose, for maximal ethanol yield. Both scenarios displayed significant environmental impact improvements. PMID:26926202

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of second generation bioethanol produced from low-input dedicated crops of Arundo donax L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucaro, Amalia; Forte, Annachiara; Basosi, Riccardo; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of bioethanol (EtOH) from perennial Arundo donax L. feedstock. A "cradle-to-wheel" approach was applied considering primary data for the cultivation of dedicated crops on hilly marginal lands and innovative "second generation technologies" for feedstock conversion into EtOH. The goals of the study were to: (i) quantify impacts of lignocellulosic EtOH production/use chain, (ii) identify hotspots and (iii) compare the environmental performance of different bioethanol-gasoline vehicles, E10 (10% EtOH and 90% gasoline) and E85 (85% EtOH and 15% gasoline), with a conventional gasoline passenger car. Results for E85 underlined that the feedstock production and the use phase were the prevailing contributors, whilst for E10 the gasoline production phase shared the largest part of impacts. The comparison showed that vehicles using lignocellulosic bioethanol have potentially significant benefits on global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation and fossil depletion in respect to conventional passenger car. PMID:27543950

  20. Bioethanol: industrial world perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the production of bioethanol from biomass is presented, and the future for bioethanol in the transport, cogeneration, domestic appliances, and chemicals markets are examined. Bioethanol economics are considered, and yields and estimated prices for bioethanol produced from different crops are tabulated. Specific uses of bioethanol in the different markets are highlighted including the blending of ethanol with petrol in the transport market, the use of bioethanol for cooking in the domestic market, and the production of chemicals from bioethanol

  1. Potential CO2 Emission Reduction by Development of Non-Grain-Based Bioethanol in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO2 reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO2 emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO2 with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China’s greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  2. Life cycle assessment and resource management options for bio-ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kummamuru Venkata, Bharadwaj

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this thesis is to analyse the sustainability of producing bio-ethanol from cane molasses in Indonesia and its potential to replace gasoline in the transportation sector. A field trip was conducted in East Java, Indonesia, and data was gathered for analysis. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to analyse the net emissions and energy consumption in the process chain. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the life cycle are 17.45 gCO2e per MJ of ethanol produced. In compariso...

  3. Performance Assessment of SOFC Systems Integrated with Bio-Ethanol Production and Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall electrical efficiencies of the integrated systems of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and bio-ethanol production with purification processes at different heat integration levels were investigated. The simulation studies were based on the condition with zero net energy. It was found that the most suitable operating voltage is between 0.7 and 0.85 V and the operating temperature is in the range from 973 to 1173 K. For the effect of percent ethanol recovery, the optimum percent ethanol recovery is at 95%. The most efficient case is the system with full heat integration between SOFC and bio-ethanol production and purification processes with biogas reformed for producing extra hydrogen feed for SOFC which has the overall electrical efficiency = 36.17%. However more equipment such as reformer and heat exchangers are required and this leads to increased investment cost.

  4. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  5. Feasibility of bioethanol production from microalgal biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Mariana; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.; Dragone, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production has attracted great attention in recent years. Bioethanol from microalgae can be produced through two distinct pathways: direct dark fermentation or fermentation of saccharified biomass by yeast. The main objective of this work was to assess the influence of increasing glucose concentration derived from hydrolysed microalgal biomass on bioethanol production. The green microalga C. vulgaris (strain P12) was cultiv...

  6. Fostering software quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Brandtner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Software quality assessment shall monitor and guide the evolution of a system based on quality measurements. This continuous process should ideally involve multiple stakeholders and provide adequate information for each of them to use. We want to support an effective selection of quality measurements based on the type of software and individual information needs of the involved stakeholders. We propose an approach that brings together quality measurements and individual information needs for ...

  7. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P meat. PMID:26292792

  8. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  9. A spatially explicit whole-system model of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain: an assessment of decentralised processing potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nilay

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol technologies exhibit significant capacity for performance improvement across the supply chain through the development of high-yielding energy crops, integrated pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation technologies and the application of dedicated ethanol pipelines. The impact of such developments on cost-optimal plant location, scale and process composition within multiple plant infrastructures is poorly understood. A combined production and logistics model has been developed to investigate cost-optimal system configurations for a range of technological, system scale, biomass supply and ethanol demand distribution scenarios specific to European agricultural land and population densities. Results Ethanol production costs for current technologies decrease significantly from $0.71 to $0.58 per litre with increasing economies of scale, up to a maximum single-plant capacity of 550 × 106 l year-1. The development of high-yielding energy crops and consolidated bio-processing realises significant cost reductions, with production costs ranging from $0.33 to $0.36 per litre. Increased feedstock yields result in systems of eight fully integrated plants operating within a 500 × 500 km2 region, each producing between 1.24 and 2.38 × 109 l year-1 of pure ethanol. A limited potential for distributed processing and centralised purification systems is identified, requiring developments in modular, ambient pretreatment and fermentation technologies and the pipeline transport of pure ethanol. Conclusion The conceptual and mathematical modelling framework developed provides a valuable tool for the assessment and optimisation of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain. In particular, it can provide insight into the optimal configuration of multiple plant systems. This information is invaluable in ensuring (near-cost-optimal strategic development within the sector at the regional and national scale. The framework

  10. Diet quality assessment indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho; Eliane Said Dutra; Nathalia Pizato; Nádia Dias Gruezo; Marina Kiyomi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I...

  11. Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

  12. GHG emission factors for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol quantified for 24 biomass substrates with consequential life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings from biofuels dramatically depend upon the source of energy displaced and the effects induced outside the energy sector, for instance land-use changes (LUC). Using consequential life-cycle assessment and including LUC effects, this study provides GHG emission factors (EFs) for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol produced from twenty-four biomasses (from dedicated crops to residues of different origin) under a fossil and a non-fossil energy system. Accounting for numerous variations in the pathways, a total of 554 GHG EFs were quantified. The results showed that, important GHG savings were obtained with residues and seaweed, both under fossil and non-fossil energy systems. For high-yield perennial crops (e.g. willow and Miscanthus), GHG savings were achieved only under fossil energy systems. Biofuels from annual crops and residues that are today used in the feed sector should be discouraged, as LUC GHG emissions exceeded any GHG savings from displacing conventional energy sources. PMID:26938807

  13. Power quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical power systems are exposed to different types of power quality disturbances problems. Assessment of power quality is necessary for maintaining accurate operation of sensitive equipment's especially for nuclear installations, it also ensures that unnecessary energy losses in a power system are kept at a minimum which lead to more profits. With advanced in technology growing of industrial / commercial facilities in many region. Power quality problems have been a major concern among engineers; particularly in an industrial environment, where there are many large-scale type of equipment. Thus, it would be useful to investigate and mitigate the power quality problems. Assessment of Power quality requires the identification of any anomalous behavior on a power system, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. The choice of monitoring equipment in a survey is also important to ascertain a solution to these power quality problems. A power quality assessment involves gathering data resources; analyzing the data (with reference to power quality standards); then, if problems exist, recommendation of mitigation techniques must be considered. The main objective of the present work is to investigate and mitigate of power quality problems in nuclear installations. Normally electrical power is supplied to the installations via two sources to keep good reliability. Each source is designed to carry the full load. The Assessment of power quality was performed at the nuclear installations for both sources at different operation conditions. The thesis begins with a discussion of power quality definitions and the results of previous studies in power quality monitoring. The assessment determines that one source of electricity was deemed to have relatively good power quality; there were several disturbances, which exceeded the thresholds. Among of them are fifth harmonic, voltage swell, overvoltage and flicker. While the second

  14. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  15. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  16. Image Quality Assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudělka, Miloš

    Vol. I. Praha : MATFYZPRESS, 2012 - (Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.), s. 94-99 ISBN 978-80-7378-224-5. [WDS'12. Praha (CZ), 29.05.2012-01.06.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : image quality * texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/kudelka-image quality assessment.pdf

  17. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side of...... the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the...... concordance of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of...

  18. Quality assessment of healthcare systems

    OpenAIRE

    Koubeková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Quality assessment of healthcare systems is considered to be the basic tool of developing strategic concepts in healthcare quality improvement and has a great impact on quality of life. The thesis' main focus is on possibilities of quality assessment on international quality model level and its transformation into national structures. It includes teoretical points of quality and economic evaluation of quality in healthcare. The objective is to assess the participation of czech hospitals in he...

  19. Translation Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Williams

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...

  20. Bioethanol production from corn stover residues. Process design and Life Cycle Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the mass and energy balance along with a land-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is described for a corn stover-to-ethanol industrial process assumed to consist of the main technologies being researched at ENEA TRISAIA: pretreatment by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. The modelled plant has a processing capacity of 60kt/y (dimensioned on realistic supplying basins of residues in Italy); biomass is pre-treated by acid catalyzed-steam explosion; cellulose and hemicelluloses are hydrolyzed and separately fermented; enzymes are on-site produced. The main target was to minimize the consumption of fresh water, enzymes and energy. The results indicate that the production of 1kg bio ethanol (95.4 wt%) requires 3.5 kg biomass dry matter and produces an energy surplus up to 740 Wh. The main purpose of the LCA analysis was to assess the environmental impact of the entire life cycle from the bio ethanol production up to its end-use as E10 blended gasoline. Boustead Model was used as tool to compile the life cycle inventory. The results obtained and discussed in this reports suffer of some limitations deriving from the following main points: some process yields have been extrapolated according to optimistic development scenarios; the energy and steam recovery could be lower than that projected because of lacks in the real systems; water recycle could be limited by the yeast tolerance toward the potential accumulation of toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the detailed process analysis here provided has its usefulness in: showing the challenging targets (even if they are ambitious) to bet on to make the integrated process feasible; driving the choice of the most suitable technologies to bypass some process bottlenecks

  1. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina;

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also be...... used as a versatile feedstock in the chemical industry. Currently the production of carbon-containing commodity chemicals is dependent on fossil resources, and more than 95% of these chemicals are produced from non-renewable carbon resources. The question is: what will be the optimal use of bioethanol...

  2. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  3. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  4. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  5. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  6. Advances in bioethanol

    CERN Document Server

    Bajpai, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an updated and detailed overview on advances in bioethanol. It looks at the historical perspectives, chemistry, sources and production of ethanol and discusses biotechnology breakthroughs and promising developments. The book also provides the details regarding the uses, advantages, problems, environmental effects and characteristics of bioethanol as a fuel. In addition, it presents information about ethanol in different parts of the world and also highlights the challenges and future of ethanol.

  7. Quality Assessment of Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    N.K. Dash; P. Padhi

    2010-01-01

    The concept of quality is not a new phenomenon for library and information science professionals as it is entrenched in library philosophy and practice. Service quality is viewed as a comparison of what the customer expected prior to the use of services and the perceived level of services received. Quality of service and user satisfaction is two significant facets of effective service management. Although the concept of quality is not new, measuring service quality as a management technique h...

  8. Portfolio Assessment and Quality Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youb; Yazdian, Lisa Sensale

    2014-01-01

    Our article focuses on using portfolio assessment to craft quality teaching. Extant research literature on portfolio assessment suggests that the primary purpose of assessment is to serve learning, and portfolio assessments facilitate the process of making linkages among assessment, curriculum, and student learning (Asp, 2000; Bergeron, Wermuth,…

  9. Integrated economic and life cycle assessment of thermochemical production of bioethanol to reduce production cost by exploiting excess of greenhouse gas savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of economics and sustainability of thermochemical ethanol production. • Exploitation of excess CO2 saving by either importing fossil energy or CO2 trading. • Significant increase in alcohol production by replacing biomass with natural gas. • CO2 emission trading is not cost-competitive versus import of fossil energy. • Lowest ethanol production cost for partial oxidation as reforming technology. - Abstract: In this work, two options are investigated to enhance the economics of the catalytic production of bioethanol from biomass gasification by exploiting the excess of CO2 emission saving: (i) to import fossil energy, in the form of natural gas and electricity or (ii) to trade CO2 emissions. To this end, an integrated life cycle and economic assessment is carried out for four process configurations, each using a different light hydrocarbon reforming technology: partial oxidation, steam methane reforming, tar reforming and autothermal reforming. The results show that for all process configurations the production of bioethanol and other alcohols significantly increases when natural gas displaces biomass, maintaining the total energy content of the feedstock. The economic advantage of the partial substitution of biomass by natural gas depends on their prices and this is explored by carrying out a sensitivity analysis, taking historical prices into account. It is also concluded that the trade of CO2 emissions is not cost-competitive compared to the import of natural gas if the CO2 emission price remains within historical European prices. The CO2 emission price would have to double or even quadruple the highest CO2 historical price for CO2 emission trading to be a cost-competitive option

  10. GHG emission factors for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol quantified for 24 biomass substrates with consequential life-cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin;

    2016-01-01

    factors (EFs) for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol produced from twenty-four biomasses (from dedicated crops to residues of different origin) under a fossil and a non-fossil energy system. Accounting for numerous variations in the pathways, a total of 554 GHG EFs were quantified. The results...... showed that, important GHG savings were obtained with residues and seaweed, both under fossil and non-fossil energy systems. For high-yield perennial crops (e.g. willow and Miscanthus), GHG savings were achieved only under fossil energy systems. Biofuels from annual crops and residues that are today used...... in the feed sector should be discouraged, as LUC GHG emissions exceeded any GHG savings from displacing conventional energy sources. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  12. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  13. Air quality assessment for Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, A; Miranda, A. I.; C. Borrego; R. Vautard

    2007-01-01

    According to the Air Quality Framework Directive, air pollutant concentration levels have to be assessed and reported annually by each European Union member state, taking into consideration European air quality standards. Plans and programmes should be implemented in zones and agglomerations where pollutant concentrations exceed the limit and target values. The main objective of this study is to perform a long-term air quality simulation for Portugal, using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport mod...

  14. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  15. Applying Undertaker to quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archie, John G.; Paluszewski, Martin; Karplus, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Our group tested three quality assessment functions in CASP8: a function which used only distance constraints derived from alignments (SAM-T08-MQAO), a function which added other single-model terms to the distance constraints (SAM-T08-MQAU), and a function which used both single-model and consens...

  16. Aerial Image Series Quality Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing demand for geospatial data, the aerial imagery with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution achieves great development. It is imperative to evaluate whether the acquired images are qualified enough, since the further image mosaic asks for strict time consistency and a re-flight involves considerable resources. In this paper, we address the problem of quick aerial image series quality assessment. An image series quality analysis system is proposed, which includes single image quality assessment, image series quality assessment based on the image matching, and offering a visual matching result in real time for human validation when the computer achieves dubious results. For two images, the affine matrix is different for different parts of images, especially for images of wide field. Therefore we calculate transfer matrixes by using even-distributed control points from different image parts with the RANSAC technology, and use the image rotation angle for image mosaic for human validation. Extensive experiments conducted on aerial images show that the proposed method can obtain similar results with experts

  17. Improvement of bioethanol yield by pervaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nongauza, Sinethemba Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    Due to the depletion of petroleum reserves and environmental concerns, bioethanol has been identified as an alternative fuel to petrol. Bioethanol is a fuel of bio-origin derived from renewable biomass. Starch and sugar containing materials are the primary sources of carbon for bioethanol production. Starch is firstly hydrolysed into simple sugars which are later fermented to bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). The fermentation of sugars to bioethanol is however limited...

  18. Quality assessment of schistosomiasis literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pao, Miranda Lee; Goffman, William

    1990-01-01

    Average impact per paper, a refinement of the use of impact factor, was used to assess the quality of publications produced by a small group of sponsored researchers. The average impact per paper associated with half of the literature published by grantees has been shown to exceed those taken from the total literature at large. Moreover, this indicator appears to be stable over the five years tested. Compared with the schistosomiasis literature as a whole, the subset ...

  19. Bioethanol: State and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Marija B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of bioethanol production currently applied all over the world are reviewed in this paper. Attention is focused on potentially cheap biomass sources, as well as the most important operating factors controlling the progress and result of saccharification and fermentation reactions and affecting the yield of fermentable sugars and ethanol, respectively, such as: the type and concentration of acid, the type of enzyme, the type of working microorganism, operating temperature, duration time and pH. The hydrolysis conditions, namely duration time, temperature and sulfuric acid concentration, were combined in a single parameter, known as the "combined severity" (CS, in order to estimate the efficiency of bioethanol production from biomass. When the CS increases, the yield of fermentable sugars also increases. The decrease in the yield of monosaccharides coincides with the maximum concentrations of by-products, such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which are well-known as yeast inhibitors. The highest ethanol yields has been obtained using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With low oil prices and political reluctance to implement carbon taxes, fuel-ethanol production will remain uncompetitive unless some other form of cost reduction can be made, such as feedstock preparation costs.

  20. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  1. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO2e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: → Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. → In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. → Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  2. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  3. Fovea based image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anan; Zhao, Debin; Liu, Shaohui; Cao, Guangyao

    2010-07-01

    Humans are the ultimate receivers of the visual information contained in an image, so the reasonable method of image quality assessment (IQA) should follow the properties of the human visual system (HVS). In recent years, IQA methods based on HVS-models are slowly replacing classical schemes, such as mean squared error (MSE) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). IQA-structural similarity (SSIM) regarded as one of the most popular HVS-based methods of full reference IQA has apparent improvements in performance compared with traditional metrics in nature, however, it performs not very well when the images' structure is destroyed seriously or masked by noise. In this paper, a new efficient fovea based structure similarity image quality assessment (FSSIM) is proposed. It enlarges the distortions in the concerned positions adaptively and changes the importances of the three components in SSIM. FSSIM predicts the quality of an image through three steps. First, it computes the luminance, contrast and structure comparison terms; second, it computes the saliency map by extracting the fovea information from the reference image with the features of HVS; third, it pools the above three terms according to the processed saliency map. Finally, a commonly experimental database LIVE IQA is used for evaluating the performance of the FSSIM. Experimental results indicate that the consistency and relevance between FSSIM and mean opinion score (MOS) are both better than SSIM and PSNR clearly.

  4. Competitiveness Model of Bioethanol Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzakar Isa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for energy is increasing every year. More than 80% of energy needs met by fossil fuels derived from petroleum and natural gas. To anticipate, the Government issued Presidential Regulation No. 5 of 2006 on the national energy. In this regulation, the government took steps to saving energy and looking for new sources of energy that are renewable and environmentally friendly. One is bioethanol. This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of bioethanol industry in Bekonang Sukoharjo. This study used mixed methods, namely the incorporation of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study. The measurement of competitiveness is using Porter's Diamond Model. The results show the competitiveness of bioethanol industry is influenced by business strategy, potential buyers, working capital and innovation. Currently, bioethanol industry competitiveness is low.

  5. [Transcript assembly and quality assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Jia, Xianbo; Lai, Songjia; Liu, Yiping; Chen, Shiyi

    2015-09-01

    The transcript assembly is essential for transcriptome studies trom next-generation sequencing data. However, there are still many faults of algorithms in the present assemblers, which should be largely improved in the future. According to the requirement of reference genome or not, the transcript assembly could be classified into the genome-guided and de novo methods. The two methods have different algorithms and implementation processes. The quality of assembled transcripts depends on a large number of factors, such as the PCR amplification, sequencing techniques, assembly algorithm and genome character. Here, we reviewed the present tools of transcript assembly and various indexes for assessing the quality of assembled transcripts, which would help biologists to determine which assembler should be used in their studies. PMID:26955705

  6. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Semenčenko Valentina V.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Ocić Ozren

    2011-01-01

    The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 b...

  7. MULTICRITERIA APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Agarski; Igor Budak; Janko Hodolič; Đorđe Vukelić

    2010-01-01

    Environment is important and inevitable element that has direct impact on life quality. Furthermore, environmental protection represents prerequisite for healthy and sustainable way of life. Environmental quality can be represented through specific indicators that can be identified, measured, analyzed, and assessed with adequate methods for assessment of environmental quality. Problem of insight in total environmental quality, caused by different, mutually incomparable, indicators of environm...

  8. Primary certification of reference material for electrolytic conductivity of bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L. F.; Gomes, M. R. F.; Cassini, G. C.; Faria, A. C. V.; Fraga, I. C. S.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays the preservation of the planet is spreading into the international scene with the use of renewable energy sources such as bioethanol. The challenge is to guarantee the quality of produced bioethanol, and the electrolytic conductivity (EC) is one of the specified parameters for this purpose. However, is necessary to demonstrate the metrological traceability of the measurement results for EC in this matrix. This study presents the certification of a reference material for EC in bioethanol by using only primary measurements. The value of primary certified reference material (CRM) is (0.77 ± 0.06) µS.cm-1, and its use will provide the metrological traceability needed for measurement results in laboratories.

  9. Determination of two-liquid mixture composition by assessing its dielectric parameters 2. modified measuring system for monitoring the dehydration process of bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.; Rucins, A.; Zihmane-Ritina, K.; Bremers, G.

    2014-02-01

    In Part 2 of the work we describe a modified measuring system for precise monitoring of the dehydration process of bioethanol production. This is based on the earlier proposed system for measuring the concentration of solutions and two-liquid mixtures using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300pF), which provides a stable measuring resolution of ± 0.005 pF at measuring the capacitance of a sensor. In this part of our work we determine additional requirements that are to be imposed on the measuring system at monitoring the ethanol dehydration process and control of bioethanol production. The most important parameters of the developed measuring system are identified. An exemplary calculation is given for the thermocompensated calibration of measuring devices. The results of tests have shown a good performance of the developed measuring system.

  10. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.H.W.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Boersma, A.R.; Bisschops, I.; Pels, J.R.; Jong, de E.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Reith, H.

    2008-01-01

    The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of

  11. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process...

  12. Quality Assessment of Imputations in Administrative Data

    OpenAIRE

    Schnetzer, Matthias; Astleithner, Franz; Cetkovic, Predrag; Humer, Stefan; Lenk, Manuela; Moser, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes a framework for the quality assessment of imputations within a broader structure to evaluate the quality of register-based data. Four quality-related hyperdimensions examine the data processing from the raw-data level to the final statistics. Our focus lies on the quality assessment of different imputation steps and their influence on overall data quality. We suggest classification rates as a measure of accuracy of imputation and derive several computat...

  13. Visions for Danish bio-ethanol; Visioner for dansk bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K. [BioCentrum-DTU (Denmark); Felby, C. [Det Biovidenskabelige Fakultet -KU (Denmark); Jensen, Arne [Syddansk Univ., Ledelsessekretariatet (Denmark); Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy (Denmark); Skytte, K. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept. - DTU (Denmark); Wormslev, E.C. [NIRAS A/S (Denmark); Zinck, A.M. [Dansk Landbrug (DK)] (eds.)

    2007-02-15

    In 2006 the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences set up a working group to prepare a brief and factual presentation of visions for Danish bioenergy targeted at political actors in that area. This report presents the working group's conclusions and recommendations with focus on bioethanol. Denmark has powerful actors and good opportunities to develop and commercialize this particular type of biofuel. Bioethanol has the potential to create large gains for Denmark within supply, environment and export, and the working group considers bioethanol to be the only alternative to petrol for the transport sector in the short term. However, in order to establish Denmark as a strong and relevant partner in international development, it is crucial for the Danish actors to concentrate on a joint effort. (BA)

  14. PRAGMATIC MODEL OF TRASLATION QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobjeva, S.; Podrezenko, V.

    2006-01-01

    The study analyses various approaches to translation quality assessment. Functional and pragmatic translation quality evaluation model which is based on target text function being equivalent to source text function has been proposed.

  15. Integrated decision making for the optimal bioethanol supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Optimal allocation, design and production planning of integrated ethanol plants is considered. • Mixed Integer Programming model is presented for solving the integration problem. • Different tradeoffs can be assessed and analyzed. • The modeling framework represents an useful tool for guiding decision making. - Abstract: Bioethanol production poses different challenges that require an integrated approach. Usually previous works have focused on specific perspectives of the global problem. On the contrary, bioethanol, in particular, and biofuels, in general, requires an integrated decision making framework that takes into account the needs and concerns of the different members involved in its supply chain. In this work, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model for the optimal allocation, design and production planning of integrated ethanol/yeast plants is considered. The proposed formulation addresses the relations between different aspects of the bioethanol supply chain and provides an efficient tool to assess the global operation of the supply chain taking into account different points of view. The model proposed in this work simultaneously determines the structure of a three-echelon supply chain (raw material sites, production facilities and customer zones), the design of each installed plant and operational considerations through production campaigns. Yeast production is considered in order to reduce the negative environmental impact caused by bioethanol residues. Several cases are presented in order to assess the approach capabilities and to evaluate the tradeoffs among all the decisions

  16. Healthcare quality maturity assessment model based on quality drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nadia; Arafeh, Mazen

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare providers differ in their readiness and maturity levels regarding quality and quality management systems applications. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a useful quantitative quality maturity-level assessment tool for healthcare organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The model proposes five quality maturity levels (chaotic, primitive, structured, mature and proficient) based on six quality drivers: top management, people, operations, culture, quality focus and accreditation. Findings - Healthcare managers can apply the model to identify the status quo, quality shortcomings and evaluating ongoing progress. Practical implications - The model has been incorporated in an interactive Excel worksheet that visually displays the quality maturity-level risk meter. The tool has been applied successfully to local hospitals. Originality/value - The proposed six quality driver scales appear to measure healthcare provider maturity levels on a single quality meter. PMID:27120510

  17. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassav...

  18. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  19. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. - Research highlights: →Bioethanol in Thailand derived from molasses, cassava, sugarcane juice could yield reductions of 64%, 49% and 87% in GHGs when compared to conventional gasoline. →High yields improvement are required for a reliable and sufficient supply of molasses, cassava and sugarcane to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. →Other factors to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bioethanol production in Thailand include increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock and promoting production of bioethanol derived from agricultural residues.

  20. Visual signal quality assessment quality of experience (QOE)

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Lin; Lin, Weisi; Ngan, King

    2015-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the latest trends/advances in subjective and objective quality evaluation for traditional visual signals, such as 2D images and video, as well as the most recent challenges for the field of multimedia quality assessment and processing, such as mobile video and social media. Readers will learn how to ensure the highest storage/delivery/ transmission quality of visual content (including image, video, graphics, animation, etc.) from the server to the consumer, under resource constraints, such as computation, bandwidth, storage space, battery life, etc.    Provides an overview of quality assessment for traditional visual signals; Covers newly emerged visual signals such as social media, 3D image/video, mobile video, high dynamic range (HDR) images, graphics/animation, etc., which demand better quality of experience (QoE); Helps readers to develop better quality metrics and processing methods for newly emerged visual signals; Enables testing, optimizing, benchmarking...

  1. Assessing Quality in Mental Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Shaw

    1997-01-01

    Quality assessment in mental health services is undergoing change in the United Kingdom following the introduction of market reforms. Traditionally, service quality was monitored by professional practitioners with reference to user satisfaction. This became formalized, and the two main forms of quality assurance currently used are outlined. However, the government is concerned that this may be inadequate for the monitoring of quality standards, specified in contracts between service purchaser...

  2. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  3. Exploiting the inter-strain divergence of Fusarium oxysporum for microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Shahin S; Khan, Mojibur; Fagan, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Fiona M Doohan

    2012-01-01

    Microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. A targeted evolution-based study was undertaken to determine if inter-strain microbial variability could be exploited for bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol. The microorganism studied was Fusarium oxysporum because of its capacity to both saccharify and ferment lignocellulose. Strains of F. oxysporum were isolated and assessed for their genetic variability. Using optimis...

  4. Parasitology: United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, M; Chiodini, P L; Snell, J J; Moody, A H; Ramsay, A

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the results from parasitology laboratories taking part in a quality assessment scheme between 1986 and 1991; and to compare performance with repeat specimens. METHODS: Quality assessment of blood parasitology, including tissue parasites (n = 444; 358 UK, 86 overseas), and faecal parasitology, including extra-intestinal parasites (n = 205; 141 UK, 64 overseas), was performed. RESULTS: Overall, the standard of performance was poor. A questionnaire distributed to participants sho...

  5. Quality Assessment in the Primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrem Ak

    2013-01-01

    -Quality Assessment in the Primary care Dear Editor; I have read the article titled as “Implementation of Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS) at Primary Health Centre Durvesh” with great interest. Shrivastava et all concluded that assessment mechanism for the achievement of objectives for the suggested RKS model was not successful (1). Hereby I would like to emphasize the importance of quality assessment (QA) especially in the era of newly established primary care implementations in our coun...

  6. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    OpenAIRE

    Niekerk, van, M.; H. Gunnink; Reenen, van, A Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  7. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this thesis aimed (a) to describe and understand how rice farmers assess soil quality; (b) to propose a minimum data set (MDS) to assess soil quality; (c) to establish which soil quality indicator(s) ca...

  8. The energetic potential of bioethanol in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the bioethanol production is the agriculture, mostly the corn and wheat growing. With the analysis of their domestic harvest results, the process of the starch formation and the chemical-thermodynamical processes of the alcohol's fermentation, we calculate the annual amount of the producible bioethanol on average and its energy. We determine the specific values of the CO2 cycle. We examine the energetic possibilities of total substitution of the 2 billion litres of domestic petrol consumption with bioethanol. (authors)

  9. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all...... of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered...... by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol...

  10. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech;

    2015-01-01

    The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...... of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton...... of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor...

  11. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2012-04-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature. PMID:21802146

  12. The influence of sorghum grain decortication on bioethanol production and quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles using cold and conventional warm starch processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomba, Edouard Y; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Very high gravity hydrolysis-fermentation of whole and decorticated sorghum grains were compared using conventional and cold hydrolysis methods to assess the extent by which decortication could minimize enzymes dosages and affect the quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). All processing configurations achieved ethanol concentrations between 126 and 132 g/L (16.0-16.7%v/v), although decortication resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Decortication resulted in a decreased volumetric productivity during warm processing from 1.55 to 1.25 g L(-1)h(-1), whereas the required enzyme dosage for cold processing was decreased from 250 to 221 μl/100 gstarch. Cold processing decreased the average acid detergent fibre (ADF) from 35.59% to 29.32% and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 44.04% to 32.28% in the DDGS compared to the conventional (warm) processing. Due to lower enzyme requirements, the use of decorticated grains combined with cold processing presents a favourable process configuration and source of DDGS for non-ruminants. PMID:26724549

  13. Quality assessment of protein NMR structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rosato A.; Montelione G.T.; Tejero R.

    2013-01-01

    Biomolecular NMR structures are now routinely used in biology, chemistry, and bioinformatics. Methods and metrics for assessing the accuracy and precision of protein NMR structures are beginning to be standardized across the biological NMR community. These include both knowledge-based assessment metrics, parameterized from the database of protein structures, and model versus data assessment metrics. On line servers are available that provide comprehensive protein structure quality assessment ...

  14. Improving quality and consistency of dissertation assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pathirage, C. P.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been increasing calls for Higher Education to improve standards, increase the quality of assessment, and for greater accountability of lecturers. It is recognised that consistency in assessment is even more important where assessment is through one large piece of work, such as a dissertation, and where the assessment outcome will have a significant impact on the final grade of students. In this context, this paper outlines the initial literatur...

  15. Assessing quality across healthcare subsystems in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Andrea; Pagán, José A; Wong, Rebeca

    2009-01-01

    Recent healthcare reform efforts in Mexico have focused on the need to improve the efficiency and equity of a fragmented healthcare system. In light of these reform initiatives, there is a need to assess whether healthcare subsystems are effective at providing high-quality healthcare to all Mexicans. Nationally representative household survey data from the 2006 Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (National Health and Nutrition Survey) were used to assess perceived healthcare quality across different subsystems. Using a sample of 7234 survey respondents, we found evidence of substantial heterogeneity in healthcare quality assessments across healthcare subsystems favoring private providers over social security institutions. These differences across subsystems remained even after adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic, and health factors. Our analysis suggests that improvements in efficiency and equity can be achieved by assessing the factors that contribute to heterogeneity in quality across subsystems. PMID:19305224

  16. Packaget Water quality and their assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hromádko, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the quality of bottled water and their evaluation criteria. In the first chapter of the literature search are given the types of bottled waters, including thein requirements, and other variants of drinking water. The next section describes the assessment of water in its mineral and microbial composition and their individual components. The next chapter deals with non-traditional criteria for assessment of water quality, which are described in detail with their connection...

  17. MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING IN SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, S K

    2012-01-01

    Information of spatial and temporal variations of soil quality (soil properties) is required for various purposes of sustainable agriculture development and management. Traditionally, soil quality characterization is done by in situ point soil sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Such methodology has limitation for assessing the spatial variability of soil quality. Various researchers in recent past showed the potential utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technique for spatial est...

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhiza in soil quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, M.; Jakobsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    aggregates and to the protection of plants against drought and root pathogens. Assessment of soil quality, defined as the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant health, should therefore include both...

  19. Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, José Cardoso; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Ribeiro, Belina; Lourenço, V.; Pereira, J.; Paixão, Susana M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been screened for the ability of bioethanol production. Yeasts were grown in synthetic liquid medium containing two different substrates: sucrose at different concentrations (10 to 400g/l) and cane molasses (120g/l of sucrose). The screening was made in batch regime and the growth rates, ethanol and biomass productions were determined. The results indicate a flocculent yeast strain – F as the more suitable microorganism to prod...

  20. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  1. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially. (author)

  2. ON SOIL QUALITY AND ITS ASSESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Florea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The term of “soil quality” is utilized until present with different connotations; its meaning became nowadays more comprehensive. The most adequate definition of the “soil quality” is: “the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality and support human health and habitation” (Karlen et al, 1998 One distinguishes a native soil quality, in natural conditions, and a meta-native soil quality, in managed conditions. Also, one can distinguish a stable side and a variable side of the soil quality. It is useful to consider also the term of “soilscape quality”, defined as weighted average of soil qualities of all the soils entering soil cover and their arrangement (expressed by the pedogeographical assemblage. The assessing soil quality can be made indirectly by a set of indicators. The kind and number of the quality indicators depend on the evaluation scale and the objective of the assessment. New researches are necessary to define more accurately the soil quality and to develop its evaluation. Assessing and monitoring soil quality have global implication in environment and society.

  3. SIMPLE QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR BINARY IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chun'e; Qiu Zhengding

    2007-01-01

    Usually image assessment methods could be classified into two categories: subjective assessments and objective ones. The latter are judged by the correlation coefficient with subjective quality measurement MOS (Mean Opinion Score). This paper presents an objective quality assessment algorithm special for binary images. In the algorithm, noise energy is measured by Euclidean distance between noises and signals and the structural effects caused by noise are described by Euler number change. The assessment on image quality is calculated quantitatively in terms of PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio). Our experiments show that the results of the algorithm are highly correlative with subjective MOS and the algorithm is more simple and computational saving than traditional objective assessment methods.

  4. Quality Assessment in the Primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -Quality Assessment in the Primary care Dear Editor; I have read the article titled as “Implementation of Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS at Primary Health Centre Durvesh” with great interest. Shrivastava et all concluded that assessment mechanism for the achievement of objectives for the suggested RKS model was not successful (1. Hereby I would like to emphasize the importance of quality assessment (QA especially in the era of newly established primary care implementations in our country. Promotion of quality has been fundamental part of primary care health services. Nevertheless variations in quality of care exist even in the developed countries. Accomplishment of quality in the primary care has some barriers like administration and directorial factors, absence of evidence-based medicine practice lack of continuous medical education. Quality of health care is no doubt multifaceted model that covers all components of health structures and processes of care. Quality in the primary care set up includes patient physician relationship, immunization, maternal, adolescent, adult and geriatric health care, referral, non-communicable disease management and prescribing (2. Most countries are recently beginning the implementation of quality assessments in all walks of healthcare. Organizations like European society for quality and safety in family practice (EQuiP endeavor to accomplish quality by collaboration. There are reported developments and experiments related to the methodology, processes and outcomes of quality assessments of health care. Quality assessments will not only contribute the accomplishment of the program / project but also detect the areas where obstacles also exist. In order to speed up the adoption of QA and to circumvent the occurrence of mistakes, health policy makers and family physicians from different parts of the world should share their experiences. Consensus on quality in preventive medicine implementations can help to yield

  5. Bioethanol production from Asphodelus aestivus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polycarpou, Polycarpos [Agricultural Research Institute, Soils Science Department, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Lefkosia (Cyprus)

    2009-12-15

    The increase on the price of fossil fuels and the need to protect the environment from greenhouse gases urge the investigation of the possibility of using biofuels to replace them. Cyprus is faced with severe water shortage and unavailability of agricultural land that limit the cultivation of energy crops that supply the feedstock for biofuel production. A possibility would be to use Asphodelus aestivus L. that is encountered in Cyprus and other Mediterranean countries, growing wild in pastures. Its tubers contain starch that was measured to be 10.1%. The bioethanol is produced by fermentation of the mash produced by crashing the tubers of the plant. The first stage of the process was cooking the mash at a temperature of 95 C, combined by liquefaction and saccharification of the starch using enzymes, like alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The process was followed by fermentation of the mash for three days and finally distillation of bioethanol. The alcohol yield per kilogram tubers was 49.52 ml/kg, compared to the theoretical value of 83.72 ml/kg, mainly due to the incomplete fermentation of the sugars. The plant seems to be a potential energy plant for bioethanol production in arid regions cultivated on degraded land. (author)

  6. LCA of bioethanol and furfural production from vetiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2015-06-01

    In this study a prospective life cycle assessment of biorefinery system from vetiver leaves was carried out to know the environmental benefits of this system over conventional systems considering the geographical context of India. The composition of vetiver leaves from the experimental analysis revealed that vetiver is rich in cellulose (32.6%), hemicellulose (31.5%) and lignin (17.3%) that could be used as a feedstock for biorefinery. The comparative life cycle assessment results show that the carbon dioxide emission and fossil oil depletion could be reduced by 95% and 23% respectively in case of standalone bioethanol system, and 99% and 17% respectively in case of bioethanol and furfural system compared to that of conventional petrol and furfural systems. The sensitivity study indicates that the impact could be further reduced if vetiver biomass is used as a source of energy in biorefinery plant instead to the coal. PMID:25770467

  7. Comment: Assessment of scientific quality is complicated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Opthof; A.A.M. Wilde

    2009-01-01

    In their letter 'Assessing scientific quality in a multidisciplinary academic medical centre', Van Kammen, Van Lier and Gunning-Schepers respond to our paper on the assessment of the H-index amongst 28 professors in clinical cardiology appointed at the eight university medical centres in the Netherl

  8. Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production

  9. Long-term bioethanol system and its implications on GHG emissions: a case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2011-06-01

    The study evaluates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions performance of future bioethanol systems in Thailand to ascertain whether bioethanol for transport could help the country mitigate a global warming impact. GHG emission factors of bioethanol derived from cassava, molasses, and sugar cane are analyzed using 12 scenarios covering the critical variables possibly affecting the GHG performance, i.e., (1) the possible direct land use change caused by expanding feedstock cultivation areas; (2) types of energy carriers used in ethanol plants; and (3) waste utilization, e.g., biogas recovery and dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) production. The assessment reveals that GHG performance of a Thai bioethanol system is inclined to decrease in the long run due to the effects from the expansion of plantation areas to satisfy the deficit of cassava and molasses. Therefore, bioethanol will contribute to the country's strategic plan on GHG mitigation in the transportation sector only if the production systems are sustainably managed, i.e., coal replaced by biomass in ethanol plants, biogas recovery, and adoption of improved agricultural practices to increase crop productivity without intensification of chemical fertilizers. Achieving the year 2022 government policy targets for bioethanol with recommended measures would help mitigate GHG emissions up to 4.6 Gg CO(2)-eq per year. PMID:21528843

  10. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  11. [Radiological assessment of bone quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Structural property of bone includes micro- or nano-structural property of the trabecular and cortical bone, and macroscopic geometry. Radiological technique is useful to analyze the bone structural property;micro-CT or synchrotron-CT is available to analyze micro- or nano-structural property of bone samples ex vivo, and multi-detector row CT(MDCT)or high-resolution peripheral QCT(HR-pQCT)is available to analyze human bone in vivo. For the analysis of hip geometry, CT-based hip structure analysis(HSA)is available aw sell se radiography and DXA-based HSA. These structural parameters are related to biomechanical property, and these assessment tools provide information of pathological changes or the effects of anti-osteoporotic agents on bone. PMID:26728530

  12. MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING IN SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Saha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information of spatial and temporal variations of soil quality (soil properties is required for various purposes of sustainable agriculture development and management. Traditionally, soil quality characterization is done by in situ point soil sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Such methodology has limitation for assessing the spatial variability of soil quality. Various researchers in recent past showed the potential utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technique for spatial estimation of soil properties. However, limited research studies have been carried out showing the potential of microwave remote sensing data for spatial estimation of various soil properties except soil moisture. This paper reviews the status of microwave remote sensing techniques (active and passive for spatial assessment of soil quality parameters such as soil salinity, soil erosion, soil physical properties (soil texture & hydraulic properties; drainage condition; and soil surface roughness. Past and recent research studies showed that both active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have great potentials for assessment of these soil qualities (soil properties. However, more research studies on use of multi-frequency and full polarimetric microwave remote sensing data and modelling of interaction of multi-frequency and full polarimetric microwave remote sensing data with soil are very much needed for operational use of satellite microwave remote sensing data in soil quality assessment.

  13. Assessing product image quality for online shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

    2012-01-01

    Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

  14. Quality assessment in meta-analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: An important characteristic of meta-analysis is that the results are determined both by the management of the meta-analysis process and by the features of studies included. The scientific rigor of potential primary studies varies considerably and the common objection to meta-analytic summaries is that they combine results from studies of different quality. Researchers began to develop quality scales for experimental studies, however now the interest of researchers is also focusing on observational studies. Since 1980, when Chalmers developed the first quality scale to assess primary studies included in metaanalysis, more than 100 scales have been developed, which vary dramatically in the quality and quantity of the items included. No standard lists of items exist, and the used quality scales lack empirically-supported components.

    Methods: Two of the most important and diffuse quality scales for experimental studies, Jadad system and Chalmers’ scale, and a quality scale used for observational studies, developed by Angelillo et al., are described and compared.

    Conclusion: The fallibility of meta-analysis is not surprising, considering the various bias that may be introduced by the processes of locating and selecting studies, including publication bias, language bias and citation bias. Quality assessment of the studies offers an estimate of the likelihood that their results will express the truth.

  15. Supply Portfolio of Bioethanol in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Hwan Bae

    2014-01-01

    Despite the co-benefits of bioethanol, such as energy security, environmental improvement, CO2 emission reduction and development of associated industry, bioethanolblended gasoline without subsidy is more expensive than pure gasoline in Korea. The renewable fuel standard (RFS) can contribute to the development of a bioethanol market. However, without controlling the portions of domestic bioethanol, it is highly plausible that a new bioethanol market will be filled with imported bioethanol. If...

  16. Objective assessment of MPEG-2 video quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Paolo; Zunino, Rodolfo; Rovetta, Stefano

    2002-07-01

    The increasing use of video compression standards in broadcasting television systems has required, in recent years, the development of video quality measurements that take into account artifacts specifically caused by digital compression techniques. In this paper we present a methodology for the objective quality assessment of MPEG video streams by using circular back-propagation feedforward neural networks. Mapping neural networks can render nonlinear relationships between objective features and subjective judgments, thus avoiding any simplifying assumption on the complexity of the model. The neural network processes an instantaneous set of input values, and yields an associated estimate of perceived quality. Therefore, the neural-network approach turns objective quality assessment into adaptive modeling of subjective perception. The objective features used for the estimate are chosen according to the assessed relevance to perceived quality and are continuously extracted in real time from compressed video streams. The overall system mimics perception but does not require any analytical model of the underlying physical phenomenon. The capability to process compressed video streams represents an important advantage over existing approaches, like avoiding the stream-decoding process greatly enhances real-time performance. Experimental results confirm that the system provides satisfactory, continuous-time approximations for actual scoring curves concerning real test videos.

  17. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-08-01

    New and emerging policies that aim to set standards for protection and sustainable use of soil are likely to require identification of geographical risk/priority areas. Soil degradation can be seen as the change or disturbance in soil quality and it is therefore crucial that soil and soil quality are well understood to protect soils and to meet legislative requirements. To increase this understanding a review of the soil quality definition evaluated its development, with a formal scientific approach to assessment beginning in the 1970s, followed by a period of discussion and refinement. A number of reservations about soil quality assessment expressed in the literature are summarised. Taking concerns into account, a definition of soil quality incorporating soil's ability to meet multifunctional requirements, to provide ecosystem services, and the potential for soils to affect other environmental media is described. Assessment using this definition requires a large number of soil function dependent indicators that can be expensive, laborious, prone to error, and problematic in comparison. Findings demonstrate the need for a method that is not function dependent, but uses a number of cross-functional indicators instead. This method to systematically prioritise areas where detailed investigation is required, using a ranking based against a desired level of action, could be relatively quick, easy and cost effective. As such this has potential to fill in gaps and compliment existing monitoring programs and assist in development and implementation of current and future soil protection legislation. PMID:20483160

  18. An assessment model for quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völcker, Chr.; Cass, A.; Dorling, A.; Zilioli, P.; Secchi, P.

    2002-07-01

    SYNSPACE together with InterSPICE and Alenia Spazio is developing an assessment method to determine the capability of an organisation in the area of quality management. The method, sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA), is called S9kS (SPiCE- 9000 for SPACE). S9kS is based on ISO 9001:2000 with additions from the quality standards issued by the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) and ISO 15504 - Process Assessments. The result is a reference model that supports the expansion of the generic process assessment framework provided by ISO 15504 to nonsoftware areas. In order to be compliant with ISO 15504, requirements from ISO 9001 and ECSS-Q-20 and Q-20-09 have been turned into process definitions in terms of Purpose and Outcomes, supported by a list of detailed indicators such as Practices, Work Products and Work Product Characteristics. In coordination with this project, the capability dimension of ISO 15504 has been revised to be consistent with ISO 9001. As contributions from ISO 9001 and the space quality assurance standards are separable, the stripped down version S9k offers organisations in all industries an assessment model based solely on ISO 9001, and is therefore interesting to all organisations, which intend to improve their quality management system based on ISO 9001.

  19. The biological basis for environmental quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic approach is required to environmental quality assessments with regard to the Baltic regions in order to address the problem of pollution abatement. The proposed systematization of adaptive states stems from the general theory of adaptation. The various types of adaption are described. (AB)

  20. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  1. Quality assessment of aluminized steel tubes

    OpenAIRE

    K. Żaba

    2010-01-01

    The results of assessments of the welded steel tubes with the Al-Si coating intended for the motorization needs – are presented in thepaper. The measurement of mechanical properties, tube diameters and thickness, internal flash heights as well as the alternative assessmentof the weld quality were performed. The obtained results are presented by means of tools available in the Statistica program andmacroscopic observations.

  2. Retinal image quality assessment using generic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasih, Mahnaz; Langlois, J. M. Pierre; Ben Tahar, Houssem; Cheriet, Farida

    2014-03-01

    Retinal image quality assessment is an important step in automated eye disease diagnosis. Diagnosis accuracy is highly dependent on the quality of retinal images, because poor image quality might prevent the observation of significant eye features and disease manifestations. A robust algorithm is therefore required in order to evaluate the quality of images in a large database. We developed an algorithm for retinal image quality assessment based on generic features that is independent from segmentation methods. It exploits the local sharpness and texture features by applying the cumulative probability of blur detection metric and run-length encoding algorithm, respectively. The quality features are combined to evaluate the image's suitability for diagnosis purposes. Based on the recommendations of medical experts and our experience, we compared a global and a local approach. A support vector machine with radial basis functions was used as a nonlinear classifier in order to classify images to gradable and ungradable groups. We applied our methodology to 65 images of size 2592×1944 pixels that had been graded by a medical expert. The expert evaluated 38 images as gradable and 27 as ungradable. The results indicate very good agreement between the proposed algorithm's predictions and the medical expert's judgment: the sensitivity and specificity for the local approach are respectively 92% and 94%. The algorithm demonstrates sufficient robustness to identify relevant images for automated diagnosis.

  3. Quality assessment: A performance-based approach to assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revision C to US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6 (6C) ''Quality Assurance'' (QA) brings significant changes to the conduct of QA. The Westinghouse government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) sites have updated their quality assurance programs to the requirements and guidance of 6C, and are currently implementing necessary changes. In late 1992, a Westinghouse GOCO team led by the Waste Isolation Division (WID) conducted what is believed to be the first assessment of implementation of a quality assurance program founded on 6C

  4. Assessing uncertainty in stormwater quality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-10-15

    Designing effective stormwater pollution mitigation strategies is a challenge in urban stormwater management. This is primarily due to the limited reliability of catchment scale stormwater quality modelling tools. As such, assessing the uncertainty associated with the information generated by stormwater quality models is important for informed decision making. Quantitative assessment of build-up and wash-off process uncertainty, which arises from the variability associated with these processes, is a major concern as typical uncertainty assessment approaches do not adequately account for process uncertainty. The research study undertaken found that the variability of build-up and wash-off processes for different particle size ranges leads to processes uncertainty. After variability and resulting process uncertainties are accurately characterised, they can be incorporated into catchment stormwater quality predictions. Accounting of process uncertainty influences the uncertainty limits associated with predicted stormwater quality. The impact of build-up process uncertainty on stormwater quality predictions is greater than that of wash-off process uncertainty. Accordingly, decision making should facilitate the designing of mitigation strategies which specifically addresses variations in load and composition of pollutants accumulated during dry weather periods. Moreover, the study outcomes found that the influence of process uncertainty is different for stormwater quality predictions corresponding to storm events with different intensity, duration and runoff volume generated. These storm events were also found to be significantly different in terms of the Runoff-Catchment Area ratio. As such, the selection of storm events in the context of designing stormwater pollution mitigation strategies needs to take into consideration not only the storm event characteristics, but also the influence of process uncertainty on stormwater quality predictions. PMID:27423532

  5. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel;

    2016-01-01

    , fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn......, Germany, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the...

  6. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  7. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saad Ul

    2016-07-01

    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  8. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; HAGLIND, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2013-01-01

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. ...

  9. Assessing the Quality of Diabetic Patients Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the actions of family doctors and nurses in this area is an indispensable requisite in order to achieve a comprehensive health care. Objective: to assess the quality of health care provided to diabetic patients by the family doctor in Abreus health area. Methods: a descriptive and observational study based on the application of tools to assess the performance of family doctors in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the five family doctors consultation in Abreus health area from January to July 2011 was conducted. The five doctors working in these consultations, as well as the 172 diabetic patients were included in the study. At the same time, 172 randomly selected medical records were also revised. Through observation, the existence of some necessary material resources and the quality of their performance as well as the quality of medical records were evaluated. Patient criteria served to assess the quality of the health care provided. Results: scientific and technical training on diabetes mellitus has been insufficient; the necessary equipment for the appropriate care and monitoring of patients with diabetes is available; in 2.9% of medical records reviewed, interrogation appears in its complete form including the complete physical examination in 12 of them and the complete medical indications in 26. Conclusions: the quality of comprehensive medical care to diabetic patients included in the study is compromised. Doctors interviewed recognized the need to be trained in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in order to improve their professional performance and enhance the quality of the health care provided to these patients.

  10. Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Tetova Region

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Durmishi; Ismaili, M.; Shabani, A.; Sh. Abduli

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was the assessment of physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water in the city of Tetova and several surrounding villages in the Republic of Macedonia for the period May 2007-2008. The sampling and analysis are conducted in accordance with State Regulation No. 57/2004, which is in compliance with EU and WHO standards. A total of 415 samples were taken for ...

  11. Automated Data Quality Assessment of Marine Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Daniel V; Leon Reznik; Paulo A. Souza; Timms, Greg P.

    2011-01-01

    The automated collection of data (e.g., through sensor networks) has led to a massive increase in the quantity of environmental and other data available. The sheer quantity of data and growing need for real-time ingestion of sensor data (e.g., alerts and forecasts from physical models) means that automated Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) is necessary to ensure that the data collected is fit for purpose. Current automated QA/QC approaches provide assessments based upon hard classific...

  12. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works. PMID:26253329

  13. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - assessing the fluoroscopic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray fluoroscopic image has a considerably lower resolution than the radiographic one. This requires a careful quality control aiming at optimal use of the fluoroscopic equipment. The basic procedures for image quality assessment of Image Intensifier/TV image are described. Test objects from Leeds University (UK) are used as prototypes. The results from examining 50 various fluoroscopic devices are shown. Their limiting spatial resolution varies between 0.8 lp/mm (at maximum II field size) and 2.24 lp/mm (at minimum field size). The mean value of the limiting spatial resolution for a 23 cm Image Intensifier is about 1.24 lp/mm. The mean limits of variation of the contrast/detail diagram for various fluoroscopic equipment are graphically expressed. 14 refs., 1 fig. (author)

  14. Pretreatments of lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Predojević Zlatica J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (biofuels), either as a component in the conventional fossil fuels, gasoline and diesel, or as a pure biofuel, contributes to energy saving and decrease of total CO2 emission. The use of bioethanol mixed with gasoline significantly decreases gasoline consumption and contributes to environment protection. One of the problems in the production of bioethanol is the availability of sugar and starch based feedstock used for its production. However, lignocellulos...

  15. Visual quality assessment by machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Long; Kuo, C -C Jay

    2015-01-01

    The book encompasses the state-of-the-art visual quality assessment (VQA) and learning based visual quality assessment (LB-VQA) by providing a comprehensive overview of the existing relevant methods. It delivers the readers the basic knowledge, systematic overview and new development of VQA. It also encompasses the preliminary knowledge of Machine Learning (ML) to VQA tasks and newly developed ML techniques for the purpose. Hence, firstly, it is particularly helpful to the beginner-readers (including research students) to enter into VQA field in general and LB-VQA one in particular. Secondly, new development in VQA and LB-VQA particularly are detailed in this book, which will give peer researchers and engineers new insights in VQA.

  16. QUAST: quality assessment tool for genome assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, Alexey; Saveliev, Vladislav; Vyahhi, Nikolay; Tesler, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Limitations of genome sequencing techniques have led to dozens of assembly algorithms, none of which is perfect. A number of methods for comparing assemblers have been developed, but none is yet a recognized benchmark. Further, most existing methods for comparing assemblies are only applicable to new assemblies of finished genomes; the problem of evaluating assemblies of previously unsequenced species has not been adequately considered. Here, we present QUAST—a quality assessment too...

  17. Quality assessment of aluminized steel tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Żaba

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of assessments of the welded steel tubes with the Al-Si coating intended for the motorization needs – are presented in thepaper. The measurement of mechanical properties, tube diameters and thickness, internal flash heights as well as the alternative assessmentof the weld quality were performed. The obtained results are presented by means of tools available in the Statistica program andmacroscopic observations.

  18. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  19. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic...... bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from...... the literature were used to evaluate the production economy. A competitive energy cost limit for the bioethanol production was found to be 0.22 Euro/L. The optimised system produced bioethanol at a mean cost of 0.14 Euro/L during integrated operation and 1.22 Euro/L during separate operation. Maintenance shut...

  20. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  1. Scene reduction for subjective image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska (Tomaszewska), Anna

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of image quality is important for many image processing systems, such as those used for acquisition, compression, restoration, enhancement, or reproduction. Its measurement is often accompanied by user studies, in which a group of observers rank or rate results of several algorithms. Such user studies, known as subjective image quality assessment experiments, can be very time consuming and do not guarantee conclusive results. This paper is intended to help design an efficient and rigorous quality assessment experiment. We propose a method of limiting the number of scenes that need to be tested, which can significantly reduce the experimental effort and still capture relevant scene-dependent effects. To achieve it, we employ a clustering technique and evaluate it on the basis of compactness and separation criteria. The correlation between the results obtained from a set of images in an initial database and the results received from reduced experiment are analyzed. Finally, we propose a procedure for reducing the initial scenes number. Four different assessment techniques were tested: single stimulus, double stimulus, forced choice, and similarity judgments. We conclude that in most cases, 9 to 12 judgments per evaluated algorithm for a large scene collection is sufficient to reduce the initial set of images.

  2. Production of 2nd generation Bioethanol from Lucerne - Optimization of Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has many qualities associated with sustainable agriculture such as nitrogen fixation and high biomass yield. Therefore, there is interest in whether lucerne is a suitable biomass substrate for bioethanol production, and if hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT) of lucerne impro...

  3. Bioethanol combustion in an industrial gas turbine combustor: simulations and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, A.K.; Beran, Martin; Axelsson, L.; Brem, G.

    2014-01-01

    Combustion tests with bioethanol and diesel as a reference have been performed in OPRA's 2 MWe class OP16 gas turbine combustor. The main purposes of this work are to investigate the combustion quality of ethanol with respect to diesel and to validate the developed CFD model for ethanol spray combus

  4. Modeling Separation Dynamics in a Multi-Tray Bio-Ethanol Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    product quality and energy consumption in a typical bio-ethanol distillation column is proposed in this paper. The proposed model is derived based on mass and energy balance principles, with an empirical model of the evaporation dynamics of liquids on column trays. The model parameters are identified...

  5. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...

  6. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. (author)

  7. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. (author)

  8. Quality of assessments within reach: Review study of research and results of the quality of assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, N.A.M.; Otter, den D.; Wools, S.; Hemker, B.T.; Straetmans, G.J.J.M.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Educational tests and assessments are important instruments to measure a student’s knowledge and skills. The question that is addressed in this review study is: “which aspects are currently considered as important to the quality of educational assessments?” Furthermore, it is explored how this infor

  9. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF BIOETHANOL USING NOVEL PERVAPORATION-DEPHLEGMATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is the most important liquid fuel made in the U.S. from domestically produced renewable resources. Traditional production of bioethanol involves batch fermation of biomass followed by ethanol recovery from the fermentation broths using distillation. The distillation st...

  10. Environmental sustainability of bioethanol produced from sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Pan, Xinxing; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of a bioethanol production system that uses sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land as feedstock. The system comprises a plant cultivation unit, a feedstock transport unit, and a bioethanol conversion unit, with 1000L of bioethanol as a functional unit. The net energy ratio is 3.84, and the net energy gain is 17.21MJ/L. Agrochemical production consumes 76.58% of the life cycle fossil energy. The category with the most significant impact on the environment is eutrophication, followed by acidification, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and global warming. Allocation method, waste recycling approach, and soil salinity significantly influence the results. Using vinasse to produce pellet fuel for steam generation significantly improves energy efficiency and decreases negative environmental impacts. Promoting reasonable management practices to alleviate saline stress and increasing agrochemical utilization efficiency can further improve environmental sustainability. PMID:25846180

  11. Fingerprint Quality Assessment Combining Blind Image Quality, Texture and Minutiae Features

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Yao; Le Bars, Jean-Marie; Charrier, Christophe; Rosenberger, Christophe; Rosenberger, C

    2015-01-01

    International audience Biometric sample quality assessment approaches are generally designed in terms of utility property due to the potential difference between human perception of quality and the biometric quality requirements for a recog-nition system. This study proposes a utility based quality assessment method of fingerprints by considering several complementary aspects: 1) Image quality assessment without any reference which is consistent with human conception of inspecting quality,...

  12. A REVIEW OF ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED ON BIO-ETHANOL AS A TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM A NET ENERGY, GREENHOUSE GAS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in producing ethanol from bio-mass in an attempt to make transportation ecologically sustainable continues to grow. In recent years, a large number of assessments have been conducted to assess the environmental merit of biofuels. Two detailed reviews that looked at the s...

  13. Image quality assessment and human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinbo; Lu, Wen; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2010-07-01

    This paper summaries the state-of-the-art of image quality assessment (IQA) and human visual system (HVS). IQA provides an objective index or real value to measure the quality of the specified image. Since human beings are the ultimate receivers of visual information in practical applications, the most reliable IQA is to build a computational model to mimic the HVS. According to the properties and cognitive mechanism of the HVS, the available HVS-based IQA methods can be divided into two categories, i.e., bionics methods and engineering methods. This paper briefly introduces the basic theories and development histories of the above two kinds of HVS-based IQA methods. Finally, some promising research issues are pointed out in the end of the paper.

  14. Peer Review and Quality Assessment in Complete Denture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novetsky, Marvin; Razzoog, Michael E.

    1981-01-01

    A program in peer review and quality assessment at the University of Michigan denture department is described. The program exposes students to peer review in order to assess the quality of their treatment. (Author/MLW)

  15. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  16. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  17. Assessment of sleep quality in powernapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooravand Takht Sabzy, Bashaer; Thomsen, Carsten E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the Sleep Quality (SQ) in powernapping. The contributed factors for SQ assessment are time of Sleep Onset (SO), Sleep Length (SL), Sleep Depth (SD), and detection of sleep events (K-complex (KC) and Sleep Spindle (SS)). Data from daytime nap for 10 subjects, 2...... days each, including EEG and ECG were recorded. The SD and sleep events were analyzed by applying spectral analysis. The SO time was detected by a combination of signal spectral analysis, Slow Rolling Eye Movement (SREM) detection, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis and EEG segmentation using both...... Autocorrelation Function (ACF), and Crosscorrelation Function (CCF) methods. The EEG derivation FP1-FP2 filtered in a narrow band and used as an alternative to EOG for SREM detection. The ACF and CCF segmentation methods were also applied for detection of sleep events. The ACF method detects segment boundaries...

  18. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2015-01-01

    sustainability assessment method is used as evaluation tool. First, an existing superstructure representing the lignocellulosic biorefinery design network is extended to include the options for catalytic conversion of bioethanol to value-added derivatives. Second, the optimization problem for process upgrade is...

  19. Quality Assessment Dimensions of Distance Teaching/Learning Curriculum Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volungeviciene, Airina; Tereseviciene, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents scientific literature analysis in the area of distance teaching/learning curriculum designing and quality assessment. The aim of the paper is to identify quality assessment dimensions of distance teaching/learning curriculum designing. The authors of the paper agree that quality assessment should be considered during the…

  20. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 billion liters during the year 2009. Even though ethanol production for decades mainly depended on energy crops containing starch and sugar (corn, sugar cane etc., new technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol are under development today. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues, forest and municipial waste, for the production of biofuels will be unavoidable if liquid fossil fuels are to be replaced by renewable and sustainable alternatives. For biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment plays a central role affecting all unit operations in the process and is also an important cost deterrent to the comercial viability of the process. The key obstacles are: pretreatment selection and optimization; decreasing the cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis; maximizing the conversion of sugars (including pentoses to ethanol; process scale-up and integration to minimize energy and water demand; characterization and evaluation of the lignin co-product; and lastly, the use of the representative and reliable data for cost estimation, and the determination of environmental and socio-economic impacts. Currently, not all pretreatments are capable of producing biomass that can be converted to sugars in high enough yield and concentration, while being economically viable. For the three main types of feedstocks, the developement of effective continuous fermentation technologies with near to 100% yields and elevated

  1. Content-aware objective video quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, Benhur; Niño-Castañeda, Jorge; Platiša, Ljiljana; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Since the end-user of video-based systems is often a human observer, prediction of user-perceived video quality (PVQ) is an important task for increasing the user satisfaction. Despite the large variety of objective video quality measures (VQMs), their lack of generalizability remains a problem. This is mainly due to the strong dependency between PVQ and video content. Although this problem is well known, few existing VQMs directly account for the influence of video content on PVQ. Recently, we proposed a method to predict PVQ by introducing relevant video content features in the computation of video distortion measures. The method is based on analyzing the level of spatiotemporal activity in the video and using those as parameters of the anthropomorphic video distortion models. We focus on the experimental evaluation of the proposed methodology based on a total of five public databases, four different objective VQMs, and 105 content related indexes. Additionally, relying on the proposed method, we introduce an approach for selecting the levels of video distortions for the purpose of subjective quality assessment studies. Our results suggest that when adequately combined with content related indexes, even very simple distortion measures (e.g., peak signal to noise ratio) are able to achieve high performance, i.e., high correlation between the VQM and the PVQ. In particular, we have found that by incorporating video content features, it is possible to increase the performance of the VQM by up to 20% relative to its noncontent-aware baseline.

  2. Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

  3. Assessing quality and total quality in economic higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Sitnikov

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, there are countries, systems and cultures where the issue of quality management and all the items implied are firmly on the agenda for higher education institutions. Whether a result of a growing climate of increasing accountability or an expansion in the size and diversity of student populations, both quality assurance and quality enhancement are now considered essential components of any quality management programme.

  4. The impact of a growing bioethanol industry on food production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauder, Martin; Graeff-Hoenninger, S.; Claupein, W. [Department of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The Brazilian production of major food commodities increased fivefold between 1961 and 2008. In the same time, the area cropped with sugar cane increased with high growth rates, currently covering 3% of the area dedicated to agricultural production in Brazil. In order to assess a possible competition between biofuel and food production, the development of agricultural productivity and area expansion in the past was analysed. Furthermore, the future situation of land resources for agricultural production was illustrated. The findings of this study indicated that area resources of more than 20 million hectare would be available for agricultural production in the upcoming years. A current constraint of food production throughout land dedicated to biofuels was not found. Three scenarios were investigated, simulating possibilities of future changes in Brazilian agriculture. The results demonstrated that primary food production could be enhanced by 1.5 times while bioethanol production was enhanced simultaneously by 1.8 times over the years 2007/2008 and 2020. The generated bioethanol volumes would meet 38% of the total energy demand in Brazilian transport sector, applied to the year 2007. The second scenario evaluated an agricultural development with a higher focus on biofuels. It was projected that the production of bioethanol could be increased by 3.0 times to 76.7 million m{sup 3} of bioethanol, while increasing at the same time primary food production with the factor 1.4 aligned to the projected population growth. This bioethanol volume represents 67% of the total energy demand in Brazilian transport sector in the year 2007. A third scenario demonstrated that food production could be increased even with no area expansion higher than the projected population growth, due to a continued increase of productivity. At the same time bioethanol production would rise to 32 million m{sup 3} without occupying more area. (author)

  5. Survey and Assessment of Land Ecological Quality in Cixi City

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, JUNBAO; Chen, Zhiyuan; Pan, Weifeng; Xie, Shaojuan

    2013-01-01

    Soil, atmosphere, water and quality of agricultural product constitute the content of land ecological quality. Cixi City, through survey pilot project of basic farmland quality, carried out high precision soil geochemical survey and survey of agricultural products, irrigation water and air quality, and established ecological quality evaluation model of land. Based on the evaluation of soil geochemical quality, we conducted comprehensive quality assessment of atmosphere, water, agricultural pr...

  6. 2003 SNL ASCI applications software quality engineering assessment report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Ellis, Molly A.; Williamson, Charles Michael; Bonano, Lora A.

    2004-02-01

    This document describes the 2003 SNL ASCI Software Quality Engineering (SQE) assessment of twenty ASCI application code teams and the results of that assessment. The purpose of this assessment was to determine code team compliance with the Sandia National Laboratories ASCI Applications Software Quality Engineering Practices, Version 2.0 as part of an overall program assessment.

  7. Attention modeling for video quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    . The local quality of a video sequence is calculated by pooling local quality values over all frames with a temporal pooling scheme derived from the known relationship between perceived video quality and the frequency of temporal quality variations. The overall quality of a distorted video is a......This paper proposes to evaluate video quality by balancing two quality components: global quality and local quality. The global quality is a result from subjects allocating their ttention equally to all regions in a frame and all frames n a video. It is evaluated by image quality metrics (IQM) ith...... averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in modeling visual attention, which is then integrated into IQMs to calculate the local quality of a video frame...

  8. Bioethanol production from crops - recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author notes much higher rates of ethanol production in Brazil and the United States of America than in the European Economic Community. While bioethanol from arable crops makes environmental sense there is, at present, a sizeable difference between the value of fuel ethanol (Pound 100-130/t) and the cost of producing it (Pound 236-Pound 450/t). This gap could be remedied using excise duty. Farmers would like to change crop production but await a political initiative. The technology for bioethanol production still needs some fine tuning, with ETBE (an ether produced from reacting isobutylene with ethanol) being preferred to other methods. (UK)

  9. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  10. Quality assessment of clinical computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Dorothea; Luckow, Marlen; Lambrecht, J. Thomas; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2008-08-01

    Three-dimensional images are vital for the diagnosis in dentistry and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Artifacts caused by highly absorbing components such as metallic implants, however, limit the value of the tomograms. The dominant artifacts observed are blowout and streaks. Investigating the artifacts generated by metallic implants in a pig jaw, the data acquisition for the patients in dentistry should be optimized in a quantitative manner. A freshly explanted pig jaw including related soft-tissues served as a model system. Images were recorded varying the accelerating voltage and the beam current. The comparison with multi-slice and micro computed tomography (CT) helps to validate the approach with the dental CT system (3D-Accuitomo, Morita, Japan). The data are rigidly registered to comparatively quantify their quality. The micro CT data provide a reasonable standard for quantitative data assessment of clinical CT.

  11. Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau

    The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations. As a tool...... for the analyses the Radiance Lighting Simulation System was used. A large number of simulations were performed for 3 rooms (window configurations) under overcast, intermediate, and 40-50 sunny sky conditions for each window (7 months, three orientations and for every other hour with direct sun penetration through...... the windows). A number of light indicators allowed understanding and describing the geometry of daylight in the space in a very detailed and thorough manner. The inclusion of the daylight factor, horizontal illuminance, luminance distribution, cylindrical illuminance, the Daylight Glare Index, vertical...

  12. Columbia River system operations - water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-1990, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and Bonneville Power Administration embarked on a Columbia River system operation review (SOR). The goal of the SOR is to establish an updated operation strategy which best recognizes the various river uses as identified through community input. Ninety alternative operations of the Columbia and Snake River systems were proposed by various users. These users included the general public, irrigation and utility districts, as well as local, state and various Federal government agencies involved with specific water resource interests in the Columbia River basin. Ten technical work groups were formed to cover the spectrum of interest and to evaluate the alternative operations. Using simplified tools and risk-based analysis, each work group analyzed and then ranked the alternatives according to the effect on the work group's specific interest. The focus of the water quality technical work group is the impact assessment, on water quality and dissolved gas saturation, of the various operations proposed by special interests (i.e., hydropower, navigation, flood control, irrigation, recreation, cultural resources, wildlife, and anadromous and resident fisheries)

  13. 42 CFR 493.1249 - Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Preanalytic Systems § 493.1249 Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1299 - Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Postanalytic Systems § 493.1299 Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1289 - Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1289 Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  16. Quality Assessment of Compressed Video for Automatic License Plate Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper; Forchhammer, Søren; Madsen, John

    2014-01-01

    Definition of video quality requirements for video surveillance poses new questions in the area of quality assessment. This paper presents a quality assessment experiment for an automatic license plate recognition scenario. We explore the influence of the compression by H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC...

  17. The quality of assessment visits in community nursing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkstra, A.; Beemster, F.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was the measurement of the quality of assessment visits of community nurses in The Netherlands. Process criteria were derived for the quality of the assessment visits from the quality standards of community nursing care established by Appelman et al. Over a period of 8 weeks, a

  18. Measuring and Assessing the Quality and Usefulness of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gergana Tsoncheva

    2014-01-01

    High quality accounting information is of key importance for a large number of users, as it influences the quality of the decisions made. Providing high quality and useful accounting information is a prerequisite for the efficiency of the enterprise. Usefulness is determined by the quality of accounting information. Measuring and assessing the quality and usefulness of accounting information are of particular importance, as these activities will not only enhance the quality of economic decisi...

  19. Video quality assessment for web content mirroring

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Fei, Kevin; Fernandez, Gustavo A.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Due to the increasing user expectation on watching experience, moving web high quality video streaming content from the small screen in mobile devices to the larger TV screen has become popular. It is crucial to develop video quality metrics to measure the quality change for various devices or network conditions. In this paper, we propose an automated scoring system to quantify user satisfaction. We compare the quality of local videos with the videos transmitted to a TV. Four video quality metrics, namely Image Quality, Rendering Quality, Freeze Time Ratio and Rate of Freeze Events are used to measure video quality change during web content mirroring. To measure image quality and rendering quality, we compare the matched frames between the source video and the destination video using barcode tools. Freeze time ratio and rate of freeze events are measured after extracting video timestamps. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the impact of each objective video quality metric on the subjective user watching experience.

  20. Beef quality assessed at European research centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dransfield, E; Nute, G R; Roberts, T A; Boccard, R; Touraille, C; Buchter, L; Casteels, M; Cosentino, E; Hood, D E; Joseph, R L; Schon, I; Paardekooper, E J

    1984-01-01

    Loin steaks and cubes of M. semimembranosus from eight (12 month old) Galloway steers and eight (16-18 month old) Charolais cross steers raised in England and from which the meat was conditioned for 2 or 10 days, were assessed in research centres in Belgium, Denmark, England, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Laboratory panels assessed meat by grilling the steaks and cooking the cubes in casseroles according to local custom using scales developed locally and by scales used frequently at other research centres. The meat was mostly of good quality but with sufficient variation to obtain meaningful comparisons. Tenderness and juiciness were assessed most, and flavour least, consistently. Over the 32 meats, acceptability of steaks and casseroles was in general compounded from tenderness, juiciness and flavour. However, when the meat was tough, it dominated the overall judgement; but when tender, flavour played an important rôle. Irish and English panels tended to weight more on flavour and Italian panels on tenderness and juiciness. Juciness and tenderness were well correlated among all panels except in Italy and Germany. With flavour, however, Belgian, Irish, German and Dutch panels ranked the meats similarly and formed a group distinct from the others which did not. The panels showed a similar grouping for judgements of acceptability. French and Belgian panels judged the steaks from the older Charolais cross steers to have more flavour and be more juicy than average and tended to prefer them. Casseroles from younger steers were invariably preferred although the French and Belgian panels judged aged meat from older animals equally acceptable. These regional biases were thought to be derived mainly from differences in cooking, but variations in experience and perception of assessors also contributed. PMID:22055992

  1. Bioethanol from different Finnish agricultural carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautola, H.; Kymaelaeinen, M.; Tokeensuu, L.; Alatalo, T. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Caerdenas, R. (Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad Ciencias Quimicas, Escuela de Quimica, Av. America. Ciudadela Universitaria, Quito (Ecuador)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Bioethanol in fuel and its domestic production has become a great issue in Finland during the last few years. There has been discussion about what kind of raw materials should be used and are there any local priorities. In the years 2004-2007 local farmers in Haem e , in southern part of Finland, started to find alternative use for sugar beet due to drastic reduction of domestic sugar production in the near future. This was also the start of the experimental studies on bi oethanol production. The aim of the study was to find out how the change of carbon source will effect on bi oethanol yield. The bioethanol production was studied in laboratory scale using carbon sources of saccharose, glucose, sugar beet juice, sugar beet mash and barley hydrolysates pretreated with amylases, (beta-glucanase and xylanase). The yeast used was Saccharomyces sp. The pre experiments were performed in 250 mL flasks to optimize carbon, nitrogen and salts contents in production medium, also comparing different carbon sources and mixtures. The production was then studied in a 30 liter fermenter running for 36 hours. The preliminary studies showed that barley hydrolysate gave the best result 2,4% in bioethanol concentration during the performed fermentations, and saccharose was the best substrate in shake flask fermentations with a 9,6% bioethanol concentration. (orig.)

  2. Audiovisual quality assessment and prediction for videotelephony

    CERN Document Server

    Belmudez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this book focuses on modeling audiovisual quality as perceived by the users of IP-based solutions for video communication like videotelephony. It also extends the current framework for the parametric prediction of audiovisual call quality. The book addresses several aspects related to the quality perception of entire video calls, namely, the quality estimation of the single audio and video modalities in an interactive context, the audiovisual quality integration of these modalities and the temporal pooling of short sample-based quality scores to account for the perceptual quality impact of time-varying degradations.

  3. Lupus anticoagulant : case-based external quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Besselaar, A. M. H. P.; Devreese, K. M. J.; de Groot, P. G.; Castel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: A model for presenting case histories with quality assessment material is to be developed for the Dutch external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for blood coagulation testing. The purpose of the present study was to assess the performance of clinical laboratories in casebased EQA using the cas

  4. A Novel Spatial Pooling Strategy for Image Quality Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaohong Li; Yu-Ming Fang; Jing-Tao Xu

    2016-01-01

    A variety of existing image quality assessment (IQA) metrics share a similar two-stage framework: at the first stage, a quality map is constructed by comparison between local regions of reference and distorted images; at the second stage, the spatial pooling is adopted to obtain overall quality score. In this work, we propose a novel spatial pooling strategy for image quality assessment through statistical analysis of the quality map. Our in-depth analysis indicates that the overall image quality is sensitive to the quality distribution. Based on the analysis, the quality histogram and statistical descriptors extracted from the quality map are used as input to the support vector regression to obtain the final objective quality score. Experimental results on three large public IQA databases have demonstrated that the proposed spatial pooling strategy can greatly improve the quality prediction performance of the original IQA metrics in terms of correlation with human subjective ratings.

  5. Assessment of Quality Management Practices Within the Healthcare Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, William J.; Sumner, Andrew T.; Richard H. Deane

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Considerable effort has been devoted over the years by many organizations to adopt quality management practices, but few studies have assessed critical factors that affect quality practices in healthcare organizations. The problem addressed in this study was to assess the critical factors influencing the quality management practices in a single important industry (i.e., healthcare). Approach: A survey instrument was adapted from business quality literature and was sent to a...

  6. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO2 emissions

  7. A genetic base of utilisation of maize grain as a valuable renewable raw material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. Many studies have shown that the kernel composition and starch structure of maize are highly influenced by genetic background of the maize. Maize grain consists of approximately 70% of starch, which makes it a very suitable feedstock for the bioethanol production. This study was conducted with aim to understand how different genetic background affects bioethanol yield and other fermentation properties of the selected maize genotypes in the process of maize grain- based bioethanol production. Twenty seven maize hybrids, including genotypes of standard chemical composition as well as specialty maize hybrids such as popping, waxy, white kernel and red kernel hybrids, developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, were investigated in this study. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w obtained for hybrid ZP 611k after 48 h of fermentation and the highest by genotype ZP 434 (8.96% w/w. A very significant positive correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation, as well as volumetric productivity (48h (r=0.67. Between bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation and soft endosperm content in kernel of the investigated ZP maize hybrids a very significant positive correlation was assessed (r=0.66. Higher overall bioethanol yields have been obtained from genotypes containing higher starch and lower protein and lipid contents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31068

  8. Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rice Flour with Batch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sari Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid waste rice flour is abundant liquid wastes but it is still underutilized. So far, it is only used for process water in factory production, wastewater, and even regarded as environment pollution. Rice flour liquid waste has higher levels of glucose, starch and protein which can be used as one of ethanol producers. This study aims to assess the process of hydrolysis, fermentation, and batch distillation process, as well as to search for alternative raw materials products of bioethanol. There are three processes of making bioethanol, namely biological hydrolysis process done by using bacillus; the process of fermentation by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; and batch distillation. After the third process was done, the results were: glucose is 5% - 10% in the process of hydrolysis; ethanol content is 11% - 16% in the fermentation process; and the levels are high enough for bio-ethanol, which is 95% - 96% in the batch distillation process. So it can be concluded that the liquid waste of rice flour can be used as raw materials for the manufacture of alternative bioethanol.

  9. Food quality assessment by NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Martin B.; Millar, Samuel J.; Chau, Astor

    2010-04-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is well established in the food industry for rapid compositional analysis of bulk samples. NIR hyperspectral imaging provides new opportunities to measure the spatial distribution of components such as moisture and fat, and to identify and measure specific regions of composite samples. An NIR hyperspectral imaging system has been constructed for food research applications, incorporating a SWIR camera with a cooled 14 bit HgCdTe detector and N25E spectrograph (Specim Ltd, Finland). Samples are scanned in a pushbroom mode using a motorised stage. The system has a spectral resolution of 256 pixels covering a range of 970-2500 nm and a spatial resolution of 320 pixels covering a swathe adjustable from 8 to 300 mm. Images are acquired at a rate of up to 100 lines s-1, enabling samples to be scanned within a few seconds. Data are captured using SpectralCube software (Specim) and analysed using ENVI and IDL (ITT Visual Information Solutions). Several food applications are presented. The strength of individual absorbance bands enables the distribution of particular components to be assessed. Examples are shown for detection of added gluten in wheat flour and to study the effect of processing conditions on fat distribution in chips/French fries. More detailed quantitative calibrations have been developed to study evolution of the moisture distribution in baguettes during storage at different humidities, to assess freshness of fish using measurements of whole cod and fillets, and for prediction of beef quality by identification and separate measurement of lean and fat regions.

  10. A Framework for Rapid and Systematic Software Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Brandtner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Software quality assessment monitors and guides the evolution of a software system based on quality measurements. Continuous Integration (CI) environ- ments can provide measurement data to feed such continuous assessments. However, in modern CI environments, data is scattered across multiple CI tools (e.g., build tool, version control system). Even small quality assessments can become extremely time-consuming, because each stakeholder has to seek for the data she needs. In this thesis, we int...

  11. The quality of assessment visits in community nursing.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkstra, A.; Beemster, F.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was the measurement of the quality of assessment visits of community nurses in The Netherlands. Process criteria were derived for the quality of the assessment visits from the quality standards of community nursing care established by Appelman et al. Over a period of 8 weeks, a representative sample of 108 community nurses and 49 community nursing auxiliaries at 47 different locations paid a total number of 433 assessment visits. The nursing activities were recorded for ...

  12. Assessment of irritant quality of detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritant quality of six commonly used detergents was tested ′by Kligman and Wooding′s technique. The detergents in increasing order of irritant quality were Surf, Sunlight, Nirma, Ekta, Fena and Wheel.

  13. Assessment of irritant quality of detergents

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Sanjay; Pandey S.; Singh Gurmohan

    1991-01-01

    Irritant quality of six commonly used detergents was tested ′by Kligman and Wooding′s technique. The detergents in increasing order of irritant quality were Surf, Sunlight, Nirma, Ekta, Fena and Wheel.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... except the treated yard waste which significantly increased by 54 % in glucose over the untreated waste. The most promising waste fractions were FW, CYPPW and mixed paper wastes. Careful selection of these fractions in feedstock for biofuel production would reduce generation of the waste, improve...

  15. MODERN PRINCIPLES OF QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Suvorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common ways of assessment of cardiovascular diseases treatment abroad, approaches to creation of such assessment methods are considered, as well as data on the principles of the assessment of treatment in Russia. Some foreign registers of acute myocardial infarction, the aim of which was therapy quality assessment, are given as examples. The problem of high-quality treatment based on data from evidence-based medicine, some legal aspects related to clinical guidelines in Russia are considered, as well as various ways of treatment quality assessment.

  16. Ljubljana quality selection (LQS) - innovative case of restaurant assessment system

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Uran Maravić; Daniela Gračan; Zrinka Zadel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the most well-known restaurant assessment systems where restaurant are assessed by experts. The aim is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each system. Design –The special focus is to give answers on questions: how are the restaurants assessed by experts, which are the elements and standards of assessment and whether they are consistent with the quality dimensions as advocated in the theory of service quality. Methodology ...

  17. Influence of Yeast and Enzyme Variation on Bioethanol Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guifang

    2012-01-01

    This is a study concerning the procedures of bio-ethanol production from the wood based biomass hydrolysates’ fermentation process. Required process conditions are analyzed and experimental data include raw material properties; bio-ethanol productivity and its impacts are evaluated to illustrate how the bio-ethanol production potential relates with the variation of the yeasts types. Theoretical background and experimental based research are majorly applied to achieve two targets that ...

  18. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Kang; Lise Appels; Tianwei Tan; Raf Dewil

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and t...

  19. Survey and Assessment of Land Ecological Quality in Cixi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbao; LIU; Zhiyuan; CHEN; Weifeng; PAN; Shaojuan; XIE

    2013-01-01

    Soil,atmosphere,water and quality of agricultural product constitute the content of land ecological quality.Cixi City,through survey pilot project of basic farmland quality,carried out high precision soil geochemical survey and survey of agricultural products,irrigation water and air quality,and established ecological quality evaluation model of land.Based on the evaluation of soil geochemical quality,we conducted comprehensive quality assessment of atmosphere,water,agricultural products,and assessed the ecological quality of agricultural land in Cixi City.The evaluation results show that the ecological quality of most agricultural land in Cixi City is excellent,and there is ecological risk only in some local areas such as urban periphery.The experimental results provide demonstration and basis for the fine management of basic farmland and ecological protection.

  20. Assessing sofware quality by micro patterns detection

    OpenAIRE

    Destefanis, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    One of the goals of Software Engineering is to reduce, or at least to try to control, the defectiveness of software systems during the development phase. Software engineers need to have empirical evidence that software metrics are related to software quality. Unfortunately, software quality is quite an elusive concept, software being an immaterial entity that cannot be physically measured in traditional ways. In general, software quality means many things. In software, the narowest s...

  1. Quality Assessment and Economic Sustainability of Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Muzii, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quality is mature and widespread. However, its associated attributes can only be measured against a set of specifications since quality itself is a relative concept. Today, the concept of quality broadly corresponds to product suitability – meaning that the product meets the user’s requirements. But then, how does one know when a translation is good? No answer can be given to this very simple question without recall to translation criticism and the theory of t...

  2. Assessing the quality of e-courses

    OpenAIRE

    SCHREURS, Jeanne; Moreau, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    The EFQM model of quality management is a universal model and is applied in this paper in the school context for the organisation of e-courses. We identified some quality criteria in this EFQM school quality model. We defined a simplified e-learning EFQM model supporting the evaluation by the learner. Based on it a questionnaire has been structured that can be used for the evaluation by the learner.

  3. Fingerprint Quality Assessment With Multiple Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Yao; Le Bars, Jean-Marie; Charrier, C.; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    International audience —Image quality is an important factor to automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) because the matching performance could be significantly affected by poor quality samples. Most of the existing studies mainly focused on calculating a quality index represented by either a single feature or a combination of multiple features, and some others achieve this purpose with learning approaches which may depend on a prior-knowledge of matching performance. In this pa...

  4. Water Quality Assessment of Porsuk River, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Suheyla Yerel

    2010-01-01

    The surface water quality of Porsuk River in Turkey was evaluated by using the multivariate statistical techniques including principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis. When principal component analysis and factor analysis as applied to the surface water quality data obtain from the eleven different observation stations, three factors were determined, which were responsible from the 66.88% of total variance of the surface water quality in Porsuk River. Cluster analysis...

  5. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    New and emerging policies that aim to set standards for protection and sustainable use of soil are likely to require identification of geographical risk/priority areas. Soil degradation can be seen as the change or disturbance in soil quality and it is therefore crucial that soil and soil quality are well understood to protect soils and to meet legislative requirements. To increase this understanding a review of the soil quality definition evaluated its development, with a formal scientific a...

  6. Development and Validation of Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hammond-Bennett, Austin; Zlamout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed at examining the psychometric properties of the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubric (AQTR) that was designed to assess in-service teachers' quality levels of teaching practices in daily lessons. Methods: 45 physical education lessons taught by nine physical education teachers to students in grades K-5 were videotaped. They…

  7. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  8. Quality Assessment of Internationalised Studies: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknyte-Petreikiene, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews forms of higher education internationalisation at an institutional level. The relevance of theoretical background of internationalised study quality assessment is highlighted and definitions of internationalised studies quality are presented. Existing methods of assessment of higher education internationalisation are criticised…

  9. Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Quality Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Hendricks, Kristin; Archibald, Kelsi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR) that assesses the pre-service teachers' quality teaching practices in a live lesson or a videotaped lesson. Twenty-one lessons taught by 13 Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students were videotaped. The videotaped lessons were evaluated…

  10. Different Academics' Characteristics, Different Perceptions on Quality Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sonia; Rosa, Maria Joao; Santos, Cristina S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Portuguese academics' perceptions on higher education quality assessment objectives and purposes, in general, and on the recently implemented system for higher education quality assessment and accreditation, in particular. It aims to discuss the differences of those perceptions dependent on some…

  11. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  12. Quality Assurance of Assessment and Moderation Discourses Involving Sessional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Peter; Adie, Lenore; Weir, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance is a major agenda in tertiary education. The casualisation of academic work, especially in teaching, is also a quality assurance issue. Casual or sessional staff members teach and assess more than 50% of all university courses in Australia, and yet the research in relation to the role sessional staff play in quality assurance of…

  13. Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: An Assessment and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Nitecki, Danuta A.; Altman, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the literature of library and information science to examine issues related to service quality and customer satisfaction in academic libraries. Discusses assessment, the application of a business model to higher education, a multiple constituency approach, decision areas regarding service quality, resistance to service quality, and future…

  14. Food quality assessment in parent-offspring dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    When the buyer and the consumer of a food product are not identical, the risk of discrepancies between food quality expectations and experiences is even higher. We introduce the concept of dyadic quality assessment and apply it to an exploration of parents' willingness to pay for new and healthier...... in-between meals for their children. Results show poor congruence between parent and child quality assessment due to the two parties emphasising quite different quality aspects. Improved parental knowledge of their children's quality experience however has a significant effect on parents' willingness...... to pay. Accordingly, both parents and children should be involved when developing and testing healthy in-between meals....

  15. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT USING FUZZY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintaining soil productivity is essential if agriculture production systems are to be sustainable, thus soil quality is an essential issue. However, there is a paucity of tools for measurement for the purpose of understanding changes in soil quality. Here the possibility of using fuzzy modeling t...

  16. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, Jane Njeri

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of aqu

  17. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    of fermentable sugars (glucose) as cellulose is tightly linked to hemicellulose and lignin. Lignocellulose is disrupted during pretreatment, but to degrade cellulose to single sugars, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases are needed. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are costly for...... the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol...... processes. Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  18. Statistical quality assessment of a fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyungtae

    2004-08-01

    The quality of a fingerprint is essential to the performance of AFIS (Automatic Fingerprint Identification System). Such a quality may be classified by clarity and regularity of ridge-valley structures.1,2 One may calculate thickness of ridge and valley to measure the clarity and regularity. However, calculating a thickness is not feasible in a poor quality image, especially, severely damaged images that contain broken ridges (or valleys). In order to overcome such a difficulty, the proposed approach employs the statistical properties in a local block, which involve the mean and spread of the thickness of both ridge and valley. The mean value is used for determining whether a fingerprint is wet or dry. For example, the black pixels are dominant if a fingerprint is wet, the average thickness of ridge is larger than one of valley, and vice versa on a dry fingerprint. In addition, a standard deviation is used for determining severity of damage. In this study, the quality is divided into three categories based on two statistical properties mentioned above: wet, good, and dry. The number of low quality blocks is used to measure a global quality of fingerprint. In addition, a distribution of poor blocks is also measured using Euclidean distances between groups of poor blocks. With this scheme, locally condensed poor blocks decreases the overall quality of an image. Experimental results on the fingerprint images captured by optical devices as well as by a rolling method show the wet and dry parts of image were successfully captured. Enhancing an image by employing morphology techniques that modifying the detected poor quality blocks is illustrated in section 3. However, more work needs to be done on designing a scheme to incorporate the number of poor blocks and their distributions for a global quality.

  19. Assessment of Total Quality Management Practices in a Public Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Özçakar, Necdet

    2010-01-01

    Total quality management has been very popular within the business world in last decades. Various researches showed that employees' assessments about total quality management practices have a great importance on the success of total quality management implemention. However the implemention of total quality management in public organizations is quite different than its implemention in private sector because of different natures of each sector. The aim of this research is to analyze the assessm...

  20. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF AMERICAN FALLS RESERVOIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water quality model was developed to support a TMDL for phosphorus related to phytoplankton growth in the reservoir. This report documents the conceptual model, available data, model evaluation, and simulation results.

  1. National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — National scope of NAWQA water-quality sample- and laboratory-result data and other supporting information obtained from NWIS systems hosted by individual Water...

  2. Quality Assessment of Family Medicine Teams Based on Accreditation Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Valjevac, Salih; Ridjanovic, Zoran; Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED In order to speed up and simplify the self assessment and external assessment process, provide better overview and access to Accreditation Standards for Family Medicine Teams and better assessment documents archiving, Agency for Healthcare Quality and Accreditation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AKAZ) has developed self assessment and externals assessment software for family medicine teams. This article presents the development of standardized sof...

  3. Data quality assessment from provenance graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Trung Dong; Ebden, Mark; Ramchurn, Sarvapali; Roberts, Stephen; Moreau, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Provenance is a domain-independent means to represent what happened in an application, which can help verify data and infer data quality. Provenance patterns can manifest real-world phenomena such as a significant interest in a piece of content, providing an indication of its quality, or even issues such as undesirable interactions within a group of contributors. This paper presents an application-independent methodology for analyzing data based on the network metrics of provenance graphs to ...

  4. ON SOIL QUALITY AND ITS ASSESSING

    OpenAIRE

    N. Florea

    2007-01-01

    The term of “soil quality” is utilized until present with different connotations; its meaning became nowadays more comprehensive. The most adequate definition of the “soil quality” is: “the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality and support human health and habitation” (Karlen et al, 1998) One distinguishes a native soil quality, in natural conditions, ...

  5. Assessing the colour quality of LED sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost-Boissard, S.; Avouac, P.; Fontoynont, Marc

    2015-01-01

    sources and especially some LEDs. In this paper, several aspects of perceived colour quality are investigated using a side-by-side paired comparison method, and the following criteria: naturalness of fruits and vegetables, colourfulness of the Macbeth Color Checker chart, visual appreciation...... but also with a preference index or a memory index calculated without blue and purple hues. A very low correlation was found between appreciation and naturalness indicating that colour quality needs more than one metric to describe subjective aspects....

  6. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.Keywords: educational quality, medical education, quality control, quality assessment, quality management models

  7. Key Elements for Judging the Quality of a Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.; Dellarco, Vicki L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many reports have been published that contain recommendations for improving the quality, transparency, and usefulness of decision making for risk assessments prepared by agencies of the U.S. federal government. A substantial measure of consensus has emerged regarding the characteristics that high-quality assessments should possess. Objective: The goal was to summarize the key characteristics of a high-quality assessment as identified in the consensus-building process and to integrate them into a guide for use by decision makers, risk assessors, peer reviewers and other interested stakeholders to determine if an assessment meets the criteria for high quality. Discussion: Most of the features cited in the guide are applicable to any type of assessment, whether it encompasses one, two, or all four phases of the risk-assessment paradigm; whether it is qualitative or quantitative; and whether it is screening level or highly sophisticated and complex. Other features are tailored to specific elements of an assessment. Just as agencies at all levels of government are responsible for determining the effectiveness of their programs, so too should they determine the effectiveness of their assessments used in support of their regulatory decisions. Furthermore, if a nongovernmental entity wishes to have its assessments considered in the governmental regulatory decision-making process, then these assessments should be judged in the same rigorous manner and be held to similar standards. Conclusions: The key characteristics of a high-quality assessment can be summarized and integrated into a guide for judging whether an assessment possesses the desired features of high quality, transparency, and usefulness. Citation: Fenner-Crisp PA, Dellarco VL. 2016. Key elements for judging the quality of a risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 124:1127–1135; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510483 PMID:26862984

  8. Coastal Water Quality Assessment by Self-Organizing Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Zhiguang; ZHANG Hongwei; ZHANG Ying

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to coastal water quality assessment was put forward through study on self-organizing map (SOM). Firstly, the water quality data of Bohai Bay from 1999 to 2002 were prepared. Then, a set of software for coastal water quality assessment was developed based on the batch version algorithm of SOM and SOM toolbox in MATLAB environment. Furthermore, the training results of SOM could be analyzed with single water quality indexes, the value of N: P( atomic ratio) and the eutrophication index E so that the data were clustered into five different pollution types using k-means clustering method. Finally, it was realized that the monitoring data serial trajectory could be tracked and the new data be classified and assessed automatically. Through application it is found that this study helps to analyze and assess the coastal water quality by several kinds of graphics, which offers an easy decision support for recognizing pollution status and taking corresponding measures.

  9. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  10. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  11. Palm Beach Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Palm Beach's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  12. Factors influencing assessment quality in higher vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, L.; Gulikers, J.T.M.; Dijkstra, A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education inst

  13. Assessment report for Hanford analytical services quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the assessment results of DOE/RL-94-55, Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan. The assessment was conducted using the Requirement and Self-Assessment Database (RSAD), which contains mandatory and nonmandatory DOE Order statements for the relevant DOE orders

  14. Production of bioethanol as useful biofuel through the bioconversion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Arpan(Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, 751005, India); Ghosh, Priyanka; Paul, Tanmay; Ghosh, Uma; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) represents a promising candidate for fuel ethanol production in tropical countries because of their high availability and high biomass yield. Bioconversion of such biomass to bioethanol could be wisely managed through proper technological approach. In this work, pretreatment of water hyacinth (10 %, w/v) with dilute sulfuric acid (2 %, v/v) at high temperature and pressure was integrated in the simulation and economic assessment of the process for further...

  15. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Image: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for image-based applications, the efficient and reliable evaluation of image quality has increased in importance. Measuring the image quality is of fundamental importance for numerous image processing applications, where the goal of image quality assessment (IQA methods is to automatically evaluate the quality of images in agreement with human quality judgments. Numerous IQA methods have been proposed over the past years to fulfill this goal. In this paper, a survey of the quality assessment methods for conventional image signals, as well as the newly emerged ones, which includes the high dynamic range (HDR images, is presented. A thorough explanation of the subjective and objective IQA, and their classification is provided. Six widely used subjective quality datasets, and performance measures are overviewed. Emphasis is given to the full-reference image quality assessment (FR-IQA methods, and 9 often-used quality measures (including mean squared error (MSE, structural similarity index (SSIM, multi-scale structural similarity index (MS-SSIM, visual information fidelity (VIF, most apparent distortion (MAD, feature similarity measure (FSIM, feature similarity measure for color images (FSIMC, dynamic range independent measure (DRIM, and tone-mapped images quality index (TMQI are thoroughly described. Moreover, the performance and computation time of these metrics on four subjective quality datasets are evaluated.

  16. Attention modeling for video quality assessment:balancing global quality and local quality

    OpenAIRE

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to evaluate video quality by balancing two quality components: global quality and local quality. The global quality is a result from subjects allocating their ttention equally to all regions in a frame and all frames n a video. It is evaluated by image quality metrics (IQM) ith averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in ...

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei-Yue; Qian Hui; Wu Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including c...

  18. Objective and Subjective Assessment of Digital Pathology Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Shrestha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an image produced by the Whole Slide Imaging (WSI scanners is of critical importance for using the image in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and ensure the quality of images. Since subjective image quality assessments by pathologists are very time-consuming, expensive and difficult to reproduce, we propose a method for objective assessment based on clinically relevant and perceptual image parameters: sharpness, contrast, brightness, uniform illumination and color separation; derived from a survey of pathologists. We developed techniques to quantify the parameters based on content-dependent absolute pixel performance and to manipulate the parameters in a predefined range resulting in images with content-independent relative quality measures. The method does not require a prior reference model. A subjective assessment of the image quality is performed involving 69 pathologists and 372 images (including 12 optimal quality images and their distorted versions per parameter at 6 different levels. To address the inter-reader variability, a representative rating is determined as a one-tailed 95% confidence interval of the mean rating. The results of the subjective assessment support the validity of the proposed objective image quality assessment method to model the readers’ perception of image quality. The subjective assessment also provides thresholds for determining the acceptable level of objective quality per parameter. The images for both the subjective and objective quality assessment are based on the HercepTestTM slides scanned by the Philips Ultra Fast Scanners, developed at Philips Digital Pathology Solutions. However, the method is applicable also to other types of slides and scanners.

  19. E-Services quality assessment framework for collaborative networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegaru, Georgiana; Danila, Cristian; Sacala, Ioan Stefan; Moisescu, Mihnea; Mihai Stanescu, Aurelian

    2015-08-01

    In a globalised networked economy, collaborative networks (CNs) are formed to take advantage of new business opportunities. Collaboration involves shared resources and capabilities, such as e-Services that can be dynamically composed to automate CN participants' business processes. Quality is essential for the success of business process automation. Current approaches mostly focus on quality of service (QoS)-based service selection and ranking algorithms, overlooking the process of service composition which requires interoperable, adaptable and secure e-Services to ensure seamless collaboration, data confidentiality and integrity. Lack of assessment of these quality attributes can result in e-Service composition failure. The quality of e-Service composition relies on the quality of each e-Service and on the quality of the composition process. Therefore, there is the need for a framework that addresses quality from both views: product and process. We propose a quality of e-Service composition (QoESC) framework for quality assessment of e-Service composition for CNs which comprises of a quality model for e-Service evaluation and guidelines for quality of e-Service composition process. We implemented a prototype considering a simplified telemedicine use case which involves a CN in e-Healthcare domain. To validate the proposed quality-driven framework, we analysed service composition reliability with and without using the proposed framework.

  20. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... hydrolysates indicate the great potential of the tested strain as a realistic candidate for industrial scale bioethanol production from lignocellulose. The study shows that the use of fluidized bed reactor technology might be a viable approach in a commercial lignocellulose-based bioethanol process using......Bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass) as a motor fuel is an attractive renewable fully sustainable energy sources as a means of lowering dependence on fossil fuels and air pollution towards greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2. Bioethanol, unlike gasoline, is an oxygenated fuel, which burns...

  1. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  2. Assessment of Quality Management Practices Within the Healthcare Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Considerable effort has been devoted over the years by many organizations to adopt quality management practices, but few studies have assessed critical factors that affect quality practices in healthcare organizations. The problem addressed in this study was to assess the critical factors influencing the quality management practices in a single important industry (i.e., healthcare. Approach: A survey instrument was adapted from business quality literature and was sent to all hospitals in a large US Southeastern state. Valid responses were received from 147 of 189 hospitals yielding a 75.6% response rate. Factor analysis using principal component analysis with an orthogonal rotation was performed to assess 58 survey items designed to measure ten dimensions of hospital quality management practices. Results: Eight factors were shown to have a statistically significant effect on quality management practices and were classified into two groups: (1 four strategic factors (role of management leadership, role of the physician, customer focus, training resources investment and (2 four operational factors (role of quality department, quality data/reporting, process management/training and employee relations. The results of this study showed that a valid and reliable instrument was developed and used to assess quality management practices in hospitals throughout a large US state. Conclusion: The implications of this study provided an understanding that management of quality required both a focus on longer-term strategic leadership, as well as day-to-day operational management. It was recommended that healthcare researchers and practitioners focus on the critical factors identified and employ this survey instrument to manage and better understand the nature of hospital quality management practices across wider geographical regions and over longer time periods. Furthermore, this study extended the scope of existing quality management

  3. Assessment of the assessment: Evaluation of the model quality estimates in CASP10

    OpenAIRE

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Barbato, Alessandro; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Schwede, Torsten; Tramontano, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an assessment of the ability of the thirty-seven model quality assessment (MQA) methods participating in CASP10 to provide an a priori estimation of the quality of structural models, and of the 67 tertiary structure prediction groups to provide confidence estimates for their predicted coordinates. The assessment of MQA predictors is based on the methods used in previous CASPs, such as correlation between the predicted and observed quality of the models (both at the global...

  4. Quality Assessment and Improvement Methods in Statistics – what Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Viggo Sæbø

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for quality assessment and assurance in statistics have been developed in a European context. Data Quality Assessment Methods (DatQAM were considered in a Eurostat handbook in 2007. These methods comprise quality reports and indicators, measurement of process variables, user surveys, self-assessments, audits, labelling and certifi cation. The entry point for the paper is the development of systematic quality work in European statistics with regard to good practices such as those described in the DatQAM handbook. Assessment is one issue, following up recommendations and implementation of improvement actions another. This leads to a discussion on the eff ect of approaches and tools: Which work well, which have turned out to be more of a challenge, and why? Examples are mainly from Statistics Norway, but these are believed to be representative for several statistical institutes.

  5. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is release 1.0 of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox. These tools are designed to be accessed using ArcGIS Desktop...

  6. Water quality assessment of razorback sucker grow-out ponds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water quality parameters had never been assessed in these grow-out ponds. Historically growth, condition, and survival of razorback suckers have been variable...

  7. National Impact Assessment of CMS Quality Measures Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Impact Assessment of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Quality Measures Reports (Impact Reports) are mandated by section 3014(b), as...

  8. Assessment of Water Quality Conditions: Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an assessment of water quality data collected from source water, discharge and within Agassiz Pool. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  9. Assessing the quality of a student-generated question repository

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Simon P; Homer, Danny; Riise, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students, in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over the past two years. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find that students produce questions of high quality. More than three-quarters of questions fall into categories beyond simple recall, in contrast to similar studies of student-authored content in different subject domains. Similarly, the quality of student-authored explanations for questions was also high, with approximately 60% of all explanations classified as being of high or outstanding quality. Overall, 75% of questions met combined quality criteria, which we hypothesize is due in part to the in-class scaffolding activities that we provided for students ahead of requiring them to author questions.

  10. Using big data for quality assessment in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, James R; Chen, Ronald C

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing attention in the US healthcare system on the delivery of high-quality care, an issue central to oncology. In the report 'Crossing the Quality Chasm', the Institute of Medicine identified six aims for improving healthcare quality: safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient and equitable. This article describes how current big data resources can be used to assess these six dimensions, and provides examples of published studies in oncology. Strengths and limitations of current big data resources for the evaluation of quality of care are also discussed. Finally, this article outlines a vision where big data can be used not only to retrospectively assess the quality of oncologic care, but help physicians deliver high-quality care in real time. PMID:27090300

  11. Assessing future trends in indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several national and international health organizations have derived concentration levels below which adverse effects on men are not expected or levels below which the excess risk for individuals is less than a specified value. For every priority pollutant indoor concentrations below this limit are considered healthy. The percentage of Dutch homes exceeding such a limit is taken as a measure of indoor air quality for that component. The present and future indoor air quality of the Dutch housing stock is described for fourteen air pollutants. The highest percentages are scored by radon, environmental tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from unvented combustion, and the potential presence of housedust mite and mould allergen in damp houses. Although the trend for all priority pollutants is downward the most serious ones remain high in the coming decades if no additional measures will be instituted

  12. Assessment of Groundwater Quality by Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Agelos; Rigas, George; Kella, Sotiria; Lokkas, Filotheos; Dinouli, Dimitra; Papakonstantinou, Argiris; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Plageras, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric methods were used to analyze large data sets of groundwater quality from 18 wells supplying the central drinking water system of Larissa city (Greece) during the period 2001 to 2007 (8.064 observations) to determine temporal and spatial variations in groundwater quality and to identify pollution sources. Cluster analysis grouped each year into three temporal periods (January-April (first), May-August (second) and September-December (third). Furthermore, spatial cluster analysis was conducted for each period and for all samples, and grouped the 28 monitoring Units HJI (HJI=represent the observations of the monitoring site H, the J-year and the period I) into three groups (A, B and C). Discriminant Analysis used only 16 from the 24 parameters to correctly assign 97.3% of the cases. In addition, Factor Analysis identified 7, 9 and 8 latent factors for groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:27329059

  13. Acoustical Quality Assessment of the Classroom Environment

    CERN Document Server

    George, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Teaching is one of the most important factors affecting any education system. Many research efforts have been conducted to facilitate the presentation modes used by instructors in classrooms as well as provide means for students to review lectures through web browsers. Other studies have been made to provide acoustical design recommendations for classrooms like room size and reverberation times. However, using acoustical features of classrooms as a way to provide education systems with feedback about the learning process was not thoroughly investigated in any of these studies. We propose a system that extracts different sound features of students and instructors, and then uses machine learning techniques to evaluate the acoustical quality of any learning environment. We infer conclusions about the students' satisfaction with the quality of lectures. Using classifiers instead of surveys and other subjective ways of measures can facilitate and speed such experiments which enables us to perform them continuously...

  14. QRS detection based ECG quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although immediate feedback concerning ECG signal quality during recording is useful, up to now not much literature describing quality measures is available. We have implemented and evaluated four ECG quality measures. Empty lead criterion (A), spike detection criterion (B) and lead crossing point criterion (C) were calculated from basic signal properties. Measure D quantified the robustness of QRS detection when applied to the signal. An advanced Matlab-based algorithm combining all four measures and a simplified algorithm for Android platforms, excluding measure D, were developed. Both algorithms were evaluated by taking part in the Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2011. Each measure's accuracy and computing time was evaluated separately. During the challenge, the advanced algorithm correctly classified 93.3% of the ECGs in the training-set and 91.6 % in the test-set. Scores for the simplified algorithm were 0.834 in event 2 and 0.873 in event 3. Computing time for measure D was almost five times higher than for other measures. Required accuracy levels depend on the application and are related to computing time. While our simplified algorithm may be accurate for real-time feedback during ECG self-recordings, QRS detection based measures can further increase the performance if sufficient computing power is available. (paper)

  15. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ansell Ricky; Hedman Johannes; Nordgaard Anders

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights) of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. Results We recently developed a ranking index ...

  16. A Literature Review of Fingerprint Quality Assessment and Its Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Zhigang; Le Bars, Jean-Marie; Charrier, Christophe; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience Fingerprint quality assessment (FQA) has been a challenging issue due to a variety of noisy information contained in the samples, such as physical defect and distortions caused by sensing devices. Existing studies have made efforts to find out more suitable techniques for assessing fingerprint quality but it is difficult to achieve a common solution because of, for example, different image settings. This paper gives a twofold study related to FQA, including a literat...

  17. Quality Assessment of TPB-Based Questionnaires: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Obiageli Crystal Oluka; Shaofa Nie; Yi Sun

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review is aimed at assessing the quality of questionnaires and their development process based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) change model. METHODS: A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of TPB-based questionnaire development was conducted in relevant databases between 2002 and 2012 using selected search terms. Ten of 1,034 screened abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using two different appraisal...

  18. Groundwater Dynamics and Quality Assessment in an Agricultural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano L. Russo; Adriano Fiorucci; Bartolomeo Vigna

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The analysis of the relationships among the different hydrogeological Units and the assessment of groundwater quality are fundamental to adopt suitable territorial planning measures aimed to reduce the potential groundwater pollution especially in agricultural regions. In this study, the characteristics of groundwater dynamics and the assessment of its quality in the Cuneo Plain (NW Italy) were examined. Approach: In order to define the geological setting an intense bibliog...

  19. Quality assessment for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, SHUANG; Paranjape, Amit S.; Elmaanaoui, Badr; Dewelle, Jordan; Rylander, H. Grady; Markey, Mia K.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, a measure of glaucoma progression, can be measured in images acquired by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). The accuracy of RNFL thickness estimation, however, is affected by the quality of the OCT images. In this paper, a new parameter, signal deviation (SD), which is based on the standard deviation of the intensities in OCT images, is introduced for objective assessment of OCT image quality. Two other objective assessment paramete...

  20. Technology Evaluation of Process Configurations for Second Generation Bioethanol Production using Dynamic Model-based Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a number of different process flowsheets for bioethanol production was performed using dynamic model-based simulations. The evaluation employed diverse operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. Each configuration was evaluated...... in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol /kg dry-biomass....... against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results has shown the process configuration for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operating...

  1. The Role of Systems Modeling for Sustainable Development Policy Analysis: the Case of Bio-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Chan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic systems modeling technique has been developed to assess technologies according to the criterion of sustainability. In a case study, the potential contribution of bio-ethanol toward achieving Canada’s commitment to the Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas reductions is analyzed. The analysis concludes that, although bio-ethanol may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the technology by itself is insufficient to meet the Kyoto target. Applying the systems modeling approach to analyze sustainability helps highlight those policy issues that warrant more in-depth study. Although the systems model may not provide definitive answers, it raises relevant questions about physical constraints that might be encountered and estimates the extent to which sustainability targets may be met under various scenarios.

  2. Energy analysis of using macroalgae from eutrophic waters as a bioethanol feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is an environmental problem in a majority of shallow water basins all over the world. The undesired macroalgae has been proposed as a biomass resource for bioethanol production and we have analysed the environmental sustainability of two case studies: Orbetello Lagoon (OL), Italy......, and Koge Bay (KB), Denmark. Today, macroalgae are collected and stored in landfills to provide a solution for the excess production. An emergy assessment revealed that the main environmental support for macroalgae growth relates to water in both case studies. In OL, rain represents 51% of the emergy...... analysed with the full-requirement approach as well as with a marginal-requirement approach accounting only what the bioethanol production requires of additional processes, i.e. mainly transportation and conversion of the macroalgae in a biorefinery facility which is assumed to be situated close to an...

  3. Assessing translation quality for cross language image retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Clough, P.; Sanderson, M.

    2004-01-01

    Like other cross language tasks, we show that the quality of the translation resource, among other factors, has an effect on retrieval performance. Using data from the ImageCLEF test collection, we investigate the relationship between translation quality and retrieval performance when using Systran, a machine translation (MT) system, as a translation resource. The quality of translation is assessed manually by comparing the original ImageCLEF topics with the output from Systran and rated by a...

  4. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco; Hirasilva Borba; Aline Mary Scatolini-Silva; Marcel Manente Boiago; Pedro Alves de Souza; Juliana Lolli Malagoli de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial...

  5. Quality evaluation of extra high quality images based on key assessment word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Masashi; Hayashi, Hidehiko; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Miyahara, Makoto M.

    2001-06-01

    An all encompassing goal of our research is to develop an extra high quality imaging system which is able to convey a high level artistic impression faithfully. We have defined a high order sensation as such a high level artistic impression, and it is supposed that the high order sensation is expressed by the combination of the psychological factor which can be described by plural assessment words. In order to pursue the quality factors that are important for the reproduction of the high order sensation, we have focused on the image quality evaluation of the extra high quality images using the assessment words considering the high order sensation. In this paper, we have obtained the hierarchical structure between the collected assessment words and the principles of European painting based on the conveyance model of the high order sensation, and we have determined a key assessment word 'plasticity' which is able to evaluate the reproduction of the high order sensation more accurately. The results of the subjective assessment experiments using the prototype of the developed extra high quality imaging system have shown that the obtained key assessment word 'plasticity' is the most appropriate assessment word to evaluate the image quality of the extra high quality images quasi-quantitatively.

  6. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment by HEVC Codec Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    transform coefficients, estimates the distortion, and assesses the video quality. The proposed scheme generates VQA features based on Intra coded frames, and then maps features using an Elastic Net to predict subjective video quality. A set of HEVC coded 4K UHD sequences are tested. Results show that the...

  7. Gaia: automated quality assessment of protein structure models

    OpenAIRE

    Kota, Pradeep; Ding, Feng; Ramachandran, Srinivas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Increasing use of structural modeling for understanding structure–function relationships in proteins has led to the need to ensure that the protein models being used are of acceptable quality. Quality of a given protein structure can be assessed by comparing various intrinsic structural properties of the protein to those observed in high-resolution protein structures.

  8. Guidance on Data Quality Assessment for Life Cycle Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data quality within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a significant issue for the future support and development of LCA as a decision support tool and its wider adoption within industry. In response to current data quality standards such as the ISO 14000 series, various entities wit...

  9. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  10. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP100), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y−1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha−1 y−1. The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha−1 y−1. ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  11. A new embedding quality assessment method for manifold learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Manifold learning is a hot research topic in the field of computer science. A crucial issue with current manifold learning methods is that they lack a natural quantitative measure to assess the quality of learned embeddings, which greatly limits their applications to real-world problems. In this paper, a new embedding quality assessment method for manifold learning, named as Normalization Independent Embedding Quality Assessment (NIEQA), is proposed. Compared with current assessment methods which are limited to isometric embeddings, the NIEQA method has a much larger application range due to two features. First, it is based on a new measure which can effectively evaluate how well local neighborhood geometry is preserved under normalization, hence it can be applied to both isometric and normalized embeddings. Second, it can provide both local and global evaluations to output an overall assessment. Therefore, NIEQA can serve as a natural tool in model selection and evaluation tasks for manifold learning. Experi...

  12. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul;

    2010-01-01

    placental perfusion model in Copenhagen including control substances. The positive control substance antipyrine shows no difference in transport regardless of perfusion media used or of terms of delivery (n=59, p<0.05). Negative control studies with FITC marked dextran correspond with leakage criteria (<3...... ml h(-1) from the fetal reservoir) when adding 2 (n=7) and 20mg (n=9) FITC-dextran/100 ml fetal perfusion media. Success rate of the Copenhagen placental perfusions is provided in this study, including considerations and quality control parameters. Three checkpoints suggested to determine success...

  13. Quality assessment of plant transpiration water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Janik, Daniel S.; Benson, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed to use plants as elements of biologically-based life support systems for long-term space missions. Three roles have been brought forth for plants in this application: recycling of water, regeneration of air and production of food. This report discusses recycling of water and presents data from investigations of plant transpiration water quality. Aqueous nutrient solution was applied to several plant species and transpired water collected. The findings indicated that this water typically contained 0.3-6 ppm of total organic carbon, which meets hygiene water standards for NASA's space applications. It suggests that this method could be developed to achieve potable water standards.

  14. ASSESSING THE COST OF BEEF QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Forristall, Cody; May, Gary J.; Lawrence, John D.

    2002-01-01

    The number of U.S. fed cattle marketed through a value based or grid marketing system is increasing dramatically. Most grids reward Choice or better quality grades and some pay premiums for red meat yield. The Choice-Select (C-S) price spread increased 55 percent, over $3/cwt between 1989-91 and 1999-01. However, there is a cost associated with pursuing these carcass premiums. This paper examines these tradeoffs both in the feedlot and in a retained ownership scenario. Correlations between ca...

  15. Spartina argentinensis as feedstock for bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Jozami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five percent of the energy consumed in the world comes from non-renewable sources. The transportation sector, highly dependent on oil, is responsible for 20-27% of the world primary energy consumption and for 13-28% of Greenhouse Gases (GHG emissions. The main renewable energy sources that can supply this sector are bioethanol and biodiesel. Production of these biofuels is rapidly expanding mainly through food raw materials such as corn, sugar cane, soybean and rapeseed, decreasing their availability as food in the market, thereby raising their price. These food-derived biofuels are called “first generation biofuels”. There are other renewable sources that can be used to produce bioethanol, called second-generation biofuels, which have the great advantage of using lignocellulosic materials, thereafter they do not compete with food crops for fertile land. This paper describes the possibility of producing bioethanol and/or electricity using pellets from natural rangelands in the Bajos Submeridionales (Submeridional Lowlands of the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, where the dominant species is Spartina argentinensis, a C4 perennial grass with high photosynthetic rate, which tolerates the conditions of alkalinity and the recurrent droughts and floods that shape the region. According to our estimates, enough ethanol could be produced in this region to satisfy the energy demand of vehicles with Otto combustion cycle in several Argentine provinces. Pellets production would allow electricity generation via syngas and power turbines. This would allow the production of liquid fuel and/or electricity with sustainability criteria, reducing the emission of GHG and generating jobs, economical growth and development in a depopulated region.

  16. Potential development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2009-12-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an Autonomous Province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. Contribution of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption of Vojvodina contemporary amounts to less than 1%, apropos 280 GWh/year. By combining of methods of introduction of new and renewable sources, systematic application of methods for increasing of energetic efficacy, as well as of introduction of the new technologies, percentage of contribution of the non-conventional energy sources in Vojvodina could be increased to as much as 20%. This paper presents the potential of development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina. Production of bioethanol on small farms can be successfully applied for processing of only 30 kg of corn per day, with obtaining of crude ethanol in the so-called 'brandy ladle' and use of lygnocellulosic agricultural wastes as an energy source. In a case of construction of a larger number of such plants, the only possible solution is seen in the principle of construction of the so-called 'satellite plants', which will on small farm produce crude ethanol, with obtaining and consumption of stillage for animal feeding, and consumption of agricultural wastes as energetic fuels. If stillage is to be used as feed in wet feeding, it is estimated that, because of restrictions established by the magnitude of animal farm, the upper limit of capacity of such enterprises that process is at some 10-15 tons of corn per day, and production of 3000-3500 hL of absolute ethanol per day. In such a case, for animal feeding necessary is to have herd with 1300-1700 of milking cows or 5000-25,000 heads of sheep and/or pigs. Technological model of separate grain processing ad bioethanol production from dextrose hydrolysates of starch is interesting for countries possessing plants for bioethanol production from molasses and plants for cereals processing into starch and dextrose hydrolysates

  17. Entropic assessment of the management quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mlodetskyi, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement. Management of the organization has traditionally been viewed as a system of basic functions of management: planning, organization, motivation and control, each of which has its own characteristics and are implemented through certain elements of organizational management structure. But the decomposition of control process in some areas, result in loss of integrity in assessing management effectiveness, both separate functions, and the organization as a whole. The situation i...

  18. Measuring data quality for ongoing improvement a data quality assessment framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian-Coleman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The Data Quality Assessment Framework shows you how to measure and monitor data quality, ensuring quality over time. You'll start with general concepts of measurement and work your way through a detailed framework of more than three dozen measurement types related to five objective dimensions of quality: completeness, timeliness, consistency, validity, and integrity. Ongoing measurement, rather than one time activities will help your organization reach a new level of data quality. This plain-language approach to measuring data can be understood by both business and IT and provides pra

  19. School Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Program Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, R.; Blake, D.; Hales, D.

    This paper describes the effectiveness of a three-step indoor air quality (IAQ) program implemented by 156 schools in the states of Washington and Idaho during the 2000-2001 school year. An experienced IAQ/building science specialist conducted walk-through assessments at each school. These assessments documented deficiencies and served as an…

  20. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-03-01

    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  1. External Quality Assessments for Microbiologic Diagnosis of Diphtheria in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-01-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGI UNTUK 'QUALITY ASSESSMENT' PELAYANAN KESEHATAN GIGI MULUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaura Anggraeni Matram

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for quality assessment and assurance in health and oral health becomes an issue of major concern in Indonesia, particularly in relation to the significant decrease of available resources due to the persistence economical crisis. Financial and socioeconomical impacts have led to the need for low cost - high quality accessible oral care. Dentists are ultimately responsibel for the quality of care performed in Public Helath Center (Puskesmas especially for School and Community Dental Programmes often performed by various type of health manpower such as dental nurses and cadres (volunteers. In this paper, emphasis has been placed on two epidemiological models to assess the quality of outcomes of service as well as management control for quality assessment in School Dental Programme. Respectively epidemiological moderls were developed for assessing the effectiveness of oral health education and simple oral prophylaxis carried out the School Dental Programme (known as UKGS. With these epidemiological approaches, it is hope dentists will gain increase appreciation for qualitative assessment quality of care instead of just quantitavely meeting the target that many health administrations use it to indicate success.

  3. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  4. Software Quality Metrics for Geant4: An Initial Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Giacomini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the context of critical applications, such as shielding and radiation protection, ensuring the quality of simulation software they depend on is of utmost importance. The assessment of simulation software quality is important not only to determine its adoption in experimental applications, but also to guarantee reproducibility of outcome over time. In this study, we present initial results from an ongoing analysis of Geant4 code based on established software metrics. The analysis evaluates the current status of the code to quantify its characteristics with respect to documented quality standards; further assessments concern evolutions over a series of release distributions. We describe the selected metrics that quantify software attributes ranging from code complexity to maintainability, and highlight what metrics are most effective at evaluating radiation transport software quality. The quantitative assessment of the software is initially focused on a set of Geant4 packages, which play a key role in a wide...

  5. Development of a dementia assessment quality database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Jørgensen, Kasper; Korner, A.;

    2011-01-01

    database for dementia evaluation in the secondary health system. One volume and seven process quality indicators on dementia evaluations are monitored. Indicators include frequency of demented patients, percentage of patients evaluated within three months, whether the work-up included blood tests, Mini...... Mental State Examination (MMSE), brain scan and activities of daily living and percentage of patients treated with anti-dementia drugs. Indicators can be followed over time in an individual clinic. Up to 20 variables are entered to calculate the indicators and to provide risk factor variables for the...... data analyses. RESULTS: The database was constructed in 2005 and covers 30% of the Danish population. Data from all consecutive cases evaluated for dementia in the secondary health system in the Capital Region of Denmark are entered. The database has shown that the basic diagnostic work-up programme...

  6. Quality assessment on FBTR reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13MWe, mixed carbide fueled, sodium cooled, loop type reactor built at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam. The Reactor Vessel (RV) is manufactured using modified AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel material as per FBTR specification. The acceptance criteria for non-destructive examination, quality of weld, test requirement, tolerances on various dimensions etc. specified in FBTR specification are very stringent compared to ASME Section III, Div. I, Class I components and other international codes applicable to pressure vessels and nuclear power plant components. During the manufacture and inspection of the Reactor Vessel, a systematic approach has been adopted towards the improvement of various procedures to achieve very high reliability of the Reactor Vessel. This paper explains the details of results achieved on fabrication tolerances, destructive and non-destructive testing on materials and welds and final tests on the reactor vessel. (author)

  7. Quality assessment on FBTR reactor vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, K.; Chandramohan, R.; Ramamurthy, M.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Technical Coordination and Quality Assurance Group, Kalpakkam (India)

    1997-08-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13MWe, mixed carbide fueled, sodium cooled, loop type reactor built at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam. The Reactor Vessel (RV) is manufactured using modified AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel material as per FBTR specification. The acceptance criteria for non-destructive examination, quality of weld, test requirement, tolerances on various dimensions etc. specified in FBTR specification are very stringent compared to ASME Section III, Div. I, Class I components and other international codes applicable to pressure vessels and nuclear power plant components. During the manufacture and inspection of the Reactor Vessel, a systematic approach has been adopted towards the improvement of various procedures to achieve very high reliability of the Reactor Vessel. This paper explains the details of results achieved on fabrication tolerances, destructive and non-destructive testing on materials and welds and final tests on the reactor vessel. (author).

  8. Quality assessment of TPB-based questionnaires: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiageli Crystal Oluka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This review is aimed at assessing the quality of questionnaires and their development process based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB change model. METHODS: A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of TPB-based questionnaire development was conducted in relevant databases between 2002 and 2012 using selected search terms. Ten of 1,034 screened abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using two different appraisal tools: one for the overall methodological quality of each study and the other developed for the appraisal of the questionnaire content and development process. Both appraisal tools consisted of items regarding the likelihood of bias in each study and were eventually combined to give the overall quality score for each included study. RESULTS: 8 of the 10 included studies showed low risk of bias in the overall quality assessment of each study, while 9 of the studies were of high quality based on the quality appraisal of questionnaire content and development process. CONCLUSION: Quality appraisal of the questionnaires in the 10 reviewed studies was successfully conducted, highlighting the top problem areas (including: sample size estimation; inclusion of direct and indirect measures; and inclusion of questions on demographics in the development of TPB-based questionnaires and the need for researchers to provide a more detailed account of their development process.

  9. Quantitative statistical methods for image quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

  10. A new quality assessment and improvement system for print media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mohan; Konya, Iuliu; Nandzik, Jan; Flores-Herr, Nicolas; Eickeler, Stefan; Ndjiki-Nya, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Print media collections of considerable size are held by cultural heritage organizations and will soon be subject to digitization activities. However, technical content quality management in digitization workflows strongly relies on human monitoring. This heavy human intervention is cost intensive and time consuming, which makes automization mandatory. In this article, a new automatic quality assessment and improvement system is proposed. The digitized source image and color reference target are extracted from the raw digitized images by an automatic segmentation process. The target is evaluated by a reference-based algorithm. No-reference quality metrics are applied to the source image. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed system. We show that it features a good performance in the extraction as well as in the quality assessment step compared to the state-of-the-art. The impact of efficient and dedicated quality assessors on the optimization step is extensively documented.

  11. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rakin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin stillage, the bioethanol yield increased and was above 100 %. Higher bioethanol yield than 100 % can be explained by the fact that the thin stillage contains carbohydrates, amino acids and yeast cells degradation products. The bioethanol yield increased with the increased number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Dry matter content in fermenting slurry increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of the thin stillage recirculation cycles (8.04 % for the first and 9.40 % for the sixth cycle. Dry matter content in thin stillage increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that thin stillage recirculation increased the bioethanol yield. The highest bioethanol yields were obtained with recirculation of 10% thin stillage.

  12. Assessing quality management in an R and D environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.D.

    1998-02-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier research and development institution operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Since 1991, LANL has pursued a heightened commitment to developing world-class quality in management and operations. In 1994 LANL adopted the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria as a framework for all activities and initiated more formalized customer focus and quality management. Five measurement systems drive the current integration of quality efforts: an annual Baldrige-based assessment, a customer focus program, customer-driven performance measurement, an employee performance management system and annual employee surveys, and integrated planning processes with associated goals and measures.

  13. Food quality assessment in parent–child dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2011-01-01

    hall-test of children’s and parents’ quality formation and to the latter’s willingness to pay for such products. The findings show poor congruence between parent and child quality evaluations due to the two parties emphasising different quality aspects. Results also indicate, however, that improved...... parental knowledge of their children’s quality assessments significantly affect the willingness to pay. Accordingly, interaction between parents and children should be promoted when developing, testing and marketing new and healthier food products for children....

  14. Reliability of medical audit in quality assessment of medical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Luiz Antonio Bastos

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical audit of hospital records has been a major component of quality of care assessment, although physician judgment is known to have low reliability. We estimated interrater agreement of quality assessment in a sample of patients with cardiac conditions admitted to an American teaching hospital. Physician-reviewers used structured review methods designed to improve quality assessment based on judgment. Chance-corrected agreement for the items considered more relevant to process and outcome of care ranged from low to moderate (0.2 to 0.6, depending on the review item and the principal diagnoses and procedures the patients underwent. Results from several studies seem to converge on this point. Comparisons among different settings should be made with caution, given the sensitivity of agreement measurements to prevalence rates. Reliability of review methods in their current stage could be improved by combining the assessment of two or more reviewers, and by emphasizing outcome-oriented events.

  15. Assessment on reliability of water quality in water distribution systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍悦滨; 田海; 王龙岩

    2004-01-01

    Water leaving the treatment works is usually of a high quality but its properties change during the transportation stage. Increasing awareness of the quality of the service provided within the water industry today and assessing the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system has become a major significance for decision on system operation based on water quality in distribution networks. Using together a water age model, a chlorine decay model and a model of acceptable maximum water age can assess the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system. First, the nodal water age values in a certain complex distribution system can be calculated by the water age model. Then, the acceptable maximum water age value in the distribution system is obtained based on the chlorine decay model. The nodes at which the water age values are below the maximum value are regarded as reliable nodes. Finally, the reliability index on the percentile weighted by the nodal demands reflects the reliability of the water quality in the distribution system. The approach has been applied in a real water distribution network. The contour plot based on the water age values determines a surface of the reliability of the water quality. At any time, this surface is used to locate high water age but poor reliability areas, which identify parts of the network that may be of poor water quality. As a result, the contour water age provides a valuable aid for a straight insight into the water quality in the distribution system.

  16. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  17. No Reference Video-Quality-Assessment Model for Monitoring Video Quality of IPTV Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Jun; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    Service providers should monitor the quality of experience of a communication service in real time to confirm its status. To do this, we previously proposed a packet-layer model that can be used for monitoring the average video quality of typical Internet protocol television content using parameters derived from transmitted packet headers. However, it is difficult to monitor the video quality per user using the average video quality because video quality depends on the video content. To accurately monitor the video quality per user, a model that can be used for estimating the video quality per video content rather than the average video quality should be developed. Therefore, to take into account the impact of video content on video quality, we propose a model that calculates the difference in video quality between the video quality of the estimation-target video and the average video quality estimated using a packet-layer model. We first conducted extensive subjective quality assessments for different codecs and video sequences. We then model their characteristics based on parameters related to compression and packet loss. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed model by applying it to unknown data sets different from the training data sets used for developing the model.

  18. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  19. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  20. Quality assessment in competency based physiotherapy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    monitor and improve didactics and teaching methods in alignment with these competencies. Description: This competence based assessment model for education is build on a combination of three curriculum types (Glatthorn;1987), 4 levels of evaluation (KirkPatrick;1998) and single and double loop learning...... connection is evaluated according to the learning level. One perspective of the learning level concerns tests and exams, where the student is being evaluated by teachers in formal settings. Another perspective is covered through a process, where the student evaluates her self, by marking her own judgement of......, managers, course coordinators and teachers with information at the level of premises, in relation to the development of the written curriculum and the institutional framework supporting the education. In this way the three curriculum types are interconnected through 4 levels of evaluation and single and...

  1. Assessing wine quality using isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The analytical methods used to determine the isotope ratios of deuterium, carbon-13 and oxygen-18 in wines have gained official recognition from the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) and National Organisation of Vine and Wine. The amount of stable isotopes in water and carbon dioxide from plant organic materials and their distribution in sugar and ethanol molecules are influenced by geo-climatic conditions of the region, grape varieties and the year of harvest. For wine characterization, to prove the botanical and geographical origin of the raw material, the isotopic analysis by continuous flow mass spectrometry CF-IRMS has made a significant contribution. This paper emphasize the results of a study concerning the assessing of water adulterated wines and non-grape alcohol and sugar additions at different concentration levels, using CF-IRMS analytical technique. (authors)

  2. Use of tropical maize for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hsu; Kaur, Prabhjot; Dien, Bruce; Below, Frederick; Vincent, Michael L; Singh, Vijay

    2013-08-01

    Tropical maize is an alternative energy crop being considered as a feedstock for bioethanol production in the North Central and Midwest United States. Tropical maize is advantageous because it produces large amounts of soluble sugars in its stalks, creates a large amount of biomass, and requires lower inputs (e.g. nitrogen) than grain corn. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose were extracted by pressing the stalks at dough stage (R4). The initial extracted syrup fermented faster than the control culture grown on a yeast extract/phosphate/sucrose medium. The syrup was subsequently concentrated 1.25-2.25 times, supplemented with urea, and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for up to 96 h. The final ethanol concentrations obtained were 8.1 % (v/v) to 15.6 % (v/v), equivalent to 90.3-92.2 % of the theoretical yields. However, fermentation productivity decreased with sugar concentration, suggesting that the yeast might be osmotically stressed at the increased sugar concentrations. These results provide in-depth information for utilizing tropical maize syrup for bioethanol production that will help in tropical maize breeding and development for use as another feedstock for the biofuel industry. PMID:23508398

  3. Voice and Speech Quality Perception Assessment and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Jekosch, Ute

    2005-01-01

    Foundations of Voice and Speech Quality Perception starts out with the fundamental question of: "How do listeners perceive voice and speech quality and how can these processes be modeled?" Any quantitative answers require measurements. This is natural for physical quantities but harder to imagine for perceptual measurands. This book approaches the problem by actually identifying major perceptual dimensions of voice and speech quality perception, defining units wherever possible and offering paradigms to position these dimensions into a structural skeleton of perceptual speech and voice quality. The emphasis is placed on voice and speech quality assessment of systems in artificial scenarios. Many scientific fields are involved. This book bridges the gap between two quite diverse fields, engineering and humanities, and establishes the new research area of Voice and Speech Quality Perception.

  4. Assessing the quality of a student-generated question repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find that students produce questions of high quality. More than three-quarters of questions fall into categories beyond simple recall, in contrast to similar studies of student-authored content in different subject domains. Similarly, the quality of student-authored explanations for questions was also high, with approximately 60% of all explanations classified as being of high or outstanding quality. Overall, 75% of questions met combined quality criteria, which we hypothesize is due in part to the in-class scaffolding activities that we provided for students ahead of requiring them to author questions. This work presents the first systematic investigation into the quality of student produced assessment material in an introductory physics context, and thus complements and extends related studies in other disciplines.

  5. Germination tests for assessing biochar quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovska, N; Laird, D; Cruse, R M; Trabue, S; Heaton, E

    2012-01-01

    Definition, analysis, and certification of biochar quality are crucial to the agronomic acceptance of biochar. While most biochars have a positive impact on plant growth, some may have adverse effects due to the presence of phytotoxic compounds. Conversely, some biochars may have the ability to adsorb and neutralize natural phytotoxic compounds found in soil. We evaluated the effects of biochars on seedling growth and absorption of allelochemicals present in corn ( L.) residues. Corn seeds were germinated in aqueous extracts of six biochars produced from varied feedstocks, thermochemical processes, and temperatures. Percent germination and shoot and radicle lengths were evaluated at the end of the germination period. Extracts from the six biochars had no effect on percent germination; however, extracts from three biochars produced at high conversion temperatures significantly inhibited shoot growth by an average of 16% relative to deionized (DI) water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in the aqueous extracts are believed to be at least partly responsible for the reduction in seedling growth. Repeated leaching of biochars before extract preparation eliminated the negative effects on seedling growth. Biochars differ significantly in their capacity to adsorb allelochemicals present in corn residues. Germination of corn seeds in extracts of corn residue showed 94% suppression of radicle growth compared to those exposed to DI water; however, incubation of corn residue extracts with leached biochar for 24 h before initiating the germination test increased radicle length 6 to 12 times compared to the corn residue extract treatments. Germination tests appear to be a reliable procedure to differentiate between effects of different types of biochar on corn seedling growth. PMID:22751043

  6. Human Variome Project Quality Assessment Criteria for Variation Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihinen, Mauno; Hancock, John M; Maglott, Donna R; Landrum, Melissa J; Schaafsma, Gerard C P; Taschner, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Numerous databases containing information about DNA, RNA, and protein variations are available. Gene-specific variant databases (locus-specific variation databases, LSDBs) are typically curated and maintained for single genes or groups of genes for a certain disease(s). These databases are widely considered as the most reliable information source for a particular gene/protein/disease, but it should also be made clear they may have widely varying contents, infrastructure, and quality. Quality is very important to evaluate because these databases may affect health decision-making, research, and clinical practice. The Human Variome Project (HVP) established a Working Group for Variant Database Quality Assessment. The basic principle was to develop a simple system that nevertheless provides a good overview of the quality of a database. The HVP quality evaluation criteria that resulted are divided into four main components: data quality, technical quality, accessibility, and timeliness. This report elaborates on the developed quality criteria and how implementation of the quality scheme can be achieved. Examples are provided for the current status of the quality items in two different databases, BTKbase, an LSDB, and ClinVar, a central archive of submissions about variants and their clinical significance. PMID:26919176

  7. Non-human biota dose assessment. Sensitivity analysis and knowledge quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of a programme of work, commissioned within the BIOPROTA collaborative forum, to assess the quantitative and qualitative elements of uncertainty associated with biota dose assessment of potential impacts of long-term releases from geological disposal facilities (GDF). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of uncertainty were determined through sensitivity and knowledge quality assessments, respectively. Both assessments focused on default assessment parameters within the ERICA assessment approach. The sensitivity analysis was conducted within the EIKOS sensitivity analysis software tool and was run in both generic and test case modes. The knowledge quality assessment involved development of a questionnaire around the ERICA assessment approach, which was distributed to a range of experts in the fields of non-human biota dose assessment and radioactive waste disposal assessments. Combined, these assessments enabled critical model features and parameters that are both sensitive (i.e. have a large influence on model output) and of low knowledge quality to be identified for each of the three test cases. The output of this project is intended to provide information on those parameters that may need to be considered in more detail for prospective site-specific biota dose assessments for GDFs. Such information should help users to enhance the quality of their assessments and build greater confidence in the results. (orig.)

  8. A Methodology for Software Design Quality Assessment of Design Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Reda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important measure that must be considered in anysoftware product is its design quality. Measuring of the designquality in the early stages of software development is the key todevelop and enhance quality software. Research on objectoriented design metrics has produced a large number of metricsthat can be measured to identify design problems and assessdesign quality attributes. However the use of these design metricsis limited in practice due to the difficulty of measuring and usinga large number of metrics. This paper presents a methodology forsoftware design quality assessment. This methodology helps thedesigner to measure and assess the changes in design due todesign enhancements. The goal of this paper is to illustrate themethodology using practical software design examples andanalyze its utility in industrial projects. Finally, we present a casestudy to illustrate the methodology.

  9. Self-Organizing Maps for Fingerprint Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin Aastrup; Tabassi, Elham; Makarov, Anton;

    2013-01-01

    for a quality assessment algorithm is to meet the low computational complexity requirement of mobile platforms used in national biometric systems, by military and police forces. We propose a computationally efficient means of predicting biometric performance based on a combination of unsupervised and......Fingerprint quality assessment is a crucial task which needs to be conducted accurately in various phases in the biometric enrolment and recognition processes. Neglecting quality measurement will adversely impact accuracy and efficiency of biometric recognition systems (e.g. verification and...... identification of individuals). Measuring and reporting quality allows processing enhancements to increase probability of detection and track accuracy while decreasing probability of false alarms. Aside from predictive capabilities with respect to the recognition performance, another important design criteria...

  10. Quantifying subjective assessment of sleep quality, quality of life and depressed mood in children with enuresis

    OpenAIRE

    Üçer, Oktay; Gümüş, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to compare a group of children who has monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) with a healthy control group by assessing their depression scales, quality of life and sleep quality. Methods Hundred and one children with MNE and 38 healthy controls are included in the study, aged between 8 and 16 years old. All participants were performed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) and The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality I...

  11. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment using Codec Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    A no-reference video quality assessment (VQA) method is presented for videos distorted by H.264/AVC and MPEG-2. The assessment is performed without access to the bit-stream. Instead we analyze and estimate coefficients based on decoded pixels. The approach involves distinguishing between the two...... types of videos, estimating the level of quantization used in the I-frames, and exploiting this information to assess the video quality. In order to do this for H.264/AVC, the distribution of the DCT-coefficients after intra-prediction and deblocking are modeled. To obtain VQA features for H.264/AVC, we...... propose a novel estimation method of the quantization in H.264/AVC videos without bitstream access, which can also be used for Peak Signalto-Noise Ratio (PSNR) estimation. The results from the MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC analysis are mapped to a perceptual measure of video quality by Support Vector Regression...

  12. Medical education quality assessment. Perspectives in University Policlinic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Castellanos González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality has currently a central role within our National Health System, particularly in the formative process of human resources where we need professionals more prepared every day and ready to face complex tasks. We make a bibliographic review related to quality assessment of educational process in health system to analyze the perspectives of the new model of University Policlinic, formative context of Medical Sciences students.

  13. Quality assessment of user-generated video using camera motion

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jinlin; Gurrin, Cathal; Hopfgartner, Frank; Zhang, ZhenXing; Lao, Songyang

    2013-01-01

    With user-generated video (UGV) becoming so popular on theWeb, the availability of a reliable quality assessment (QA) measure of UGV is necessary for improving the users’ quality of experience in videobased application. In this paper, we explore QA of UGV based on how much irregular camera motion it contains with low-cost manner. A blockmatch based optical flow approach has been employed to extract camera motion features in UGV, based on which, irregular camera motion is calculated and ...

  14. System Change: Quality Assessment and Improvement for Medicaid Managed Care

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Wally R.; Cotter, J. James; Louis F Rossiter

    1996-01-01

    Rising Medicaid health expenditures have hastened the development of State managed care programs. Methods to monitor and improve health care under Medicaid are changing. Under fee-for-service (FFS), the primary concern was to avoid overutilization. Under managed care, it is to avoid underutilization. Quality enhancement thus moves from addressing inefficiency to addressing insufficiency of care. This article presents a case study of Virginia's redesign of Quality Assessment and Improvement (Q...

  15. Fish welfare and quality assessment by conventional and innovative methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Concollato

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of my research was on one side, to investigate the possibility of using rapid and nondestructive methods for the determination of fish fillets quality and their classification, on the other side, to find out the stunning/slaughtering method able to guarantee a minimal or to completely avoid stress condition at the moment immediately prior of the slaughtering process, by assessing the effects on fillets quality by conventional and innovative methods, from two ...

  16. Medical education quality assessment. Perspectives in University Policlinic context.

    OpenAIRE

    Maricel Castellanos González; Jorge Cañellas Granda; Iraldo Mir Ocampo; Miguel Aguila Toledo

    2008-01-01

    Quality has currently a central role within our National Health System, particularly in the formative process of human resources where we need professionals more prepared every day and ready to face complex tasks. We make a bibliographic review related to quality assessment of educational process in health system to analyze the perspectives of the new model of University Policlinic, formative context of Medical Sciences students.

  17. Assessment of Air Quality Status in Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiabei Song; Wu Guang; Linjun Li; Rongbiao Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, air quality characteristics in Wuhan were assessed through descriptive statistics and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Results show that air quality has slightly improved over the recent years. While the NO2 concentration is still increasing, the PM10 concentration shows a clearly downward trend with some small fluctuations. In addition, the SO2 concentration has steadily decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, the current level of air pollutants is still quite high, with the P...

  18. Assessment of spatial audio quality based on sound attributes

    OpenAIRE

    LE BAGOUSSE, Sarah; Paquier, Mathieu; Colomes, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    International audience Spatial audio technologies become very important in audio broadcast services. But, there is a lack of methods for evaluating spatial audio quality. Standards do not take into account spatial dimension of sound and assessments are limited to the overall quality particularly in the context of audio coding. Through different elicitation methods, a long list of attributes has been established to characterize sound but it is difficult to include them in a listening test. ...

  19. Management assessments of Quality Assurance Program implementation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method currently being used by UNC Nuclear Industries, Richland, Washington, to help assure the effectiveness of Quality Assurance (QA) Program implementation. Assessments are conducted annually by management in each department, and the results summarized to the president and his staff. The purpose of these assessments is to review the adequacy of the department's implementing procedures, training/instruction on implementing procedures, and procedure implementation effectiveness. The primary purpose is to assess effectiveness and take improvement action where the need is indicated. The QA organization provides only general guidance in conducting the assessments

  20. Quality of life assessment in dogs and cats receiving chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vøls, Kåre K.; Heden, Martin A.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri;

    2016-01-01

    comparative analysis of published papers on the effects of chemotherapy on QoL in dogs and cats were conducted. This was supplemented with a comparison of the parameters and domains used in veterinary QoL-assessments with those used in the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) questionnaire designed...... to assess QoL in toddlers. Each of the identified publications including QoL-assessment in dogs and cats receiving chemotherapy applied a different method of QoL-assessment. In addition, the veterinary QoL-assessments were mainly focused on physical clinical parameters, whereas the emotional (6....../11), social (4/11) and role (4/11) domains were less represented. QoL-assessment of cats and dogs receiving chemotherapy is in its infancy. The most commonly reported method to assess QoL was questionnaire based and mostly included physical and clinical parameters. Standardizing and including a complete range...

  1. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek;

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three...... different distillation fractions of technical 2nd generation bioethanol, produced in a pilot plant, influence the performance of nickel- and ruthenium-based catalysts during steam reforming, and we discuss what is required to obtain high activity and long catalyst lifetime. We conclude that the use of...

  2. Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, α=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

  3. Quality assessment of expendable patterns in the investment casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matysiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available assessment of patterns mixtures contraction as a function of solidification module. These features were verified on step-shaped pat-terns. Patterns mixtures made on the basis of hard waxes were selected for tests and compared with the domestic mixture based on paraffin and stearin (PS as well as with the PS-mixture to which the material of used patterns from the WSK Rzeszow factory was added.The selected tests enable a quick assessment of whether the pattern mixture quality meets the requirements of optimum size accuracy and good quality of casting surfaces.

  4. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment using MPEG Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    We present a method for No-Reference (NR) Video Quality Assessment (VQA) for decoded video without access to the bitstream. This is achieved by extracting and pooling features from a NR image quality assessment method used frame by frame. We also present methods to identify the video coding and...... estimate the video coding parameters for MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC which can be used to improve the VQA. The analysis differs from most other video coding analysis methods since it is without access to the bitstream. The results show that our proposed method is competitive with other recent NR VQA methods for...

  5. Assessing service quality satisfying the expectations of library customers

    CERN Document Server

    Hernon, Peter; Dugan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Academic and public libraries are continuing to transform as the information landscape changes, expanding their missions into new service roles that call for improved organizational performance and accountability. Since Assessing Service Quality premiered in 1998, receiving the prestigious Highsmith Library Literature Award, scores of library managers and administrators have trusted its guidance for applying a customer-centered approach to service quality and performance evaluation. This extensively revised and updated edition explores even further the ways technology influences both the experiences of library customers and the ways libraries themselves can assess those experiences.

  6. A Method for Assessing Quality of Service in Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Quality of Service (QoS) in high-speed Internet infrastructure is a challenging task. However, precise assessments must take into account the fact that the requirements for the given quality level are service-dependent. Backbone QoS monitoring and analysis requires processing of large...... and provide C5.0 high-quality training data, divided into groups corresponding to different types of applications. It was found that currently existing means of collecting data (classification by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification, public data sources) are not sufficient and they do...

  7. Assessing users satisfaction with service quality in Slovenian public library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Podbrežnik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A research was made into user satisfaction with regard to the quality of library services in one of the Slovenian public libraries. The aim was to establish the type of service quality level actually expected by the users, and to determine their satisfaction with the current quality level of available library services.Methodology: The research was performed by means of the SERVQUAL measuring tool which was used to determine the size and direction of the gap between the detected and the expected quality of library services among public library users.Results: Different groups of users provide different assessments of specific quality factors, and a library cannot satisfy the expectations of each and every user if most quality factors display discrepancies between the estimated perception and expectations. The users expect more reliable services and more qualified library staff members who would understand and allocate time for each user’s individual needs. The largest discrepancies from the expectations are detected among users in the under-35 age group and among the more experienced and skilled library users. The results of factor analysis confirm the fact that a higher number of quality factors can be explained by three common factors affecting the satisfaction of library users. A strong connection between user satisfaction and their assessment of the integral quality of services and loyalty has been established.Research restrictions: The research results should not be generalised and applied to all Slovenian public libraries since they differ in many important aspects. In addition, a non-random sampling method was used.Research originality/Applicability: The conducted research illustrates the use of a measuring tool that was developed with the aim of determining the satisfaction of users with the quality of library services in Slovenian public libraries. Keywords: public library, user satisfaction, quality of library services, user

  8. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    OpenAIRE

    Johnner P Sitompul; W. W.; Tatang H. Soerawidjaja

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, eac...

  9. Bioethanol jako palivo ve spalovacích motorech

    OpenAIRE

    Mikule, Luděk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's thesis is to analyse the possibilities of bioethanol production and its utilization as fuel in combustion engines. The first part of this paper focuses on the production of bioethanol from sugar beet, cereal and lignocelluloses substance. The comparison of the production potential of various raw materials for biothenol production is also included in this section. The remaining part of the thesis introduces the possible uses of fuels with a different portion of bioet...

  10. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    Rakin, M.; J. Pejin; O. Grujić; Lj. Mojović; D. Pejin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield) was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin still...

  11. How to assess the quality of your analytical method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Elizabeta; Nikolac, Nora; Panteghini, Mauro; Theodorsson, Elvar; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Miler, Marijana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Infusino, Ilenia; Nordin, Gunnar; Westgard, Sten

    2015-10-01

    Laboratory medicine is amongst the fastest growing fields in medicine, crucial in diagnosis, support of prevention and in the monitoring of disease for individual patients and for the evaluation of treatment for populations of patients. Therefore, high quality and safety in laboratory testing has a prominent role in high-quality healthcare. Applied knowledge and competencies of professionals in laboratory medicine increases the clinical value of laboratory results by decreasing laboratory errors, increasing appropriate utilization of tests, and increasing cost effectiveness. This collective paper provides insights into how to validate the laboratory assays and assess the quality of methods. It is a synopsis of the lectures at the 15th European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Continuing Postgraduate Course in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine entitled "How to assess the quality of your method?" (Zagreb, Croatia, 24-25 October 2015). The leading topics to be discussed include who, what and when to do in validation/verification of methods, verification of imprecision and bias, verification of reference intervals, verification of qualitative test procedures, verification of blood collection systems, comparability of results among methods and analytical systems, limit of detection, limit of quantification and limit of decision, how to assess the measurement uncertainty, the optimal use of Internal Quality Control and External Quality Assessment data, Six Sigma metrics, performance specifications, as well as biological variation. This article, which continues the annual tradition of collective papers from the EFLM continuing postgraduate courses in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, aims to provide further contributions by discussing the quality of laboratory methods and measurements and, at the same time, to offer continuing professional development to the attendees. PMID:26408611

  12. Using descriptive mark-up to formalize translation quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kutuzov, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with using descriptive mark-up to emphasize translation mistakes. The author postulates the necessity to develop a standard and formal XML-based way of describing translation mistakes. It is considered to be important for achieving impersonal translation quality assessment. Marked-up translations can be used in corpus translation studies; moreover, automatic translation assessment based on marked-up mistakes is possible. The paper concludes with setting up guidelines for furth...

  13. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    OpenAIRE

    Apte, Michael

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matte...

  14. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Domene, X.; Solà i Sau, Laura; Ramírez Hernández, Wilson Ariel; Alcañiz, Josep M.; Andrés Pastor, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were...

  15. The Assessment of Research Quality: Peer Review or Metrics?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which the outcomes of the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise, determined by peer review, can be explained by a set of quantitative indicators, some of which were made available to the review panels. Three cognate units of assessment are examined in detail: business & management, economics & econometrics, and accounting & finance. The paper focuses on the extent to which the quality of research output, as determined by the RAE panel, can be explained by the...

  16. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents) explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density) under different land...

  17. Quality assessment on airborne particulate matter of k0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of airborne particulate matter (APM) by k0-NAA was assessed using: BCR reference material (RM) simulated air-filters, synthetic air-filters prepared by spiking blank filters with standard solutions, and real APM filters. k0-INAA is a suitable technique for the analysis of APM, delivering accurate and precise results. However, the quality assessment of APM analysis appears to be a difficult task. (author)

  18. Entropy-Based Assessment of Water Quality Monitoring Networks

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKUL, Sevinç

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of water quality monitoring networks requires potential methods to delineate the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of current monitoring programs. To this end, the concept of entropy has been considered as a promising method in previous studies as it quantitatively measures the information produced by a network. This paper introduces a new approach for the assessment of combined spatial/temporal frequencies of monitoring networks. The results are demonstrated in the case ...

  19. Using descriptive mark-up to formalize translation quality assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kutuzov, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with using descriptive mark-up to emphasize translation mistakes. The author postulates the necessity to develop a standard and formal XML-based way of describing translation mistakes. It is considered to be important for achieving impersonal translation quality assessment. Marked-up translations can be used in corpus translation studies; moreover, automatic translation assessment based on marked-up mistakes is possible. The paper concludes with setting up guidelines for further activity within the described field.

  20. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  1. Strategic environmental assessment quality assurance: evaluating and improving the consistency of judgments in assessment panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment panels and expert judgment are playing increasing roles in the practice of strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Thus, the quality of an SEA decision rests considerably on the quality of the judgments of the assessment panel. However, there exists very little guidance in the SEA literature for practitioners concerning the treatment and integration of expert judgment into SEA decision-making processes. Subsequently, the performance of SEAs based on expert judgment is often less than satisfactory, and quality improvements are required in the SEA process. Based on the lessons learned from strategic- and project-level impact assessment practices, this paper outlines a number of principles concerning the use of assessment panels in SEA decision-making, and attempts to provide some guidance for SEA practitioners in this regard. Particular attention is given to the notion and value of consistency in assessment panel judgments

  2. Analysis of quality raw data of second generation sequencers with Quality Assessment Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Second generation technologies have advantages over Sanger; however, they have resulted in new challenges for the genome construction process, especially because of the small size of the reads, despite the high degree of coverage. Independent of the program chosen for the construction process, DNA sequences are superimposed, based on identity, to extend the reads, generating contigs; mismatches indicate a lack of homology and are not included. This process improves our confidence in the sequences that are generated. Findings We developed Quality Assessment Software, with which one can review graphs showing the distribution of quality values from the sequencing reads. This software allow us to adopt more stringent quality standards for sequence data, based on quality-graph analysis and estimated coverage after applying the quality filter, providing acceptable sequence coverage for genome construction from short reads. Conclusions Quality filtering is a fundamental step in the process of constructing genomes, as it reduces the frequency of incorrect alignments that are caused by measuring errors, which can occur during the construction process due to the size of the reads, provoking misassemblies. Application of quality filters to sequence data, using the software Quality Assessment, along with graphing analyses, provided greater precision in the definition of cutoff parameters, which increased the accuracy of genome construction. PMID:21501521

  3. DSMZ 24726 for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate. The ....... The isolated organism is an extremely interesting and very promising organism for the establishment of a sustainable bioethanol production process. The invention further relates to a method for producing a fermentation product such as ethanol.......The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate...

  4. To bioethanol through genomics of microbial synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein,

    2013-08-27

    The strategic goal of this project was to advance our understanding of activities and interactions of microorganisms through the advancement of microbial cultivation approaches. In this project we aimed to develop, advance, and use both culture-dependent techniques to address our main hypothesis: “uncultivable” microorganisms and their consortia represent a untapped source of novel species for efficient production of bioethanol. This project has two specific goals: 1. To develop and optimize a high throughput diffusion chamber cultivation approach to isolation of novel environmental bacteria relevant to DOE missions. 2. To use the optimized method to identify and cultivate novel microbial species and their consortia that synergistically hydrolyze various substrates and ferment the sugars to ethanol.

  5. Bioethanol Production Optimization: A Thermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Víctor H.; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Aznar, Martín

    In this work, the phase equilibrium of binary mixtures for bioethanol production by continuous extractive process was studied. The process is composed of four interlinked units: fermentor, centrifuge, cell treatment unit, and flash vessel (ethanol-congener separation unit). A proposal for modeling the vapor-liquid equilibrium in binary mixtures found in the flash vessel has been considered. This approach uses the Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state, with original and modified molecular parameters. The congeners considered were acetic acid, acetaldehyde, furfural, methanol, and 1-pentanol. The results show that the introduction of new molecular parameters r and q in the UNIFAC model gives more accurate predictions for the concentration of the congener in the gas phase for binary and ternary systems.

  6. Coproduction of bioethanol with other biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Large scale transformation of biomass to more versatile energy carriers has most commonly been focused on one product such as ethanol or methane. Due to the nature of the biomass and thermodynamic and biological constraints, this approach is not optimal if the energy content of the biomass is...... pilot-scale biorefineries for multiple fuel production and also discuss perspectives for further enhancement of biofuel yields from biomass. The major fuels produced in this refinery are ethanol, hydrogen, and methane. We also discuss the applicability of our biorefinery concept as a bolt-on plant on...... conventional corn- or grain-based bioethanol plants, and suggest that petroleum-base refineries and biorefineries appropriately can be coupled during the transition period from a fossil fuel to a renewable fuel economy....

  7. Theoretical Aspects and Methodological Approaches to Sales Services Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasova EE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article defines trade service quality and proposes an object-oriented approach for its essence interpretation, according to which such components as product offering and goods quality, service forms and goods selling methods, merchandising, services and staff are singled out; a model of managing retail outlets trading service, which covers levels of strategic, tactical and operational management and is aimed at ensuring customers’ perception expectations, achieving sustainable competitive positions and increasing customers’ loyalty is worked out; a methodology of trade services quality estimation that allows to carry out a comparative assessment of cooperative retailing both in terms of general indicators and their individual components, regulate the factors affecting trade services quality and have a positive administrative action is developed and tested; the results of evaluation of the customers’ service quality in the consumer cooperative retailers, dynamics of overall and comprehensive indicators of measurement of trade service quality for selected components are given; the main directions and measures for improving trade services quality basing on quantitative values of individual indicators for each of the five selected components (product offering and goods quality, service forms and sale methods, merchandising, services, staff are stated.

  8. Assessment of Soil Quality of Tidal Marshes in Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing; WANG; Juan; TAN; Jianqiang; WU; Chenyan; SHA; Junjie; RUAN; Min; WANG; Shenfa; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    We take three types of tidal marshes in Shanghai City as the study object:tidal marshes in mainland,tidal marshes in the rim of islands,and shoal in Yangtze estuary.On the basis of assessing nutrient quality and environmental quality,respectively,we use soil quality index(SQI)to assess the soil quality of tidal flats,meanwhile formulate the quality grading standards,and analyze the current situation and characteristics of it.The results show that except the north of Hangzhou Bay,Nanhui and Jiuduansha with low soil nutrient quality,there are not obvious differences in soil nutrient quality between other regions;the heavy metal pollution of tidal marshes in mainland is more serious than that of tidal marshes in the rim of islands;in terms of the comprehensive soil quality index,the regions are sequenced as follows:Jiuduansha wetland>Chongming Dongtan wetland>Nanhui tidal flat>tidal flat on the periphery of Chongming Island>tidal flat on the periphery of Hengsha Island>Pudong tidal flat>Baoshan tidal flat>tidal flat on the periphery of Changxing Island>tidal flat in the north of Hangzhou Bay.Among them,Jiuduansha wetland and Chongming Dongtan wetland have the best soil quality,belonging to class III,followed by Nanhui tidal flat,tidal flat on the periphery of Chongming Island and tidal flat on the periphery of Hengsha Island,belonging to class IV;tidal flat on the periphery of Changxing Island,Pudong tidal flat,Baoshan tidal flat and tidal flat in the north of Hangzhou Bay belong to class V.

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price (PGP. Two models were developed for the research, including the Bioethanol PGP Assessment Model (BPAM and the Feedstock Cost Estimation Model (FCEM. Results show that the PGP of the bioethanol ranges $4.68–$6.05/gal (9,550–12,356 yuan/t. The key components that contribute most to bioethanol PGP include the conversion rate of cellulose to glucose, the ratio of five-carbon sugars converted to ethanol, feedstock cost, and enzyme loading, etc. Lignocellulosic ethanol is currently unable to compete with fossil gasoline, therefore incentive policies are necessary to promote its development. It is suggested that the consumption tax be exempted, the value added tax (VAT be refunded upon collection, and feed-in tariff for excess electricity (byproduct be implemented to facilitate the industrialization of the technology. A minimum direct subsidy of $1.20/gal EtOH (2,500 yuan/t EtOH is also proposed for consideration.

  10. Quality Control Charts in Large-Scale Assessment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, William D.; Coverdale, Bradley J.; Luxenberg, Harlan; Jin, Ying

    2011-01-01

    There are relatively few examples of quantitative approaches to quality control in educational assessment and accountability contexts. Among the several techniques that are used in other fields, Shewart charts have been found in a few instances to be applicable in educational settings. This paper describes Shewart charts and gives examples of how…

  11. Incorporating Contaminant Bioavailability into Sediment Quality Assessment Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently adopted sediment quality assessment framework for evaluating bay and estuarine sediments in the State of California incorporates bulk sediment chemistry as a key line of evidence(LOE) but does not address the bioavailability of measured contaminants. Thus, the chemis...

  12. Feedback Effects of Teaching Quality Assessment: Macro and Micro Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the feedback effects of teaching quality assessment. Previous literature looked separately at the evolution of individual and aggregate scores to understand whether instructors and university performance depends on its past evaluation. I propose a new quantitative-based methodology, combining statistical distributions and…

  13. Quality of Feedback Following Performance Assessments: Does Assessor Expertise Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate quality of feedback as offered by supervisor-assessors with varying levels of assessor expertise following assessment of performance in residency training in a health care setting. It furthermore investigates if and how different levels of assessor expertise influence feedback characteristics.…

  14. Framework for dementia Quality of Life assessment with Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for a Quality of Life (QOL) evaluation tool that is sensitive, flexible, computerized, and specific to assistive technology (AT) for dementia care. Using the appropriate evaluation tool serves to improve methodologies that are used for AT assessment...... particular regard to the influx in assistive technologies and their implications as therapeutic interventions for dementia care....

  15. Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field for Uav Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, R.; Jenerowicz, A.

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays the imagery data acquired from UAV sensors are the main source of all data used in various remote sensing applications, photogrammetry projects and in imagery intelligence (IMINT) as well as in other tasks as decision support. Therefore quality assessment of such imagery is an important task. The research team from Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Geodesy Institute, Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry has designed and prepared special test field- The Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field (PIQuAT) that provides quality assessment in field conditions of images obtained with sensors mounted on UAVs. The PIQuAT consists of 6 individual segments, when combined allow for determine radiometric, spectral and spatial resolution of images acquired from UAVs. All segments of the PIQuAT can be used together in various configurations or independently. All elements of The Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field were tested in laboratory conditions in terms of their radiometry and spectral reflectance characteristics.

  16. Quality Assessment Parameters for Student Support at Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajiene, Laima; Tamuliene, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this article aims to validate quality assessment parameters for student support at higher education institutions. Student support is discussed as the system of services provided by a higher education institution which helps to develop student-centred curriculum and fulfils students' emotional, academic, social needs, and…

  17. Assessing the Quality of Education in Bulgaria using PISA 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report reflects and analyzes the recently released survey results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted in 2009 by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The report examines the change in scores from 2006 to 2009 and looks at how much of the change can be attributed to improvements in the quality of the education system, how...

  18. Miniature spinning as a fiber quality assessment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniature spinning has long been used to assess cotton varieties in a timely manner. It has been an accepted fact that the quality of miniature spinning is less than optimal, but that it allows a direct comparison between cottons during varietal studies. Recently, researchers have made processing ...

  19. Quality assessment of strategic management in organizations - ma maturity model

    OpenAIRE

    Balta Corneliu; Rosioru Nicoleta Diana

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the actual main concepts related to assessment of quality management in organizations. Strategic management is analyzed taking into consideration the most important dimensions including leadership, culture and values, process improvement, etc. The five levels of maturity model of strategic management are described showing the connection with organizational development

  20. Video Quality Assessment and Machine Learning: Performance and Interpretability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    In this work we compare a simple and a complex Machine Learning (ML) method used for the purpose of Video Quality Assessment (VQA). The simple ML method chosen is the Elastic Net (EN), which is a regularized linear regression model and easier to interpret. The more complex method chosen is Suppor...

  1. Quality assessment of weather radar wind profiles during bird migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Holleman; H. van Gasteren; W. Bouten

    2008-01-01

    Wind profiles from an operational C-band Doppler radar have been combined with data from a bird tracking radar to assess the wind profile quality during bird migration. The weather radar wind profiles (WRWPs) are retrieved using the well-known volume velocity processing (VVP) technique. The X-band b

  2. Assessment of quality indicators in spanish higher military education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos Gómez Maria del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality assessment is subject to multiple interpretations of its content and purpose, and also regarding to methods and techniques used to develop it. Although purposes of assessment are varied, usually pursuit three goals: Improvement, accountability and information. Currently, the concept of quality evaluation has been replaced by the management of educational quality, as Matthew [6] point “the new culture of evaluation is no longer oriented to penalty, ranking or selection of people, as provide a reasoned and reasonable information to guide the management of educational improvement”. Military Training Centres are externally evaluated by an experts External Evaluation Unit to identify strengths and weaknesses on their self-evaluation system and focus on important aspects related to the organization of the Centre, development of work plans, teacher’s style and students learning strategies, system of evaluation and qualification and accurate recommendations to improve all that. This research focuses on the evaluation of quality indicators for the external evaluation of higher education at Military Education Centres in Spain and it is funded by a joint project between University of Granada and MADOC. The technique used for collecting and analysing information was a content description of several documents provided by these military educational authorities, arising the identification and extraction of relevant indicators on the evaluation of higher education. This analysis was primarily based on standards and indicators systems by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation adapted to the Military Higher Education, but also it was consider other standards by international agencies and evaluative institutions, such as University of Chile, University of Paraguay, Canarias Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Agency for Quality Education System University of Castilla y León. The analysis realize a usual

  3. Display device-adapted video quality-of-experience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Today's viewers consume video content from a variety of connected devices, including smart phones, tablets, notebooks, TVs, and PCs. This imposes significant challenges for managing video traffic efficiently to ensure an acceptable quality-of-experience (QoE) for the end users as the perceptual quality of video content strongly depends on the properties of the display device and the viewing conditions. State-of-the-art full-reference objective video quality assessment algorithms do not take into account the combined impact of display device properties, viewing conditions, and video resolution while performing video quality assessment. We performed a subjective study in order to understand the impact of aforementioned factors on perceptual video QoE. We also propose a full reference video QoE measure, named SSIMplus, that provides real-time prediction of the perceptual quality of a video based on human visual system behaviors, video content characteristics (such as spatial and temporal complexity, and video resolution), display device properties (such as screen size, resolution, and brightness), and viewing conditions (such as viewing distance and angle). Experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art video quality measures in terms of accuracy and speed.

  4. Colonoscopy video quality assessment using hidden Markov random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Sargent, Dusty; Spofford, Inbar; Vosburgh, Kirby

    2011-03-01

    With colonoscopy becoming a common procedure for individuals aged 50 or more who are at risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), colon video data is being accumulated at an ever increasing rate. However, the clinically valuable information contained in these videos is not being maximally exploited to improve patient care and accelerate the development of new screening methods. One of the well-known difficulties in colonoscopy video analysis is the abundance of frames with no diagnostic information. Approximately 40% - 50% of the frames in a colonoscopy video are contaminated by noise, acquisition errors, glare, blur, and uneven illumination. Therefore, filtering out low quality frames containing no diagnostic information can significantly improve the efficiency of colonoscopy video analysis. To address this challenge, we present a quality assessment algorithm to detect and remove low quality, uninformative frames. The goal of our algorithm is to discard low quality frames while retaining all diagnostically relevant information. Our algorithm is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) in combination with two measures of data quality to filter out uninformative frames. Furthermore, we present a two-level framework based on an embedded hidden Markov model (EHHM) to incorporate the proposed quality assessment algorithm into a complete, automated diagnostic image analysis system for colonoscopy video.

  5. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  6. Many quality measurements, but few quality measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Li; Morrison Andra; Sampson Margaret; Brouwers Melissa; Graham Ian D; Lewin Gabriela; Mamaladze Vasil; Schachter Howard M; O'Blenis Peter; Garritty Chantelle

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer in women is increasingly frequent, and care is complex, onerous and expensive, all of which lend urgency to improvements in care. Quality measurement is essential to monitor effectiveness and to guide improvements in healthcare. Methods Ten databases, including Medline, were searched electronically to identify measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women (diagnosis, treatment, followup, documentation of care). Eligible studies measured adhere...

  7. Image quality influences the assessment of left ventricular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossgasteiger, Manuel; Hien, Maximilian D; Graser, Bastian;

    2014-01-01

    divided by the total endocardial border. These ratings were used to generate groups of poor (0%-40%), fair (41%-70%), and good (71%-100%) image quality. The ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume, and end-systolic volume were analyzed by the Simpson method of disks (biplane and monoplane), eyeball......, with the Teichholz EF found to be most accurate with poor (r = 0.928) in contrast to good (r = 0.699) image quality. Conclusions: With good image quality, the Simpson biplane method is the most accurate 2-dimensional method for assessing the left ventricular EF. Short-axis view methods, especially the...... method, Teichholz method, and speckle-tracking method. Furthermore, the fractional area change was determined. Each correlation with real-time 3DE was evaluated. Results: Correlations of the EF and volumes, respectively, as determined by long-axis view methods increased with improving image quality: the...

  8. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Davis Canyon, Utah, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impact sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 50 refs., 16 tabs

  9. Quality-of-life assessment in advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, S

    2000-07-01

    In the past 5 years, quality-of-life (QOL) assessment measures such as the McGill, McMaster, Global Visual Analogue Scale, Assessment of QOL at the End of Life, Life Evaluation Questionnaire, and Hospice QOL Index have been devised specifically for patients with advanced cancer. The developers of these instruments have tried to respond to the changing needs of this specific population, taking into account characteristics including poor performance status, difficulty with longitudinal study, rapidly deteriorating physical condition, and change in relevant issues. Emphasis has been placed on patient report, ease and speed of completion, and the existential domain or meaning of life. Novel techniques in QOL measurement have also been adapted for palliative care, such as judgment analysis in the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life. It is generally agreed that a single tool will not cover all QOL assessment needs.

  10. No-reference quality assessment based on visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junshan; Yang, Yawei; Hu, Shuangyan; Zhang, Jiao

    2014-11-01

    The visual quality assessment of images/videos is an ongoing hot research topic, which has become more and more important for numerous image and video processing applications with the rapid development of digital imaging and communication technologies. The goal of image quality assessment (IQA) algorithms is to automatically assess the quality of images/videos in agreement with human quality judgments. Up to now, two kinds of models have been used for IQA, namely full-reference (FR) and no-reference (NR) models. For FR models, IQA algorithms interpret image quality as fidelity or similarity with a perfect image in some perceptual space. However, the reference image is not available in many practical applications, and a NR IQA approach is desired. Considering natural vision as optimized by the millions of years of evolutionary pressure, many methods attempt to achieve consistency in quality prediction by modeling salient physiological and psychological features of the human visual system (HVS). To reach this goal, researchers try to simulate HVS with image sparsity coding and supervised machine learning, which are two main features of HVS. A typical HVS captures the scenes by sparsity coding, and uses experienced knowledge to apperceive objects. In this paper, we propose a novel IQA approach based on visual perception. Firstly, a standard model of HVS is studied and analyzed, and the sparse representation of image is accomplished with the model; and then, the mapping correlation between sparse codes and subjective quality scores is trained with the regression technique of least squaresupport vector machine (LS-SVM), which gains the regressor that can predict the image quality; the visual metric of image is predicted with the trained regressor at last. We validate the performance of proposed approach on Laboratory for Image and Video Engineering (LIVE) database, the specific contents of the type of distortions present in the database are: 227 images of JPEG2000, 233

  11. A proposal project for a blind image quality assessment by learning distortions from the full reference image quality assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Stéfane

    2015-01-01

    International audience This short paper presents a perspective plan to build a null reference image quality assessment. Its main goal is to deliver both the objective score and the distortion map for a given distorted image without the knowledge of its reference image.

  12. Model quality assessment using distance constraints from alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paluszewski, Martin; Karplus, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Given a set of alternative models for a specific protein sequence, the model quality assessment (MQA) problem asks for an assignment of scores to each model in the set. A good MQA program assigns these scores such that they correlate well with real quality of the models, ideally scoring best that...... intuition of a correct MQA, and we therefore propose that Kendall's tau be used for future CASP MQA assessments. Proteins 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.......Given a set of alternative models for a specific protein sequence, the model quality assessment (MQA) problem asks for an assignment of scores to each model in the set. A good MQA program assigns these scores such that they correlate well with real quality of the models, ideally scoring best that...... model which is closest to the true structure. In this article, we present a new approach for addressing the MQA problem. It is based on distance constraints extracted from alignments to templates of known structure, and is implemented in the Undertaker program for protein structure prediction. One novel...

  13. Quality assessment of private practitioners in rural Wardha, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly Enakshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of care provided by private practitioners in rural areas of Wardha district. Methodology: The study was carried out in three primary health centres of Wardha district. 20% of the 44 registered private practitioners were selected randomly for the study. The data was collected using checklist through direct observation for the infrastructure. Assessment of quality of services delivered, 10 consecutive patients were observed and also the medical practitioner was interviewed. Supplies and logistics were assessed through observation. Results: All the facilities were sheltered from weather conditions and 90% had adequate waiting space. But, drinking water and adequate IEC material was available in only 20% facilities. Complete history taking and relevant physical examination was done in only 20% cases. Only 20% practitioners recorded blood pressure and 30% recorded temperature in cases with fever. Provisional diagnosis was not written in any of the case and only 20% explained prescription to the patients. Conclusion: There is considerable scope to improve the quality of services of private practitioners. To achieve this quality assurance programs may be initiated along with the training of private medical practitioners.

  14. QPLOT: A Quality Assessment Tool for Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingshan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Next generation sequencing (NGS is being widely used to identify genetic variants associated with human disease. Although the approach is cost effective, the underlying data is susceptible to many types of error. Importantly, since NGS technologies and protocols are rapidly evolving, with constantly changing steps ranging from sample preparation to data processing software updates, it is important to enable researchers to routinely assess the quality of sequencing and alignment data prior to downstream analyses. Results. Here we describe QPLOT, an automated tool that can facilitate the quality assessment of sequencing run performance. Taking standard sequence alignments as input, QPLOT generates a series of diagnostic metrics summarizing run quality and produces convenient graphical summaries for these metrics. QPLOT is computationally efficient, generates webpages for interactive exploration of detailed results, and can handle the joint output of many sequencing runs. Conclusion. QPLOT is an automated tool that facilitates assessment of sequence run quality. We routinely apply QPLOT to ensure quick detection of diagnostic of sequencing run problems. We hope that QPLOT will be useful to the community as well.

  15. Quality assessment of systematic reviews on alveolar socket preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraschini, V; Barboza, E Dos S P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this overview was to evaluate and compare the quality of systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, that have evaluated studies on techniques or biomaterials used for the preservation of alveolar sockets post tooth extraction in humans. An electronic search was conducted without date restrictions using the Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases up to April 2015. Eligibility criteria included systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, focused on the preservation of post-extraction alveolar sockets in humans. Two independent authors assessed the quality of the included reviews using AMSTAR and the checklist proposed by Glenny et al. in 2003. After the selection process, 12 systematic reviews were included. None of these reviews obtained the maximum score using the quality assessment tools implemented, and the results of the analyses were highly variable. A significant statistical correlation was observed between the scores of the two checklists. A wide structural and methodological variability was observed between the systematic reviews published on the preservation of alveolar sockets post tooth extraction. None of the reviews evaluated obtained the maximum score using the two quality assessment tools implemented. PMID:27061478

  16. Produksi bioethanol dari jerami padi (Oryza sativa) melalui hidrolisis asan dan fermentasi dengan Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    SRI KUSUMASTUTI HAYUNINGTYAS; SUNARTO; SITI LUSI ARUM SARI

    2014-01-01

    Hayuningtyas SK, Sunarto, Sari SLA. 2013. The production of bioethanol from rice straw (Oryza sativa) by acid hydrolysis and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioteknologi 11: 1-4. Bioethanol is one of the alternative fuels that are considered more environmentally friendly. Bioethanol can be obtained from material that contains cellulose, such as rice straw. This study aimed to determine the optimum fermentation time to product bioethanol from rice straw hydrolysis and measured of b...

  17. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, A.F.

    2013-05-15

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol production from xylose, an ethanol yield of 1.39 mol mol-1 xylose was obtained. This represents 83 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from xylose and is to date the highest reported value for a native, not genetically modified microorganism. The bacterium was identified as a new member of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, named Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and was subsequently used to investigate some of the factors that influence secondgeneration bioethanol production, such as initial substrate concentration and sensitivity to inhibitors. Furthermore, T. pentosaceus was used to develop and optimize bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass using a range of different approaches, including combination with other microorganisms and immobilization of the cells. T. pentosaceus could produce ethanol from a wide range of substrates without the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract and vitamins to the medium. It was initially sensitive to concentrations of 10 g l-1 of xylose and 1 % (v/v) ethanol. However, long term repeated batch cultivation showed that the strain

  18. Assessing quality in European educational research indicators and approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as ‘quality’ and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?

  19. Assessment of Quality of Service of Virtual Knowledge Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LA Juan-juan; JIANG Ge-fu; YIN Liang-kui

    2008-01-01

    An assessment method for the quality of service (QoS) of virtual knowledge communities (VKC) is proposed based on fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The QoS is evaluated in terms of Website design, reliability, responsiveness, trust,personalization, and information quality. The cognitive QoS and the QoS evaluated by assessors are compared to analyze which QoS of the VKC should be improved urgently and which indicators keep leading positions, and to assist administrators of the VKC on measuring and understanding current status and implementation effect of the QoS.

  20. Energy and Environmental Performance of Bioethanol from Different Lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjalt Huppes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the wish to reduce the dependence on oil are the incentives for the development of alternative energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic biomass together with cellulosic processing technology provides opportunities to produce fuel ethanol with less competition with food and nature. Many studies on energy analysis and life cycle assessment of second-generation bioethanol have been conducted. However, due to the different methodology used and different system boundary definition, it is difficult to compare their results. To permit a direct comparison of fuel ethanol from different lignocelluloses in terms of energy use and environmental impact, seven studies conducted in our group were summarized in this paper, where the same technologies were used to convert biomass to ethanol, the same system boundaries were defined, and the same allocation procedures were followed. A complete set of environmental impacts ranging from global warming potential to toxicity aspects is used. The results provide an overview on the energy efficiency and environmental performance of using fuel ethanol derived from different feedstocks in comparison with gasoline.

  1. Web Service for Positional Quality Assessment: the Wps Tier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, E. M. A.; Ariza-López, F. J.; Ureña-Cámara, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    In the field of spatial data every day we have more and more information available, but we still have little or very little information about the quality of spatial data. We consider that the automation of the spatial data quality assessment is a true need for the geomatic sector, and that automation is possible by means of web processing services (WPS), and the application of specific assessment procedures. In this paper we propose and develop a WPS tier centered on the automation of the positional quality assessment. An experiment using the NSSDA positional accuracy method is presented. The experiment involves the uploading by the client of two datasets (reference and evaluation data). The processing is to determine homologous pairs of points (by distance) and calculate the value of positional accuracy under the NSSDA standard. The process generates a small report that is sent to the client. From our experiment, we reached some conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of WPSs when applied to the automation of spatial data accuracy assessments.

  2. Thermo-optic quality assessment of doped optical ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Christina C. C.; Bradford, Joshua D.; Maddox, Emily; Shah, Lawrence; Richardson, Martin

    2013-03-01

    The use of optical quality ceramics for laser applications is expanding, and with this expansion there is an increasing need for diagnostics to assess the quality of these materials. Ceramic material with flaws and contaminants yields significantly less efficient performance as laser gain media and can generate excessive amounts of waste heat. This is a concern that is especially relevant in high power laser applications where thermally induced damage can be catastrophic. In order to assess a set of ceramic and crystalline samples we induce and measure thermal lensing in order to produce a relative ranking based on the extent of the induced thermal lens. In these experiments thermal lensing is induced in a set of nine 10% Yb:YAG ceramic and single-crystal samples using a high power 940 nm diode, and their thermal response is measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The materials are also ranked by their transmission in the visible region. Discrepancies between the two ranking methods reveal that transmission in the visible region alone is not adequate for an assessment of the overall quality of ceramic samples. The thermal lensing diagnostic technique proves to be a reliable and quick over-all assessment method of doped ceramic materials without requiring any a priori knowledge of material properties.

  3. Quality assessment of post-edited versus translated wildlife documentary films : a three-level approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Boix, Carla; Matamala, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study designed to evaluate the quality of post-edited wildlife documentary films (in comparison to translated) which are delivered using voiceover and off-screen dubbing. The study proposes a quality assessment at three levels: experts’ assessment, dubbing studio’s assessment and end-users’ assessment. The main contribution of this quality assessment proposal is the inclusion of end-users in the process of assessing the quality of post-edited and transla...

  4. Quality assessment of altimeter data through tide gauge comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, Pierre; Valladeau, Guillaume; Ablain, Michael; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien

    2015-04-01

    Since the first altimeter missions and the improvements performed in the accuracy of sea surface height measurements from 1992 onwards, the importance of global quality assessment of altimeter data has been increasing. Global CalVal studies usually assess this performance by the analysis of internal consistency and cross-comparison between all missions. The overall quality assessment of altimeter data can be performed by analyzing their internal consistency and the cross-comparison between all missions. As a complementary approach, tide gauge measurements are used as an external and independent reference to enable further quality assessment of the altimeter sea level and provide a better estimate of the multiple altimeter performances. In this way, both altimeter and tide gauge observations, dedicated to climate applications, require a rigorous quality control. The tide gauge time series considered in this study derive from several networks (GLOSS/CLIVAR, PSMSL, REFMAR) and provide sea-level heights with a physical content comparable with altimetry sea level estimates. Concerning altimeter data, the long-term drift assessment can be evaluated thanks to a widespread network of tide gauges. Thus, in-situ measurements are compared with altimeter sea level for the main altimeter missions. If altimeter time series are long enough, tide gauge data provide a relevant estimation of the global Mean Sea Level (MSL) drift calculated for all the missions. Moreover, comparisons with sea level products merging all the altimeter missions together have also been performed using several datasets, among which the AVISO delayed-time Sea Level Anomaly grids.

  5. Effects of bioethanol ultrasonic generated aerosols application on diesel engine performances

    OpenAIRE

    Mariasiu Florin; Burnete Nicolae V.; Moldovanu Dan; Varga Bogdan O.; Iclodean Calin; Kocsis Levente

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the effects of an experimental bioethanol fumigation application using an experimental ultrasound device on performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Engine performance and pollutant emissions variations were considered for three different types of fuels (biodiesel, biodiesel-bioethanol blend and biodiesel and fumigated bioethanol). Reductions in brake specific fuel consumption and NOx ...

  6. Natural variation in the glucose content of dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated rice straw liquid hydrolysates: implications for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Takashi; Teramura, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Miki; Kanamaru, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Rice straw is a promising resource for bioethanol production. Because the glucose content of pretreatment liquid hydrolysates is highly correlated with ethanol yield, the selection of appropriate rice cultivars is essential. The glucose content in liquid hydrolysates of pretreated rice straws of 208 diverse cultivars was evaluated in natural field in 2013 and 2014 using a novel high-throughput system. The glucose content of the rice straw samples varied across cultivars and was affected by environmental factors such as temperature and solar radiation. Several high-quality cultivars exhibiting high glucose content in both years were identified. The results of this study can aid in development of novel rice cultivars suitable as both feedstocks for bioethanol production and cooking. PMID:26872499

  7. Ultrasound Image Quality Assessment: A framework for evaluation of clinical image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov;

    2010-01-01

    Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 500...... from the International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication (ITU-R) for such subjective quality assessment, this work presents equipment and a methodology for clinical image quality evaluation for guiding the development of new and improved imaging. The system is based on a BK-Medical 2202 Pro......Focus scanner equipped with a UA2227 research interface, connected to a PC through X64-CL Express camera link. Data acquisition features subject data recording, loading/saving of exact scanner settings (for later experiment reproducibility), free access to all system parameters for beamformation and is...

  8. Quality assessment of expendable patterns in the investment casting process

    OpenAIRE

    Matysiak, H.; R. Haratym; Kurzydlowski, K. J.; R. Biernacki

    2010-01-01

    assessment of patterns mixtures contraction as a function of solidification module. These features were verified on step-shaped pat-terns. Patterns mixtures made on the basis of hard waxes were selected for tests and compared with the domestic mixture based on paraffin and stearin (PS) as well as with the PS-mixture to which the material of used patterns from the WSK Rzeszow factory was added.The selected tests enable a quick assessment of whether the pattern mixture quality meets the require...

  9. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were...... in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical...... analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with...

  10. Quality control and quality assurance plan for bridge channel-stability assessments in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gene W.; Pinson, Harlow

    1993-01-01

    A quality control and quality assurance plan has been implemented as part of the Massachusetts bridge scour and channel-stability assessment program. This program is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Massachusetts-Rhode Island District, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Highway Department. Project personnel training, data-integrity verification, and new data-management technologies are being utilized in the channel-stability assessment process to improve current data-collection and management techniques. An automated data-collection procedure has been implemented to standardize channel-stability assessments on a regular basis within the State. An object-oriented data structure and new image management tools are used to produce a data base enabling management of multiple data object classes. Data will be reviewed by assessors and data base managers before being merged into a master bridge-scour data base, which includes automated data-verification routines.

  11. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J;

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy was...... developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  12. Image Signature Based Mean Square Error for Image Quality Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Ziguan; GAN Zongliang; TANG Guijin; LIU Feng; ZHU Xiuchang

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the importance of Human visual system (HVS) in image processing, we propose a novel Image signature based mean square error (ISMSE) metric for full reference Image quality assessment (IQA). Efficient image signature based describer is used to predict visual saliency map of the reference image. The saliency map is incorporated into luminance diff erence between the reference and distorted images to obtain image quality score. The eff ect of luminance diff erence on visual quality with larger saliency value which is usually corresponding to foreground objects is highlighted. Experimental results on LIVE database release 2 show that by integrating the eff ects of image signature based saliency on luminance dif-ference, the proposed ISMSE metric outperforms several state-of-the-art HVS-based IQA metrics but with lower complexity.

  13. A QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR 3D ROAD POLYGON OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  14. Effects of display rendering on HDR image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerman, Emin; Valenzise, Giuseppe; De Simone, Francesca; Banterle, Francesco; Dufaux, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) displays use local backlight modulation to produce both high brightness levels and large contrast ratios. Thus, the display rendering algorithm and its parameters may greatly affect HDR visual experience. In this paper, we analyze the impact of display rendering on perceived quality for a specific display (SIM2 HDR47) and for a popular application scenario, i.e., HDR image compression. To this end, we assess whether significant differences exist between subjective quality of compressed images, when these are displayed using either the built-in rendering of the display, or a rendering algorithm developed by ourselves. As a second contribution of this paper, we investigate whether the possibility to estimate the true pixel-wise luminance emitted by the display, offered by our rendering approach, can improve the performance of HDR objective quality metrics that require true pixel-wise luminance as input.

  15. Assessment of quality of drinking water in Amasaman, Accra (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physico-chemical and microbial quality attributes of untreated water samples from hand dug wells and treated water delivered by tankers (mobile services) were assessed to determine the susceptibility of Amasaman community to water borne diseases. The physico-chemical parameters of all the water sources for domestic use were within the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines and Ghana Standards (GS), with the exception of turbidity and colour which showed higher values for the well waters. With respect to the microbial quality, the waters from the hand-dug wells and tanker services showed presence of both total and faecal coliforms, at levels higher than WHO and GS values of zero counts per 100 mL for drinking water. The poor microbial quality (presence of coliform bacteria) of all the water samples suggested susceptibility and exposure of the community to waterborne diseases on continuously drinking the available water. (au)

  16. Water Quality Assessment in the Tsunami Areas of Banda Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendrayatna Suhendrayatna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment in the tsunami-affected areas conducted in Meuraxa and Kutaradja sub-districts in the area of Banda Aceh City. Water samples were collected in October 2006 from dug wells of tsunami-affected areas. These were characterized for various physical and chemical parameters. Water quality in the selected areas has shown that the surface water was contaminated due to the tsunami. Total Dissolved Solid, Total Suspended Solid, Acidity, and salinity were high in the affected areas indicating saline water intrusion into surface water tables. Dug wells in the highly affected locations showed higher values of heavy metal ions like Mn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Cu compared to the reference points. No ion Hg was found in all samples. Keywords: Banda Aceh, heavy metals, tsunami, water quality

  17. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes; Energie a partir de petit-lait : comparaison des filieres biogaz et bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  18. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Vasco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil. Results A total of 489 LAB isolates were obtained from four distilleries in 2007 and 2008. The abundance of LAB in the fermentation tanks varied between 6.0 × 105 and 8.9 × 108 CFUs/mL. Crude sugar cane juice contained 7.4 × 107 to 6.0 × 108 LAB CFUs. Most of the LAB isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus according to rRNA operon enzyme restriction profiles. A variety of Lactobacillus species occurred throughout the bioethanol process, but the most frequently found species towards the end of the harvest season were L. fermentum and L. vini. The different rep-PCR patterns indicate the co-occurrence of distinct populations of the species L. fermentum and L. vini, suggesting a great intraspecific diversity. Representative isolates of both species had the ability to grow in medium containing up to 10% ethanol, suggesting selection of ethanol tolerant bacteria throughout the process. Conclusions This study served as a first survey of the LAB diversity in the bioethanol process in Brazil. The abundance and diversity of LAB suggest that they have a significant impact in the bioethanol process.

  19. Collembase: a repository for springtail genomics and soil quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein-Lankhorst Rene M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental quality assessment is traditionally based on responses of reproduction and survival of indicator organisms. For soil assessment the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola is an accepted standard test organism. We argue that environmental quality assessment using gene expression profiles of indicator organisms exposed to test substrates is more sensitive, more toxicant specific and significantly faster than current risk assessment methods. To apply this species as a genomic model for soil quality testing we conducted an EST sequencing project and developed an online database. Description Collembase is a web-accessible database comprising springtail (F. candida genomic data. Presently, the database contains information on 8686 ESTs that are assembled into 5952 unique gene objects. Of those gene objects ~40% showed homology to other protein sequences available in GenBank (blastx analysis; non-redundant (nr database; expect-value -5. Software was applied to infer protein sequences. The putative peptides, which had an average length of 115 amino-acids (ranging between 23 and 440 were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms. In total 1025 peptides (~17% of the gene objects were assigned at least one GO term (expect-value -25. Within Collembase searches can be conducted based on BLAST and GO annotation, cluster name or using a BLAST server. The system furthermore enables easy sequence retrieval for functional genomic and Quantitative-PCR experiments. Sequences are submitted to GenBank (Accession numbers: EV473060 – EV481745. Conclusion Collembase http://www.collembase.org is a resource of sequence data on the springtail F. candida. The information within the database will be linked to a custom made microarray, based on the Agilent platform, which can be applied for soil quality testing. In addition, Collembase supplies information that is valuable for related scientific disciplines such as molecular ecology

  20. Quality assessment of radurized Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radurization of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) at a dose of 150 krad was found to enhance the storage life from 8-10 to 21-24 days at 00C, and from 5-7 to 13-15 days at 50C. Representative bacterial species isolated from mackerel, differed widely in their spoilage potential. Assessment of alternations in the textural attributes of radurized mackerel during storage, provided a satisfactory index of quality. (author)

  1. Volatile amines as criteria for chemical quality assessment. Seafoodplus Traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Monique

    2005-01-01

    Volatile amines are the characteristic molecules responsible for the fishy odour and flavour present in fish several days after the catch and they are commonly used as criteria for assessing the fish quality. The nature and the formation of the volatile amines are discussed. Ammonia is present in freshly caught fish, during chilled storage it is formed by endogenous and bacterial enzymes, it is a poor indicator of fish freshness and cannot be considered as an effective marker of fish spoila...

  2. Quality assessment for processed and sterilized bone using Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takeaki; Uchida, Kentaro; Naruse, Kouji; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Urabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Suto, Kaori; Moriya, Mitsutoshi; Itoman, Moritoshi; Takaso, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate the potential for infection, many tissue banks routinely process and terminally sterilize allografts prior to transplantation. A number of techniques, including the use of scanning electron microscopy, bone graft models, and mechanical property tests, are used to evaluate the properties of allograft bone. However, as these methods are time consuming and often destroy the bone sample, the quality assessment of allograft bones are not routinely performed after processing and steril...

  3. Electric techniques for the assessment of quality parameters of foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    Iaccheri, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    In food industry, quality assurance requires low cost methods for the rapid assessment of the parameters that affect product stability. Foodstuffs are complex in their structure, mainly composed by gaseous, liquid and solid phases which often coexist in the same product. Special attention is given to water, concerned as natural component of the major food product or as added ingredient of a production process. Particularly water is structurally present in the matrix and not completely availab...

  4. A purely functional combinator language for software quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Pedro; Fernandes, João Paulo; Saraiva, João

    2012-01-01

    Quality assessment of open source software is becoming an important and active research area. One of the reasons for this recent interest is the consequence of Internet popularity. Nowadays, programming also involves looking for the large set of open source libraries and tools that may be reused when developing our software applications. In order to reuse such open source software artifacts, programmers not only need the guarantee that the reused artifact is certified, but a...

  5. Quality assessment of weather radar wind profiles during bird migration

    OpenAIRE

    Holleman, I.; Gasteren, van, H.; W. Bouten

    2008-01-01

    Wind profiles from an operational C-band Doppler radar have been combined with data from a bird tracking radar to assess the wind profile quality during bird migration. The weather radar wind profiles (WRWPs) are retrieved using the well-known volume velocity processing (VVP) technique. The X-band bird radar performed range-height scans perpendicular to the main migration direction and bird densities were deduced by counting and normalizing the observed echoes. It is found that the radial vel...

  6. Environmetric data interpretation to assess surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two multivariate statistical methods (Cluster analysis /CA/ and Principal components analysis /PCA/) were applied for model assessment of the water quality of Maritsa River and Tundja River on Bulgarian territory. The study used long-term monitoring data from many sampling sites characterized by various surface water quality indicators. The application of CA to the indicators results in formation of clusters showing the impact of biological, anthropogenic and eutrophication sources. For further assessment of the monitoring data, PCA was implemented, which identified, again, latent factors confirming, in principle, the clustering output. Their identification coincide correctly to the location of real pollution sources along the rivers catchments. The linkage of the sampling sites along the river flow by CA identified several special patterns separated by specific tracers levels. The apportionment models of the pollution determined the contribution of each one of identified pollution factors to the total concentration of each one of the water quality parameters. Thus, a better risk management of the surface water quality is achieved both on local and national level

  7. A systematic review of instruments that assess the implementation of hospital quality management systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Groene, O; Botje, D; Suñol, R; Lopez, M.A.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Health-care providers invest substantial resources to establish and implement hospital quality management systems. Nevertheless, few tools are available to assess implementation efforts and their effect on quality and safety outcomes. This review aims to (i) identify instruments to assess the implementation of hospital quality management systems, (ii) describe their measurement properties and (iii) assess the effects of quality management on quality improvement and quality of care ou...

  8. Semen quality assessments and their significance in reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordan, W; Fraser, L; Wysocki, P; Strzezek, R; Lecewicz, M; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Dziekońska, A; Soliwoda, D; Koziorowska-Gilun, M

    2013-01-01

    Semen quality assessment methods are very important in predicting the fertilizing ability of persevered spermatozoa and to improve animal reproductive technology. This review discusses some of the current laboratory methods used for semen quality assessments, with references to their relevance in the evaluation of male fertility and semen preservation technologies. Semen quality assessment methods include sperm motility evaluations, analyzed with the computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system, and plasma membrane integrity evaluations using fluorescent stains, such as Hoechst 33258 (H33258), SYBR-14, propidium iodide (PI), ethidium homodimer (EthD) and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and biochemical tests, such as the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. This review addresses the significance of specific fluorochromes and ATP measurements for the evaluation of the sperm mitochondrial status. Laboratory methods used for the evaluation of chromatin status, DNA integrity, and apoptotic changes in spermatozoa have been discussed. Special emphasis has been focused on the application of proteomic techniques, such as two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), for the identification of the properties and functions of seminal plasma proteins in order to define their role in the fertilization-related processes. PMID:24597323

  9. A cloud model-based approach for water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Liu, Dengfeng; Ding, Hao; Singh, Vijay P; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    Water quality assessment entails essentially a multi-criteria decision-making process accounting for qualitative and quantitative uncertainties and their transformation. Considering uncertainties of randomness and fuzziness in water quality evaluation, a cloud model-based assessment approach is proposed. The cognitive cloud model, derived from information science, can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data, based on probability and statistics and fuzzy set theory. When applying the cloud model to practical assessment, three technical issues are considered before the development of a complete cloud model-based approach: (1) bilateral boundary formula with nonlinear boundary regression for parameter estimation, (2) hybrid entropy-analytic hierarchy process technique for calculation of weights, and (3) mean of repeated simulations for determining the degree of final certainty. The cloud model-based approach is tested by evaluating the eutrophication status of 12 typical lakes and reservoirs in China and comparing with other four methods, which are Scoring Index method, Variable Fuzzy Sets method, Hybrid Fuzzy and Optimal model, and Neural Networks method. The proposed approach yields information concerning membership for each water quality status which leads to the final status. The approach is found to be representative of other alternative methods and accurate. PMID:26995351

  10. Combining catchment and instream modelling to assess physical habitat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    attention in past studies of run-off impact on the quality of stream physical habitats. This study combined catchment and instream models with instream habitat observations to assess the ecological impacts from groundwater exploitation on a small stream. The main objectives of this study was; • to assess...... the physical habitat quality of stream Ledreborg using af habitat hydraulic model • to assess the present and potential physical habitat quality of stream Ledreborg • to evaluate the suitability and applicability of habitat hydraulic models to Danish stream management Results • Precipitation and evaporation...... were 6.4-11.2 l/s and 21.7-78.3 l/s. Simulating a 'no-abstraction'-scenario the summer minimum and mean flow increased to 30-96 l/s and 60.1-151.5 l/s - assumed to be the summer run-off reference condition. On a yearly basis the scenario simulated a 25.4-82 l/s increase in mean flow. • Habitat...

  11. Assessing water quality trends in catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C.; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Environmental resources are under increasing pressure to simultaneously achieve social, economic and ecological aims. Increasing demand for food production, for example, has expanded and intensified agricultural systems globally. In turn, greater risks of diffuse pollutant delivery (suspended sediment (SS) and Phosphorus (P)) from land to water due to higher stocking densities, fertilisation rates and soil erodibility has been attributed to deterioration of chemical and ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. Development of sustainable and resilient management strategies for agro-ecosystems must detect and consider the impact of land use disturbance on water quality over time. However, assessment of multiple monitoring sites over a region is challenged by hydro-climatic fluctuations and the propagation of events through catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes. Simple water quality metrics, for example, flow-weighted pollutant exports have potential to normalise the impact of catchment hydrology and better identify water quality fluctuations due to land use and short-term climate fluctuations. This paper assesses the utility of flow-weighted water quality metrics to evaluate periods and causes of critical pollutant transfer. Sub-hourly water quality (SS and P) and discharge data were collected from hydrometric monitoring stations at the outlets of five small (~10 km2) agricultural catchments in Ireland. Catchments possess contrasting land uses (predominantly grassland or arable) and soil drainage (poorly, moderately or well drained) characteristics. Flow-weighted water quality metrics were calculated and evaluated according to fluctuations in source pressure and rainfall. Flow-weighted water quality metrics successfully identified fluctuations in pollutant export which could be attributed to land use changes through the agricultural calendar, i.e., groundcover fluctuations. In particular, catchments with predominantly poor or moderate soil drainage

  12. Microphone array power ratio for quality assessment of reverberated speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Reuven; Cohen, Israel

    2015-12-01

    Speech signals in enclosed environments are often distorted by reverberation and noise. In speech communication systems with several randomly distributed microphones, involving a dynamic speaker and unknown source location, it is of great interest to monitor the perceived quality at each microphone and select the signal with the best quality. Most of existing approaches for quality estimation require prior information or a clean reference signal, which is unfortunately seldom available. In this paper, a practical non-intrusive method for quality assessment of reverberated speech signals is proposed. Using a statistical model of the reverberation process, we examine the energies as measured by unidirectional elements in a microphone array. By measuring the power ratio, we obtain a measure for the amount of reverberation in the received acoustic signals. This measure is then utilized to derive a blind estimation of the direct-to-reverberation energy ratio in the room. The proposed approach attains a simple, reliable, and robust quality measure, shown here through persuasive simulation results.

  13. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  14. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to obtain the necessary substrates in the processes of fermentation. Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol, which have been divided in three groups for its study in: physi- cal-chemical, hydrothermal and biological. The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of several pre- treatment methods for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials.

  15. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  16. Review of China's bioethanol development and a case study of fuel supply, demand and distribution of bioethanol expansion by national application of E10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing dependence on imported oil and tremendous greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is making the diversification of primary fuel such as petroleum a critical vital energy and environmental issue in China. China is promoting bioethanol by mandatory use in nine provinces and the expansion is on agenda. This paper first reviews China's bioethanol development. Next, suitable feedstock crops for expanded ethanol production are discussed. Particularly, bioethanol expansion by national application of E10 is investigated from perspectives of potential in bioethanol supply, projected ethanol demand, and the possible cost-effective bioethanol distribution system. It is calculated that by making use of un-used land for feedstock planting and introduction of improved feedstock varieties, potential bioethanol production capacity in China will be up to 25.33 million tons per year. Ethanol demand for national application of E10 is projected to be around 7 million tons per year. A linear optimization model is used to consider the economic costs of distributing bioethanol in China. The optimization result suggests that development of bioethanol industry may focus on Henan, Jilin, Anhui, Jiangxi and Sichuan basin. It also estimates 53.79 RMB per ton of bioethanol for downstream rail or truck transportation remain a relatively small fraction of total fuel cost. Thanks to the well developed railway network in China, more bioethanol can be distributed at a relatively modest premium distribution costs and with low environmental influences. -- Highlights: → China's bioethanol development is reviewed. → Ethanol potential, projected demand and efficient distribution system are studied. → We find that nationwide bioethanol application can be commercially viable. → Impacts of oil and feedstock prices on ethanol expansion are discussed. → Ecological impacts of large scale feedstock crop plantation should be inspected.

  17. Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Balasubramanian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses” have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  18. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study. PMID:15825426

  19. Terrestrial Method for Airborne Lidar Quality Control and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, N. M.; Badawy, H. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-11-01

    Most of LiDAR systems do not provide the end user with the calibration and acquisition procedures that can use to validate the quality of the data acquired by the airborne system. Therefore, this system needs data Quality Control (QC) and assessment procedures to verify the accuracy of the laser footprints and mainly at building edges. This research paper introduces an efficient method for validating the quality of the airborne LiDAR point clouds data using terrestrial laser scanning data integrated with edge detection techniques. This method will be based on detecting the edge of buildings from these two independent systems. Hence, the building edges are extracted from the airborne data using an algorithm that is based on the standard deviation of neighbour point's height from certain threshold with respect to centre points using radius threshold. The algorithm is adaptive to different point densities. The approach is combined with another innovative edge detection technique from terrestrial laser scanning point clouds that is based on the height and point density constraints. Finally, statistical analysis and assessment will be applied to compare these two systems in term of edge detection extraction precision, which will be a priori step for 3D city modelling generated from heterogeneous LiDAR systems

  20. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifacio Magtibay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods: Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results: Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373 of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion: Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster.

  1. Regional programme on quality control of radioimmunoassay: Development of human resources and external quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978 the authors have been concerned with helping to standardize radioimmunoassay (RIA) methodology in Argentina and other Latin American countries by: (1) developing human resources through courses on quality control of RIA and training of fellows, and (2) developing four external quality assessment (EQA) schemes to evaluate the performance of laboratories in determining several analytes by RIA. The number of collaborating laboratories increased between the first and fourth schemes. The average analytical performance achieved by the participants in each scheme was estimated by the average between-laboratory variation. Thyroxine, cortisol and tri-iodothyronine were measured the most accurately. Different problems were evident in the RIAs of thyrotrophin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, immunoglobulin E and human growth hormone. RIA of oestradiol showed the worst accuracy. Analysis of the results showed an increasing interest in RIA quality control as it was found to improve the reliability of RIA. (author)

  2. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. PMID:27064733

  3. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y C; V. Sanggari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast) also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples w...

  4. Reliability of Quality Assessments in Research Synthesis: Securing the Highest Quality Bioinformation for HIT

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Phil, André Barkhordarian C; Arora, Rashi; Phi, Linda; Giroux, Amy; Uyeda, Molly; Kung, Jason; Ramchandani, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in bio-medicine include research synthesis and dissemination of bioinformation by means of health (bio) information technology (H[b] IT). Research must secure the validity and reliability of assessment tools to quantify research quality in the pursuit of the best available evidence. Our concerted work in this domain led to the revision of three instruments for that purpose, including the stringent characterization of inter-rater reliability and coefficient of agreement. It is t...

  5. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF INTEGRATION QUALITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION (QLASSIC) WITH ISO 9001 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (QMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Che Ali

    2014-01-01

    Quality has been identified as one of the fundamental needs of clients. As such construction projects that are able to be completed with distinctive quality will definitely enable to delight their customers. In this regard, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) has introduced two quality related programs namely ISO 9001 DIY Scheme and QLASSIC. The later is essentially a quality performance assessment tool to evaluate the level of quality of a building construction work based on quali...

  6. Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Roşu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the assessment of physico-chemical quality of drinking watercoming from rural wells of Aiud area (villages: Măgina, Livezile, Poiana Aiudului, Vălişoara. Water qualitywas evaluated through a research project conducted over a period of eight months (October 2009 - May2010. It consisted of a monthly monitoring of water physico-chemical characteristics of 27 drinking wellsfrom the villages mentioned above. There were monitored monthly in the laboratory the followingparameters: pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,salinity, using WTW Multi-parameter inolab 720. In April and May, at the parameters mentioned abovewere added chemical measurements for the following indicators: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2->, NO3 -, PO4 3-,HCO3 -, which analysis were performed with Dionex Ion Chromatograph System 2100. The results of thechemical analysis were processed using the following methods: linear regression, Pearson correlationcoefficient (r and water quality index (WQI. This monitoring project was initiated from the premise of aproblematic quality of well waters, based on the well known contamination vulnerability of the drinkingwater in Romania, but the results of this study proved the opposite: the water from the monitored wellshad a proper quality for drinking

  7. Storage stability and quality assessment of processed cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Kaur, Satinder; Dar, B N; Singh, Baljit

    2014-03-01

    Quality improvement of cereal brans, a health promoting ingredient for functional foods is the emerging research concept due to their low shelf stability and presence of non-nutrient components. A study was conducted to evaluate the storage quality of processed milling industry byproducts so that these can be potentially utilized as a dietary fibre source. Different cereal brans (wheat, rice, barley and oat) were processed by dry, wet, microwave heating, extrusion cooking and chemical methods at variable conditions. Processed brans were stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Quality assessments (moisture, free fatty acids, water activity and physical quality) of brans were done up to six months, at one month intervals. Free fatty acid content, moisture and water activity of the cereal brans remained stable during the entire storage period. Among treatments, extrusion processing is the most effective for stability. Processing treatments and storage temperature have the positive effect on extending the shelf life of all cereal brans. Therefore, processed cereal brans can be used as a dietary fortificant for the development of value added food products. PMID:24587536

  8. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    This study focuses on the water quality assessment (feed, product and brine) of the pilot adsorption desalination (AD) plant. Seawater from the Red Sea is used as feed to the AD plant. Water quality tests are evaluated by complying the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards with major primary and secondary inorganic drinking water pollutants and other commonly tested water quality parameters. Chemical testing of desalinated water at the post desalination stage confirms the high quality of produced fresh water. Test results have shown that the adsorption desalination process is very effective in eliminating all forms of salts, as evidenced by the significant reduction of the TDS levels from approximately 40,000. ppm in feed seawater to less than 10. ppm. Test results exhibit extremely low levels of parameters which are generally abundant in feed seawater. The compositions of seawater and process related parameters such as chloride, sodium, bromide, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and silicate in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its value is less than 0.5. ppm. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  9. NEW VISUAL PERCEPTUAL POOLING STRATEGY FOR IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wujie; Jiang Gangyi; Yu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Most of Image Quality Assessment (IQA) metrics consist of two processes.In the first process,quality map of image is measured locally.In the second process,the last quality score is converted from the quality map by using the pooling strategy.The first process had been made effective and significant progresses,while the second process was always done in simple ways.In the second process of the pooling strategy,the optimal perceptual pooling weights should be determined and computed according to Human Visual System (HVS).Thus,a reliable spatial pooling mathematical model based on HVS is an important issue worthy of study.In this paper,a new Visual Perceptual Pooling Strategy (VPPS) for IQA is presented based on contrast sensitivity and luminance sensitivity of HVS.Experimental results with the LIVE database show that the visual perceptual weights,obtained by the proposed pooling strategy,can effectively and significantly improve the performances of the IQA metrics with Mean Structural SIMilarity (MSSIM) or Phase Quantization Code (PQC).It is confirmed that the proposed VPPS demonstrates promising results for improving the performances of existing IQA metrics.

  10. Assessment of Air Quality Status in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabei Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air quality characteristics in Wuhan were assessed through descriptive statistics and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. Results show that air quality has slightly improved over the recent years. While the NO2 concentration is still increasing, the PM10 concentration shows a clearly downward trend with some small fluctuations. In addition, the SO2 concentration has steadily decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, the current level of air pollutants is still quite high, with the PM10 and NO2 levels exceeding the air quality standard. Seasonal variation exists consistently for all the pollutants, with the highest concentration in winter and the lowest in summer. Cluster analysis evidenced that nine urban monitoring sites could be classified into three clusters. Cluster I consists of only the LY site, which is located in the famous East Lake scenic area with the best air quality. Cluster II corresponds to three monitoring sites with heavily trafficked roads nearby, where relatively severe NO2 pollution occurred. Cluster III is comprised of the remaining five sites, characterized by PM10 and SO2 pollution.

  11. Introduction to the risk assessment workshop on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the emerging importance of the indoor air-quality problem and associated health risk concerns, on December 6-8, 1988 a three-day workshop on indoor air-quality risk assessment was jointly organized by Harvard University, Energy and Environmental Policy Center, and the Harvard School of Public Health. This introduction briefly summarizes the objectives of the workshop and its agenda. The workshop consisted of presentations and discussions by researchers from academic, government, and private institutions. Among the participants were those who have been involved in the design of major field studies of human exposure, physicians and toxicologists involved in clinical studies, human exposure modelers, and epidemiologists and health risk assessors. The overall objective of the workshop was to examine the critical elements needed to perform risk assessments on major indoor air pollutants. Eight pollutants were chosen for discussion: environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, radon, volatile organic compounds, biologicals, man-made mineral fibers, nitrogen dioxide, and semivolatile organic compounds. Twenty-two papers were presented in the workshop. Eight of these papers are published in this issue of Risk Analysis. Nine of the remaining fourteen will shortly be published in the 'Exposure Assessment Section' issue of the Journal of Toxicology and Industrial Health

  12. Software quality assurance procedures for radioactive waste risk assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This support study for the evaluation of the safety of geological disposal systems is aimed at identifying the requirements for software quality assurance procedures for radioactive waste risk assessment codes, and to recommend appropriate procedures. The research covers: (i) the analysis of existing procedures and definition of requirements; (ii) a case study of the use of some existing procedures; (iii) the definition and the implementation of procedures. The report is supported by appendices that give more detail on the procedures recommended. It is intended to provide ideas on the steps that should be taken to ensure the quality of the programs used for assessment of the safety case for radioactive waste repositories, and does not represent the introduction of wholly new ideas or techniques. The emphasis throughout is on procedures that will be easily implemented, rather than on the fully rigorous procedures that are required for some application areas. The study has concentrated on measures that will increase the confidence in repository performance assessments among the wider scientific/engineering community, and the lay public

  13. Medical Imaging Image Quality Assessment with Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, C. M.; Karpetas, G. E.; Fountos, G. P.; Kalyvas, N. I.; Martini, Niki; Koukou, Vaia; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction, with cluster computing. The PET scanner simulated in this study was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL algorithm. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using various subsets (3 to 21) and iterations (1 to 20), as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. MTF improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method based on the TLC plane source can be also useful in research for the further development of PET and SPECT scanners though GATE simulations.

  14. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  15. Objective assessment of image quality VI: imaging in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier work on objective assessment of image quality (OAIQ) focused largely on estimation or classification tasks in which the desired outcome of imaging is accurate diagnosis. This paper develops a general framework for assessing imaging quality on the basis of therapeutic outcomes rather than diagnostic performance. By analogy to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and their variants as used in diagnostic OAIQ, the method proposed here utilizes the therapy operating characteristic or TOC curves, which are plots of the probability of tumor control versus the probability of normal-tissue complications as the overall dose level of a radiotherapy treatment is varied. The proposed figure of merit is the area under the TOC curve, denoted AUTOC. This paper reviews an earlier exposition of the theory of TOC and AUTOC, which was specific to the assessment of image-segmentation algorithms, and extends it to other applications of imaging in external-beam radiation treatment as well as in treatment with internal radioactive sources. For each application, a methodology for computing the TOC is presented. A key difference between ROC and TOC is that the latter can be defined for a single patient rather than a population of patients. (paper)

  16. Assessment of the assessment: Evaluation of the model quality estimates in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2013-08-31

    The article presents an assessment of the ability of the thirty-seven model quality assessment (MQA) methods participating in CASP10 to provide an a priori estimation of the quality of structural models, and of the 67 tertiary structure prediction groups to provide confidence estimates for their predicted coordinates. The assessment of MQA predictors is based on the methods used in previous CASPs, such as correlation between the predicted and observed quality of the models (both at the global and local levels), accuracy of methods in distinguishing between good and bad models as well as good and bad regions within them, and ability to identify the best models in the decoy sets. Several numerical evaluations were used in our analysis for the first time, such as comparison of global and local quality predictors with reference (baseline) predictors and a ROC analysis of the predictors\\' ability to differentiate between the well and poorly modeled regions. For the evaluation of the reliability of self-assessment of the coordinate errors, we used the correlation between the predicted and observed deviations of the coordinates and a ROC analysis of correctly identified errors in the models. A modified two-stage procedure for testing MQA methods in CASP10 whereby a small number of models spanning the whole range of model accuracy was released first followed by the release of a larger number of models of more uniform quality, allowed a more thorough analysis of abilities and inabilities of different types of methods. Clustering methods were shown to have an advantage over the single- and quasi-single- model methods on the larger datasets. At the same time, the evaluation revealed that the size of the dataset has smaller influence on the global quality assessment scores (for both clustering and nonclustering methods), than its diversity. Narrowing the quality range of the assessed models caused significant decrease in accuracy of ranking for global quality predictors but

  17. An assessment of performance indicators of higher education teaching quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleina Yayoe Okoshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education Institutions (HEI are increasingly being demanded by companies and society to educate and prepare professionals with more competences and capable of interacting with the environment in a dynamic and systemic way. As a result, HEI assess the performance level of their faculty members. The aim of this paper is to identify which indicators of performance in higher education in Stricto Sensu post-graduation courses can be grouped and their influence on course quality. Multivariate statistical technique (Factor Analysis was used for analyzing. The main result was grouping the indicators in six factors: “Doctorate”, “Books”, “Fostering 1”, “Fostering 2”, “Master”, and “Paper publishing”; the indicators in each factor help to improve the group, thereby enhancing higher education quality.

  18. Quality assessment in prospective nuchal translucency screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Christiansen, M; Sundberg, K;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and apply a quality control system in a Down syndrome screening study using nuchal translucency as an interventional marker. METHODS: In a prospective Down syndrome screening study fetal nuchal translucency thickness was measured in 9236 of the 10 045 examined pregnancies....... For quality assessment two models were introduced: firstly, image-scoring evaluation of the nuchal translucency thickness measurements and secondly, establishment of the distributions of nuchal translucency multiples of the median over time and the influence of intervention. RESULTS: The observer...... variability in the image-scoring evaluation was high with a kappa value of 0.48 in the overall validation. A revised model showed better interobserver agreement with a kappa value of 0.58; however, comparing the individual criteria the differences were still unsatisfactory, i.e. we found highly significant...

  19. Report of the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Quality Assessment Program, inorganic intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results from the soil inorganic analysis of the 44th set of environmental quality assessment samples, of the quality assessment program, that were received on or before June 3, 1996. The samples were analyzed for RCRA metals

  20. Environmental quality assessment of Upper Birim River (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The communities along the Upper Birim River use the water resource for domestic and agricultural purposes, and the environmental quality of the river was assessed to determine the level of pollution and associated health risk from consumption and direct contact with the water. The water quality was assessed by the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality parameters. In addition, the impacts of land use activities along the river were also evaluated. Water samples were collected from 6 locations from November 2010 to January 2011 (dry season), and March to May 2011 (wet season). While the mean values of the physico-chemical parameters were within the Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) safety limits for drinking water, the levels of Fe (33.56 ± 31.94 mg/L), As (0.052± 0.088 mg/L) and Mn (4.01± 4.42 mg/L) were higher than the recommended GSA limits. The faecal contaminations were high, as the mean total coliforms, mean faecal coliforms and the level of faecal streptococci were respectively 1925± 708 cfu/100 ml, 1073±900 cfu/100 mL and 16±9 cfu/100 ml. The water quality index (WQI) of 71.79 for the Birim River indicated that most uses of the water were protected, but a few might be threatened or impaired. Hazard quotients determined for Hg, As and Ag were less than 1 at all sampling stations, implying low health risk. Provision of adequate sanitary facilities, enforcement of environmental regulations and introduction of livelihood diversification programmes would safeguard the integrity of the River from adverse anthropogenic activities. (au)

  1. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  2. SEMEN QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBIT BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Błaszczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detectedRabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used Quick

  3. Color Image Quality Assessment Based on CIEDE2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the color difference formula of CIEDE2000 and the printing industry standard for visual verification, we present an objective color image quality assessment method correlated with subjective vision perception. An objective score conformed to subjective perception (OSCSP Q was proposed to directly reflect the subjective visual perception. In addition, we present a general method to calibrate correction factors of color difference formula under real experimental conditions. Our experiment results show that the present DE2000-based metric can be consistent with human visual system in general application environment.

  4. Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment

  5. [External quality assessment for clinical microbiology and good laboratory management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, K

    1998-02-01

    The Tokyo Metropolitan external quality assessment (EQA) program has revealed some serious problems in private independent microbiology laboratories in Tokyo since 1982. The poor performance in the EQA surveys closely related to poor laboratory managements, the type of training, experience of the medical technologists or technicians, and supervisory ability of the consultant physicians in independent laboratories. Social factors impede the reform of the quality assurance of clinical microbiology. Such factors include poor infrastructure of continuing education for small private laboratories, closure of the central clinical laboratories in the hospitals and outsourcing of laboratory tests due to restructuring in response to economic problems, and limited numbers of certified clinical pathologists of the Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP). Therefore, the Tokyo Metropolitan EQA Scheme is still confidential and its main role is educational. Good two way communication between participants and the organizers' clinical pathologists is essential, if the quality of laboratory tests is to be improved. The new JSCP edition of the postgraduate training requirement in clinical pathology includes "Laboratory Administration and Management". Good laboratory management(GLM) is an increasingly important component of good laboratory practice. The practice activities of clinical pathologists must include general management in addition to exercising there specialized knowledge in medicine and technology. Whereas leadership of a good clinical pathologist provides the direction of where a good laboratory is going, good management provides the steps of how to get there. And I believe quality system models from business and industry may provide us with strong guidance to build a quality system for the good laboratory that will endure into the next century. PMID:9528335

  6. Use of Thematic Mapper for water quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, E. M.; Morrissey, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of simulated TM data obtained on an ER-2 aircraft at twenty-five predesignated sample sites for mapping water quality factors such as conductivity, pH, suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, and depth, is discussed. Using a multiple regression for the seven TM bands, an equation is developed for the suspended solids. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are used with logarithm conductivity in a multiple regression. The assessment of regression equations for a high coefficient of determination (R-squared) and statistical significance is considered. Confidence intervals about the mean regression point are calculated in order to assess the robustness of the regressions used for mapping conductivity, turbidity, and suspended solids, and by regressing random subsamples of sites and comparing the resultant range of R-squared, cross validation is conducted.

  7. Agreement in Quality of Life Assessment between Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Spela; Skrbic, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects different aspects of functioning and quality of life, as well as the ability to independently assess the quality of life itself. The paper examines the agreement in the quality of life assessments made by adolescents with intellectual disability and their parents compared with assessments made by adolescents without…

  8. Tennessee Star-Quality Child Care Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  9. Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment with Linear Combination of Genetically Selected Quality Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszust, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Information carried by an image can be distorted due to different image processing steps introduced by different electronic means of storage and communication. Therefore, development of algorithms which can automatically assess a quality of the image in a way that is consistent with human evaluation is important. In this paper, an approach to image quality assessment (IQA) is proposed in which the quality of a given image is evaluated jointly by several IQA approaches. At first, in order to obtain such joint models, an optimisation problem of IQA measures aggregation is defined, where a weighted sum of their outputs, i.e., objective scores, is used as the aggregation operator. Then, the weight of each measure is considered as a decision variable in a problem of minimisation of root mean square error between obtained objective scores and subjective scores. Subjective scores reflect ground-truth and involve evaluation of images by human observers. The optimisation problem is solved using a genetic algorithm, which also selects suitable measures used in aggregation. Obtained multimeasures are evaluated on four largest widely used image benchmarks and compared against state-of-the-art full-reference IQA approaches. Results of comparison reveal that the proposed approach outperforms other competing measures. PMID:27341493

  10. Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment with Linear Combination of Genetically Selected Quality Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Information carried by an image can be distorted due to different image processing steps introduced by different electronic means of storage and communication. Therefore, development of algorithms which can automatically assess a quality of the image in a way that is consistent with human evaluation is important. In this paper, an approach to image quality assessment (IQA) is proposed in which the quality of a given image is evaluated jointly by several IQA approaches. At first, in order to obtain such joint models, an optimisation problem of IQA measures aggregation is defined, where a weighted sum of their outputs, i.e., objective scores, is used as the aggregation operator. Then, the weight of each measure is considered as a decision variable in a problem of minimisation of root mean square error between obtained objective scores and subjective scores. Subjective scores reflect ground-truth and involve evaluation of images by human observers. The optimisation problem is solved using a genetic algorithm, which also selects suitable measures used in aggregation. Obtained multimeasures are evaluated on four largest widely used image benchmarks and compared against state-of-the-art full-reference IQA approaches. Results of comparison reveal that the proposed approach outperforms other competing measures. PMID:27341493

  11. ASSESSMENT OF FAT QUALITY DURING STORAGE CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelovičová

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The aim of study was assessment of fat quality in chicken meat during storage. The experiment verified the quality of fat as the fat acid number. The experiment was performed on the final fattening type of chickens ROSS 308. Chickens were fed by 2% lucerne meal in feed mixture. The carcass was stored in a freezer box at -18 °C after killing. Fat analysis was carried out after 12 and 15 months of storage. Acid number after 12 months storage was ranged from 5.97 to 8.39 mg KOH.g-1 fat, after 15 months, was ranged from 3.26 to 7.80 mg KOH.g-1 fat. The differences between values ​​of acid number and storage periods of chicken meat (12 and 15 months was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. The results indicate a tendency for increased intensity fat the oxidation processes depending on storage length chicken meat. We recommend to assessment other indicators of chemical changes for example peroxide value for confirmation the hypothesis.doi:10.5219/187

  12. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  13. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  14. Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose...

  15. Continuous cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by cyclic fed-batch cocultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-03-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter(-1), the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter(-1) and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures. PMID:23275517

  16. Microalgae as a feedstock for production of bioethanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Jiří; Lívanský, Karel; Doušková, Irena; Zachleder, Vilém

    České Budějovice: Scientific Pedagogical Publishing,, 2008, s. 31-33. ISBN 80-85645-58-0. [Biotechnology 2008. České Budějovice (CZ), 13.02.2008-14.02.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biomass * microalgae * bioethanol Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  18. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Cǎlin C.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  19. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource

  20. Ultrasound-assisted bioethanol production from waste newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work deals with intensification of bioethanol production from waste newspaper using Saccharomyces cerevisiae using ultrasonic irradiations. The effect of different process parameters such as application of ultrasonic irradiation at different growth phases, irradiation time, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the bioethanol production has been investigated. The favorable conditions for the maximum yield were established as application of ultrasonic irradiation (duration of 10 min) to fermentation broth at 12 h of growth phase with 25 kHz frequency, 160 W power and 20% duty cycle. The bioethanol productivity was increased by 1.8 times from 7.8 to 14.1 g/L compared with the non-sonicated control fermentation. Decrease in glucose concentration from 0.63% to 0.2% w/v in ultrasound-assisted fermentation confirmed the improved substrate uptake of the microbial cell due to the application of ultrasound. ESEM analysis also confirmed the changes in the cell morphology leading to improved cell permeability. Results were fitted to an unstructured kinetic model comprising of the kinetic and physiological parameters. Overall, the work has demonstrated an intensified approach for the bioethanol production based on the use of ultrasound. PMID:26186818

  1. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P Sitompul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes

  3. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Lopes, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The data-quality objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of chemical analyses of surface-water samples. The quality-control samples used to make these estimates include field blanks, field matrix spikes, and replicates. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples in National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey's national data base.

  4. Can water quality of tubewells be assessed without chemical testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is one of the major pollutants found in aquifers on a global scale. The screening of tubewells for arsenic has helped many people to avoid drinking from highly polluted wells in the Bengal Delta (West Bengal and Bangladesh). However, there are still many millions of tubewells in Bangladesh yet to be tested, and a substantial proportion of these are likely to contain excessive arsenic. Due to the level of poverty and lack of infrastructure, it is unlikely that the rest of the tubewells will be tested quickly. However, water quality assessment without needing a chemical testing may be helpful in this case. Studies have found that qualitative factors, such as staining in the tubewell basement and/or on utensils, can indicate subsurface geology and water quality. The science behind this staining is well established, red staining is associated with iron reduction leading to release of arsenic whilst black staining is associated with manganese reduction (any release of arsenic due to manganese reduction is sorbed back on the, yet to be reduced, iron), whereas mixed staining may indicate overlapping manganese and iron reduction at the tubewell screen. Reduction is not uniform everywhere and hence chemical water quality including dissolved arsenic varies from place to place. This is why coupling existing tubewell arsenic information with user derived staining data could be useful in predicting the arsenic status at a particular site. Using well location, depth, along with colour of staining, an assessment of both good (nutrients) and bad (toxins and pathogens) substances in the tubewell could be provided. Social-network technology, combined with increasing use of smartphones, provides a powerful opportunity for both sharing and providing feedback to the user. Here we outline how a simple digital application can couple the reception both qualitative and quantitative tubewell data into a centralised interactive database and provide manipulated feedback to an

  5. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal Studies; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration Information SUMMARY... quality in animal studies. The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), Division of...

  6. Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventional glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeck, M.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.D.; Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-09-01

    Variable transmission, ``switchable`` electrochromic glazings are compared to conventional static glazings using computer simulations to assess the daylighting quality of a commercial office environment where paper and computer tasks are performed. RADIANCE simulations were made for a west-facing commercial office space under clear and overcast sky conditions. This visualization tool was used to model different glazing types, to compute luminance and illuminance levels, and to generate a parametric set of photorealistic images of typical interior views at various times of the day and year. Privacy and visual display terminal (VDT) visibility is explored. Electrochromic glazings result in a more consistent glare-free daylit environment compared to their static counterparts. However, if the glazing is controlled to minimize glare or to maintain low interior daylight levels for critical visual tasks (e.g, VDT), occupants may object to the diminished quality of the outdoor view due to its low transmission (Tv = 0.08) during those hours. RADIANCE proved to be a very powerful tool to better understand some of the design tradeoffs of this emerging glazing technology. The ability to draw specific conclusions about the relative value of different technologies or control strategies is limited by the lack of agreed upon criteria or standards for lighting quality and visibility.

  7. Chip Design Process Optimization Based on Design Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Stefan; Blaschke, Jana; Sebeke, Christian; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Hahn, Axel

    2010-06-01

    Nowadays, the managing of product development projects is increasingly challenging. Especially the IC design of ASICs with both analog and digital components (mixed-signal design) is becoming more and more complex, while the time-to-market window narrows at the same time. Still, high quality standards must be fulfilled. Projects and their status are becoming less transparent due to this complexity. This makes the planning and execution of projects rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need for efficient project control. A main challenge is the objective evaluation of the current development status. Are all requirements successfully verified? Are all intermediate goals achieved? Companies often develop special solutions that are not reusable in other projects. This makes the quality measurement process itself less efficient and produces too much overhead. The method proposed in this paper is a contribution to solve these issues. It is applied at a German design house for analog mixed-signal IC design. This paper presents the results of a case study and introduces an optimized project scheduling on the basis of quality assessment results.

  8. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Sustainable Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pin Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of sustainable water quality management is to keep total pollutant discharges from exceeding the assimilation capacity of a water body. Climate change may influence streamflows, and further alter assimilation capacity and degrade river sustainability. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the effect of climate change on sustainable water quality management and design an early warning indicator to issue warnings on river sustainability. A systematic assessment procedure is proposed here, including a weather generation model, the streamflow component of GWLF, QUAL2E, and an optimization model. The Touchen creek in Taiwan is selected as the study area. Future climate scenarios derived from projections of four global climate models (GCMs and two pollutant discharge scenarios, as usual and proportional to population, are considered in this study. The results indicate that streamflows may very likely increase in humid seasons and decrease in arid seasons, respectively. The reduction of streamflow in arid seasons may further degrade water quality and assimilation capacity. In order to provide warnings to trigger necessary adaptation strategies, an early warning indicator is designed and its 30-year moving average is calculated. Finally, environmental monitoring systems and methods to prioritize adaptation strategies are discussed for further studies in the future.

  9. User-Perceived Quality Assessment for VoIP Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beuran, R; CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    We designed and implemented a system that permits the measurement of network Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. This system allows us to objectively evaluate the requirements of network applications for delivering user-acceptable quality. To do this we compute accurately the network QoS parameters: one-way delay, jitter, packet loss and throughput. The measurement system makes use of a global clock to synchronise the time measurements in different points of the network. To study the behaviour of real network applications specific metrics must be defined in order to assess the user-perceived quality (UPQ) for each application. Since we measure simultaneously network QoS and application UPQ, we are able to correlate them. Determining application requirements has two main uses: (i) to predict the expected UPQ for an application running over a given network (based on the corresponding measured QoS parameters) and understand the causes of application failure; (ii) to design/configure networks that provide the ne...

  10. Visualization and quality assessment of the contrast transfer function estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Lisa K; Piotrowski, Angela L; Voss, Neil R

    2015-11-01

    The contrast transfer function (CTF) describes an undesirable distortion of image data from a transmission electron microscope. Many users of full-featured processing packages are often new to electron microscopy and are unfamiliar with the CTF concept. Here we present a common graphical output to clearly demonstrate the CTF fit quality independent of estimation software. Separately, many software programs exist to estimate the four CTF parameters, but their results are difficult to compare across multiple runs and it is all but impossible to select the best parameters to use for further processing. A new measurement is presented based on the correlation falloff of the calculated CTF oscillations against the normalized oscillating signal of the data, called the CTF resolution. It was devised to provide a robust numerical quality metric of every CTF estimation for high-throughput screening of micrographs and to select the best parameters for each micrograph. These new CTF visualizations and quantitative measures will help users better assess the quality of their CTF parameters and provide a mechanism to choose the best CTF tool for their data. PMID:26080023

  11. Bioethanol production. Competitive strength in Germany in consideration of international competition.; Bioethanolproduktion. Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit in Deutschland unter Beruecksichtigung der internationalen Konkurrenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-07-01

    The competitive standing of bioethanol production in Germany is reviewed from a national and international scale. The production cost in the EU, Brazil, Australia, Thailand and China are compared, and the effects of imports on the German biofuels production is assessed. The surface terrain available for biocrops in Germany and the EU are estimated, the use of beetroot for biofuel production is analyzed, and relationships between crude oil prices and raw materials prices are established. The CO2 reduction cost resulting from the use of biofuels is calculated and compared with the cost of other climate protection measures. Existing bioethanol markets in Brazil and the USa are analyzed, and marketing trends of biodiesel are included for a comparison. With the aid of inquiry sheets, critical arguments of the automobile and mineral oil industries were compiled and viewed in the context of the biodiesel discussion. The results of the investigation are then discussed with a view to potentially conflicting goals. The author attempts to answer the question whether sustainable bioethanol production may be possible in Germany in the present conditions.

  12. The genetic basis of variation in clean lineages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to stresses encountered during bioethanol fermentations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Greetham

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the micro-organism of choice for the conversion of monomeric sugars into bioethanol. Industrial bioethanol fermentations are intrinsically stressful environments for yeast and the adaptive protective response varies between strain backgrounds. With the aim of identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL's that regulate phenotypic variation, linkage analysis on six F1 crosses from four highly divergent clean lineages of S. cerevisiae was performed. Segregants from each cross were assessed for tolerance to a range of stresses encountered during industrial bioethanol fermentations. Tolerance levels within populations of F1 segregants to stress conditions differed and displayed transgressive variation. Linkage analysis resulted in the identification of QTL's for tolerance to weak acid and osmotic stress. We tested candidate genes within loci identified by QTL using reciprocal hemizygosity analysis to ascertain their contribution to the observed phenotypic variation; this approach validated a gene (COX20 for weak acid stress and a gene (RCK2 for osmotic stress. Hemizygous transformants with a sensitive phenotype carried a COX20 allele from a weak acid sensitive parent with an alteration in its protein coding compared with other S. cerevisiae strains. RCK2 alleles reveal peptide differences between parental strains and the importance of these changes is currently being ascertained.

  13. Assessment of quality of care in acute postoperative pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Managing of acute postoperative pain should be of great interest for all hospital institutions, as one of the key components of patients satisfaction, which indicates quality, as well as the outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of nursing care in managing acute postoperative pain and to establish factors which influence patients assessment of the same. Method. The investigation was conducted on the sample of 135 patients hospitalized in surgical clinics of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina in Novi Sad in the form of cross-sectional study, by interviewing patients during the second postoperative day and collecting sociodemographic variables, type of surgical procedure and applied analgesic therapy which were taken from their medical documentation. The modified questionnaire of the Strategic and Clinical Quality Indicators in Postoperative Pain Management (SCQIPP was used as the instrument of the investigation. The data were processed with suitable mathematical statistics methods such as multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA, discriminative and other parametric procedures and methods. Roy's test, Pearson's coefficient contingency (χ, multiple correlation coefficient (R were conducted amongst other invariant procedures. Results. The mean score for the individual items of SCQIPP questionnaire was between 2.0 and 4.7 (scale range 1-5 and the percentage of patients answers 'strongly agree' ranged from 4.4 to 77%. The smallest number of positive answers were given by the patients for the item 'In order to assess pain intensity, some of the staff asked me at least once in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening to show the number from 0-10'. Most of the patients (57% evaluated severe pain during the previous 24 hours, as moderate pain, which represents significantly greater number of patients which complain of severe pain and mild pain (p < 0.001. The analysis of patients evaluation (MANOVA p

  14. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo Verde, Sandra; Almeida, Susana Marta; Matos, João; Guerreiro, Duarte; Meneses, Marcia; Faria, Tiago; Botelho, Daniel; Santos, Mateus; Viegas, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Poor hospital indoor air quality (IAQ) may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater (OT), the emergency service (ES) and the surgical ward (SW). Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts (BCs) and fungal load (FL) were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol (0.05%) plates, respectively using a MAS-100 air sampler. The ES revealed the highest airborne microbial concentrations (BC range 240-736 CFU/m(3) CFU/m(3); FL range 27-933 CFU/m(3)), exceeding, at several sampling sites, conformity criteria defined in national legislation [6]. Bacterial concentrations in the SW (BC range 99-495 CFU/m(3)) and the OT (BC range 12-170 CFU/m(3)) were under recommended criteria. While fungal levels were below 1 CFU/m(3) in the OT, in the SW (range 1-32 CFU/m(3)), there existed a site with fungal indoor concentrations higher than those detected outdoors. Airborne Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent phenotype (88%) detected from the measured bacterial population in all indoor environments. Staphylococcus (51%) and Micrococcus (37%) were dominant among the bacterial genera identified in the present study. Concerning indoor fungal characterization, the prevalent genera were Penicillium (41%) and Aspergillus (24%). Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings. PMID

  15. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  16. No-reference image quality assessment in the spatial domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anish; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2012-12-01

    We propose a natural scene statistic-based distortion-generic blind/no-reference (NR) image quality assessment (IQA) model that operates in the spatial domain. The new model, dubbed blind/referenceless image spatial quality evaluator (BRISQUE) does not compute distortion-specific features, such as ringing, blur, or blocking, but instead uses scene statistics of locally normalized luminance coefficients to quantify possible losses of "naturalness" in the image due to the presence of distortions, thereby leading to a holistic measure of quality. The underlying features used derive from the empirical distribution of locally normalized luminances and products of locally normalized luminances under a spatial natural scene statistic model. No transformation to another coordinate frame (DCT, wavelet, etc.) is required, distinguishing it from prior NR IQA approaches. Despite its simplicity, we are able to show that BRISQUE is statistically better than the full-reference peak signal-to-noise ratio and the structural similarity index, and is highly competitive with respect to all present-day distortion-generic NR IQA algorithms. BRISQUE has very low computational complexity, making it well suited for real time applications. BRISQUE features may be used for distortion-identification as well. To illustrate a new practical application of BRISQUE, we describe how a nonblind image denoising algorithm can be augmented with BRISQUE in order to perform blind image denoising. Results show that BRISQUE augmentation leads to performance improvements over state-of-the-art methods. A software release of BRISQUE is available online: http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/quality/BRISQUE_release.zip for public use and evaluation. PMID:22910118

  17. Reliability of Quality Assessments in Research Synthesis: Securing the Highest Quality Bioinformation for HIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Phil, André Barkhordarian C; Arora, Rashi; Phi, Linda; Giroux, Amy; Uyeda, Molly; Kung, Jason; Ramchandani, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in bio-medicine include research synthesis and dissemination of bioinformation by means of health (bio) information technology (H[b] IT). Research must secure the validity and reliability of assessment tools to quantify research quality in the pursuit of the best available evidence. Our concerted work in this domain led to the revision of three instruments for that purpose, including the stringent characterization of inter-rater reliability and coefficient of agreement. It is timely and critical to advance the methodological development of the science of research synthesis by strengthening the reliability of existing measure of research quality in order to ensure H[b] IT efficacy and effectiveness. PMID:23055612

  18. FOOD VS. FUEL – A TURNING POINT FOR BIOETHANOL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Harlander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently concerns have been raised that biofuels would affect food prices. Bioethanol is made from sugar or starch containing plants that are also used in food production. In public perception this led to an emotional resistance against biofuels that in real terms is not substantiated. Generally, biofuels are a political product. Triggered by the oil crisis in the early 1970ies national fuel ethanol programmes were first launched in Brazil and in the United States. Concerns regarding energy security and sustainability together with the option of new markets for surplus agricultural production in recent years led to similar policy measures in the European Union and in numerous countries around the globe. Accordingly the industry invested heavily in new bioethanol plants - especially in the US – and created an additional demand for corn and wheat with some record-breaking prices noted in late 2007. A look back into statistics shows a drastic decline of real prices for decades and by now they are only back at the level of 30 years ago. One important detail is the real portion of grain used for bioethanol, which is still only 1.6 percent in the EU and therefore unlikely to be the real driver for the price development. Moreover the share of raw material is up to 70% of bioethanol production cost that makes the bioethanol industry itself a victim of price increases. Subsequently investor interest in this field slowed down, a development also watched in the US. The prospects of the agricultural markets of the European Commission conclude that Europe can do both, nutrition and biofuels.

  19. Characterisation of a novel thermostable endoglucanase from Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis of potential application in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angela; Walsh, Gary

    2015-09-01

    A novel endoglucanase encoding gene was cloned from Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis and expressed in E. coli. The deduced amino acid sequence showed highest identity with α-L-arabinofuranosidase-like proteins from glycoside hydrolase family 51. The recombinant enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography and characterised in terms of its potential suitability for lignocellulose hydrolysis at high temperature in the production of bioethanol. The purified enzyme displayed maximum activity at 80 °C and pH 3.6-4.5. Tween 20 was found to have a beneficial effect on enzyme activity and thermal stability. When incubated in the presence of 0.1% Tween 20, the enzyme retained full activity after 72 h at 70 °C and 78% of original activity after 72 h at 75 °C. Maximum activity was observed on carboxymethyl cellulose, and the purified enzyme also hydrolysed lichenan, barley β-glucan and xylan. The purified enzyme decreased the viscosity of carboxymethyl cellulose when assessed at 70-85 °C and was capable of releasing reducing sugars from acid-pretreated straw at 70 and 75 °C. The results indicate the potential suitability of the enzyme for industrial application in the production of cellulosic bioethanol. PMID:25722023

  20. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation project quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%−90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  1. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  2. Assessment of air quality in Shivamoga City, Karnataka (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the ambient air quality status in the selected location of Shivamoga city Karnataka State India was carried out for four years (2005 - 2009. Four stations (industrial, commercial, institutional and residential of Shivamoga city were selected purposively to spotlight an overview of the total air quality of this region. The air quality was assessed based on measuring three air pollutants namely Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM, Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx and Oxides of Sulphur (SOx. The average concentration of SPM in Amir Ahmed circle was the highest at 969.43 μg/m3 and was lowest at the Sahayadri college Campus (65.59 μg/m3. Vinobha nagar with an average of 803.46 μg/m3 is in the medium range as well as industrial area (269.00 μg/m3. The study shows that the average NO2concentration was highest in Amir Ahmed circle (6.79 μg/m3, followed by Vinobha nagar (6.06 μg/m3 ,(industrial area (2.97 μg/m3 and Sahayadri college Campus (1.97 μg/m3. The average SO2 concentration except Vinobha Nagr station (6.59 μg/m3 in all the other locations was below the detection level, i.e. 4 μg/m3Amir Ahmed circle had the second highest value (2.89 μg/m3 . followed by industrial area (1.49 μg/m3 and Sahayadri college campus (1.22 μg/m3. According to the air quality standards given by NAAQS and WHO standards, the SPM concentrations is high in Amir Ahmed circle and Industrial Area locations and SO2 and NOx pollutants values obtained are all within the standard level. Uncontrolled emission of pollutants by motorized traffic with heavy traffic jam is the main source of pollution in the urban area mainly.

  3. Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat

  4. Quality assessment of Landsat surface reflectance products using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric F.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat

  5. JISC Report on E-Assessment Quality (REAQ) in UK Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Lester; Gale, Veronica; Wills, Gary; Warburton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Commissioned by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) in 2008, the ‘Report on Summative e-Assessment Quality (REAQ)’ project surveyed quality assurance (QA) activities commonly undertaken in summative e-assessment by UK Higher Education (HE) practitioners and others. The project focused on what denotes high quality in summative e-assessment for the interviewees and the steps that they take to meet their own standards. An expert panel guided the project. What denotes high quality summ...

  6. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE qualit...

  7. Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Amos Olutola Fadiran; Daniel Silas Tevera; Khanyisile Gamedze

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. R...

  8. Assessment of Variation in Water Quality Index (WQI) of Groundwater in North Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Krishan; C.P. Kumar; Purandara, B. K.; Surjeet Singh; N.C. Ghosh; Suman Gurjar; A. G. Chachadi

    2016-01-01

    A water quality index (WQI) is a tool which numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value and this information can be used to assess spatial and temporal variations in overall water quality. However, these indices are time and region specific and may be influenced by local factors. In the present study, water quality index has been worked out to assess the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater quality status for future planning and m...

  9. Benchmarking Dosimetric Quality Assessment of Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthi, Sashendra, E-mail: sasha.senthi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Gill, Suki S. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Haworth, Annette; Kron, Tomas; Cramb, Jim [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Rolfo, Aldo [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Thomas, Jessica [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hamilton, Christopher H.; Joon, Daryl Lim [Radiation Oncology Department, Austin Repatriation Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); Bowden, Patrick [Radiation Oncology Department, Tattersall' s Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To benchmark the dosimetric quality assessment of prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy and determine whether the quality is influenced by disease or treatment factors. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 155 consecutive men treated radically for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy to 78 Gy between January 2007 and March 2009 across six radiotherapy treatment centers. The plan quality was determined by the measures of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity. Tumor coverage was measured using the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 95%} and V{sub 100%}, respectively) and the clinical target volume (CTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose. Homogeneity was measured using the sigma index of the PTV and CTV. Conformity was measured using the lesion coverage factor, healthy tissue conformity index, and the conformity number. Multivariate regression models were created to determine the relationship between these and T stage, risk status, androgen deprivation therapy use, treatment center, planning system, and treatment date. Results: The largest discriminatory measurements of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity were the PTV V{sub 95%}, PTV sigma index, and conformity number. The mean PTV V{sub 95%} was 92.5% (95% confidence interval, 91.3-93.7%). The mean PTV sigma index was 2.10 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.90-2.20). The mean conformity number was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79). The treatment center independently influenced the coverage, homogeneity, and conformity (all p < .0001). The planning system independently influenced homogeneity (p = .038) and conformity (p = .021). The treatment date independently influenced the PTV V{sub 95%} only, with it being better at the start (p = .013). Risk status, T stage, and the use of androgen deprivation therapy did not influence any aspect of plan quality. Conclusion: Our study has benchmarked measures

  10. Benchmarking Dosimetric Quality Assessment of Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To benchmark the dosimetric quality assessment of prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy and determine whether the quality is influenced by disease or treatment factors. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 155 consecutive men treated radically for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy to 78 Gy between January 2007 and March 2009 across six radiotherapy treatment centers. The plan quality was determined by the measures of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity. Tumor coverage was measured using the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose (V95% and V100%, respectively) and the clinical target volume (CTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose. Homogeneity was measured using the sigma index of the PTV and CTV. Conformity was measured using the lesion coverage factor, healthy tissue conformity index, and the conformity number. Multivariate regression models were created to determine the relationship between these and T stage, risk status, androgen deprivation therapy use, treatment center, planning system, and treatment date. Results: The largest discriminatory measurements of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity were the PTV V95%, PTV sigma index, and conformity number. The mean PTV V95% was 92.5% (95% confidence interval, 91.3–93.7%). The mean PTV sigma index was 2.10 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.90–2.20). The mean conformity number was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.79). The treatment center independently influenced the coverage, homogeneity, and conformity (all p 95% only, with it being better at the start (p = .013). Risk status, T stage, and the use of androgen deprivation therapy did not influence any aspect of plan quality. Conclusion: Our study has benchmarked measures of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity for the treatment of prostate cancer using IMRT. The differences seen between centers and planning systems and the coverage deterioration

  11. Nondestructive technique for assessing field seam quality of prefabricated geomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was conducted to test various nondestructive testing (NDT) methods that are or can be used to assess the quality of field seams in synthetic geomembranes. The objective of the work was to find a universally applicable technique and demonstrate its capabilities for field use on actual field seams. The research was conducted in two phases: laboratory investigations and a field demonstration. Sixteen different geomembane materials were considered with assorted seam defects including sand inclusions, gas bubbles, and masking tape spots. One technique, ultrasonic impedance plane analysis (UIP), was found to work on nearly all of the seams studied, including seams made from materials with woven scrim reinforcement. The UIP technique was demonstrated under simulated field conditions on a variey of materials. Conventional pulse-echo ultrasonic testing (UT) was found to be applicable to most of the nonreinforced materials. 7 figures

  12. Integrity and quality assessment applied on laser welded titanium components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdelius Håkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding of thin titanium components, a critical component of many gas turbine engines, has demonstrated a tendency of generating pores in clusters with a prescribed orientation. These pores, also known as chain porosities, are often of harmless sizes (of 50–100 micrometer as individuals. Though the cluster as such, depending on the distances and orientations in between the pores, may have an impact on the structural integrity. A recently developed algorithm for 3-D positioning of small pore defects in planar geometries using digital X-ray inspection aims at providing 3-D positions of the defects. This could then be used in-line to assess the welding quality in the manufacturing process. This presentation describes the development of a methodology that aims to incorporate non-destructive evaluation with, in this case, structural integrity.

  13. Image quality assessment for performance evaluation of focus measure operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of eight focus measure operators namely Image CURV (Curvature), GRAE (Gradient Energy), HISE (Histogram Entropy), LAPM (Modified Laplacian), LAPV (Variance of Laplacian), LAPD (Diagonal Laplacian), LAP3 (Laplacian in 3D Window) and WAVS (Sum of Wavelet Coefficients). Statistical matrics such as MSE (Mean Squared Error), PNSR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), SC (Structural Content), NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation), MD (Maximum Difference) and NAE (Normalized Absolute Error) are used to evaluate stated focus measures in this research. . FR (Full Reference) method of the image quality assessment is utilized in this paper. Results indicate that LAPD method is comparatively better than other seven focus operators at typical imaging conditions. (author)

  14. Summarization of Surveillance Video Sequences Using Face Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rahmati, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Constant working surveillance cameras in public places, such as airports and banks, produce huge amount of video data. Faces in such videos can be extracted in real time. However, most of these detected faces are either redundant or useless. Redundant information adds computational costs to facial...... analysis systems and useless data makes the final results of such systems noisy, unstable, and erroneous. Thus, there is a need for a mechanism to summarize the original video sequence to a set of the most expressive images of the sequence. The proposed system in this paper uses a face quality assessment...... technique for this purpose. The summarized results of this technique have been used in three different facial analysis systems and the experimental results on real video sequences are promising....

  15. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  16. Image Quality Assessment for Performance Evaluation of Focus Measure Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Memon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance evaluation of eight focus measure operators namely Image CURV (Curvature, GRAE (Gradient Energy, HISE (Histogram Entropy, LAPM (Modified Laplacian, LAPV (Variance of Laplacian, LAPD (Diagonal Laplacian, LAP3 (Laplacian in 3D Window and WAVS (Sum of Wavelet Coefficients. Statistical matrics such as MSE (Mean Squared Error, PNSR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, SC (Structural Content, NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation, MD (Maximum Difference and NAE (Normalized Absolute Error are used to evaluate stated focus measures in this research. . FR (Full Reference method of the image quality assessment is utilized in this paper. Results indicate that LAPD method is comparatively better than other seven focus operators at typical imaging conditions

  17. Image analysis for dental bone quality assessment using CBCT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprijanto; Epsilawati, L.; Hajarini, M. S.; Juliastuti, E.; Susanti, H.

    2016-03-01

    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is one of X-ray imaging modalities that are applied in dentistry. Its modality can visualize the oral region in 3D and in a high resolution. CBCT jaw image has potential information for the assessment of bone quality that often used for pre-operative implant planning. We propose comparison method based on normalized histogram (NH) on the region of inter-dental septum and premolar teeth. Furthermore, the NH characteristic from normal and abnormal bone condition are compared and analyzed. Four test parameters are proposed, i.e. the difference between teeth and bone average intensity (s), the ratio between bone and teeth average intensity (n) of NH, the difference between teeth and bone peak value (Δp) of NH, and the ratio between teeth and bone of NH range (r). The results showed that n, s, and Δp have potential to be the classification parameters of dental calcium density.

  18. Assessment of selected ground-water-quality data in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R.E.; Rogers, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-water-quality data for Montana in the U.S. Geological Survey 's computer data file WATSTORE were evaluated for nine geohydrologic units in part of the State east of the Rocky Mountains and for two geohydrologic units in the western mountainous part of the stated region. The availability of data for inorganic, trace, and organic constituents for each grouping of units was assessed. Median dissolved-solids concentrations for the groupings of units range from about 100 to 5,000 milligrams per liter. However, the number and distribution of data sites for some groupings of units wee inadequate to be representative of the aquifer as a whole. Concentrations of most trace constituents do not exceed Federal primary drinking-water standards, although exceptions occur. Few data were available for organic constituents. (USGS)

  19. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  20. Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is now the third largest bioethanol producer in the world after the United State and Brazil. The overall goals of this paper are to provide an overview of China's current bioethanol program, its future trend, and the likely impacts on its agricultural economy in the future. The analysis shows that China has developed an ambitious long-run biofuel program with a series of financial and institutional supports. While there are several potential feedstock crops available for bioethanol production, lack of land for feedstock production is one of major constraints in China's bioethanol expansion. The results show that although China's bioethanol expansion will have little impacts on overall agricultural prices in international markets, it will have significant impacts on the prices, productions, and trade of those energy crops being used for bioethanol production in China. (author)