WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioethanol production stato

  1. State of the art on bioethanol production; Stato dell'arte della produzione di bioetanolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fonti Rinnovabili di Energia, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Policoro, Matera (Italy); Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali

    2001-07-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way. [Italian] Questo lavoro tratta della produzione di etanolo da diverse biomasse, compreso i materiali lignocellulosici. Sono riportati cenni al mercato mondiale ed europeo dell'etanolo insieme ad una breve rassegna dei processi impiegati correntemente; si tratta per lo piu' di tecnologie ormai mature basate sull'utilizzo di piante ad alto contenuto di zucchero o di amido. Per quanto riguarda la produzione di etanolo da biomasse lignocellulosiche, sono riportati i risultati di un'indagine statistica sulla disponibilita' in Europa di questi materiali in termini di coltivazini dedicate, residui agro-forestali e rifiuti domestici. E' riportata altresi una ricerca bibliografica sui recenti sviluppi dei processi di conversione a etanolo su scala banco e pilota. Infine, una breve discussione sugli aspetti economici connessi all'utilizzo di materiali lignocellulosici per la produzione di etanolo mostra come questi processi si stiano avvicinando alla completa fattibilita'.

  2. Pretreatment methods for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaoyang; Huang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, agricultural, and forest residues, are potential resources for the production of bioethanol. The current biochemical process of converting biomass to bioethanol typically consists of three main steps: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. For this process, pretreatment is probably the most crucial step since it has a large impact on the efficiency of the overall bioconversion. The aim of pretreatment is to disrupt recalcitrant structures of cellulosic biomass to make cellulose more accessible to the enzymes that convert carbohydrate polymers into fermentable sugars. This paper reviews several leading acidic, neutral, and alkaline pretreatments technologies. Different pretreatment methods, including dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), steam explosion pretreatment (SEP), organosolv, liquid hot water (LHW), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), sodium hydroxide/lime pretreatments, and ozonolysis are intensively introduced and discussed. In this minireview, the key points are focused on the structural changes primarily in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during the above leading pretreatment technologies.

  3. Bioethanol production from Asphodelus aestivus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polycarpou, Polycarpos [Agricultural Research Institute, Soils Science Department, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Lefkosia (Cyprus)

    2009-12-15

    The increase on the price of fossil fuels and the need to protect the environment from greenhouse gases urge the investigation of the possibility of using biofuels to replace them. Cyprus is faced with severe water shortage and unavailability of agricultural land that limit the cultivation of energy crops that supply the feedstock for biofuel production. A possibility would be to use Asphodelus aestivus L. that is encountered in Cyprus and other Mediterranean countries, growing wild in pastures. Its tubers contain starch that was measured to be 10.1%. The bioethanol is produced by fermentation of the mash produced by crashing the tubers of the plant. The first stage of the process was cooking the mash at a temperature of 95 C, combined by liquefaction and saccharification of the starch using enzymes, like alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The process was followed by fermentation of the mash for three days and finally distillation of bioethanol. The alcohol yield per kilogram tubers was 49.52 ml/kg, compared to the theoretical value of 83.72 ml/kg, mainly due to the incomplete fermentation of the sugars. The plant seems to be a potential energy plant for bioethanol production in arid regions cultivated on degraded land. (author)

  4. Marine Enzymes and Microorganisms for Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Natarajan, V; Krishnan, C

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol is a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Bioethanol as a fuel has several economic and environmental benefits. Though bioethanol is produced using starch and sugarcane juice, these materials are in conflict with food availability. To avoid food-fuel conflict, the second-generation bioethanol production by utilizing nonfood lignocellulosic materials has been extensively investigated. However, due to the complexity of lignocellulose architecture, the process is complicated and not economically competitive. The cultivation of lignocellulosic energy crops indirectly affects the food supplies by extensive land use. Marine algae have attracted attention to replace the lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production, since the algae grow fast, do not use land, avoid food-fuel conflict and have several varieties to suit the cultivation environment. The composition of algae is not as complex as lignocellulose due to the absence of lignin, which renders easy hydrolysis of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. Marine organisms also produce cold-active enzymes for hydrolysis of starch, cellulose, and algal polysaccharides, which can be employed in bioethanol process. Marine microoorganisms are also capable of fermenting sugars under high salt environment. Therefore, marine biocatalysts are promising for development of efficient processes for bioethanol production.

  5. Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Charles; Larsen, Jan; Morgan, K. [DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Security of supply, sustainability and the market are controlling parameters for developing the energy system. Bioethanol is part of the solution to the question about security of supply and the demand for a sustainable development, and all over Europe 1st generation bioethanol plants are being established. Market demands on existing power plants and the simultaneous wish for establishing a capacity for the production of bioethanol with at first 1st generation technology and starchy biomass and then with 2nd generation technology and lignocellulose is the reason for DONG Energy's development of the concept IBUS (Integrated Biomass Utilisation System). In the IBUS concept the production of bioethanol with 1st and 2nd generation technology has been joined and integrated with the power and heat production of the central power plant. Until the summer of 2006 the IBUS straw plant at Skaerbaekvaerket was established by means of a EURO 15 mill. EU project. In addition to being a demonstration facility the plant is being upscaled to a 4 tonne straw per hour plant in preparation for demonstrating the process at a size which forms the basis of upscaling to fullscale 20 tonne per hour in 2008. The process includes continued hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis at high dry matter concentrations, fermentation and distillation. The raw materials are wheat and maize straw. The perspective for DONG Energy is that the IBUS concept, in which bioethanol and CHP production are to be joined, is a step towards materialising the vision that a central power plant can be developed into an energy refinery. The presented development work within 2nd generation bioethanol technology will be carried out in cooperation with leading international players and Danish universities and knowledge centres Risoe National Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and Novozymes. (au)

  6. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 billion liters during the year 2009. Even though ethanol production for decades mainly depended on energy crops containing starch and sugar (corn, sugar cane etc., new technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol are under development today. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues, forest and municipial waste, for the production of biofuels will be unavoidable if liquid fossil fuels are to be replaced by renewable and sustainable alternatives. For biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment plays a central role affecting all unit operations in the process and is also an important cost deterrent to the comercial viability of the process. The key obstacles are: pretreatment selection and optimization; decreasing the cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis; maximizing the conversion of sugars (including pentoses to ethanol; process scale-up and integration to minimize energy and water demand; characterization and evaluation of the lignin co-product; and lastly, the use of the representative and reliable data for cost estimation, and the determination of environmental and socio-economic impacts. Currently, not all pretreatments are capable of producing biomass that can be converted to sugars in high enough yield and concentration, while being economically viable. For the three main types of feedstocks, the developement of effective continuous fermentation technologies with near to 100% yields and elevated

  7. Bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Abubackar, H.N.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from cellulosic biomass plays an important role to support energy policies. To produce cellulosic ethanol via fermentation it is required to first break the lignocellulosic complex. Numerous technologies for such pretreatment are under development or in a pilot plant stage.

  8. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  9. Use of tropical maize for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical maize is an alternative energy crop being considered as a feedstock for bioethanol production in the North Central and Midwest United States. Tropical maize is advantageous because it produces large amounts of soluble sugars in its stalks, creates a large amount of biomass, and requires lo...

  10. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  11. DSMZ 24726 for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate. The ....... The isolated organism is an extremely interesting and very promising organism for the establishment of a sustainable bioethanol production process. The invention further relates to a method for producing a fermentation product such as ethanol....

  12. Utilizing thermophilic microbe in lignocelluloses based bioethanol production: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Agustina, Wawan; Ratnawati, Lia; Rahman, Taufik; Salim, Takiyah

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of thermophilic microbe has attracted many parties, particularly in producing an alternative fuel like ethanol. Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sources substituting for earth oil in the future. The advantage of using bioethanol is that it can reduce pollution levels and global warming because the result of bioethanol burning doesn't bring in a net addition of CO2 into environment. Moreover, decrease in the reserves of earth oil globally has also contributed to the notion on searching renewable energy resources such as bioethanol. Indonesia has a high biomass potential and can be used as raw material for bioethanol. The utilization of these raw materials will reduce fears of competition foodstuffs for energy production. The enzymes that play a role in degrading lignocelluloses are cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic in nature. The main enzyme with an important role in bioethanol production is a complex enzyme capable of degrading lignocelluloses. The enzyme can be produced by the thermophilik microbes of the groups of bacteria and fungi such as Trichoderma viride, Clostridium thermocellum, Bacillus sp. Bioethanol production is heavily affected by raw material composition, microorganism type, and the condition of fermentation used.

  13. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rakin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin stillage, the bioethanol yield increased and was above 100 %. Higher bioethanol yield than 100 % can be explained by the fact that the thin stillage contains carbohydrates, amino acids and yeast cells degradation products. The bioethanol yield increased with the increased number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Dry matter content in fermenting slurry increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of the thin stillage recirculation cycles (8.04 % for the first and 9.40 % for the sixth cycle. Dry matter content in thin stillage increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that thin stillage recirculation increased the bioethanol yield. The highest bioethanol yields were obtained with recirculation of 10% thin stillage.

  14. Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Márcio Santos Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Population growth and the increasing search for healthy foods have led to a major consumption of coconut water and, hence, to an environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of green coconut husks. This lignocellulosic biomass has deserved attention of researchers concerning the seeking of new usages, as, for example, in renewable fuels production technologies. This study examines the potential of green coconut husk fibers as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The coconut fibers were pretreated through an alkaline method, hydrolyzed enzymatically and submitted to ethanol fermentation with commercial yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant loss of cellulose (4.42% in relation to the fiber and 17.9% concerning the original cellulose content, the alkaline pretreatment promoted an efficient solubilization of lignin (80%, turning the coconut fibers into a feasible raw material for 2G ethanol production studies. Enzymatic hydrolysis converted 87% of the sugars and the ethanolic fermentation consumed 81% of the substrate in the hydrolyzate, leading to a sugar to ethanol convertion efficiency of 59.6%. These results points out that green coconut husks are a promising alternative to the production of renewable energy.

  15. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  16. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  17. Proteins for breaking barriers in lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaganathan, Kandasamy; Goud, Burragoni S; Reddy, Mettu M; Kumar, Vanaparthi P; Balsingh, Jatoth; Radhakrishna, Surabhi

    2015-01-01

    Reduction in fossil fuel consumption by using alternate sources of energy is a major challenge facing mankind in the coming decades. Bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass is the most viable option for addressing this challenge. Industrial bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass, though possible now, is not economically viable due to presence of barriers that escalate the cost of production. As cellulose and hemicellulose are the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, which is available in massive quantities, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose by the microorganisms are the most prominent biochemical processes happening in the earth. Microorganisms possess different categories of proteins associated with different stages of bioethanol production and a number of them are already found and characterized. Many more of these proteins need to be identified which suit the specificities needed for the bioethanol production process. Discovery of proteins with novel specificities and application of genetic engineering technologies to harvest the synergies existing between them with the aim to develop consolidated bioprocess is the major direction of research in the future. In this review, we discuss the different categories of proteins used for bioethanol production in the context of breaking the barriers existing for the economically feasible lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

  18. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  19. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...

  20. Options for decentralized production of bioethanol from lignocelluloses; Moeglichkeiten zur dezentralen Produktion von Bioethanol aus Lignocellulosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, D.; Schneider, R.; Prechtl, S.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ-EVUS, Entwicklungszentrum Verfahrenstechnik, Abt. Umwelt, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The report discusses possibilities for a decentralized production of bioethanol from lignocelluloses. An agricultural distillery is used as an example for a concept of applying lignocelluloses in order to achieve a partial substitution of 'costly' material by products from set-aside agricultural land as well as agricultural by- and waste-products. Target is to reduce production costs to such an extent that a marketable selling price for the produced alcohol may be achieved. This, on the one hand, requires appropriate processes for the decomposition of raw materials and, on the other hand, a systematic recycling of the occurring waste material. (orig.)

  1. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced.

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Cǎlin C.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  3. Selection of yeast strains for bioethanol production from UK seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostas, Emily T; White, Daniel A; Du, Chenyu; Cook, David J

    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are a promising feedstock for the production of third generation bioethanol, since they have high carbohydrate contents, contain little or no lignin and are available in abundance. However, seaweeds typically contain a more diverse array of monomeric sugars than are commonly present in feedstocks derived from lignocellulosic material which are currently used for bioethanol production. Hence, identification of a suitable fermentative microorganism that can utilise the principal sugars released from the hydrolysis of macroalgae remains a major objective. The present study used a phenotypic microarray technique to screen 24 different yeast strains for their ability to metabolise individual monosaccharides commonly found in seaweeds, as well as hydrolysates following an acid pre-treatment of five native UK seaweed species (Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus, Chondrus crispus, Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca). Five strains of yeast (three Saccharomyces spp, one Pichia sp and one Candida sp) were selected and subsequently evaluated for bioethanol production during fermentation of the hydrolysates. Four out of the five selected strains converted these monomeric sugars into bioethanol, with the highest ethanol yield (13 g L(-1)) resulting from a fermentation using C. crispus hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPS128. This study demonstrated the novel application of a phenotypic microarray technique to screen for yeast capable of metabolising sugars present in seaweed hydrolysates; however, metabolic activity did not always imply fermentative production of ethanol.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted bioethanol production from waste newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work deals with intensification of bioethanol production from waste newspaper using Saccharomyces cerevisiae using ultrasonic irradiations. The effect of different process parameters such as application of ultrasonic irradiation at different growth phases, irradiation time, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the bioethanol production has been investigated. The favorable conditions for the maximum yield were established as application of ultrasonic irradiation (duration of 10 min) to fermentation broth at 12 h of growth phase with 25 kHz frequency, 160 W power and 20% duty cycle. The bioethanol productivity was increased by 1.8 times from 7.8 to 14.1 g/L compared with the non-sonicated control fermentation. Decrease in glucose concentration from 0.63% to 0.2% w/v in ultrasound-assisted fermentation confirmed the improved substrate uptake of the microbial cell due to the application of ultrasound. ESEM analysis also confirmed the changes in the cell morphology leading to improved cell permeability. Results were fitted to an unstructured kinetic model comprising of the kinetic and physiological parameters. Overall, the work has demonstrated an intensified approach for the bioethanol production based on the use of ultrasound.

  5. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  6. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P Sitompul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.

  7. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  8. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  9. Strategies for the production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds: production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol has attracted attention as an alternative to petroleum-derived fuel. Seaweeds have been proposed as some of the most promising raw materials for bioethanol production because they have several advantages over lignocellulosic biomass. However, because seaweeds contain low contents of glucans, i.e., polysaccharides composed of glucose, the conversion of only the glucans from seaweed is not sufficient to produce high concentrations of ethanol. Therefore, it is also necessary to produce ethanol from other specific carbohydrate components of seaweeds, including sulfated polysaccharides, mannitol, alginate, agar and carrageenan. This review summarizes the current state of research on the production of ethanol from seaweed carbohydrates for which the conversion of carbohydrates to sugars is a key step and makes comparisons with the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. This review provides valuable information necessary for the production of high concentrations of ethanol from seaweeds.

  10. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production.

  11. Bioethanol production from germinated grain by inherent enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Kádár, Zsófia; Christensen, Anne Deen; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    The malting in brewing process develops enzymes that are required to hydrolyze the complex starch in grain into simple fermentable sugars. These proceed the three following steps: Steeping encourages germination to start, germination prepares the conversion of the starch to sugars, and kilning stops the germination. In this study, a method for bioethanol production from rye grain was developed by utilizing the inherent amylase activity from germination of the seed. Grain germination was pe...

  12. Scale-up and kinetic modeling for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Esra; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2013-09-01

    Bioethanol was produced from acidic hydrolysate of rice hulls using recombinant Escherichia coli KO11. Two different issues (scale-up and kinetic modeling) were evaluated simultaneously and concomitantly for bioethanol production. During the step-wise scale-up process from 100 mL shaken flask to 10 L stirred-tank bioreactor, the constant Reynolds number and the constant impeller tip speed were evaluated as scale-up methodologies under laboratory conditions. It was determined that the volumetric bioethanol productivity was 88% higher in 10 L bioreactor in comparison to the value of 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) in shaken flask. The modified Monod and Luedeking-Piret models provided an accurate approach for the modeling of the experimental data. Ethanol concentration reached the maximum level of 29.03 g/L, which was 5% higher than the value of model prediction in 10 L bioreactor. The findings of this research could contribute to the industrial scale productions especially from lignocellulosic raw materials.

  13. Dynamic global sensitivity analysis in bioreactor networks for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, M P; Estrada, V; Di Maggio, J; Hoch, P M

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was performed for three different dynamic bioreactor models of increasing complexity: a fermenter for bioethanol production, a bioreactors network, where two types of bioreactors were considered: aerobic for biomass production and anaerobic for bioethanol production and a co-fermenter bioreactor, to identify the parameters that most contribute to uncertainty in model outputs. Sobol's method was used to calculate time profiles for sensitivity indices. Numerical results have shown the time-variant influence of uncertain parameters on model variables. Most influential model parameters have been determined. For the model of the bioethanol fermenter, μmax (maximum growth rate) and Ks (half-saturation constant) are the parameters with largest contribution to model variables uncertainty; in the bioreactors network, the most influential parameter is μmax,1 (maximum growth rate in bioreactor 1); whereas λ (glucose-to-total sugars concentration ratio in the feed) is the most influential parameter over all model variables in the co-fermentation bioreactor.

  14. Feasibility and energetic evaluation of air stripping for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläfle, Sandra; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2017-05-01

    Stripping of mashes with air as stripping gas and low ethanol contents between 3 and 5wt% was investigated in terms of its suitability for continuous bioethanol production. Experiments in a Blenke cascade system were carried out and the results were compared with values obtained from theoretical vapour-liquid-equilibrium calculations. The whole stripping process was energetically evaluated by a simulation in ChemCAD and compared to conventional distillation. Therefore several parameters such as temperature, air volume flow and initial ethanol load of the mash were varied. Air stripping was found to be a suitable separation method for bioethanol from mashes with low concentrations. However, energetic aspects have to be considered, when developing a new process.

  15. Life-cycle energy efficiency and environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Shi, Yu; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Dinglong; Chen, Qun

    2013-04-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of sweet potato-based bioethanol production. The scope covered all stages in the life cycle of bioethanol production, including the cultivation and treatment, transport, as well as bioethanol conversion of sweet potato. Results show that the net energy ratio of sweet potato-based bioethanol is 1.48 and the net energy gain is 6.55 MJ/L. Eutrophication is identified as the most significant environmental impact category, followed by acidification, global warming, human toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. Sensitivity analysis reveals that steam consumption during bioethanol conversion exerts the most effect on the results, followed by sweet potato yields and fertilizers input. It is suggested that substituting coal with cleaner energy for steam generation in bioethanol conversion stage and promotion of better management practices in sweet potato cultivation stage could lead to a significant improvement of energy and environmental performance.

  16. Process design and sustainability in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Felipe; Quintero,Julián; Morales,Marjorie; Conejeros, Raúl; Cardona, Carlos; Aroca, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bioethanol is produced mainly from sugar cane and corn. In the last years it has been subject of debate due to the effects in food prices and land use change. The use of lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production, such as agroindustry, forestry and municipal residues, wood or dendroenergetic species, has been proposed as a sustainable way for producing this biofuel. The design of a sustainable process for producing bioethanol requires a methodological approach whereby eco...

  17. Alkaline Pretreatment of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Sudiyani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic material, which consist mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, are among the most promising renewable feedstocks for the production of energy and chemicals.   The bagasse residue of sweet sorghum can be utilized as raw material for alternative energy such as bioethanolBioethanol production consists of pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation and purification process.  The pretreatment process was of great importance to ethanol yield.  In the present study, alkaline pretreatment was conducted using a steam explosion reactor at 1300C with concentrations of NaOH  6, and 10% (kg/L for 10, and 30 min.  For ethanol production separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process were conducted with 30 FPU of Ctec2 and Htec2 enzyme and yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.   The results showed that maximum cellulose conversion to total glucose plus xylose were showed greatest with NaOH 10% for 30 min.  The highest yield of ethanol is 96.26% and high concentration of ethanol 66.88 g/L were obtained at SSF condition during 48 h process. Using SSF process could increase yields and concentration of ethanol with less energy process. Article History: Received January 16th 2016; Received in revised form May 25th 2016; Accepted June 28th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Sudiyani, Y., Triwahyuni, E., Muryanto, Burhani, D., Waluyo, J. Sulaswaty, A. and Abimanyu, H. (2016 Alkaline Pretreatment of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse for Bioethanol Production. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.113-118 

  18. Yeast strains designed for 2. generation bioethanol production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennow, B.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a suitable fermentation organism for 2G bioethanol production that would efficiently ferment all of the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol at a commercially viable rate (comparable to yeast based 1G ethanol production). More specifically, a yeast strain would be developed with the ability to ferment also the pentoses in lignocellulosic biomass and thereby increase the ethanol yield of the process by 30-45% with a profound positive effect on the total process economy. The project has succeeded in developing a new industrial yeast strain V1. The yeast strain can transform the difficult C5 sugars to ethanol from waste products such as straw and the like from the agricultural sector. The classic issues relating to industrial uses such as inhibitor and ethanol tolerance and high ethanol production is resolved satisfactorily. The potential of the use of the new strain for 2nd generation bioethanol production is that the ethanol yields increase by 30-45%. With the increased ethanol yield follows a marked improvement in the overall process economics. (LN)

  19. MICROALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO BIOFUELS PRODUCTION. PART 1: BIOETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand from the energy sector is one of the culminating factors to do researches that enable innovations in the biotechnology sector and to boost biofuel production. The variability of the existing feedstocks provides benefits to energy production, however, we must choose the ones that present plausible characteristics depending on the type of product that we want to obtained. In this context, it is noted that the microalgae have suitable characteristics to producing different types of fuels, depending on the type of treatment are subjected, the species being analyzed as well as the biochemical composition of the biomass. Bioethanol production from microalgae is a promising and growing energy alternative under a view that biomass of these microorganisms has an enormous biodiversity and contain high levels of carbohydrates, an indispensable factor for the bioconversion of microalgae in ethanol. Due to these factors, there is a constant search for more viable methods for pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis and fermentation, having as one of the major aspects the approach of effectives methodologies in the ambit of quality and yield of ethanol. Therefore, we have to search to increase the interest in the developing of biofuels reconciling with the importance of using microalgae, analyzing whether these micro-organisms are capable of being used in bioethanol production.

  20. Process engineering economics of bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbe, Mats; Sassner, Per; Wingren, Anders; Zacchi, Guido

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a review of studies on the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials published since 1996. Our objective was to identify the most costly process steps and the impact of various parameters on the final production cost, e.g. plant capacity, raw material cost, and overall product yield, as well as process configuration. The variation in estimated ethanol production cost is considerable, ranging from about 0.13 to 0.81 US$ per liter ethanol. This can be explained to a large extent by actual process differences and variations in the assumptions underlying the techno-economic evaluations. The most important parameters for the economic outcome are the feedstock cost, which varied between 30 and 90 US$ per metric ton in the papers studied, and the plant capacity, which influences the capital cost. To reduce the ethanol production cost it is necessary to reach high ethanol yields, as well as a high ethanol concentration during fermentation, to be able to decrease the energy required for distillation and other downstream process steps. Improved pretreatment methods, enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis with cheaper and more effective enzymes, as well as improved fermentation systems present major research challenges if we are to make lignocellulose-based ethanol production competitive with sugar- and starch-based ethanol. Process integration, either internally or externally with other types of plants, e.g. heat and power plants, also offers a way of reducing the final ethanol production cost.

  1. Feasibility of Bioethanol Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunina, Zane; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Karlis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to discuss the potential of cellulosic ethanol production processes and compare them, to find the most appropriate production method for Latvia's situation, to perform theoretical calculations and to determine the potential ethanol price. In addition, price forecasts for future cellulosic and grain ethanol are compared. A feasibility estimate to determine the price of cellulosic ethanol in Latvia, if production were started in 2010, was made. The grain and cellulosic ethanol price comparison (future forecast) was made through to the year 2018.

  2. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  3. Use of extremophilic bacteria for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    production from food crops, such as corn (starch) or sugar cane (sucrose) is already an established process, with the USA and Brazil supplying 86% of the market. The major challenge remains in the use of different waste sources – agricultural, forestry, animal and household waste - as a feedstock...... for a wild type strain reported so far. However, productivity and titer values comparable to a first generation process are yet to be achieved. Metabolic engineering to redirect the metabolism from mixed-product fermentation to ethanol production is one of the solutions proposed to improve the performance....... The recalcitrance of these materials and their diverse sugar composition make the industrial yeast strains currently used unsuitable for a second generation bioethanol production process. One of the alternative strategies is the use of extreme thermophilic microorganisms. Currently, selected members from the genera...

  4. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  5. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... steps, various inhibitors towards microbial fermentation are generated along with the monomeric sugars. The inhibitors can be removed by various detoxification methods but the inclusion of this extra process step increases significantly the ethanol production cost. Compared with glucose, which can....... In order to keep ethanol production cost at a minimum, the major sugars in lignocellulosic biomass (glucose and xylose) must be converted into ethanol due to high raw material cost, typically about 40% of the total ethanol production cost. The need for a microorganism able to utilize both glucose...

  6. Phenotypic evaluation of natural and industrial Saccharomyces yeasts for different traits desirable in industrial bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Vaskar; Steensels, Jan; Lievens, Bart; Van de Voorde, Ilse; Verplaetse, Alex; Aerts, Guido; Willems, Kris A; Thevelein, Johan M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Ruyters, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the organism of choice for many food and beverage fermentations because it thrives in high-sugar and high-ethanol conditions. However, the conditions encountered in bioethanol fermentation pose specific challenges, including extremely high sugar and ethanol concentrations, high temperature, and the presence of specific toxic compounds. It is generally considered that exploring the natural biodiversity of Saccharomyces strains may be an interesting route to find superior bioethanol strains and may also improve our understanding of the challenges faced by yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. In this study, we phenotypically evaluated a large collection of diverse Saccharomyces strains on six selective traits relevant for bioethanol production with increasing stress intensity. Our results demonstrate a remarkably large phenotypic diversity among different Saccharomyces species and among S. cerevisiae strains from different origins. Currently applied bioethanol strains showed a high tolerance to many of these relevant traits, but several other natural and industrial S. cerevisiae strains outcompeted the bioethanol strains for specific traits. These multitolerant strains performed well in fermentation experiments mimicking industrial bioethanol production. Together, our results illustrate the potential of phenotyping the natural biodiversity of yeasts to find superior industrial strains that may be used in bioethanol production or can be used as a basis for further strain improvement through genetic engineering, experimental evolution, or breeding. Additionally, our study provides a basis for new insights into the relationships between tolerance to different stressors.

  7. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1).

  8. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  9. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements.

  11. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  12. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment was perf...

  14. Bioethanol Production from Indica IR.64 Rice Straw Biomass by Direct Saccharification and Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ario Betha Juanssilfero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feed stocks for bioethanol production. Indica IR.64 rice straw is one of abundant agricultural wastes in Indonesia and could be used to bioethanol production. It has several characteristics such as high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. A simple process (the direct saccharification and fermentation process to produce ethanol from rice straw was developed in order to establish an efficient bioethanol production. In this work, no harsh pre-treatment steps were applied and also use a simple one-vat reactor without the risk of losing liberated carbohydrate. The first step in using rice straw for bioethanol production is size reduction through milling and sieving process prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Direct saccharification and fermentation (DSF of Indica IR.64 rice straw was examined and compared with two type of control (systems devoid of yeast and enzyme. The experiment were carried out under anaerobic condition, where the cellulase crude enzyme and cellulosic substrates (rice straw produced glucose from the cellulose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly assimilated the glucose to bioethanol. The faster rate of bioethanol production during DSF by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained within the first 12h. The maximum ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and theoretical ethanol yield of untreated rice straw were 0.25 g/L, 10 and 14.88%, respectively. Nevertheless, the direct saccharification and fermentation shows the potential for lower cost and higher efficiency for bioethanol production.

  15. Potential of bioethanol production from olive mill solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Najami, Naim; Dosoretz, Carlos; Tafesh, Ahmed; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to screen endogenous microorganisms grown on olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) with the potential to ferment pentoses and produce ethanol. Two yeasts were isolated and identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, and Pichia galeiformis/manshurica. The adaptation of the strains displayed a positive impact on the fermentation process. In terms of xylose utilization and ethanol production, all strains were able to utilize xylose and produce xylitol but no ethanol was detected. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation process on hydrolysate undergo detoxification, strain I. orientalis showed the best efficiency in producing of ethanol when supplemented with glucose. Using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process following pretreatment of OMSW, the average ethanol yield was 3 g/100 g dry OMSW. Bioethanol production from OMSW is not economic despite the raw material is cheap.

  16. Biomass for bioethanol production and technological process in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiradze, K.; Phirosmanashvili, N. [Association for Farmers Rights Defence, Tbilisi (Georgia)

    2010-07-01

    This study discussed the use of biomass for bioethanol production in Georgia and its potential impacts on the country's rural economy. Eighty-five per cent of the country's lands are forested or used for agricultural purposes, and more than 56 per cent of the adult population is involved in the agricultural sector. The privatization of land in post-Soviet Georgia has resulted in the creation of a new social class of land-owners. The use of biofuel in petroleum fuel has significantly lowered greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the country. The biofuel is produced using local agricultural and forest wastes. Use of the biofuel has lowered the country's reliance on imported oil and has increased its energy security. The production of ethanol in Georgia has resulted in significant socio-economic benefits in the country.

  17. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Velazquez-Marti; Sergio Pérez-Pacheco; Juan Gaibor-Chávez; Paola Wilcaso

    2016-01-01

    Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioeth...

  18. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    No other sustainable option for production of transportation fuels can match ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass with respect to its dramatic environmental, economic, strategic and infrastructure advantages. Substantial progress has been made in advancing biomass ethanol (bioethanol) production technology to the point that it now has commercial potential, and several firms are engaged in the demanding task of introducing first-of-a-kind technology into the marketplace to make bioethanol a reality in existing fuel-blending markets. In order to lower pollution India has a long-term goal to use biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel). Ethanol may be used either in pure form, or as a blend in petrol in different proportions. Since the cost of raw materials, which can account up to 50 % of the total production cost, is one of the most significant factors affecting the economy of alcohol, nowadays efforts are more concentrated on using cheap and abundant raw materials. Several forms of biomass resources exist (starch or sugar crops, weeds, oil plants, agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) but of all biomass cellulosic resources represent the most abundant global source. The lignocellulosic materials include agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes (MSW), pulp mill refuse, switchgrass and lawn, garden wastes. Lignocellulosic materials contain two types of polysaccharides, cellulose and hemicellulose, bound together by a third component lignin. The principal elements of the lignocellulosic research include: i) evaluation and characterization of the waste feedstock; ii) pretreatment including initial clean up or dewatering of the feedstock; and iii) development of effective direct conversion bioprocessing to generate ethanol as an end product. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials is a step in which some of the hemicellulose dissolves in water, either as monomeric sugars or as oligomers and polymers. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to

  19. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass......, were considered. Material and energy flows were assessed to evaluate the bioethanol yield, the production efficiency in terms of Emergy used compared to energy produced (transformity), and the environmental load (ELR) in terms of use of non-renewable resources. These three indicators varied among...... the four feedstock production scenarios to the same extent as among the three different industrial production scenarios and in each case the efficiency was lower and the use of non-renewables higher for the non-recycling system. The system most efficient for production of bioethanol (lowest transformity...

  20. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech;

    2015-01-01

    The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...... of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton...... of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor...

  1. SACCHARIFICATION OF CORNCOB USING CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITI CANDRA SUNARTI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose degrading enzyme (cellulases for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material is a part of bioethanol production process. In this experiment, delignified corncob, its cellulose fraction and alpha cellulose were used as substrates to produce fermentable sugar by using three local isolates of celluloytic bacteria (C5-1, C4-4, C11-1 and Cmix ; mixed cultures of three isolates, and Saccharomyces cereviseae to produce ethanol. The results showed that all isolates of cellulolytic bacteria can grow on cellulose fraction better than on delignified corncob, and alpha cellulose. The highest hydrolytic activity produced from cellulose fraction was by isolate C4-4, which liberated 3.50 g/l of total sugar. Ethanol can be produced by mixed culture of bacteria and yeast, but because of competitive growth, the fermentation only produced 0.39-0.47 g/l of ethanol.

  2. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed I. Hamouda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558 showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield.

  3. Development of glycerol-utilizing Escherichia coli strain for the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Lee, Sang Jun; Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2013-08-15

    The production of bioethanol was studied using recombinant Escherichia coli with glycerol as a carbon source. Glycerol is an attractive feedstock for biofuels production since it is generated as a major byproduct in biodiesel industry; therefore, we investigated the conversion of glycerol to bioethanol using E. coli BL21 (DE3) which harbors several genes in ethanol production pathway of Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190. Fermentation was carried out at 34°C for 42h, pH 7.6, using defined production medium. Under optimal conditions, bioethanol production by the recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3), strain pEB, was two-fold (3.01g/L) greater than that (1.45g/L) by the wild-type counterpart. The results obtained in this study will provide valuable guidelines for engineering bioethanol producers.

  4. Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis of Hardwood Aspen and Softwood Pine for Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Janga, Kando Khalifa

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has been targeted as an alternative solution to the existing dependence on fossil fuels in the transportation sector. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses has been a challenge to the hydrolytic processes and hence commercialization.This study has investigated the feasibility of the concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis (CSAH) process for bioethanol production from wood-based lignocelluloses. This is because the process enjoys h...

  5. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all...... of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered...... by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol...

  6. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  7. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  8. Challenges in bioethanol production: Utilization of cotton fabrics as a feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol, as a clean and renewable fuel with its major environmental benefits, represents a promising biofuel today which is mostly used in combination with gasoline. It can be produced from different kinds of renewable feedstocks. Whereas the first generation of processes (saccharide-based have been well documented and are largely applied, the second and third generation of bioethanol processes (cellulose- or algae-based need further research and development since bioethanol yields are still too low to be economically viable. In this study, the possibilities of bioethanol production from cotton fabrics as valuable cellulosic raw material were investigated and presented. Potential lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production and their characteristics, especially cotton-based materials, were analyzed. Available lignocellulosic biomass, the production of textile and clothing and potential for sustainable bioethanol production in Serbia is presented. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of different pretreatment methods, optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and different ethanol fermentation process modes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31017

  9. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek;

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three different...... distillation fractions of technical 2nd generation bioethanol, produced in a pilot plant, influence the performance of nickel- and ruthenium-based catalysts during steam reforming, and we discuss what is required to obtain high activity and long catalyst lifetime. We conclude that the use of technical...

  10. Thermophilic amylase from Thermus sp. isolation and its potential application for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Fatoni; Zusfahair

    2012-01-01

    Limited reserves of fossil energy stimulate researchers to explore for a new alternative energy, such as bioethanol.A thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot-springs and its characteristic and potential applicationfor bioethanol production was determined. The obtained amylase was studied to determine its optimum temperature, pH,enzymatic reaction time, and substrate concentration. Tapioca waste was used as the substrate to find the potential of theamylase for degr...

  11. Spirogyra biomass a renewable source for biofuel (bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Salem Eshaq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels refer to renewable fuels from biological sources that can be used for heat, electricity and fuel. The fuels obtained from algae are termed as third generation fuels. The production of fuel from algae provides many advantages when compared to the fuel produced from other sources like agrobased raw materials. Other than environmental pollution control the algal biofuel will help in reduction of the fuel cost when compared to the agrobased and fossil fuels. In the present study algae specifically Spirogyra was used for the production of bioethanol by the fermentative process. A comparative study was carried out by using chemically pre-treated anduntreated Spirogyra biomass. The Spirogyra has a very simple cell wall made up of cellulose and starch that can be converted to ethanol by the fermentation process. The Spirogyra biomass was subjected to saccharification process by the fungal organism Aspergillus niger MTCCC 2196 for the hydrolysis, this process was followed by the fermentation using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC170 for the production of alcohol. A high yield of ethanol was recorded for untreated Spirogyra biomass when compared to chemically pre-treated biomass. The yield of alcohol using algal biomass is more when compared to alcohol produced from other sources like agrobased rawmaterials.

  12. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  13. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent......, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw can increase the efficiency for material and energy and can presumably be more economical process for biomass utilization. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus......The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent...

  14. Feasibility of hydrothermal pretreatment on maize silage for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-09-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol production by prehydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. After pretreatment, most of the cellulose remained in the residue, ranging between 85.87% by the highest PSF (185 degrees C, 15 min) and 92.90% obtained at the lowest PSF (185 degrees C, 3 min). A larger part of starch, varying from 71.64% by the highest PSF to 78.28% by the lowest, was liberated into liquor part, leaving 8.05-11.74% in the residues. Xylan recovery in the residues increased from 44.25% at the highest PSF to 82.95% at the lowest. The recovery of xylan in liquor changed from 20.13% to 50.33%. Toxic test indicated that all the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker's yeast. Pretreatment under 195 degrees C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185 degrees C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7.67 g/L.

  15. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from rice straw by liquid-state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayata, M. H. M.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyahb, T. M. I.; Aditiyac, H. B.; Mahliaa, T. M. I.; Shamsuddina, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy is the latest approach of the Malaysian government in an effort to find sustainable alternative energy sources and to fulfill the ever increasing energy demand. Being a country that thrives in the service and agricultural sector, bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass presents itself as a promising option. However, the lack of technical practicality and complexity in the operation system hinder it from being economically viable. Hence, this research acquired multiple case studies in order to provide an insight on the process involved and its implication on production as well as to obtain a cost analysis of bioethanol production. The energy input and cost of three main components of the bioethanol production which are the collection, logistics, and pretreatment of rice straw were evaluated extensively. The theoretical bioethanol yield and conversion efficiency obtained were 250 L/t and 60% respectively. The findings concluded that bioethanol production from rice straw is currently not economically feasible in Malaysia’s market due to lack of efficiency in the pretreatment phase and overbearing logistics and pretreatment costs. This work could serve as a reference to future studies of biofuel commercialization in Malaysia.

  16. Pretreatment solution recycling and high-concentration output for economical production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minhee; Moon, Se-Kwon; Choi, Gi-Wook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the economic efficiency of producing bioethanol. Pretreatment solution recycling is expected to increase economic efficiency by reducing the cost of pretreatment and the amount of wastewater. In addition, the production of high-concentration bioethanol could increase economic efficiency by reducing the energy cost of distillation. The pretreatment conditions were 95 °C, 0.72 M NaOH, 80 rpm twin-screw speed, and flow rate of 90 mL/min at 18 g/min of raw biomass feeding for pretreatment solution recycling. The pretreatment with NaOH solution recycling was conducted five times. All of the components and the pretreatment efficiency were similar, despite reuse. In addition, we developed a continuous biomass feeding system for production of high-concentration bioethanol. Using this reactor, the bioethanol productivity was investigated using various pretreated biomass feeding rates in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The maximum ethanol concentration, yield, and productivity were 74.5 g/L, 89.5%, and 1.4 g/L h, respectively, at a pretreated biomass loading of approximately 25% (w/v) with an enzyme dosage of 30 FPU g/cellulose. The results presented here constitute an important contribution toward the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  17. Simultaneous production of trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice by an enzymatic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Chang, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Maw-Rong; Yang, Tzung-Jie; Yu, Nu-Yi; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2010-03-10

    Rice is a starch-rich raw material that can be used for trehalose production. It can be hydrolyzed with alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to produce high-maltose content of rice saccharified solution for bioconversion of maltose into trehalose by trehalose synthase (TSase). For this purpose, an efficient enzymatic procedure has been successfully developed to simultaneously produce value-added trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice as substrate. The highest maltose yield produced from the liquefied rice starch hydrolysate was 82.4 +/- 2.8% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 21-22 h. The trehalose conversion rate can reach at least 50% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 20-24 h by a novel thermostable recombinant Picrophilus torridus trehalose synthase (PTTS). All residual sugar, except trehalose, can be fully hydrolyzed by glucoamylase into glucose for further bioethanol production. The insoluble byproduct containing high yields of protein (75.99%) and dietary fiber (14.01%) can be processed as breakfast cereal product, health food, animal forage, etc. The conversion yield of bioethanol was about 98% after 64 h of fermentation time by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any artificial culture solution addition. Ethanol can easily be separated from trehalose by distillation with a high recovery yield and purity of crystalline trehalose of 92.5 +/- 8.7% and 92.3%, respectively.

  18. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  19. Macroscopic modelling of bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures supplemented with inorganic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, A; Ben Tahar, I; Hassouna, M; Bogaerts, Ph

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic nitrogen supplementation is commonly used to boost fermentation metabolism in yeast cultures. However, an excessive addition can induce an opposite effect. Hence, it is important to ensure that the ammonia supplemented to the culture leads to an improvement of the ethanol production while avoiding undesirable inhibition effects. To this end, a macroscopic model describing the influence of ammonia addition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism during bioethanol production from potato peel wastes has been developed. The model parameters are obtained by a simplified identification methodology in five steps. It is validated with experimental data and successfully predicts the dynamics of growth, substrate consumption (ammonia and fermentable sugar sources) and bioethanol production, even in cross validation. The model is used to determine the optimal quantity of supplemented ammonia required for maximizing bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures.

  20. Comparison of hydrophilic variation and bioethanol production of furfural residues after delignification pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lingxi; Tang, Yong; Xing, Yang; Zhang, Weiming; Shang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Furfural residue (FR) is a waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol production from FR after delignification was compared. Hydrophilic variation was measured by conductometric titration to detect the relationship between hydrophilicity and bioethanol production. It was found that ethanol yield increased as delignification enhanced, and it reached up to 75.6% of theoretical yield for samples with 8.7% lignin. The amount of by-products decreased as delignification increased. New inflection points appeared in conductometric titration curves of samples that were partially delignified, but they vanished in the curves of the highly delignified samples. Total charges and carboxyl levels increased after slight delignification, and they decreased upon further delignification. These phenomena suggested some new hydrophilic groups were formed during pretreated delignification, which would be beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, some newly formed groups may act as toxicant to the yeast during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

  1. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassav...

  2. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes

  3. Pretreatment optimization of the biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa for efficient bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Moon Geon; Shin, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Jong Deog

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae are considered to be the future promising sources of biofuels and bio products. The algal carbohydrates can be fermented to bioethanol after pretreatment process. Efficient pretreatment of the biomass is one of the major requirements for commercialization of the algal based biofuels. In present study the microalga, M. aeruginsa was used for pretreatment optimization and bioethanol production. Treatment of algal biomass with CaO before acid and/or enzymatic hydrolysis enhanced the degradation of algal cells. Monomeric sugars yield was increased more than twice when biomass was pretreated with CaO. Similarly, an increase was noted in the amount of fermentable sugars when biomass was subjected to invertase saccharification after acid or lysozyme pretreatment. Highest yield of fermentable sugars (16 mM/ml) in the centrifuged algal juice was obtained. 4 Different microorganisms' species were used individually and in combination for converting centrifuged algal juice to bioethanol. Comparatively higher yield of bioethanol (60 mM/ml) was obtained when the fermenter microorganisms were used in combination. The results demonstrated that M. arginase biomass can be efficiently pretreated to get higher yield of fermentable sugars for enhanced yield of bioethanol production.

  4. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. (author)

  5. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  6. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials (LCM are produced in large quantities and without clear application and their use as raw material for bioethanol production shows economic and ecologic benefits. LCM are composed mainly of three polymers: cellulose made up of glucose units, hemicellulose made up of several sugars (as xylose or arabinose, and lignin made up of phenylpropane units, interconnected in a strong structure. Pretreatment is an important step for bioethanol production from LCM, causing the solubilisation of hemicellulosic fraction (leading to the recovery of hemicellulose-derived saccharides in order to obtain a solid phase enriched in cellulose and more susceptible to enzymatic attack. This study provides a comparative data regarding the chemical composition of various LCM used for bioethanol production, as well as different pretreatment technologies for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of LCM.

  7. Feasibility of bioethanol production from tubers of Dioscorea sansibarensis and Pyrenacantha kaurabassana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Nyandele, Jane P; Ndossi, Humphrey P; Eva, Sosovele M; Hosea, Ken M

    2015-11-01

    Inedible tubers from Dioscorea sansibarensis (DS) and Pyrenacantha kaurabassana (PK) were found to be suitable feedstock for bioethanol production. Important composition parameters for bioethanol production for DS and PK are dry matter (% fresh tubers) ca. 20 and 6, total carbohydrates % dry weight base (db) ca. 68 and 47 and total protein (% db) ca. 16 and 10, respectively. DS and PK were found to contain inulin and galactomannan as principal polysaccharides (% of total carbohydrate) ca. 90 and 70, respectively. Diluted acid hydrolysis yielded ca. 100% of total reducing sugars. Ethanol yield ca. 56 and 35g/L was obtained at high efficiency through batch fermentation of acid hydrolysate (25% w/v) of DS and PK, respectively. A simple technique of recording and monitoring ethanol through CO2 generated during fermentation correlated strongly with HPLC measurement R(2)=0.99. Thus, tubers from these plants are potential feedstocks for bioethanol production with no competing uses.

  8. Improvement of saccharification process for bioethanol production from Undaria sp. by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Recently, many research works have reported on improvements to the saccharification process that increase bioethanol production from cellulosic materials. Gamma irradiation has been studied as an effective method for the depolymerization of complex polysaccharides. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on saccharification of Undaria biomass for bioethanol production was investigated. The Undaria biomass was irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy and then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid. The effects of gamma irradiation were measured through microscopic analysis to determine morphological changes and concentration of the reducing sugar of hydrolysates. Microscopic images show that gamma irradiation causes structure breakage of the Undaria cell wall. The concentration of reducing sugar of hydrolysates significantly increased as a result of gamma irradiation, with or without acid hydrolysis. These results indicate that the combined method of gamma irradiation with acid hydrolysis can significantly improve the saccharification process for bioethanol production from marine algae materials.

  9. An integral analysis for second generation bioethanol production via a dynamic model-based simulation approach: stochastic nonlinear optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    will show and provide further analysis for 2G bioethanol production, aiming to decrease and find a competitive bioethanol production cost that recently was set on $2.35 USD/gallon[5]. Thus, the application of the constructed modelling platform will allow and support the analysis and search of a more......,2,3]. Despite the reported progress and the promising results, however, at present this technology is not cost-competitive compared with first generation bioethanol production or fossil-fuels. Therefore, there is further room for optimisation of the technology and improvement of its cost......-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to perform an integral analysis for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock using a rigorous dynamic modelling approach for the whole process. The bioethanol production includes different sections such as, pre-treatment of the substrate, enzymatic hydrolysis...

  10. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  11. Enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production from Cynara cardunculus pretreated by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria C; Ferro, Miguel D; Paulino, Ana F C; Mendes, Joana A S; Gravitis, Janis; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2015-06-01

    The correct choice of the specific lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment allows obtaining high biomass conversions for biorefinery implementations and cellulosic bioethanol production from renewable resources. Cynara cardunculus (cardoon) pretreated by steam explosion (SE) was involved in second-generation bioethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes. Steam explosion pretreatment led to partial solubilisation of hemicelluloses and increased the accessibility of residual polysaccharides towards enzymatic hydrolysis revealing 64% of sugars yield against 11% from untreated plant material. Alkaline extraction after SE pretreatment of cardoon (CSEOH) promoted partial removal of degraded lignin, tannins, extractives and hemicelluloses thus allowing to double glucose concentration upon saccharification step. Bioethanol fermentation in SSF mode was faster than SHF process providing the best results: ethanol concentration 18.7 g L(-1), fermentation efficiency of 66.6% and a yield of 26.6g ethanol/100 g CSEOH or 10.1 g ethanol/100 g untreated cardoon.

  12. Comparison of different pretreatments for the production of bioethanol and biomethane from corn stover and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, G; Rodriguez, S; George, A; Schievano, A; Orzi, V; Sale, K L; Singh, S; Adani, F; Simmons, B A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the efficiency of mild ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment and pressurized hot water (PHW) is evaluated and compared in terms of bioethanol and biomethane yields, with corn stover (CS) and switchgrass (SG) as model bioenergy crops. Both feedstocks pretreated with the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im][OAc] at 100°C for 3h exhibited lower glucose yield that those treated with harsher pretreatment conditions previously used. Compared to PHW, IL pretreatment demonstrated higher bioethanol yields; moreover IL pretreatment enhanced biomethane production. Taking into consideration both bioethanol and biomethane productions, results indicated that when using IL pretreatment, the total energy produced per kg of total solids was higher compared to untreated biomasses. Specifically energy produced from CS and SG was +18.6% and +34.5% respectively, as compared to those obtained by hot water treatment, i.e. +2.3% and +23.4% for CS and SG, respectively.

  13. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  14. Analysis of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bioethanol production in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Birch-Thomsen, Torben;

    The present project is covered in five main reports: 1) Analyses of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bio-ethanol production in Mali 2) Agricultural residues for energy production in Mali 3) Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw 4) Estimation of wind...

  15. Toxicological challenges to microbial bioethanol production and strategies for improved tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinosho, Hannah; Rydzak, Thomas; Borole, Abhijeet; Ragauskas, Arthur; Close, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Bioethanol production output has increased steadily over the last two decades and is now beginning to become competitive with traditional liquid transportation fuels due to advances in engineering, the identification of new production host organisms, and the development of novel biodesign strategies. A significant portion of these efforts has been dedicated to mitigating the toxicological challenges encountered across the bioethanol production process. From the release of potentially cytotoxic or inhibitory compounds from input feedstocks, through the metabolic co-synthesis of ethanol and potentially detrimental byproducts, and to the potential cytotoxicity of ethanol itself, each stage of bioethanol production requires the application of genetic or engineering controls that ensure the host organisms remain healthy and productive to meet the necessary economies required for large scale production. In addition, as production levels continue to increase, there is an escalating focus on the detoxification of the resulting waste streams to minimize their environmental impact. This review will present the major toxicological challenges encountered throughout each stage of the bioethanol production process and the commonly employed strategies for reducing or eliminating potential toxic effects.

  16. A promising low beta-glucan barley mutation of m351 for better bioethanol production use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is an important liquid fuel complement. Barley is an alternative raw material for ethanol production and its byproduct is a nutritious feed. The barley m351mutant line, which has a mutation for low beta-glucan content, was tested for its ethanol production efficiency and feed fraction qua...

  17. Integration of chlorogenic acid recovery and bioethanol production from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Cenian, Katarzyna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an abundant by-product of the coffee industry with a complex composition that makes them a promising feedstock for a biorefinery. The objective of this study was to evaluate SCG as a substrate for combined chlorogenic acid and bioethanol production after dilute acid...

  18. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines, b

  19. LCA of bioethanol and furfural production from vetiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2015-06-01

    In this study a prospective life cycle assessment of biorefinery system from vetiver leaves was carried out to know the environmental benefits of this system over conventional systems considering the geographical context of India. The composition of vetiver leaves from the experimental analysis revealed that vetiver is rich in cellulose (32.6%), hemicellulose (31.5%) and lignin (17.3%) that could be used as a feedstock for biorefinery. The comparative life cycle assessment results show that the carbon dioxide emission and fossil oil depletion could be reduced by 95% and 23% respectively in case of standalone bioethanol system, and 99% and 17% respectively in case of bioethanol and furfural system compared to that of conventional petrol and furfural systems. The sensitivity study indicates that the impact could be further reduced if vetiver biomass is used as a source of energy in biorefinery plant instead to the coal.

  20. Bioethanol production from sweet potato using Saccharomyces diastaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Suryani, Irma; Pradia Paundradewa, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sweet potato contains about 16 to 40% dry matter and about 70-90% of the dry matter is a carbohydrate made up of starch, sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin so suitable for used as raw material for bioethanol. In this study focused on the manufacture of bioethanol with changes in temperature and concentration variations of yeast with sweet potato raw materials used yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus. Operating variables used are at a temperature of 30°C; 31,475°C; 35°C; 38,525°C; and 40°C with a yeast concentration of 25.9%; 30%; 40%; 50% and 54.1%. The experimental results obtained, the optimum conditions of ethanol fermentation with yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus on 36,67 °C temperature and yeast concentration of 43,43 % v / v.

  1. Thermophilic amylase from Thermus sp. isolation and its potential application for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Fatoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited reserves of fossil energy stimulate researchers to explore for a new alternative energy, such as bioethanol.A thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot-springs and its characteristic and potential applicationfor bioethanol production was determined. The obtained amylase was studied to determine its optimum temperature, pH,enzymatic reaction time, and substrate concentration. Tapioca waste was used as the substrate to find the potential of theamylase for degrading starch into glucose, and then the process was continued by fermentation to produce bioethanol. Theamylase producer bacterium was proposed as genus Thermus sp. The crude amylase that was obtained has the optimumtemperature of 60°C and optimum pH of 8.0, optimum substrate concentration at 10% (w/w and optimum enzymatic reactiontime of 45 minutes. These enzymes convert the starches of waste tapioca at optimum conditions, with the result of 2.9%ethanol produced from raw materials.

  2. Challenges for the production of bioethanol from biomass using recombinant yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, William; Fitzpatrick, James; Bond, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulose biomass, one of the most abundant renewable resources on the planet, is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second-generation biofuels. Energy in the form of simple or complex carbohydrates can be extracted from lignocellulose biomass and fermented by microorganisms to produce bioethanol. Despite 40 years of active and cutting-edge research invested into the development of technologies to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, the process remains commercially unviable. This review describes the achievements that have been made in generating microorganisms capable of utilizing both simple and complex sugars from lignocellulose biomass and the fermentation of these sugars into ethanol. We also provide a discussion on the current "roadblocks" standing in the way of making second-generation bioethanol a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuels.

  3. Recycling of cellulases in a continuous process for production of bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard

    The focus of the work presented in this thesis is recycling of commercial enzymes in a continuous process for production of bioethanol from biomass. To get a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the potential for enzyme recycling, the interactions between enzymes and biomass......, the adsorption and desorption as well as stability and recovery of activity was investigated. More knowledge on these factors have enabled a process adapted for enzyme recycling. The driver being that enzyme consumption remains a major cost when producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Unlike previous...

  4. Repeated-batch operation of surface-aerated fermentor for bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of seaweed Sargassum sagamianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Eun; Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyoen-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of sustainable long-term bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of a brown seaweed, Sargassum sagamianum. Because the hydrolysate was prepared as a liquid solution using a hightemperature liquefying system, a repeated-batch operation was utilized as the operational strategy for bioethanol production. Additionally, we used surface aeration to improve bioethanol production from the hydrolysate containing C5 monosaccharides such as xylose. In this study, the C5 monosaccharide-utilizable yeast strain Pichia stipitis was used for bioethanol production. Therefore, based on this repeated-batch flask culture, we designed a surface-aerated repeated-batch fermentor culture, in which the aeration was finely controlled at 100 ml/min and delivered into the headspace of a 2.5-l fermentor. When the medium was replaced every 48 h, bioethanol was continuously produced for 200 h under repeated-batch fermentor culture, where the level of bioethanol production was about 9~10 (g/l). Additionally, the bioethanol yield based on the reducing sugar was about 0.386, which was the average value throughout four consecutive cultures and was about 74.5% of the theoretical value. In addition, the bioethanol yield based on quantitative TLC analyses of glucose and xylose was about 0.431, which was the average value throughout four consecutive cultures and was about 84.3% of theoretical value. Consequently, throughout this repeated-batch operation, we demonstrated that it was actually feasible to produce bioethanol from the hydrolysate of seaweed S. sagamianum. In addition, the approach described here is a practical strategy for commercial bioethanol production from seaweed, particularly for finely controlling aeration through surface aeration.

  5. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Velazquez-Marti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioethanol based on direct measurements of Brix grades, instead of the concentration of alcohol, during the process of cane juice bio-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This avoids the application of expensive sensors that increase the investment costs. Fermentation experiments with three concentrations of yeast and two temperatures were carried out in a laboratory reactor. In each case Brix grades, amount of ethanol and alcoholic degree were measured. A mathematical model to predict the quality and production of bioethanol was developed from Brix grade measurements, obtaining an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.97. The model was validated in a pilot plant.

  6. Continuous bioethanol production from oilseed rape straw hydrosylate using immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Crook, Mitch; Chaney, Keith; Humphries, Andrea Clare

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate continuous bioethanol production from oilseed rape (OSR) straw hydrolysate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilised in Lentikat® discs. The study evaluated the effect of dilution rate (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 h(-1)), substrate concentration (15, 22, 40 and 60 g L(-1)) and cell loading (0.03, 0.16 and 0.24 g d.c.w.mL(-1) Lentikat®) on bioethanol production. Volumetric productivity was found to increase with increasing substrate concentration from 15 g L(-1) to 60 g L(-1). A maximum volumetric productivity of 12.88 g L(-1)h(-1) was achieved at a substrate concentration of 60 g L(-1) and at a dilution rate of 0.5h(-1). An overall mass balance for bioethanol production was created to determine the energy recovery from bioethanol and concluded that a biorefinery approach might be the most appropriate option for maximising the energy recovery from OSR straw.

  7. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    species interactions as a response to the actual growing conditions observed which is not achieved with sole cropping of one species/cultivar. It is also concluded that when growing pea as a sole cropping available soil mineral N reduce N{sub 2} fixation and the full potential of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is not exploited which is regarded as an overall inefficient use of N sources. Using clover-grass intercropping raw materials, as another potential species combination with equivalent field responses to e.g. pea-wheat intercropping, conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments show that wet oxidation is an efficient method for fractionating clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures into a convertible solid cellulose fraction and a soluble hemicellulose fraction. The highest yield of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis is achieved in clover-grass (mixed 1:1) pretreated at 195 deg. C for 10 minutes using 12 bar oxygen. The optimum pretreatment conditions for clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures is not significantly different from that of wheat, which indicates that wheat straw and clover-grass (from intercropping) could be pretreated in one step. The produced sugars were converted into ethanol by Mucor indicus giving good ethanol yields Y{sub E/TS,Aerobic} = 0.37 and Y{sub E/TS,oxygen} {sub li} It is also concluded that fructans from unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing the ethanol production significantly. Using field data and biomass conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments a decentralized biorefinery concept for co-production of bioethanol and biogas is described with strong emphasis on sustainability, localness and recycling principles. (au)

  8. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4) were investigated. Each acid were used at...

  9. Continuous recycling of enzymes during production of lignocellulosic bioethanol in demonstration scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard; Lindedam, Jane; Jeppesen, Martin D.;

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of enzymes in production of lignocellulosic bioethanol has been tried for more than 30 years. So far, the successes have been few and the experiments have been carried out at conditions far from those in an industrially feasible process. Here we have tested continuous enzyme recycling a...

  10. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CELLULOSE IN RED ALGAE Gracilaria verrucosa BY SEPARATED HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM USING Trichoderma viride AND Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Ahyar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, renewable marine cellulose from red algae Gracilaria verrucosa was utilized for the production of bioethanol. Bioethanol from the red alga cellulose was produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation methods and the conversion value of the cellulose in Gracilaria verrucosa was estimated. Trichoderma viride fungus and Zymomonas mobilis bacterium were used for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol fermentation, r...

  11. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic...

  12. One-Pot dry chemo-mechanical deconstruction for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Licari, A; Solhy, A; Aboulkas, A; Cacciaguerra, T; Barakat, A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was the application of an innovative dry chemo-mechanical pretreatment using different mechanical stresses to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The effect of different milling methods on physicochemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis, bioethanol production and energy efficiency was also evaluated. SB was pretreated with NaOH and H3PO4 at high materials concentration (5 kg/L). Results indicate that vibratory milling (VBM) was more effective in the reduction of particles size and cellulose crystallinity compared to centrifugal (CM) and ball (BM) milling. NaOH pretreatment coupling to BM and VBM was preferred to enhance glucose yields and bioethanol production, while CM consumed less energy compared to BM and VBM. Moreover, the highest energy efficiency (η=0.116 kg glucose/kWh) was obtained with NaOH-CM. Therefore, the combination of dry NaOH and CM appears the most suitable and interesting pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from SB.

  13. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  14. Switchgrass-Based Bioethanol Productivity and Potential Environmental Impact from Marginal Lands in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass displays an excellent potential to serve as a non-food bioenergy feedstock for bioethanol production in China due to its high potential yield on marginal lands. However, few studies have been conducted on the spatial distribution of switchgrass-based bioethanol production potential in China. This study created a land surface process model (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate GIS (Geographic Information System-based (GEPIC model coupled with a life cycle analysis (LCA to explore the spatial distribution of potential bioethanol production and present a comprehensive analysis of energy efficiency and environmental impacts throughout its whole life cycle. It provides a new approach to study the bioethanol productivity and potential environmental impact from marginal lands based on the high spatial resolution GIS data, and this applies not only to China, but also to other regions and to other types of energy plant. The results indicate that approximately 59 million ha of marginal land in China are suitable for planting switchgrass, and 22 million tons of ethanol can be produced from this land. Additionally, a potential net energy gain (NEG of 1.75 x 106 million MJ will be achieved if all of the marginal land can be used in China, and Yunnan Province offers the most significant one that accounts for 35% of the total. Finally, this study obtained that the total environmental effect index of switchgrass-based bioethanol is the equivalent of a population of approximately 20,300, and a reduction in the global warming potential (GWP is the most significant environmental impact.

  15. Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rice Flour with Batch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sari Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid waste rice flour is abundant liquid wastes but it is still underutilized. So far, it is only used for process water in factory production, wastewater, and even regarded as environment pollution. Rice flour liquid waste has higher levels of glucose, starch and protein which can be used as one of ethanol producers. This study aims to assess the process of hydrolysis, fermentation, and batch distillation process, as well as to search for alternative raw materials products of bioethanol. There are three processes of making bioethanol, namely biological hydrolysis process done by using bacillus; the process of fermentation by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; and batch distillation. After the third process was done, the results were: glucose is 5% - 10% in the process of hydrolysis; ethanol content is 11% - 16% in the fermentation process; and the levels are high enough for bio-ethanol, which is 95% - 96% in the batch distillation process. So it can be concluded that the liquid waste of rice flour can be used as raw materials for the manufacture of alternative bioethanol.

  16. Sequential co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol with spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-05-01

    The sequential co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel from spent coffee grounds was investigated. The direct conversion of bioethanol from spent coffee grounds was not found to be a desirable option because of the relatively slow enzymatic saccharification behavior in the presence of triglycerides and the free fatty acids (FFAs) found to exist in the raw materials. Similarly, the direct transformation of the spent coffee grounds into ethanol without first extracting lipids was not found to be a feasible alternative. However, the crude lipids extracted from the spent coffee grounds were themselves converted into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the non-catalytic biodiesel transesterification reaction. The yields of bioethanol and biodiesel were 0.46 g g(-1) and 97.5±0.5%, which were calculated based on consumed sugar and lipids extracted from spent coffee grounds respectively. Thus, this study clearly validated our theory that spent coffee grounds could be a strong candidate for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel.

  17. Fractionation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by bisulfite pretreatment for the production of bioethanol and high value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Wang, Meimei; Li, Xuezhi; Li, Hongxing; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, fractionation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) by bisulfite pretreatment was studied for the production of bioethanol and high value products to achieve biorefinery of EFB. EFB was fractionated to solid and liquor components by bisulfite process. The solid components were used for bioethanol production by quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The liquor components were then converted to furfural by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. Preliminary results showed that the concentration of furfural was highest at 18.8g/L with 0.75% sulfuric acid and reaction time of 25min. The conversion of xylose to furfural was 82.5%. Furthermore, we attempted to fractionate the liquor into hemicellulose sugars and lignin by different methods for producing potential chemicals, such as xylose, xylooligosaccharide, and lignosulfonate. Our research showed that the combination of bisulfite pretreatment and resin separation could effectively fractionate EFB components to produce bioethanol and other high value chemicals.

  18. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples were prepared to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol yield, the pH was kept constant at 4.5. The ethanol concentrations were determined by running the samples in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that at highest ethanol concentration was obtained pH 4.5 and temperature 350C. This indicated that pH 4.5 and 350C was the optimum parameter for the yeast to produce ethanol.

  19. 1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    "1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use" Liquid bio fuels are perceived as a means of mitigating CO2 emissions from transport and thus climate change, but much concern has been raised to the energy consumption from refining biomass...... to liquid fuels. Integrating technologies such that waste stream can be used will reduce energy consumption in the production of bioethanol from wheat. We show that the integration of bio refining and combined heat an power generation reduces process energy requirements with 30-40 % and makes bioethanol...

  20. 1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    with the poorest bio synthesis efficiency and as such the area demand for their production is relatively high. Preservation of the proteins in the biomass such as in feed by-products from bioethanol production is of paramount importance in developing sustainable utilisation of biomass in the energy sector......."1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use" Liquid bio fuels are perceived as a means of mitigating CO2 emissions from transport and thus climate change, but much concern has been raised to the energy consumption from refining biomass...... to liquid fuels. Integrating technologies such that waste stream can be used will reduce energy consumption in the production of bioethanol from wheat. We show that the integration of bio refining and combined heat an power generation reduces process energy requirements with 30-40 % and makes bioethanol...

  1. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen.

  2. Bioethanol Production from Coconut Fiber Using Alkaline Pretreatment and Acid Hydrolysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asyeni Miftahul Jannah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supporting Indonesia government program to decrease fuel consumption, using renewable energy such of bioethanol is one of the best ways. This research was done in order to utilize agriculture waste (coconut fiber as raw material to produce bioetanol. However, coconut fiber contents lignin that will inhibit conversion process of glucose into ethanol. In this research, pretreatment steps aim to release and breakdown lignin in coconut fiber. Pretreatment was conducted by using alkaline method with 3% Sodium Hydroxide solution. Hydrolysis method was used to produce glucose by using Sulfuric Acid solution with various concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4 % while in fermentation process used Saccharomyces cerevisiae with various times (5, 7, 9, and 11 days and distillation used to get pure product of bioethanol. The results showed that higher H2SO4 concentration using on hydrolysis process made more glucose converted to bioethanol. The highest bioethanol content produced was 5.9420% from sample of 4% H2SO4 in 7 days of fermentation.

  3. Temperature Optimization for Bioethanol Production from Corn Cobs Using Mixed Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence S. Yah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dilute sulphuric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were used for sugar extraction. Xylose and glucose sugars were obtained from corn cobs. Approach: Acid hydrolysis of corn cobs gave higher amount of sugars than enzymatic hydrolysis. Results: The results showed that optimal temperature and time for sugar fermentation were approximately 25°C and 50 h by two yeast strains (S. cerevisiae and P. Stipitis respectively. At 20 and 40°C, less bioethanol was produced. Bioethanol produced at 25°C was 11.99 mg mL-1, while at 40 and 20°C were 2.50 and 6.40 mg mL-1 respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Data obtained revealed that xylose level decreased from 27.87-3.92 mg mL-1 during the first 50 h of fermentation and complete metabolism of glucose was observed during this time. Xylose and bioethanol levels remained constant after 50 h. Varying the temperature of the fermentation process improves the effective utilization of corn cobs sugars for bioethanol production can be achieved.

  4. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  5. Biorefinery of corn cob for microbial lipid and bio-ethanol production: An environmental friendly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    Microbial lipid and bio-ethanol were co-generated by an integrated process using corn cob bagasse as raw material. After pretreatment, the acid hydrolysate was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the solid residue was further enzymatic hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production. The effect of acid loading and pretreatment time on microbial lipid and ethanol production were evaluated. Under the optimized condition for ethanol production, ∼131.3g of ethanol and ∼11.5g of microbial lipid were co-generated from 1kg raw material. On this condition, ∼71.6% of the overall fermentable sugars in corn cob bagasse could be converted into valuable products. At the same time, at least 33% of the initial COD in the acid hydrolysate was depredated.

  6. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka

    2010-09-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  7. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  8. Production of 2nd generation Bioethanol from Lucerne - Optimization of Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has many qualities associated with sustainable agriculture such as nitrogen fixation and high biomass yield. Therefore, there is interest in whether lucerne is a suitable biomass substrate for bioethanol production, and if hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT) of lucerne...... improves enzymatic convertibility, providing sufficient enzymatic conversion of carbohydrate to simple sugars for ethanol production. The HTT process was optimised for lucerne hay, and the pretreated biomass was assessed by carbohydrate analysis, inhibitor characterisation of liquid phases...

  9. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared.

  10. Current progress in high cell density yeast bioprocesses for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johan O; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2015-08-01

    High capital costs and low reaction rates are major challenges for establishment of fermentation-based production systems in the bioeconomy. Using high cell density cultures is an efficient way to increase the volumetric productivity of fermentation processes, thereby enabling faster and more robust processes and use of smaller reactors. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the application of high cell density yeast bioprocesses for first and second generation bioethanol production. High biomass concentrations obtained by retention of yeast cells in the reactor enables easier cell reuse, simplified product recovery and higher dilution rates in continuous processes. High local cell density cultures, in the form of encapsulated or strongly flocculating yeast, furthermore obtain increased tolerance to convertible fermentation inhibitors and utilize glucose and other sugars simultaneously, thereby overcoming two additional hurdles for second generation bioethanol production. These effects are caused by local concentration gradients due to diffusion limitations and conversion of inhibitors and sugars by the cells, which lead to low local concentrations of inhibitors and glucose. Quorum sensing may also contribute to the increased stress tolerance. Recent developments indicate that high cell density methodology, with emphasis on high local cell density, offers significant advantages for sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  11. Technology Evaluation of Process Configurations for Second Generation Bioethanol Production using Dynamic Model-based Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a number of different process flowsheets for bioethanol production was performed using dynamic model-based simulations. The evaluation employed diverse operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. Each configuration was evaluated...... in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol /kg dry-biomass....... against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results has shown the process configuration for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operating...

  12. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Grown in Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of bioethanol production using the juice of sugarcane grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils. The results suggest that the sugar concentration was not adversely affected when the sugarcane was grown in the heavy metal-contaminated soil. Although the juice of sugarcane grown in contaminated soil contained elevated levels of heavy metals, sugar fermentation and ethanol production were not adversely affected when five selected yeast species were used to mediate the processes. The preliminary research findings obtained from this study have implications for developing cost-effective technologies for simultaneous bioethanol production and soil clean-up using heavy metal-contaminated soils for energy sugarcane farming.

  13. Performance Assessment of SOFC Systems Integrated with Bio-Ethanol Production and Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall electrical efficiencies of the integrated systems of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and bio-ethanol production with purification processes at different heat integration levels were investigated. The simulation studies were based on the condition with zero net energy. It was found that the most suitable operating voltage is between 0.7 and 0.85 V and the operating temperature is in the range from 973 to 1173 K. For the effect of percent ethanol recovery, the optimum percent ethanol recovery is at 95%. The most efficient case is the system with full heat integration between SOFC and bio-ethanol production and purification processes with biogas reformed for producing extra hydrogen feed for SOFC which has the overall electrical efficiency = 36.17%. However more equipment such as reformer and heat exchangers are required and this leads to increased investment cost.

  14. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Nazarpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatment were first determined by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction and their best condition obtained with 1 mm particle size and 90 days pretreatment. Further morphological study on rubberwood with 1 mm particle size pretreated by fungus was performed by FT-IR spectra analysis and SEM observation and the result indicated the ability of this fungus for pretreatment. A study on enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in an increased sugar yield of 27.67% as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%. The maximum ethanol concentration and yield were 17.9 g/L and 53% yield, respectively, after 120 hours. The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood pretreated by C. subvermispora can be used as an alternative material for the enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

  15. Comparison of red microalgae (Porphyridium cruentum) culture conditions for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Oh, Chi Hoon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-02-12

    Microalgae biomass are useful resources in biofuel production. The objective of this study was to evaluate bioethanol production in response to Porphyridium cruemtum culture conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of seawater P. cruemtum (SPC) and freshwater P. cruemtum (FPC, 1% substrate loading, w/v) resulted in glucose conversion yields of 89.8 and 85.3%, respectively, without any pretreatment. However, FPC hydrolysate was more efficiently converted to ethanol about 7.1% than SPC hydrolysate. The comparison of separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) showed that SSF processing is a superior method for bioethanol production from both SPC and FPC. Though SSF processing (5% substrate loading, w/v) in a 500-mL twin-neck round bottom flask, we achieved ethanol conversion yields of 65.4 and 70.3% from SPC and FPC, respectively, after 9h. These findings indicate that P. cruemtum can grow in freshwater conditions and is an efficient candidate for bioethanol production.

  16. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem.

  17. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2007-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas.In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas...

  18. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-12-30

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/α, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP.

  19. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation conditions for improved bioethanol production from potato peel residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taher, Imen; Fickers, Patrick; Chniti, Sofien; Hassouna, Mnasser

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this work was the optimization of the enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues (PPR) for bioethanol production. The process included a pretreatment step followed by an enzyme hydrolysis using crude enzyme system composed of cellulase, amylase and hemicellulase, produced by a mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. Hydrothermal, alkali and acid pretreatments were considered with regards to the enhancement of enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues. The obtained results showed that hydrothermal pretreatment lead to a higher enzyme hydrolysis yield compared to both acid and alkali pretreatments. Enzyme hydrolysis was also optimized for parameters such as temperature, pH, substrate loading and surfactant loading using a response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions, 77 g L(-1) of reducing sugars were obtained. Yeast fermentation of the released reducing sugars led to an ethanol titer of 30 g L(-1) after supplementation of the culture medium with ammonium sulfate. Moreover, a comparative study between acid and enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues was investigated. Results showed that enzyme hydrolysis offers higher yield of bioethanol production than acid hydrolysis. These results highlight the potential of second generation bioethanol production from potato peel residues treated with onsite produced hydrolytic enzymes. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2016.

  20. Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Lozano, L.J.; Godinez, C.; Juan, D.; Perez, A.; Hernandez, F.J. [Technical University of Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, C/Dr. Fleming S/N, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (R = 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90 C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700 rpm for 420 min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30 C, 125 rpm, 200 g/L of sugars and 15 g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95 g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24 h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process. (author)

  1. Development of a novel sequential pretreatment strategy for the production of bioethanol from sugarcane trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavi, Subbiah; Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Gnansounou, Edgard; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    A novel sequential pretreatment strategy using biodiesel industry generated waste glycerol assisted transition metal and alkali pretreatment of sugarcane trash were developed for the production of bioethanol. Various process parameters affecting pretreatment as well as hydrolysis were optimized by adopting a Taguchi design. This novel method was found to be superior when compared to conventional pretreatment strategies like acid and alkali in removing hemicelluloses and lignin and the hydrolyzate is devoid of major fermentation inhibitors like organic acids and furfurals. Physico-chemical changes of the native and the pretreated biomass were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Under optimized hydrolysis conditions 0.796 g of reducing sugar (pentoses and hexoses) per g of dry biomass after saccharification was produced. Fermentation of the non-detoxified hydrolyzate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 31.928 g of bioethanol per g of dry biomass with an efficiency of 78.89%.

  2. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of different pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic-based bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, André Rodrigues Gurgel; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a method based on process synthesis, simulation and evaluation has been used to setup and study the industrial scale lignocellulosic bioethanol productions processes. Scenarios for pretreatment processes of diluted acid, liquid hot water and ammonia fiber explosion were studied. Pretreatment reactor temperature, catalyst loading and water content as well as solids loading in the hydrolysis reactor were evaluated regarding its effects on the process energy consumption and bioethanol concentration. The best scenarios for maximizing ethanol concentration and minimizing total annual costs (TAC) were selected and their minimum ethanol selling price was calculated. Ethanol concentration in the range of 2-8% (wt.) was investigated after the pretreatment. The best scenarios maximizing the ethanol concentration and minimizing TAC obtained a reduction of 19.6% and 30.2% respectively in the final ethanol selling price with respect to the initial base case.

  4. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) comparison of three management options for waste papers: bioethanol production, recycling and incineration with energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Templer, Richard; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-09-01

    This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental profiles and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for bioethanol production from waste papers and to compare them with the alternative waste management options of recycling or incineration with energy recovery. Bioethanol production scenarios both with and without pre-treatments were conducted. It was found that an oxidative lime pre-treatment reduced GHG emissions and overall environmental burdens for a newspaper-to-bioethanol process whereas a dilute acid pre-treatment raised GHG emissions and overall environmental impacts for an office paper-to-bioethanol process. In the comparison of bioethanol production systems with alternative management of waste papers by different technologies, it was found that the environmental profiles of each system vary significantly and this variation affects the outcomes of the specific comparisons made. Overall, a number of configurations of bioethanol production from waste papers offer environmentally favourable or neutral profiles when compared with recycling or incineration.

  5. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, A.F.

    2013-05-15

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol production from xylose, an ethanol yield of 1.39 mol mol-1 xylose was obtained. This represents 83 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from xylose and is to date the highest reported value for a native, not genetically modified microorganism. The bacterium was identified as a new member of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, named Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and was subsequently used to investigate some of the factors that influence secondgeneration bioethanol production, such as initial substrate concentration and sensitivity to inhibitors. Furthermore, T. pentosaceus was used to develop and optimize bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass using a range of different approaches, including combination with other microorganisms and immobilization of the cells. T. pentosaceus could produce ethanol from a wide range of substrates without the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract and vitamins to the medium. It was initially sensitive to concentrations of 10 g l-1 of xylose and 1 % (v/v) ethanol. However, long term repeated batch cultivation showed that the strain

  6. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  7. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Yields and Potential for Bioethanol Production under Irrigation Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona C. BÂRSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to analyse three sugar beet genotypes regarding to the economic yield and the potential to produce bioethanol, under the influence of furrow irrigation regime in specific conditions of Transylvanian Plain, North-West Romania. The research factors, genotype (‘Leila’, ‘Clementina’ and ‘Libero’ and irrigation regime were studied within a polyfactorial experimental design. The results obtained indicated that in specific climatic conditions of Transylvanian Plain, ‘Libero’ genotype had a great performance and produced the highest yields. The average production of ‘Libero’ genotype was superior than ‘Clementina’ and ‘Leila’ varieties, both in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, as it follows: 38.98 t ha–1, respectively, 52.72 t ha–1 in the first year of research; 47.63 t ha–1, respectively, 59.73 t ha–1 (in the second year; 2014-60.87 t ha–1, respectively, 74.43 t ha–1 (in the third year. Moreover, the production increased with 11.5% under irrigated conditions for all the studied genotypes. The results also revealed the positive influence of the irrigation regime on the qualitative parameters of the bioethanol (ethanol, higher saturated monoalcohols, methanol, water, inorganic chloride, cooper, phosphorous, sulphur etc. indicating that the obtained bioethanol might be a viable alternative for fossil fuels.

  8. Recycle bioreactor for bioethanol production from wheat starch. 2. Fermentation and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, X.; Hill, G.A.; MacDonald, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Bioethanol has been produced using sugars from cold hydrolysis of pure wheat starch, sterile wheat flour, and unsterile wheat flour. The conversion of sugars to ethanol from pure starch reached 96% of the theoretical maximum while that from sterile wheat flour was 69% and from unsterile wheat flour only 35%. These data indicate that sequential hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat flour is not feasible. However, the simultaneous cold hydrolysis and fermentation of both wheat starch and wheat flour proved successful. Both sugar sources produced 95% of the theoretical maximum amount of ethanol. The process could be repeated in a sequential batch fashion for over 110 h of operation, achieving high ethanol yields in each run. A scale-up design of bioethanol production using sequential batch, simultaneous cold starch hydrolysis, and fermentation indicates that this process would be economically feasible. High levels of revenue are generated from both the bioethanol and the byproduct: food-grade wheat gluten. The payback period is predicted to be < 2 years with a discounted cash flow rate of return of 46%. (author)

  9. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgakakis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4 were investigated. Each acid were used at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C. Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars with higher rates, while the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass was significantly affected by the acid concentration used for the saccharification of the carbohydrates. The highest bioethanol yields of 16.32% ± 0.90% (gEtOH/gBiomass and 16.27% ± 0.97% (gEtOH/gBiomass were obtained in hydrolysates produced with HNO3 0.5 N and H2SO4 0.5 N, respectively.

  10. Comparison of different process strategies for bioethanol production from Eucheuma cottonii: An economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Inn Shi; Lee, Keat Teong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of red macroalgae Eucheuma cottonii (EC) as feedstock for third-generation bioethanol production. Dowex (TM) Dr-G8 was explored as a potential solid catalyst to hydrolyzed carbohydrates from EC or macroalgae extract (ME) and pretreatment of macroalgae cellulosic residue (MCR), to fermentable sugars prior to fermentation process. The highest total sugars were produced at 98.7 g/L when 16% of the ME was treated under the optimum conditions of solid acid hydrolysis (8% (w/v) Dowex (TM) Dr-G8, 120°C, 1h) and 2% pretreated MCR (P-MCR) treated by enzymatic hydrolysis (pH 4.8, 50°C, 30 h). A two-stream process resulted in 11.6g/L of bioethanol from the fermentation of ME hydrolysates and 11.7 g/L from prehydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of P-MCR. The fixed price of bioethanol obtained from the EC is competitive with that obtained from other feedstocks.

  11. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera.

  12. Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marina O S; da Cunha, Marcelo Pereira; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V

    2011-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore, the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol production process, may be used as fuels, increasing the amount of surplus bagasse. In this work, simulations of the integrated bioethanol production process from sugarcane, surplus bagasse and trash were carried out. Selected pre-treatment methods followed, or not, by a delignification step were evaluated. The amount of lignocellulosic materials available for hydrolysis in each configuration was calculated assuming that 50% of sugarcane trash is recovered from the field. An economic risk analysis was carried out; the best results for the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process were obtained for steam explosion pretreatment, high solids loading for hydrolysis and 24-48 h hydrolysis. The second generation ethanol production process must be improved (e.g., decreasing required investment, improving yields and developing pentose fermentation to ethanol) in order for the integrated process to be more economically competitive.

  13. The Development of Materials for the Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pilar; Ramírez; de; la; Piscina; Narcís; Homs

    2007-01-01

    1 Results There is an increased interest in the hydrogen production from renewable sources. In this context, recently, numerous studies which use ethanol for hydrogen production have appeared. Ethanol is easily handled, non-toxic, and it can be obtained from biomass. The steam-reforming of bioethanol has been shown to beeffective for hydrogen production:C2H5OH + 3 H2O  6 H2 + 2 CO2. Six moles of hydrogen can be yielded for each mole of ethanol reacted. However, depending on the catalyst used, other und...

  14. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, John A; Patel, Akshay D; Roes, Alexander; Blok, Kornelis; Faaij, André P C; Patel, Martin K

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines, by means of a multi-criteria approach, quantitative and qualitative proxy indicators describing economic, environmental, health and safety and operational aspects. Of twelve derivatives considered, five were categorized as favorable (diethyl ether, 1,3-butadiene, ethyl acetate, propylene and ethylene), two as promising (acetaldehyde and ethylene oxide) and five as unfavorable derivatives (acetic acid, n-butanol, isobutylene, hydrogen and acetone) for an integrated biorefinery concept.

  15. Optimization of Bioethanol Production Using Whole Plant of Water Hyacinth as Substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Weng, Chen; Huang, Huiqin; Achal, Varenyam; Wang, Duanchao

    2015-01-01

    Water hyacinth was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the present study. Combination of acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was the most effective process for sugar production that resulted in the production of 402.93 mg reducing sugar at optimal condition. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to response surface method in saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87°C in 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast, where 1.291 g/L bioethanol was produced. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced during experimentation, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this research. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  16. Long-term production of bioethanol in repeated-batch fermentation of microalgal biomass using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dalatony, Marwa M; Kurade, Mayur B; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kim, Hoo; Salama, El-Sayed; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-11-01

    Separate hydrolysis fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) processes were studied for bioethanol production from microalgal biomass. SSF was selected as an efficient process to enhance the bioethanol yield through repeated-batches using immobilized yeast cells. Combined sonication and enzymatic hydrolysis of Chlamydomonas mexicana generated 10.5 and 8.48g/L of ethanol in SSF and SHF, respectively. Yeast utilized maximum portion of total reducing sugar (TRS) reaching a consumption efficiency of 91-98%. A bioethanol yield of 0.5g/g (88.2% of theoretical yield) and volumetric productivity of 0.22g/L/h was obtained after 48h of SSF. Immobilized yeast cells enabled repetitive production of ethanol for 7 cycles displaying a fermentation efficiency up to 79% for five consecutive cycles. The maximum ethanol production was 9.7g/L in 2nd-4th cycles. A total energy recovery of 85.81% was achieved from microalgal biomass in the form of bioethanol. Repeated-batch SSF demonstrated the possibility of cost-effective bioethanol production.

  17. Production of bioethanol and associated by-products from potato starch residue stream by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Mohamed [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Biological Science Department, P.O. Box 10255, Abha 61321 (Saudi Arabia); Darwish, Soumia M.I. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University (Egypt)

    2010-07-15

    Potato starch residue stream produced during chips manufacturing was used as an economical source for biomass and bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results demonstrated that 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 C for 1 h was enough to hydrolyze all starch contained in the residue stream. Two strains of S. cerevisiae (y-1646 and commercial one) were able to utilize and ferment the acid-treated residue stream under both aerobic and semi-anaerobic conditions. The maximum yield of ethanol (5.52 g L{sup -1}) was achieved at 35 C by S. cerevisiae y-1646 after 36 h when ZnCl{sub 2} (0.4 g L{sup -1}) was added. Addition of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} as a source of nitrogen did not significantly affect either growth or ethanol production by S. cerevisiae y-1646. Some secondary by-products including alcohol derivatives and medical active compound were found to be associated with the ethanol production process. (author)

  18. Co-fermentation of carbon sources by Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 to enhance the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Lee, Sang Jun; Yang, Xiao Guang; Yoo, Hah Young; Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the enhancement of bioethanol production in Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 by co-fermentation of carbon sources such as glycerol, glucose, galactose, sucrose, fructose, xylose, starch, mannitol and citric acid. Biofuel production increases with increasing growth rate of microorganisms; that is why we investigated the optimal growth rate of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007, using mixtures of different carbon sources with glycerol. E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 was incubated in media containing each carbon source and glycerol; growth rate and bioethanol production improved in all cases compared to those in medium containing glycerol alone. The growth rate and bioethanol production were highest with mannitol. Fermentation was carried out at 37 °C for 18 h, pH 7, using 50 mL defined production medium in 100 mL serum bottles at 200 rpm. Bioethanol production under optimized conditions in medium containing 16 g/L mannitol and 20 g/L glycerol increased sixfold (32.10 g/L) than that containing glycerol alone (5.23 g/L) as the carbon source in anaerobic conditions. Similarly, bioethanol production using free cells in continuous co-fermentation also improved (27.28 g/L) when 90.37 % of 16 g/L mannitol and 67.15 % of 20 g/L glycerol were used. Although naturally existing or engineered microorganisms can ferment mixed sugars sequentially, the preferential utilization of glucose to non-glucose sugars often results in lower overall yield and productivity of ethanol. Here, we present new findings in E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 that can be used to improve bioethanol production by simultaneous co-fermentation of glycerol and mannitol.

  19. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-10-15

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-valueindustrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  20. Prioritization of Bioethanol Production Pathways in China based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ’s proposed method investigates an illustrative case about three alternative bioethanol production scenarios (wheat-based, corn-based and cassava-based): the prior sequence (based on the sustainability performances) in descending order is cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based. The proposed methodology......Purpose The study objectives are two-fold: (i) combining the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework and the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology for sustainability assessment; (ii) determining the most sustainable scenario for bioethanol production in China according...... is to test the combination of a MCDM methodology and LCSA for sustainability decision-making by studying three alternative pathways for bioethanol production in China. The proposed method feasibly enables the decision-makers/stakeholders to find the most sustainable scenario to achieve their objectives among...

  1. Reduction of water consumption in bioethanol production from triticale by recycling the stillage liquid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gumienna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. The distillery stillage is a major and arduous byproduct generated during ethanol production in distilleries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the stillage recirculation in the mashing process of triticale for non-byproducts production and reducing the fresh water consumption. The number of recirculation cycles which can be applied without disturbances in the ethanol fermentation process was investigated. Material and methods. Winter triticale BOGO and “Ethanol Red” Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were used in the experiments. The method of non-pressure cooking was used for gelatinizingthe triticale, commercial α-amylase SPEZYME ETHYL and glucoamylase FERMENZYME L-400 were applied for starch liquefaction and saccharification. The process was conducted at 30°C for 72 h, next after distillation the stillage was centrifuged and the liquid fraction was used instead of 75% of process water. Results. Ethanol yield from triticale fermentations during 40 cycles ranged between 82% and 95% of theoretical yield preserving yeast vitality and quantity on the same level. The obtained distillates were characterized with enhanced volatile compounds (fusel oil, esters, aldehydes, methanol as well as protein and potassium concentrations. Conclusions. The liquid part of stillage was proved that can be reused instead of water in bioethanol production from triticale, without disturbing the fermentation process. This investigated solution of distillery byproducts utilization (liquid phase of stillage constitutes the way which could significantly decrease the bioethanol production costs by reducing the water consumption, as well as wastewater production.  

  2. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  3. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  4. Bioethanol production from Gracilaria verrucosa, a red alga, in a biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Savindra; Gupta, Rishi; Kumar, Gaurav; Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-05-01

    In this study, Gracilaria verrucosa, red seaweed has been used for production of agar and bioethanol. The algae harvested at various time durations resulted in extraction of ~27-33% agar. The leftover pulp was found to contain ~62-68% holocellulose, which on enzymatic hydrolysis yielded 0.87 g sugars/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysate on fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced ethanol with an ethanol yield of 0.43 g/g sugars. The mass balance evaluation of the complete process demonstrates that developing biorefinery approach for exploiting Gracilaria verrucosa, a red alga, could be commercially viable.

  5. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... (> 95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol...

  6. Aerobic utilization of crude glycerol by recombinant Escherichia coli for simultaneous production of poly 3-hydroxybutyrate and bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pramod; Chiu, Feng-Shen; Lan, John Chi-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Crude glycerol, an inevitable byproduct during biodiesel production, is emerging as a potential feedstock for fermentation, due to its availability and a reasonable price. Biological utilization of abundant crude glycerol to several value added products is contemporary research area with beneficial features. Solving the problem of proper disposal and raising economic viability of biodiesel industries. Several researches have been directed toward the production of numerous products by using Escherichia coli, an ideal organism for heterologous expression of various foreign proteins. In this fashion, recombinant E. coli strains were constructed for the simultaneous production of poly 3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) and bioethanol from crude glycerol. The incorporation of aldehyde reductase (Alrd) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) in recombinant strain showed 2-fold increment in crude glycerol utilization under aerobic condition. Moreover, these two enzymes introduced an alternative pathway leading toward the potential production of bioethanol which was more than redox-balancing steps. Acetate was accumulated as an intermediate product. Subsequently, acetate was utilized as substrate in the second pathway, which directly converted acetyl-CoA to P3HB. This strategy demonstrated a potential production manner of bioethanol as an extracellular product and P3HB as water insoluble inclusion bodies inside E. coli. The maximum production of bioethanol and P3HB in the recombinant strain was 0.8 g L(-1) (17.4 mmol L(-1)) and 30.2% (w/w dry cell weight), respectively, which were higher than the parental strain.

  7. Development of a practical and cost-effective medium for bioethanol production from the seaweed hydrolysate in surface-aerated fermentor by repeated-batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Ji-Eun; Shin, Ga-Young; Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    To develop a practical and cost-effective medium for bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of seaweed Sargassum sagamianum, we investigated the feasibility and performance of bioethanol production in CSL (cornsteep liquor)-containing medium, where yeast Pichia stipitis was used and the repeated batch was carried out in a surface-aerated fermentor. The optimal medium replacement time during the repeated operation was determined to be 36 h, and the surface aeration rates were 30 and 100 ml/min. Under these conditions, the repeatedbatch operation was successfully carried out for 6 runs (216 h), in which the maximum bioethanol concentrations reached about 11-12 g/l at each batch operation. These results demonstrated that bioethanol production could be carried out repeatedly and steadily for 216 h. In these experiments, the total cumulative bioethanol production was 57.9 g and 58.0 g when the surface aeration rates were 30 ml/min and 100 ml/min, respectively. In addition, the bioethanol yields were 0.43 (about 84% of theoretical value) and 0.44 (about 86% of theoretical value) when the surface aeration rates were 30 ml/min and 100 ml/min, respectively. CSL was successfully used as a medium ingredient for the bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of seaweed Sargassum sagamianum, indicating that this medium may be practical and cost-effective for bioethanol production.

  8. Lignocellulosic bioethanol potential utilizing subproducts from the biodiesel production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Evan Michael; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Toledo, Olga Moraes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production is one of the most researched fields in today's biofuels industry, and one of the major problems facing the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is the challenge of collecting biomass. Oil extraction for biodiesel production yields large amounts of cellulose rich biomass sub-products, which in many cases can produce enough ethanol to meet the alcohol demands of transesterification. Soybean, castor bean, Jatropha Curcas, palm kernel, sunflower seed, rapeseed and cottonseed were studied to determine ethanol production potential from their oil extraction co-products and also the capacity to meet transesterification alcohol demands. Nearly all crops studied were capable of producing enough ethanol for biodiesel production and, in the case of palm kernels, 383% of the transesterification demands could be met with cellulosic ethanol production of the proper sub-products. Based on Brazilian yields, Palm kernels have a production potential of 6725 L ha{sup -1} of ethanol followed by Jatropha curcas with 695 L ha{sup -1}. (author)

  9. The Effects of Temperature and Length of Fermentation on Bioethanol Production from Arenga Plant (Arenga pinnata MERR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrizal Fahrizal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is a fuel extracted from plant. Bioethanol can be extracted from cassava, sweet potato, sugarcane, corn, grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, sagoo, palms, coconut and rice. The aren palm is the most potential source of bioethanol, and as one of the most productive raw material of bioethanol. A research is needed to be able to produce bioethanol in a simple way so that it can be applayed by society. In this study, the effects of temperature (T and length of fermentation (t on ethanol production was examined. Temperature used is 27 oC and 32 oC. Samples from each treatment will be taken every 24 hours, starting from third days, which is 72 hours (H3, 96 hours (H4, 120 hours (H5, 144 hours (H6 and 168 hours (H7. Analysis performed includes changes in the sugar content, pH, total acid and ethanol content. The results showed that sugar content and pH decreased with increasing fermentation time, in both temperature, 27 oC and 32 oC. In contrast total acid was increased with increasing fermentation time. Increase in total acid is related to the formation of acids during fermentation. Ethanol content increased with increasing fermentation time in both 27 oC and 32 oC, though, the increase was higher at 32 oC. Highest ethanol content was obtained on day 5 in temperatures 32 oC.

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment was perf......The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... was performed on both untreated and hydrothermally treated unsorted and sorted fractions of the waste using standard methods for biomass conversion to bioenergy. Compositional analysis of the waste indicated that unsorted biodegradable municipal solid wastes (BMSW) consisted of 38.7 % dry matter (DM) glucan, 8.......3 % DM hemicellulose, 10.1 % DM lignin and 7.6 % DM ash. The sorted fractions with the highest glucan but least lignin and hemicellulose were the pool of cassava, yam and plantain peeling wastes (CYPPW) with 84 % DM glucan much of which was starch, 5.6 % DM lignin and 0.5 % DM hemicellulose. The highest...

  11. Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L.

  12. Sequential acid and enzymatic hydrolysis in situ and bioethanol production from Gracilaria biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang-Chen; Wu, Jane-Yii; Liao, Yi-Jyun; Wang, Man-Ying; Shih, Ing-Lung

    2014-03-01

    Gracilaria sp., a red alga, was used as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Saccharification of Gracilaria sp. by sequential acid and enzyme hydrolysis in situ produced a high quality hydrolysate that ensured its fermentability to produce ethanol. The optimal saccharification process resulted in total 11.85g/L (59.26%) of glucose and galactose, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wu-Y2 showed a good performance on co-fermentability of glucose and galactose released in the hydrolysate from Gracilaria sp. The final ethanol concentrations of 4.72g/L (0.48g/g sugar consumed; 94% conversion efficiency) and the ethanol productivity 4.93g/L/d were achieved. 1g of dry Gracilaria can be converted to 0.236g (23.6%) of bioethanol via the processes developed. Efficient alcohol production by immobilized S. cerevisiae Wu-Y2 in batch and repeated batch fermentation was also demonstrated. The findings of this study revealed that Gracilaria sp. can be a potential feedstock in biorefinery for ethanol production.

  13. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) Compare the differences of ethanol production between normal and waxy corn representing a diverse set of racial germplasm using a cold-fermentation process; 2) Understand the effects of starch structure and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields po...

  14. Production of bioethanol from organic whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A.D.; Kádár, Zsófia; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol production by K. marxianus in whey from organic cheese production was examined in batch and continuous mode. The results showed that no pasteurization or freezing of the whey was necessary and that K. marxianus was able to compete with the lactic acid bacteria added during cheese production...... ethanol yield (~0.50 g ethanol/g lactose) at both 30°C and 40°C using low pH (4.5) or no pH control. Continuous fermentation of nonsterilized whey was performed using Ca-alginate-immobilized K. marxianus. High ethanol productivity (2.5-4.5 g/l/h) was achieved at dilution rate of 0.2/h......, and it was concluded that K. marxianus is very suitable for industrial ethanol production from whey. © 2010 Society for Industrial Microbiology....

  15. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  16. Bioethanol production from steam-exploded rice husk by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Takamitsu; Yoshiba, Yusuke; Takashina, Tomonori; Hieda, Kazuo; Shimizu, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Rice husk is one of the most abundant types of lignocellulosic biomass. Because of its significant amount of sugars, such as cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be used for the production of biofuels such as bioethanol. However, the complex structure of lignocellulosic biomass, consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is resistant to degradation, which limits biomass utilization for ethanol production. The protection of cellulose by lignin contributes to the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses to hydrolysis. Therefore, we conducted steam-explosion treatment as pretreatment of rice husk. However, recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 did not ferment the reducing sugar solution obtained by enzymatic saccharification of steam-exploded rice husk. When the steam-exploded rice husk was washed with hot water to remove inhibitory substances and M9 medium (without glucose) was used as a fermentation medium, E. coli KO11 completely fermented the reducing sugar solution obtained by enzymatic saccharification of hot water washing-treated steam-exploded rice husk to ethanol. We report here the efficient production of bioethanol using steam-exploded rice husk.

  17. Bio-ethanol steam reforming: Insights on the mechanism for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, M.; Sanz, J.L.; Isabel, R.; Padilla, R.; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Arjona, R. [Greencell (ABENGOA BIOENERGIA), Av. de la Buhaira 2, 41018 Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-10-10

    New catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-ethanol have been developed. Catalytic tests have been performed at laboratory scale, with the reaction conditions demanded in a real processor: i.e. ethanol and water feed, without a diluent gas. Catalyst ICP0503 has shown high activity and good resistance to carbon deposition. Reaction results show total conversion, high selectivity to hydrogen (70%), CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} being the only by-products obtained. The reaction yields 4.25mol of hydrogen by mol of ethanol fed, close to the thermodynamic equilibrium prediction. The temperature influence on the catalytic activity for this catalyst has been studied. Conversion reaches 100% at temperature higher than 600{sup o}C. In the light of reaction results obtained, a reaction mechanism for ethanol steam reforming is proposed. Long-term reaction experiments have been performed in order to study the stability of the catalytic activity. The excellent stability of the catalyst ICP0503 indicates that the reformed stream could be fed directly to a high temperature fuel cell (MCFC, SOFC) without a further purification treatment. These facts suggest that ICP0503 is a good candidate to be implemented in a bio-ethanol processor for hydrogen production to feed a fuel cell. (author)

  18. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production.

  19. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqiong Zheng

    Full Text Available The application of active dry yeast (ADY in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  20. Joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol from filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ji, Chunli; Bi, Shenglei; Zhou, Peng; Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianzhong

    2014-11-01

    Making full use of lipid and carbohydrate in microalgae for joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol may create a potential way to cut the high cost of single biofuel production from microalgae. Compared with conventional unicellular oleaginous microalgae, filamentous microalgae Tribonema sp. is richer in lipid and carbohydrate contents and lower protein content, thus, this study explores the suitability of Tribonema sp. as a substrate for joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol. Acid hydrolysis is the key step to saccharify wall cell into fermentable sugar and release lipid. Microalgae biomass (50g/L) was acid (3% H2SO4) hydrolyzed at 121°C for 45min to reach the maximum hydrolysis efficiency (81.48%). Subsequently, the lipid separated with hexane-ethanol from the hydrolysate was converted into microalgae biodiesel and the conversion rate was 98.47%. With yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum ethanol yield of 56.1% was reached from 14.5g/L glucose in hydrolysate.

  1. Combined Biogas and Bioethanol Production: Opportunities and Challenges for Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cesaro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the increasing energy requirements along with the need to face the consequences of climate change have driven the search for renewable energy sources, in order to replace as much as possible the use of fossil fuels. In this context biomass has generated great interest as it can be converted into energy via several routes, including fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The former is the most common option to produce ethanol, which has been recognized as one of the leading candidates to substitute a large fraction of the liquid fuels produced from oil. As the economic competitiveness of bioethanol fermentation processes has to be enhanced in order to promote its wider implementation, the most recent trends are directed towards the use of fermentation by-products within anaerobic digestion. The integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion, in a biorefinery concept, would allow the production of ethanol along with that of biogas, which can be used to produce heat and electricity, thus improving the overall energy balance. This work aims at reviewing the main studies on the combination of both bioethanol and biogas production processes, in order to highlight the strength and weakness of the integrated treatment for industrial application.

  2. Optimization of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions with amphipathic lignin derivatives for concentrated bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ningning; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoko; Takasuka, Taichi E; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2017-05-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) prepared from the black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar are strong accelerators for bioethanol production under a fed-batch simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. To improve the bioethanol production concentration, conditions such as reaction temperature, stirring program, and A-LDs loadings were optimized in both small scale and large scale fed-batch SSF. The fed-batch SSF in the presence of 3.0g/L A-LDs at 38°C gave the maximum ethanol production and a high enzyme recovery rate. Furthermore, a jar-fermenter equipped with a powerful mechanical stirrer was designed for 1.5L-scale fed-batch SSF to achieve rigorous mixing during high substrate loading. Finally, the 1.5L fed-batch SSF with a substrate loading of 30% (w/v) produced a high ethanol concentration of 87.9g/L in the presence of A-LDs under optimized conditions.

  3. Progress in biodiesel and bioethanol production in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhelyezna, T.; Geletukha, G. (Institute of Engineering Thermophysics NASU, SEC ' Biomass' , Kiev (Ukraine))

    2007-07-01

    Ukraine is highly dependent on imported energy carriers. Prices of fossil fuels and motor fuels have permanent trend to rise. On the other hand, Ukraine has practically all the necessary preconditions to start wide production of motor fuels from biomass for internal usage and export abroad. Ukrainian specialists have developed effective technology for the production of high octane oxygen containing admixture to petrol, which is the local analogue of bio ethanol. There are small scale plants for bio diesel production in about twelve oblasts of Ukraine, but the process is not commercial yet. Ukrainian government and Ministry of Agrarian Policy realise the importance of alternative liquid fuels and encourage the process of their production. At the moment main efforts are focused on the development of raw material base (orig.)

  4. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  5. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  6. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kow-Jen Duan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with AccelleraseTM 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  7. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  8. A review of biological delignification and detoxification methods for lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Future biorefineries will integrate biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, heat and value-added chemicals. Due to its low price and wide distribution, lignocellulosic biomass is expected to play an important role toward this goal. Regarding renewable biofuel production, bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is considered the most feasible option for fossil fuels replacement since these raw materials do not compete with food or feed crops. In the overall process, lignin, the natural barrier of the lignocellulosic biomass, represents an important limiting factor in biomass digestibility. In order to reduce the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose, biological pretreatments have been promoted as sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional physico-chemical technologies, which are expensive and pollute the environment. These approaches include the use of diverse white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes, which disrupt lignin polymers and facilitate the bioconversion of the sugar fraction into ethanol. As there is still no suitable biological pretreatment technology ready to scale up in an industrial context, white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes have also been proposed to overcome, in a separated or in situ biodetoxification step, the effect of the inhibitors produced by non-biological pretreatments. The present work reviews the latest studies regarding the application of different microorganisms or enzymes as useful and environmentally friendly delignification and detoxification technologies for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This review also points out the main challenges and possible ways to make these technologies a reality for the bioethanol industry.

  9. Sequential hydrolysis of waste newspaper and bioethanol production from the hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang-Chen; Huang, Shu-Sing; Shih, Ing-Lung

    2014-09-01

    A practical process was developed for production of a high quality hydrolysate of waste newspaper that ensured its complete fermentability to bioethanol. After pretreatment with 0.1N NaOH for 12h and sequential acid and enzyme hydrolysis, 10.1g/L of glucose (50.5%), 1.38 g/L of mannose (6.9%) and 0.28 g/L of galactose (1.4%), a total of 11.76 g/L of fermentable sugars was obtained, which accounts for 88.7% of saccharification efficiency. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae BCRC20271 showed excellent co-fermentability of glucose, mannose and galactose in hydrolysate of waste newspaper. After cultivation of the hydrolysate at 24°C in static culture for 48 h, the final ethanol concentration of 5.72 g/L (96% conversion efficiency) was produced. Overall, 1000 kg of waste newspaper will produce 286 kg (362 L) of ethanol by the process developed, which reveals that waste newspaper has higher potential than many other lignocellulosic and seaweed feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  10. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives.

  11. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value <0.0001. It is suggested that this model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  12. Evaluation of bioethanol production from carob pods by Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae In solid submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharkhiz, Saeed; Mazaheri, Davood; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol production from carob pods has attracted many researchers due to its high sugar content. Both Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used previously for this purpose in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Since extraction of sugars from the carob pod particles is a costly process, solid-state and solid submerged fermentations, which do not require the sugar extraction step, may be economical processes for bioethanol production. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bioethanol production in solid submerged fermentation from carob pods. The maximum ethanol production of 0.42 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained for Z. mobilis at 30°C, initial pH 5.3, and inoculum size of 5% v/v, 9 g carob powder per 50 mL of culture media, agitation rate 0 rpm, and fermentation time of 40 hr. The maximum ethanol production for S. cerevisiae was 0.40 g g(-1) initial sugar under the same condition. The results obtained in this research are comparable to those of Z. mobilis and S. cerevisiae performance in other culture mediums from various agricultural sources. Accordingly, solid submerged fermentation has a potential to be an economical process for bioethanol production from carob pods.

  13. Bioethanol production from carbohydrate-enriched residual biomass obtained after lipid extraction of Chlorella sp. KR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-11-01

    The residual biomass of Chlorella sp. KR-1 obtained after lipid extraction was used for saccharification and bioethanol production. The carbohydrate was saccharified using simple enzymatic and chemical methods using Pectinex at pH 5.5 and 45°C and 0.3N HCl at 121°C for 15min with 76.9% and 98.2% yield, respectively, without any pretreatment. The residual biomass contained 49.7% carbohydrate consisting of 82.4% fermentable sugar and 17.6% non-fermentable sugar, which is valuable for bioethanol fermentation. Approximately 98.2% of the total carbohydrate was converted into monosaccharide (fermentable+non-fermentable sugar) using dilute acid saccharification. The fermentable sugar was subsequently fermented to bioethanol through separate hydrolysis and fermentation with a fermentation yield of 79.3%. Overall, 0.4g ethanol/g fermentable sugar and 0.16g ethanol/g residual biomass were produced.

  14. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues in Colombia: a process simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-07-01

    In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme.

  15. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  16. A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol. Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanthera sessilis (296.8µg/ml, total sugar in Ipomoea aquatic (880.00mg/ml, starch in Alternanthera sessilis (57.13mg/ml, cellulose in Pistia stratiotes and Typha latifolia (280.00mg/ml, hemicellulose in Typha latifolia (26.85mg/ml; high cellulosic aquatic weeds were subjected to pre-treatment methods like physical, chemical and enzymatic method. Meanwhile different yeast strains from the fruits of Manilkara zapota, Cucumis melo, Musa paradisiaca, Citrullus lanatus, Punica granatum and Ananas comosus were isolated yeast of Citrullus lanatus shows highest amount of alcohol production (307µg/ml, which is inoculated to pre-treated hydrolysate, where Alternanthera sessilis and Typha latifolia shows high amount of alcohol in physical method (160.5 and 115.4µg/ml. In chemical method in acid hydrolysis it shows 387.1 and 69.63µg/ml and in alkali hydrolysis 62 and 170µg/ml, so these two weeds were taken for enzymatic method for alcohol production, on seventh day Alternanthera sessilis shows highest alcohol production (113.33µg/ml, hence among six weeds Alternanthera sessilis and the yeast of Citrullus lanatus produces more amount of alcohol than others and it also shows that enzymatic method of pre-treatment is best in hydrolysis of biomass than physical and chemical method. The study revealed the possibility of producing alcohol from locally available fruits using simple, cheap and adaptable technology with biochemically characterized yeast strains.

  17. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL α-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  18. Strategy for dual production of bioethanol and d-psicose as value-added products from cruciferous vegetable residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Wi, Seung Gon; Yang, Jianming; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, fermentable sugars and d-fructose were produced from cruciferous vegetable residue by enzymatic method without the use of either chemical or mechanical mechanisms. Production of d-psicose was effectively converted from hydrolyzed d-fructose in cabbage residue by d-psicose-3 epimerase; the presence of the borate increased the conversion rate by about two fold, and ethanol production yield was 85.7% of the theoretical yield. Both products, bioethanol and d-psicose, were successfully separated and purified by pervaporation and cation exchange chromatography, and their recovery yields were approximately 87% and 86.2%, respectively.

  19. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  20. IMPACT OF HOT COMPRESSED WATER PRETREATMENT ON THE STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF WOODY BIOMASS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ping Xiao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As an initial step in an alternative use of woody biomass to produce bioethanol, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of hot compressed water (HCW pretreatment within the temperature range 100 to 200 °C in a batch-type reactor on the structural changes of Tamarix ramosissima. The untreated and pretreated solid residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, solid-state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, as well as chemical methods. The results showed that HCW pretreatment solubilized mainly hemicelluloses and resulted in enriched cellulose and lignin content in the pretreated solids. It was found that the deposition of lignin droplets on the residual surfaces was produced during pretreatment under the hot water conditions above 140 °C. In addition, the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin re-localisation as a result of condensation reactions under the severe pretreatment condition may lead to an increase in cellulose crystallinity and thermal stability of biomass solid residues, thus consequently influencing the downstream digestibility of biomass for sugars and bioethanol production.

  1. Bioethanol production from mannitol by a newly isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. JMP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Kim, Young Mi; Rhee, Hong Soon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-05-01

    In this study a new bacterium capable of growing on brown seaweed Laminaria japonica, Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was isolated from the gut of turban shell, Batillus cornutus. In anaerobic condition, it produced high yields of ethanol (1.15 mol-EtOH mol-mannitol(-1)) as well as organic acids from mannitol, the major carbohydrate component of L. japonica. Based on carbon distribution and metabolic flux analysis, it was revealed that mannitol was more favorable than glucose for ethanol production due to their different redox states. This indicates that L. japonica is one of the promising feedstock for bioethanol production. Additionally, the mannitol dehydrogenation pathway in Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was examined and verified. Finally, an attempt was made to explore the possibility of controlling ethanol production by altering the redox potential via addition of external NADH in mannitol fermentation.

  2. Selection of process alternatives for lignocellulosic bioethanol production using a MILP approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Felipe; Venturini, Fabrizio; Aroca, Germán; Conejeros, Raúl

    2013-11-01

    This work proposes a decision-making framework for the selection of processes and unit operations for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Process alternatives are described by its capital and operating expenditures, its contribution to process yield and technological availability information. A case study in second generation ethanol production using Eucalyptus globulus as raw material is presented to test the developed process synthesis tool. Results indicate that production cost does not necessarily decrease when yield increases. Hence, optimal processes can be found at the inflexion point of total costs and yield. The developed process synthesis tool provides results with an affordable computational cost, existing optimization tools and an easy-to-upgrade description of the process alternatives. These features made this tool suitable for process screening when incomplete information regarding process alternatives is available.

  3. Non-destructive analysis of the conformational differences among feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products from bioethanol production with molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, I. H.; Jonker, A.; Zhang, X.; Yu, P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique as a fast method to detect the source effects among original feedstock sources of wheat and their corresponding co-products, wheat DDGS, from bioethanol production. Different sources of the bioethanol feedstock and their corresponding bioethanol co-products, three samples per source, were collected from the same newly-built bioethanol plant with current bioethanol processing technology. Multivariate molecular spectral analyses were carried out using agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The molecular spectral data of different feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products were compared at four different regions of ca. 1800-1725 cm-1 (carbonyl Cdbnd O ester, mainly related to lipid structure conformation), ca. 1725-1482 cm-1 (amide I and amide II region mainly related to protein structure conformation), ca. 1482-1180 cm-1 (mainly associated with structural carbohydrate) and ca. 1180-800 cm-1 (mainly related to carbohydrates) in complex plant-based system. The results showed that the molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique could reveal the structural differences among the bioethanol feedstock sources and among their corresponding co-products. The AHCA and PCA analyses were able to distinguish the molecular structure differences associated with chemical functional groups among the different sources of the feedstock and their corresponding co-products. The molecular spectral differences indicated the differences in functional, biomolecular and biopolymer groups which were confirmed by wet chemical analysis. These biomolecular and biopolymer structural differences were associated with chemical and nutrient profiles and nutrient utilization and availability. Molecular spectral analyses had the potential to identify molecular structure difference among bioethanol feedstock sources

  4. Economic Analysis of an Organosolv Process for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Kautto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, conceptual process design, simulation, and mass and energy balances were presented for an organosolv process with a hardwood feed of 2350 metric tons (MT per day and ethanol, lignin, furfural, and acetic acid production rates of 459, 310, 6.6, and 30.3 MT/day, respectively. In this paper, the investment and operating costs of the process and the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP to make the process economically feasible were estimated. The total capital investment of the plant was approximately 720 million USD. Lignin price was found to affect the MESP considerably. With a base case lignin price of 450 USD/MT, the MESP was approximately 3.1 USD per gallon (gal. Higher lignin price of 1000 USD/MT was required to equal the MESP with the December 2013 ethanol market price (2.0 USD/gal. In addition to lignin price, the MESP was found to be strongly affected by feedstock, enzyme, and investment costs. Variations in feedstock and investment costs affected the MESP by approximately 0.2 and 0.5 USD/gal, respectively. Changing the enzyme dosage and price from base case estimate of 5270 USD/MT and 0.02 g/g cellulose to more conservative 3700 USD/MT and 0.06 g/g cellulose, respectively, increased the MESP by 0.59 USD/gal.

  5. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay i...

  6. Characterisation and evaluation of a novel feedstock, Manihot glaziovii, Muell. Arg, for production of bioenergy carriers: Bioethanol and biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Ken M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Elisante, Emrode; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise and evaluate a wild inedible cassava species, Manihot glaziovii as feedstock for bioenergy production. Tubers obtained from 3 different areas in Tanzania were characterised and evaluated for bioethanol and biogas production. These bioenergy carriers were produced both separately and sequentially and their energy values evaluated based on these two approaches. Composition analysis demonstrated that M. glaziovii is a suitable feedstock for both bioethanol and biogas production. Starch content ranged from 77% to 81%, structural carbohydrates 3-16%, total crude protein ranged from 2% to 8%. Yeast fermentation achieved ethanol concentration of up to 85g/L at a fermentation efficiency of 89%. The fuel energy of the bioethanol and methane from flour-peels mix ranged from 5 to 13 and 11 to 14MJ/kgVS, respectively. Co-production of bioethanol and biogas in which the peels were added to the fermentation residue prior to anaerobic digestion produced maximum fuel energy yield of (15-23MJ/kgVS).

  7. Life cycle assessment of advanced bioethanol production from pulp and paper sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Diogo; Gonçalves, Margarida S; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco; Oliveira, Ana C; Matos, Cristina T

    2016-05-01

    This work evaluates the environmental performance of using pulp and paper sludge as feedstock for the production of second generation ethanol. An ethanol plant for converting 5400 tons of dry sludge/year was modelled and evaluated using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The sludge is a burden for pulp and paper mills that is mainly disposed in landfilling. The studied system allows for the valorisation of the waste, which due to its high polysaccharide content is a valuable feedstock for bioethanol production. Eleven impact categories were analysed and the results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis and neutralisation of the CaCO3 are the environmental hotspots of the system contributing up to 85% to the overall impacts. Two optimisation scenarios were evaluated: (1) using a reduced HCl amount in the neutralisation stage and (2) co-fermentation of xylose and glucose, for maximal ethanol yield. Both scenarios displayed significant environmental impact improvements.

  8. A Model-Based Methodology for Simultaneous Design and Control of a Bioethanol Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan

    2010-01-01

    . The PGC methodology is used to generate more efficient separation designs in terms of energy consumption by targeting the separation task at the largest DF. Both methodologies are highlighted through the application of two case studies, a bioethanol production process and a succinic acid production......In this work, a framework for the simultaneous solution of design and control problems is presented. Within this framework, two methodologies are presented, the integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) methodology and the process-group contribution (PGC) methodology. The concepts...... of attainable region (AR), driving force (DF), process-group (PG) and reverse simulation are used within these methodologies. The IPDC methodology is used to find the optimal design-control strategy of a process by locating the maximum point in the AR and DF diagrams for reactor and separator, respectively...

  9. Advances in bioethanol

    CERN Document Server

    Bajpai, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an updated and detailed overview on advances in bioethanol. It looks at the historical perspectives, chemistry, sources and production of ethanol and discusses biotechnology breakthroughs and promising developments. The book also provides the details regarding the uses, advantages, problems, environmental effects and characteristics of bioethanol as a fuel. In addition, it presents information about ethanol in different parts of the world and also highlights the challenges and future of ethanol.

  10. Biogas production from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas production rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment is a good choice to treat bioethanol waste due to the high concentration of COD content for producing biogas as renewable energy. The purposes of this study were to study the effect of addition nitrogen source and pH control to biogas production. The laboratory scale-anaerobic digestions used in this experiment were operated in batch system and at room temperature. In determination of optimum pH, bioethanol waste and rumen fluid fed into digesters with initial pH 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0. Influent COD : N ratio (in form of urea used in this study was 700:7 in compare to control.  The results showed that initial pH 7.0 produced the most biogas with total biogas 3.81 mL/g COD. While initial pH 6 and pH 8 had total biogas 3.25 mL/g COD and 3.49 mL/g COD respectively. At urea addition, biogas formed had 52.47% greater than that of at without urea addition (control variable. Controlled pH caused biogas was produced until 90-day investigation and might continue to be produced. Total biogas of control variable (without urea addition and variable with ratio COD:N=700:7 influent were 11.07 mL/g COD and 11.41 mL/g COD respectively.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.1-5Citation:  Budiyono, Syaichurrozi, I.  and Sumardiono, S. 2013. Biogas production from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH andurea addition to biogas production rate. Waste Technology 1(1:1-5. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.1-5

  11. Ensiling – Wet-storage method for lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2011-01-01

    Ensiling of humid biomass samples wrapped in plastic bales has been investigated as a wet-storage for bioethanol production from three lignocellulosic biomass samples i.e. maize, rye, and clover grass. During the silage process, lactic acid bacteria fermented free sugars to lactic acid......, and consequently by lowing pH, inhibiting other microbes to degrade the polysaccharides. Following silage treatment, enzymatic convertibility tests showed that 51.5%, 36.5%, and 41.9% of the cellulose was converted by cellulytic enzymes in ensiled maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively. In addition, tests.......5% (by S. cerevisiae); the yields significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment: 77.7%, 72.8%, 79.5% (by K. marxianus) and 72.0%, 80.7%, 75.7% (by S. cerevisiae) of the theoretical based on the C6 sugar contents in maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively....

  12. Valorizing recycled paper sludge by a bioethanol production process with cellulase recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Daniel; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of cellulase recycling in the scope of bioethanol production from recycled paper sludge (RPS), an inexpensive byproduct with around 39% of carbohydrates, is analyzed. RPS was easily converted and fermented by enzymes and cells, respectively. Final enzyme partition between solid and liquid phases was investigated, the solid-bound enzymes being efficiently recovered by alkaline washing. RPS hydrolysis and fermentation was conducted over four rounds, recycling the cellulases present in both fractions. A great overall enzyme stability was observed: 71, 64 and 100% of the initial Cel7A, Cel7B and β-glucosidase activities, respectively, were recovered. Even with only 30% of fresh enzymes added on the subsequent rounds, solid conversions of 92, 83 and 71% were achieved for the round 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This strategy enabled an enzyme saving around 53-60%, while can equally contribute to a 40% reduction in RPS disposal costs.

  13. Decolorization of black liquor from bioethanol G2 production using iron oxide coating sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlianti, Vera; Triwahyuni, Eka; Waluyo, Joko; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol G2 production using oil palm empty fruit bunch as raw material consists of four steps, namely pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and purification process. Pretreatment process generates black liquor that causes serious environmental pollution if it is released to the environment. The objective of this research is studying the ability of iron oxide coating sands to adsorb the color of black liquor. The iron oxide coating sands were synthesized from FeCl3.6H2O with quartz sands as support material. This research was conducted on batch mode using black liquor in various pH values. Result obtained that kind of iron oxide on quartz sands's surface was goethite. The result also indicated decreasing of color intensity of black liquor after adsorption process. This research supports local material utilization in environmental technology development to solve some environmental problems.

  14. Bioethanol production from grape and sugar beet pomaces by solid-state fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.A.; Toro, M.E.; Vazquez, F.; Correa-Daneri, M.L.; Gouiric, S.C.; Vallejo, M.D. [Biotechnology Institute, Engineering Faculty, National University of San Juan, Av. San Martin 1109 (Oeste), 5400 San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    A suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels is the production of bioethanol from agroindustrial waste. Grape pomace is the most abundant residue in San Juan and sugar beet pomace could be important in the region. Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) is a technology that allows transforming agroindustrial waste into many valuable bioproducts, like ethanol. This work reports a laboratory scale SSF to obtain alcohol from grape and sugar beet pomace by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The initial conditions of the culture medium were: sugars 16.5% (p/p); pH 4.5; humidity 68% (p/p). Cultures were inoculated with 10{sup 8} cells/g of pomace, and incubated in anaerobic environment, at 28 C, during 96 h. SSF showed ethanol maximum concentrations at 48 h and ethanol yield on sugars consumed was more than 82%. Yield attained creates expectation about the use of SSF to obtain fuel alcohol. (author)

  15. PRODUCTION OF FERMENTABLE SUGARS FROM OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH USING CRUDE CELLULASE COCKTAILS WITH TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM UPM1 AND ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS UPM2 FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kartini Abu Bakar,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB for bioethanol production with crude cellulase cocktails from locally isolated fungi was studied. Enzymatic saccharification of alkaline pretreated OPEFB was done using different cellulase enzyme preparations. Crude cellulase cocktails from Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 produced 8.37 g/L reducing sugars with 0.17 g/g yield. Production of bioethanol from OPEFB hydrolysate using Baker’s yeast produced approximately 0.59 g/L ethanol, corresponding to 13.8% of the theoretical yield. High reducing sugars concentration in the final fermentation samples resulted from accumulation of non-fermentable sugars such as xylose and cellobiose that were not consumed by the yeast. The results obtained support the possible utilization of OPEFB biomass for bioethanol production in the future.

  16. Optimization of media for bioethanol production by Pichia stipitis from sugarcane bagasse pretreated by dilute acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reduction of fossil fuels due to its increasing consumption caused the biofuels production as an important topic, today. Using resources that have not food application was regarded as the second generation biofuels and consisted of lignocelluloses. Since considerable amount of lignocellulosic material are pentoses, utilizing them is important for the production of biofuels. Materials and methods: Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with dilute acid method. Pichia stipitis was used for the fermentation of released sugars. A L27 Taguchi orthogonal array was considered to optimize the fermentation process and increase the amount of ethanol. The eight factors with three levels considering nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, sulfur, magnesium, and vitamins sources were considered in this study. Results: The analysis of the results shows that corn steep liquor, ammonium hydrogen phosphate, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate and magnesium sulfate have a significant effect on the production of ethanol, respectively. Confirmation of the optimal conditions shows that ethanol production was increased 97% relative to the mean of the observed results. The yield and productivity during 48 h of the fermentation were reached to 0.26 (g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 0.125g (L.h, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: At the optimum condition the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate had higher efficiency relative to previous studies. Results of medium optimization considering cheap resources showed showed an excellent potential toward an economical bioethanol production process.

  17. Bayesian Computational Approaches for Gene Regulation Studies of Bioethanol and Biohydrogen Production. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberg, Lee; McCue, Lee Anne; Van Roey, Patrick

    2014-04-17

    The project developed mathematical models and first-version software tools for the understanding of gene regulation across multiple related species. The project lays the foundation for understanding how certain alpha-proteobacterial species control their own genes for bioethanol and biohydrogen production, and sets the stage for exploiting bacteria for the production of fuels. Enabling such alternative sources of fuel is a high priority for the Department of Energy and the public.

  18. Optimization of bioethanol production using whole plant of Water Hyacinth as substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuzhuo eZhang; Chen eWeng; Huiqin eHuang; Varenyam eAchal; Duanchao eWang

    2016-01-01

    The whole plant of Water Hyacinth that had potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the current study. It was found that acid pretreatment exhibited the most effective for reducing sugars production. An amount of 402.93 mg reducing sugars was achieved at optimal condition after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to Response Surface Method (RSM) in Sacchar...

  19. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production.

  20. Biodiesel and bioethanol production: A sustainable alternative for the energy crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castro Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution intends to give an overview of the current -status of the energy crisis and suggest some sustainable alternatives for energy production. In first place, a brief summary of the history about resources for energy production is presented. The high dependency of fossil combustibles it is well known and has been estimated that more than 90% of the used energy comes from non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and carbon. In the same way, here, it is described that oil is, by far, the main source of energy used to date and as a consequence, this resource is, unavoidably,coming to an end and at the same time is causing and increasing environmental pollution problems. Later in this work, it is suggested that in order to achieve the energetic sustainability, the development of alternative sources that will allow the reduction of toxic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions as well as a decrease of water usage along with a decrease in the energy production costs are needed. One of the alternatives that have been proposed is the production of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Here, some of the main properties at the level of the employed raw materials and production systems are cited. Finally, this work suggests some solutions that are under development worldwide in order to face thiscurrent energy situation.

  1. Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A; Hussin, S Nahdatul I S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production (4% v/v or 31.6 g/l). Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO(2)%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.6% (v/v) or 36.3 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 32 degrees C, pH of 6, and pO(2) of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.6% (v/v) to 6.5% (v/v) or 51.3 g/l with 89.1% chemical-oxygen-demand removal.

  2. Bioethanol production. Competitive strength in Germany in consideration of international competition.; Bioethanolproduktion. Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit in Deutschland unter Beruecksichtigung der internationalen Konkurrenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-07-01

    The competitive standing of bioethanol production in Germany is reviewed from a national and international scale. The production cost in the EU, Brazil, Australia, Thailand and China are compared, and the effects of imports on the German biofuels production is assessed. The surface terrain available for biocrops in Germany and the EU are estimated, the use of beetroot for biofuel production is analyzed, and relationships between crude oil prices and raw materials prices are established. The CO2 reduction cost resulting from the use of biofuels is calculated and compared with the cost of other climate protection measures. Existing bioethanol markets in Brazil and the USa are analyzed, and marketing trends of biodiesel are included for a comparison. With the aid of inquiry sheets, critical arguments of the automobile and mineral oil industries were compiled and viewed in the context of the biodiesel discussion. The results of the investigation are then discussed with a view to potentially conflicting goals. The author attempts to answer the question whether sustainable bioethanol production may be possible in Germany in the present conditions.

  3. Systemic analysis of production scenarios for bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghysel, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining alternatives for non-renewable energy sources constitutes a priority to the development of our societies. One of these alternatives is biofuels production starting from energy crops, agricultural wastes, forest products or wastes. In this context, a "second generation" biofuels production, aiming at utilizing the whole plant, including ligno-cellulosic (hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin fractions (Ogier et al., 1999 that are not used for human food, would allow the reduction of the drawbacks of bioethanol production (Schoeling, 2007. However, numerous technical, economical, ethical and environmental questions are still pending. One of the aims of the BioEtha2 project, directed by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, is to define the position of bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass among the different renewable energy alternatives that could be developed in Wallonia towards 2020. With this aim, and in order to answer the numerous questions in this field, the project aims at using tools and methods coming from the concept of "forecasting scenarios" (Sebillotte, 2002; Slegten et al., 2007; For-learn, 2008. This concept, based on a contemporary reality, aims to explore different possible scenarios for the future development of alternative sources of energy production. The principle is to evaluate, explore, possible futures of the studied problematic, through the establishment of possible evolution trajectories. We contribute to this prospective through a systemic approach (Vanloqueren, 2007 that allows lightening the existing interactions within the system "ligno-cellulosic biomass chain" without isolating it from its environment. We explain and sketch the two contexts needed to identify primary stakes. The global context includes inter-dependant and auto-regulating fields such as society, politics, technology and economy. These four fields influence each part of the "chain" with specific tools. However, the interest and

  4. Use of magnetic nanoparticles to enhance bioethanol production in syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kee; Lee, Haryeong

    2016-03-01

    The effect of two types of nanoparticles on the enhancement of bioethanol production in syngas fermentation by Clostridium ljungdahlii was examined. Methyl-functionalized silica and methyl-functionalized cobalt ferrite-silica (CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3) nanoparticles were used to improve syngas-water mass transfer. Of these, CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles showed better enhancement of syngas mass transfer. The nanoparticles were recovered using a magnet and reused five times to evaluate reusability, and it was confirmed that their capability for mass transfer enhancement was maintained. Both types of nanoparticles were applied to syngas fermentation, and production of biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid was enhanced. CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles were more efficient for the productivity of syngas fermentation due to improved syngas mass transfer. The biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid production compared to a control were increased by 227.6%, 213.5%, and 59.6%, respectively by addition of CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles. The reusability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by reuse of recovered nanoparticles for fermentation.

  5. Screening of Jerusalem artichoke varieties for bio-ethanol production in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, P.C.; Oliveira, A.C.; Rosa, M.F. [INETI, Departamento de Energias Renovaveis, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, Ed. G, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the potential of 9 Jerusalem artichoke varieties for the sustainable production of bio-ethanol in Portugal. The tubers, which are the part of the plant with higher sugar content, were harvested at different stages of development (29 to 55 weeks), and crashed for juice extraction. The two phases obtained were characterized in terms of total sugars, protein, ash and dry matter. The ethanol productivity of the different J. artichoke varieties was then evaluated fermenting juice or mixtures of juice and pulp aqueous extract with a strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, a yeast able to hydrolyze and ferment inulin polymers. The chamical characteristic more dependable on the harvest period was the amount of total sugars in the tubers. Juices, obtained until 48 weeks development, contained 173 - 235 g/L of total sugars while juices from the last harvest presented markedly lower sugar contents, indicating crop degradation or sugar migration to the soil. Regarding the fermentative process, ethanol yields ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 g/g. The main conclusion of this work indicates C13 variety as the best. Although bearing a lower sugar concentration in tubers, the substantially higher agricultural productivities (kg/m2) after 8 months growing allowed to estimate productions higher than 10 000 L/ha.

  6. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  7. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery.

  8. Natural variation in the glucose content of dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated rice straw liquid hydrolysates: implications for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Takashi; Teramura, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Miki; Kanamaru, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Rice straw is a promising resource for bioethanol production. Because the glucose content of pretreatment liquid hydrolysates is highly correlated with ethanol yield, the selection of appropriate rice cultivars is essential. The glucose content in liquid hydrolysates of pretreated rice straws of 208 diverse cultivars was evaluated in natural field in 2013 and 2014 using a novel high-throughput system. The glucose content of the rice straw samples varied across cultivars and was affected by environmental factors such as temperature and solar radiation. Several high-quality cultivars exhibiting high glucose content in both years were identified. The results of this study can aid in development of novel rice cultivars suitable as both feedstocks for bioethanol production and cooking.

  9. A co-beneficial system using aquatic plants: bioethanol production from free-floating aquatic plants used for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Mishima, D; Inoue, D; Ike, M

    2013-01-01

    A co-beneficial system using constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with aquatic plants is proposed for bioethanol production and nutrient removal from wastewater. The potential for bioethanol production from aquatic plant biomass was experimentally evaluated. Water hyacinth and water lettuce were selected because of their high growth rates and easy harvestability attributable to their free-floating vegetation form. The alkaline/oxidative pretreatment was selected for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of the aquatic plants. Ethanol was produced with yields of 0.14-0.17 g-ethanol/ g-biomass in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain or a typical yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequently, the combined benefits of the CWs planted with the aquatic plants for bioethanol production and nutrient removal were theoretically estimated. For treating domestic wastewater at 1,100 m(3)/d, it was inferred that the anoxic-oxic activated sludge process consumes energy at 3,200 MJ/d, whereas the conventional activated sludge process followed by the CW consumes only 1,800 MJ/d with ethanol production at 115 MJ/d.

  10. Optimization of bioethanol production using whole plant of Water Hyacinth as substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhuo eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole plant of Water Hyacinth that had potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the current study. It was found that acid pretreatment exhibited the most effective for reducing sugars production. An amount of 402.93 mg reducing sugars was achieved at optimal condition after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to Response Surface Method (RSM in Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87℃ for 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast. 1.291 g/L bioethanol could be achieved by our predicted model in optimal condition. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this study. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  11. Hierarchical economic potential approach for techno-economic evaluation of bioethanol production from palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Truong Xuan; Lim, Young-Il; Jang, Sungsoo; Chung, Hwa-Jee

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical four-level approach to determine economic potential (4-level EP) is proposed for preliminary techno-economic analysis of new processes. The 4-level EP includes input/output structure, process flow structure, heat integration (HI), and economic feasibility. Two case studies on a 30.2 t/d (or 12.7 million l/yr) bioethanol plant with and without jet fuel production from palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated by applying the 4-level EP. The plant flowsheet was established based on experiments in a 0.1t/d pilot plant, including sequential dilute acid and alkali pretreatment, and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). EP approached a more reliable value through the hierarchical 4-level EP. The heating energy was reduced considerably by HI. The product value was estimated at $0.8-$1.3/kg of equivalent bioethanol. It was suggested through sensitivity analysis that a large plant size, enhanced production yields, and capital cost reduction were necessary for the lignocellulosic bioethanol production to be profitable.

  12. Effect of double-step steam explosion pretreatment in bioethanol production from softwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotana, Franco; Cavalaglio, Gianluca; Gelosia, Mattia; Coccia, Valentina; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Nicolini, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    The study investigated the production of bioethanol from softwood, in particular pine wood chip. The steam explosion pretreatment was largely investigated, evaluating also the potential use of a double-step process to increase ethanol production through the use of both solid and liquid fraction after the pretreatment. The pretreatment tests were carried out at different conditions, determining the composition of solid and liquid fraction and steam explosion efficiency. The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out with Ctec2 enzyme while the fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast "red ethanol". It was found that the best experimental result was obtained for a single-step pretreated sample (10.6 g of ethanol/100 g of initial biomass dry basis) for a 4.53 severity. The best double-step overall performance was equal to 8.89 g ethanol/100 g of initial biomass dry basis for a 4.27 severity. The enzymatic hydrolysis strongly depended on the severity of the pretreatment while the fermentation efficiency was mainly influenced by the concentration of the inhibitors. The ethanol enhancing potential of a double-step steam explosion could slightly increase the ethanol production compared to single-step potential.

  13. Bioethanol production from taro waste using thermo-tolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus K21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Hao; Hung, Wei-Chun; Lo, Kai-Yin; Chen, Yen-Hui; Wan, Hou-Peng; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, evaluation and optimization of taro waste (TW), which was mainly composed of taro peels that contain many starch residues, as the main carbon source in medium were studied. The flask studies showed the optimal medium was using 170g/L of TW which is about 100g/L of glucose and 9g/L of CGM as alternative nitrogen source. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) exhibited higher bioethanol productivity toward separation hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The optimal condition of SSF was 5% of Kluyveromyces marxianus K21 inoculum at 40°C resulting in the maximum ethanol concentration (48.98g/L) and productivity (2.23g/L/h) after 22h of cultivation. The scaling up experiment in a 5L bioreactor demonstrated that K21 can still maintain its capability. After 20h of cultivation, 43.78g/L of ethanol (2.19g/L/h of productivity) was achieved corresponding to a 94.2% theoretical ethanol yield.

  14. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for optimization. The optimization of process conditions, by using central composite design (CCD was carried out. Optimization of process condition was done with varied level of moisture content, pH, inoculum size, concentration of co-substrate (wheat flour and mineral solutions. Statistical analysis showed that the optimum process condition for moisture content was 50% (v/w, pH of 4, inoculum size of 10% (v/v, concentration of wheat flour of 1% (v/v and mineral solutions 1%(v/v. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the maximum production were determined. The final optimization with the developed process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 14.315 (v/v to 34.785(v/v.

  15. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Bucaramanga 678 (Colombia)

    2009-07-01

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction. (author)

  16. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  17. Bioethanol production from Gracilaria verrucosa using Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapted to NaCl or galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, InYung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-12-18

    This study examined the pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation of the red macroalgae Gracilaria verrucosa using adapted saccharomyces cerevisiae to galactose or NaCl for the increase of bioethanol yield. Pretreatment with thermal acid hydrolysis to obtain galactose was carried out with 11.7% (w/v) seaweed slurry and 373 mM H2SO4 at 121 °C for 59 min. Glucose was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzymatic saccharification was performed with a mixture of 16 U/mL Celluclast 1.5L and Viscozyme L at 45 °C for 48 h. Ethanol fermentation in 11.7% (w/v) seaweed hydrolysate was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC 1126 adapted or non-adapted to high concentrations of galactose or NaCl. When non-adapted S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 was used, the ethanol productivity was 0.09 g/(Lh) with an ethanol yield of 0.25. Ethanol productivity of 0.16 and 0.19 g/(Lh) with ethanol yields of 0.43 and 0.48 was obtained using S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 adapted to high concentrations of galactose and NaCl, respectively. Adaptation of S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 to galactose or NaCl increased the ethanol yield via adaptive evolution of the yeast.

  18. Microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak R; Cheng, Jay J

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass are promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocelluloses is required to improve production of fermentable sugars from enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass was investigated in this study. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute alkali reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 W for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Simons' stain method was used to quantify changes in biomass porosity as a result of the pretreatment. Pretreatments were evaluated based on yields of total reducing sugars, glucose, and xylose. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent for microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass. 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass pretreated under optimal conditions. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared with solid losses, lignin reduction, and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments.

  19. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic residues pretreated with phosphoric acid-acetone for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kim, Nag-Jong; Jiang, Min; Kang, Jong Won; Chang, Ho Nam

    2009-07-01

    Bermudagrass, reed and rapeseed were pretreated with phosphoric acid-acetone and used for ethanol production by means of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with a batch and fed-batch mode. When the batch SSF experiments were conducted in a 3% low effective cellulose, about 16 g/L of ethanol were obtained after 96 h of fermentation. When batch SSF experiments were conducted with a higher cellulose content (10% effective cellulose for reed and bermudagrass and 5% for rapeseed), higher ethanol concentrations and yields (of more than 93%) were obtained. The fed-batch SSF strategy was adopted to increase the ethanol concentration further. When a higher water-insoluble solid (up to 36%) was applied, the ethanol concentration reached 56 g/L of an inhibitory concentration of the yeast strain used in this study at 38 degrees C. The results show that the pretreated materials can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production, and that the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment can effectively yield a higher ethanol concentration.

  20. Enhancement of bioethanol production in syngas fermentation with Clostridium ljungdahlii using nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kee; Park, So Eun; Lee, Haryeong; Yun, Ji Young

    2014-05-01

    In this study, nanoparticles were used to enhance bioethanol production in syngas fermentation by Clostridium ljungdahlii. Six types of nanoparticles were tested: palladium on carbon, palladium on alumina, silica, hydroxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes, alumina, and iron(III) oxide. Of these, silica nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.3 wt% were the best at enhancing gas-liquid mass transfer. The hydrophilic surfaces of silica nanoparticles were modified with hydrophobic functional groups such as methyl and isopropyl. Methyl-functionalized silica nanoparticles were better than unmodified and isopropyl-functionalized silica nanoparticles at enhancing mass transfer. The dissolved concentrations of CO, CO2, and H2 were enhanced by 272.9%, 200.2%, and 156.1%, respectively, by using methyl-functionalized silica nanoparticles. The use of methyl-functionalized silica nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.3 wt% during syngas fermentation by C. ljungdahlii led to significant increases in the levels of biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid production (34.5%, 166.1%, and 29.1%, respectively).

  1. Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose.

  2. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  3. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  4. Steam pretreatment of Saccharum officinarum L. bagasse by adding of impregnating agents for advanced bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardi, A; Blasi, A; De Bari, I; Calabrò, V

    2016-12-01

    The main byproduct of the sugarcane industry, Saccharum officinarum L. bagasse (sugarcane bagasse, SCB), is widely used as lignocellulose biomass for bio-ethanol (EtOH) production. In this research study, SCB was pretreated by steam explosion (SE) method using two different impregnating agents: sulfur dioxide (SD) and hydrogen peroxide (HP). As matter of fact, the use of impregnating agents improves the performance of SE method, increasing the concentrations of fermentable sugars after enzymatic saccharification, and decreasing the inhibitor compounds produced during the steam pretreatment step. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the use of the two impregnating agents in various SE-conditions in order to optimize pretreatment parameters. For every pretreatment condition, it has been evaluated: concentration of fermentable sugars, glucose and xylose yields, and the effects of the inhibitor compounds on enzymatic hydrolysis step. The obtained results allow to improve the efficiency of the whole process of bio-EtOH synthesis enhancing the amount of fermentable sugars produced and the eco-sustainability of the whole process. Indeed, the optimization of steam pretreatment leads to a reduction of energy requirements and to a lower environmental impact.

  5. Flocculation causes inhibitor tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for second-generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johan O; Mapelli, Valeria; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2014-11-01

    Yeast has long been considered the microorganism of choice for second-generation bioethanol production due to its fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance. However, tolerance toward inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic materials is still an issue. Flocculating yeast strains often perform relatively well in inhibitory media, but inhibitor tolerance has never been clearly linked to the actual flocculation ability per se. In this study, variants of the flocculation gene FLO1 were transformed into the genome of the nonflocculating laboratory yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D. Three mutants with distinct differences in flocculation properties were isolated and characterized. The degree of flocculation and hydrophobicity of the cells were correlated to the length of the gene variant. The effect of different strength of flocculation on the fermentation performance of the strains was studied in defined medium with or without fermentation inhibitors, as well as in media based on dilute acid spruce hydrolysate. Strong flocculation aided against the readily convertible inhibitor furfural but not against less convertible inhibitors such as carboxylic acids. During fermentation of dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, the most strongly flocculating mutant with dense cell flocs showed significantly faster sugar consumption. The modified strain with the weakest flocculation showed a hexose consumption profile similar to the untransformed strain. These findings may explain why flocculation has evolved as a stress response and can find application in fermentation-based biorefinery processes on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  6. Bioconversion of municipal solid waste to glucose for bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aiduan; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2007-05-01

    Selected biodegradable municipal solid waste fractions were subjected to fifteen different pre-hydrolysis treatments to obtain the highest glucose yield for bio-ethanol production. Pre-hydrolysis treatments consisted of dilute acid (H(2)SO(4), HNO(3) or HCl, 1 and 4%, 180 min, 60 degrees C), steam treatment (121 and 134 degrees C, 15 min), microwave treatment (700 W, 2 min) or a combination of two of them. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out with Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride (10 and 60 FPU g(-1) substrate). Glucose yields were compared using a factorial experimental design. The highest glucose yield (72.80%) was obtained with a pre-hydrolysis treatment consisting of H(2)SO(4) at 1% concentration, followed by steam treatment at 121 degrees C, and enzymatic hydrolysis with Trichoderma viride at 60 FPU g(-1) substrate. The contribution of enzyme loading and acid concentration was significantly higher (49.39 and 47.70%, respectively), than the contribution of temperature during steam treatment (0.13%) to the glucose yield.

  7. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  8. Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency.

  9. Bioethanol Production from Paper Fibre Residue Using Diluted Alkali Hydrolysis and the Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathya Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of art for the bioethanol production from paper fibre residue using diluted alkali hydrolysis and fermentation processes was evaluated. Hydrolysis of paper fibre residue with diluted sodium hydroxide at various time period, temperature and concentration were investigated. The paper fibre residue was pre-steamed, impregnated with diluted NaOH (0 to 25% and subsequently hydrolyzed in a reactor at temperatures that ranged between 30 to 50 oC, for reaction time between 30 minutes to 150 minutes. The highest yield of monosaccharide (indicating the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemi cellulose was found at a temperature of 35 oC for a reaction time of 90 minutes. Fermentability of hemicelluloses hydrolysate was tested using monosaccharide fermenting microorganism Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cereviacea. The fermentability of the hydrolysate decreased strongly for hydrolysate produced at temperature higher than 50 oC. The ethanol concentration of monosaccharide hydrolysate was found to be 34.06 g/L and the ethanol yield was 0.097 g/g.

  10. Subcritical and supercritical technology for the production of second generation bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, Mauricio A; Prado, Juliana M; Mudhoo, Ackmez; Santos, Diego T; Forster-Carneiro, Tânia; Meireles, M Angela A

    2015-01-01

    There is increased interest in reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and increasing the share of renewable raw materials in our energy supply chain due to environmental and economic concerns. Ethanol is emerging as a potential alternative to liquid fuels due to its eco-friendly characteristics and relatively low production costs. As ethanol is currently produced from commodities also used for human and animal consumption, there is an urgent need of identifying renewable raw materials that do not pose a competitive problem. Lignocellulosic agricultural residues are an ideal choice since they can be effectively hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars and integrated in the context of a biorefinery without competing with the food supply chain. However, the conventional hydrolysis methods still have major issues that need to be addressed. These issues are related to the processing rate and generation of fermentation inhibitors, which can compromise the quality of the product and the cost of the process. As the knowledge of the processes taking place during hydrolysis of agricultural residues is increasing, new techniques are being exploited to overcome these drawbacks. This review gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hydrolysis with subcritical and supercritical water in the context of reusing agricultural residues for the production of suitable substrates to be processed during the fermentative production of bioethanol. Presently, subcritical and/or supercritical water hydrolysis has been found to yield low sugar contents mainly due to concurrent competing degradation of sugars during the hydrothermal processes. In this line of thinking, the present review also revisits the recent applications and advances to provide an insight of future research trends to optimize on the subcritical and supercritical process kinetics.

  11. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  12. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pak-Chung; Kwong, Tsz-Lung; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 °C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost.

  13. An overview on advances of amylases production and their use in the production of bioethanol by conventional and non-conventional processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Aline M. [Petrobras, Biotechnology Division, Research and Development Center, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castilho, Leda R. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Chemical Engineering Program, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freire, Denise M.G. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of Chemistry, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Amylases comprise some of the most reported groups of enzymes for the production of biofuels. Such enzymes from fungal and bacterial origins have been used at commercial scale for decades, using conventional processes (dry grinding and wet milling) for the production of bioethanol, and most recently they have been applied in a non-conventional process named cold starch hydrolysis (or granular starch hydrolysis). This review covers the feedstocks that can be used for the production of these enzymes, the state of the art of the enzyme production processes over the last decade, as well as the main aspects of their application for the production of bioethanol. Under the concluding remarks we discuss future trends for the optimization of such technologies. (orig.)

  14. Bitter sweet : How sustainable is bio-ethanol production in Brazil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; de Jong, Sanne; Derudder, Ben; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    While biofuels have currently been regarded as a good alternative for fossil fuels, there remain many debates on their impacts on human and environment. This paper tried to shed light on bio-ethanol in Brazil as one of the main producers and exporters in the world. The main question was to understan

  15. Production of bioethanol from effluents of the dairy industry by Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppellari, Francesca; Bardi, Laura

    2013-09-25

    Whey and scotta are effluents coming from cheese and ricotta processing respectively. Whey contains minerals, lipids, lactose and proteins; scotta contains mainly lactose. Whey can be reused in several ways, such as protein extraction or animal feeding, while nowadays scotta is just considered as a waste; moreover, due to very high volumes of whey produced in the world, it poses serious environmental and disposal problems. Alternative destinations of these effluents, such as biotechnological transformations, can be a way to reach both goals of improving the added value of the agroindustrial processes and reducing their environmental impact. In this work we investigated the way to produce bioethanol from lactose of whey and scotta and to optimize the fermentation yields. Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was chosen as lactose-fermenting yeast. Batch, aerobic and anaerobic, fermentations and semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase and in packed bed reactor were carried out of row whey, scotta and mix 1:1 whey:scotta at a laboratory scale. Different temperatures (28-40°C) were also tested to check whether the thermotolerance of the chosen yeast could be useful to improve the ethanol yield. The best performances were reached at low temperatures (28°C); high temperatures are also compatible with good ethanol yields in whey fermentations, but not in scotta fermentations. Semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase gave the best fermentation performances, particularly with scotta. Then both effluents can be considered suitable for ethanol production. The good yields obtained from scotta allow us to transform this waste in a source.

  16. Biogas production within the bioethanol production chain: Use of co-substrates for anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, B S; Triolo, J M; Lecona, V P; Zaiat, M; Sommer, S G

    2015-08-01

    Bioethanol production generates large amounts of vinasse, which is suitable for biogas production. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse was optimised using continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) supplemented either with lime fertiliser or with 3% cow manure. In both reactors, the C/N ratio was adjusted by adding straw. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of vinasse was 267.4±4.5LCH4kgVS(-1). Due to the low content of macro- and micronutrients and low C/N ratio of vinasse, biogas production failed when vinasse alone was fed to the reactor. When co-substrate was added, biogas production achieved very close to the BMP of vinasse, being 235.7±32.2LCH4kgVS(-1) from the fertiliser supplied reactor and 265.2±26.8LCH4kgVS(-1) in manure supplied reactor at steady state. Anaerobic digestion was the most stable when cow manure was supplied to digestion of vinasse.

  17. Screening of the effective cellulose-degradable strain and its application in the production of cellulose bioethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-fei Gao; Dai-di Fan; Pei Ma; Yan-e Luo; Xiao-xuan Ma; Chen-hui Zhu; Jun-feng Hui

    2009-01-01

    Strains from the cellulose-containing environment were collected. Primary screening(by filter-paper Hutchison solid culture medium and sodium carboxymethylcellulose solid culture medium) and reelection(by filter-paper inorganic salt culture medium and sodium carboxymethylcellulosc Congo red coltnre medium) indicated that five strains obtained were best suited for high performance cellulose degradation. Determination of sodium carboxymethylcellulose activity(CMCA) and filter paper activity(FPA) was accomplished for each of the five. The strongest of the five in CMCA and FPA was applied to the production of cellulose bioethanol by separate hydrolysis and fermentation(SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation(SSF) respectively.

  18. Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2014-01-01

    Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

  19. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9 ± 2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5 ± 2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9 ± 1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the

  20. Bioethanol production from steam-pretreated corn stover through an isomerase mediated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Isabella; Cuna, Daniela; Di Matteo, Vincenzo; Liuzzi, Federico

    2014-03-25

    Agricultural by-products such as corn stover are considered strategic raw materials for the production of second-generation bioethanol from renewable and non-food sources. This paper describes the conversion of steam-pretreated corn stover to ethanol utilising a multi-step process including enzymatic hydrolysis, isomerisation, and fermentation of mixed hydrolysates with native Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An immobilised isomerase enzyme was used for the xylose isomerisation along with high concentrations of S. cerevisiae. The objective was to assess the extent of simultaneity of the various conversion steps, through a detailed analysis of process time courses, and to test this process scheme for the conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates containing several inhibitors of the isomerase enzyme (e.g. metal ions, xylitol and glycerol). The process was tested on two types of hydrolysate after acid-catalysed steam pretreatment: (a) the water soluble fraction (WSF) in which xylose was the largest carbon source and (b) the entire slurry, containing both cellulose and hemicellulose carbohydrates, in which glucose predominated. The results indicated that the ethanol concentration rose when the inoculum concentration was increased in the range 10-75 g/L. However, when xylose was the largest carbon source, the metabolic yields were higher than 0.51g(ethanol)/g(consumed) sugars probably due to the use of yeast internal cellular resources. This phenomenon was not observed in the fermentation of mixed hydrolysates obtained from the entire pretreated product and in which glucose was the largest carbon source. The ethanol yield from biomass suspensions with dry matter (DM) concentrations of 11-12% (w/v) was 70% based on total sugars (glucose, xylose, galactose). The results suggest that xylulose uptake was more effective in mixed hydrolysates containing glucose levels similar to, or higher than, xylose. Analysis of the factors that limit isomerase activity in lignocellulosic

  1. Bioethanol Production From Cellulose by Candida tropicalis, as An Alternative Microbial Agent to Produce Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Candida tropicalis isolated from Tuak is a potentially useful microorganism for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be alterbative agent replacing Saccharomyces cerevisae for fermentation process. Although C.tropicalis could not convert all carbohydrates content of lignocellulosic into bioethanol, however it is able to grow on medium in the presence of either xylose or arabinose as carbon source. Our result showed that fermentation of 10 % (w/v cellulosic as sole carbon source produced 2.88% (v/v ethanol by C.tropicalis. This ethanol production was lower than usage of 10% (w/v dextrose as sole carbon source medium which producing 5.51% (v/v ethanol. Based upon our expreiment indicated that C.tropicalis is able to conduct two main process in converting of cellulosic material- to ethanol which is hydrolysis the degradation of cellulose into glucose, and fermentation the process the conversion glucose into bioethanol. Keywords : Candida tropicalis, bioethanol, fermentation, cellulosic Abstrak (Indonesian: Candida tropicalis yang diisiolasi dari Tuak adalah agen yang berpotensi dalam produksi etanol dari biomasa lignoselulosa dan dapat dijadikan agen alternatif menggantikan Saccharomyces cerevisiae pada proses fernentasi. Walaupun C.tropicalis tidak dapat mengkonversi semua kandungan karbohidrat lignoselulosamenjadi etanol, akan tetapi C.tropicalis mampu tumbuh pada media dengan xilosa atau arabinosa sebagaisumber karbon. Hasil kami menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengguankan C.tropicalis fermentasi 10% (w/v selulosa sebagai satu-satunya sumber karbon menghasilkan 2,88% (v/v etanol, Produksi etanol ini lebih rendah jika menggunakan 10% (w/v dekstrosa sebagai satu satunya sumber karbon yang menghasilkan 5,51% (v/v etanol. Berdasarkan percobaan menunjukkan bahwa C.tropicalis mampu melakukan dua proses utama dalam mengkonversi material selulosa menjadi etanol yaitu hidrolisis degradasi selulosa menjadi glukosa, dan

  2. Production of raw starch-degrading enzyme by Aspergillus sp. and its use in conversion of inedible wild cassava flour to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, Gashaw; Önnby, Linda; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2016-04-01

    The major bottlenecks in achieving competitive bioethanol fuel are the high cost of feedstock, energy and enzymes employed in pretreatment prior to fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as an alternative feedstock, but because of its complexity, economic viability is yet to be realized. Therefore, research around non-conventional feedstocks and deployment of bioconversion approaches that downsize the cost of energy and enzymes is justified. In this study, a non-conventional feedstock, inedible wild cassava was used for bioethanol production. Bioconversion of raw starch from the wild cassava to bioethanol at low temperature was investigated using both a co-culture of Aspergillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a monoculture of the later with enzyme preparation from the former. A newly isolated strain of Aspergillus sp. MZA-3 produced raw starch-degrading enzyme which displayed highest activity of 3.3 U/mL towards raw starch from wild cassava at 50°C, pH 5.5. A co-culture of MZA-3 and S. cerevisiae; and a monoculture of S. cerevisiae and MZA-3 enzyme (both supplemented with glucoamylase) resulted into bioethanol yield (percentage of the theoretical yield) of 91 and 95 at efficiency (percentage) of 84 and 96, respectively. Direct bioconversion of raw starch to bioethanol was achieved at 30°C through the co-culture approach. This could be attractive since it may significantly downsize energy expenses.

  3. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF BIOETHANOL USING NOVEL PERVAPORATION-DEPHLEGMATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is the most important liquid fuel made in the U.S. from domestically produced renewable resources. Traditional production of bioethanol involves batch fermation of biomass followed by ethanol recovery from the fermentation broths using distillation. The distillation st...

  4. Multi-objective optimization of bioethanol production during cold enzyme starch hydrolysis in very high gravity cassava mash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingling, Bao; Li, Chen; Honglin, Wang; Xiwen, Yu; Zongcheng, Yan

    2011-09-01

    Cold enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for bioethanol production were optimized using multi-objective optimization. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effects of α-amylase, glucoamylase, liquefaction temperature and liquefaction time on S. cerevisiae biomass, ethanol concentration and starch utilization ratio. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were: 224 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 694 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 77°C and 104 min for biomass; 264 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 392 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 60°C and 85 min for ethanol concentration; 214 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 398 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 79°C and 117 min for starch utilization ratio. The hydrolysis conditions were subsequently evaluated by multi-objectives optimization utilizing the weighted coefficient methods. The Pareto solutions for biomass (3.655-4.380×10(8)cells/ml), ethanol concentration (15.96-18.25 wt.%) and starch utilization ratio (92.50-94.64%) were obtained. The optimized conditions were shown to be feasible and reliable through verification tests. This kind of multi-objective optimization is of potential importance in industrial bioethanol production.

  5. Interconnected Hierarchical Porous Carbon from Lignin-Derived Byproducts of Bioethanol Production for Ultra-High Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liming; You, Tingting; Zhou, Tian; Zhou, Xia; Xu, Feng

    2016-06-08

    The advent of bioethanol production has generated abundant lignin-derived byproducts which contain proteins and polysaccharides. These byproducts are inapplicable for direct material applications. In this study, lignin-derived byproducts were used for the first time as carbon precursors to construct an interconnected hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon (HPNC) via hydrothermal treatment and activation. The obtained HPNC exhibited favorable features for supercapacitor applications, such as hierarchical bowl-like pore structures, a large specific surface area of 2218 m(2) g(-1), a high electronic conductivity of 4.8 S cm(-1), and a nitrogen doping content of 3.4%. HPNC-based supercapacitors in a 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte exhibited high-rate performance with a high specific capacitance of 312 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and 81% retention at 80 A g(-1) as well as an excellent cyclic life of 98% initial capacitance after 20 000 cycles at 10 A g(-1). Moreover, HPNC-based supercapacitors in the ionic liquid electrolyte of EMI-BF4 displayed an enhanced energy density of 44.7 Wh kg(-1) (remaining 74% of max value) at an ultrahigh power density of 73.1 kW kg(-1). The proposed strategy may facilitate lignin utilization and lead to a green bioethanol production process.

  6. Enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: Bi-functional enzyme complexes expressed in Pichia pastoris improve bioethanol production from Miscanthus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Young In; Kang, Dea Hee; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant utilizable natural resource. In the process of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, an efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to release hexose and pentose is essential. We have developed a strain of Pichia pastoris that can produce ethanol via pentose and hexose using an assembly of enzyme complexes. The use of enzyme complexes is one of the strategies for effective lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Xylanase XynB from Clostridium cellulovorans and a chimeric endoglucanase cCelE from Clostridium thermocellum were selected as enzyme subunits, and were bound to a recombinant scaffolding protein mini-CbpA from C. cellulovorans to assemble the enzyme complexes. These complexes efficiently degraded xylan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), producing approximately 1.18 and 1.07 g/L ethanol from each substrate, respectively, which is 2.3-fold and 2.7-fold higher than that of the free-enzyme expressing strain. Miscanthus sinensis was investigated as the lignocellulosic biomass for producing bioethanol, and 1.08 g/L ethanol was produced using our recombinant P. pastoris strain, which is approximately 1.9-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. In future research, construction of enzyme complexes containing various hydrolysis enzymes could be used to develop biocatalysts that can completely degrade lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products such as biofuels.

  7. An investigative study of indigenous sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production: the case of Kenya local sorghum varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangai, L.K.; Mbeo, C.O. [Kenya Industrial Research and Development Inst., Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, C.K. [Kenya Agricurtural Research Inst.(s), Machakos (Kenya)

    2012-11-01

    There are over 500 sorghum genotypes grown locally in Kenya. This study was an investigation and selection of suitable sorghum genotypes for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Kenya. For the study, 500 genotypes of sorghum were planted and grown using the recommended agricultural practices. Random sampling of 230 genotypes was done and the samples analysed for juice and sugar content. The 26 best yielding genotypes were selected and grown again in duplicate for further detailed study. Data on date of flowering, pest resistance, {sup 0}brix, wet and dry weight, plant population, ratooning, grain yield and juice yield and juice sugar content were recorded and analyzed using GENstat. Sampling was done for each genotype when about 50% of the crop had flowered and there after, every 2 weeks until the grains dried. Crushing was done with a three roller mill crusher [8]. The sugar content was measured using a digital refractometer. Sugar yield obtained ranged between 10.3{sup 0}Brix and 19.3{sup 0}Brix and juice yield between 268 litres/hectare and 11390 litres/hectare. Five indigenous sorghum varieties, GBK-007130, GBK-007076, GBK-007102, GBK-007296, GBK-007098 were found to have the highest sugar and juice yields and were considered the most suitable sweet sorghum genotypes among those studied, for bio-ethanol production in Kenya.

  8. Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles (Amorphopallus campanulatus) Flour by Fermentation using Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati; H Hadiyanto; Indah Kusumadewi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the depletion of fossil oil sources, Indonesia attempts to search new source of bioenergy including bioethanol. One of this sources is Iles-iles tubers (Amorphophallus campanulatus), which is abundantly available in Java Indonesia. The carbohydrate content in Iles-Iles tuber flour was 77% and it can be converted to ethanol by three consecutive steps methods consist of liquefaction-saccharification using α and β-amylase, respectively and then followed by fermentation by using Z. mobilis...

  9. Welfare – con o senza stato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen

    Welfare – con o senza stato analizza una vasta gamma di servizi sociali presenti a Padova, comprandoli con quelli di una cittá di dimensioni simili, Århus. La ricerca pertanto illustra la concreta erticolazione del sisterma di sicurezza sociale danese, confrontadolo con quello realizzato del nord...

  10. Comparison of γ-irradiation with other pretreatments followed with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation on bioconversion of microcrystalline cellulose for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Shihui; Wang, Keqin; Su, Xiaojun

    2015-04-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation pretreatment was compared with other pretreatment methods including ionic liquids (ILs), 1% HCl, 1% H2SO4, acidic aqueous Ils (AA-ILs), on the bioconversion efficiency of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for bioethanol production. The efficiency of MCC pretreatment followed with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was firstly evaluated according to the variations of the irradiation-derived compounds and structure of MCC, as well as yeast growth curve and bioethanol yield. Results showed that the appropriate irradiation dose (891 kGy used in our work) could eliminate the negative effect of toxic irradiation-derived compounds on SSF for ethanol bioconversion with the yield value of 67%. Analyses of SEM, FT-IR, reducing sugar and bioethanol yield showed that the efficiency of pretreatment on MCC was ILs ≈ irradiation pretreatment > AA-ILs pretreatment > 1% HCl pretreatment > 1% H2SO4 pretreatment.

  11. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitrwung, Rujira; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-05-11

    Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR). Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol) and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol.

  12. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujira Jitrwung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR. Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol.

  13. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  14. Simultaneous bioethanol distillery wastewater treatment and xylanase production by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sato, Ikuo; Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Ueda, Hirokazu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2015-12-01

    Bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass generates lignocellulosic bioethanol distillery wastewater (LBDW) that contains a large amount of xylose, making it a potential inexpensive source of xylose for biomaterials production. The main goal of this study was the production of useful enzymes from LBDW during treatment of this wastewater. In this study, we found that xylose strongly induced two yeast strains, Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 and GB-4(0), to produce novel xylanases, PaXynT and PaXynG, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of PaXynT [accession No. DF196774 (GAC73192.1)], obtained from the genome database of strain T-34 using its N-terminal amino acid sequence, was 91% identical to that of PaXynG (accession No. AB901085), and the deduced amino acid sequence is 98% identical. The specific activities of the purified PaXynT and PaXynG were about 52 U/mg. The optimal pH and temperature for both enzymes' activities were 5.2 and 50°C, respectively. They hydrolyzed xylan to xylose and neither had β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) activity, indicating that they are endo-β-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8). With these results, we expect that PaXyns can be employed in saccharizing lignocellulosic biomass materials for the production of useful products just like other endoxylanases. After 72 h of LBDW fed-batch cultivation using a jar-fermentor, strain GB-4(0) produced 17.3 U/ml (corresponding to about 0.3 g/l) of PaXynG and removed 63% of dissolved organic carbon and 87% of dissolved total phosphorus from LBDW. These results demonstrate the potential of P. antarctica for xylanase production during LBDW treatment.

  15. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  16. Display of phytase on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to degrade phytate phosphorus and improve bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Xiao, Yan; Shen, Wei; Govender, Algasan; Zhang, Liang; Fan, You; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2016-03-01

    Currently, development of biofuels as an alternative fuel has gained much attention due to resource and environmental challenges. Bioethanol is one of most important and dominant biofuels, and production using corn or cassava as raw materials has become a prominent technology. However, phytate contained in the raw material not only decreases the efficiency of ethanol production, but also leads to an increase in the discharge of phosphorus, thus impacting on the environment. In this study, to decrease phytate and its phosphorus content in an ethanol fermentation process, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered through a surface-displaying system utilizing the C-terminal half of the yeast α-agglutinin protein. The recombinant yeast strain, PHY, was constructed by successfully displaying phytase on the surface of cells, and enzyme activity reached 6.4 U/g wet biomass weight. Ethanol productions using various strains were compared, and the results demonstrated that the specific growth rate and average fermentation rate of the PHY strain were higher 20 and 18 %, respectively, compared to the control strain S. cerevisiae CICIMY0086, in a 5-L bioreactor process by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. More importantly, the phytate phosphorus concentration decreased by 89.8 % and free phosphorus concentration increased by 142.9 % in dry vinasse compared to the control in a 5-L bioreactor. In summary, we constructed a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain displaying phytase on the cell surface, which could improve ethanol production performance and effectively reduce the discharge of phosphorus. The strain reported here represents a useful novel engineering platform for developing an environment-friendly system for bioethanol production from a corn substrate.

  17. Numerical of Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rise Flour by Distillation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sari

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained experimentally study the composition of bioethanol a maximum of 95% to 96%, the results of experiments and simulations EWI ternary system form the temperature profile, the profile of the composition of liquid and vapor composition profile dimensionless time functions both at the bottom and in the distillate shows the results of the same approach. The simulation results before used reference in experiments performed the validation beforehand, so that the ternary system simulation EWI after validation of reference can be used in experiments.

  18. Evaluation of the parameters effects on the bio-ethanol production process from Ricotta Cheese Whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2010-01-01

    The work consists of an experimental analysis to evaluate the effects of the variables temperature (T), pH, agitation rate (K) and initial lactose concentration (L) on the batch fermentation process of Ricotta Cheese Whey (RCW) into bio-ethanol by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A central...... composite design, constituted by 26 runs, has been carried out, and the effects of the parameters have been evaluated. Eventually, once eliminated the negligible effects, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied to optimize the four parameters values in RCW fermentation process. After...

  19. Production, transportation and milling costs of sweet sorghum as a feedstock for centralized bioethanol production in the upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert S; Anex, Robert P

    2009-02-01

    Sweet sorghum has been identified as a possible ethanol feedstock because of its biomass yield and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. It has found limited use, however, because of poor post-harvest storage characteristics and short harvest window in cooler climates. Previous research (Bennett, A.S., Anex, R.P., 2008. Farm-gate production costs of sweet sorghum as a bioethanol feedstock. Transactions of the ASABE 51(2), 603-613) indicates that fermentable carbohydrates (FC) can be produced at less expense from sweet sorghum than from corn grain. Previous research, however, did not include costs associated with off-farm transportation, storage, or capital costs associated with milling and energy recovery equipment that are required to provide FC suitable for biological conversion. This study includes these additional costs and reevaluates sweet sorghum as a biocommodity feedstock. A total of eight harvest-transport-processing options are modeled, including 4-row self-propelled and 2-row tractor-pulled forage harvesters, two different modes of in-field transport, fresh processing, on-farm ensilage and at-plant ensilage. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis are used to account for system variability and compare scenarios. Transportation costs are found to be significant ranging from $33 to $71 Mg (-1) FC, with highest costs associated with at-plant ensilage scenarios. Economies of scale benefit larger milling equipment and boiler systems reducing FC costs by more than 50% when increasing annual plant capacity from 37.9 to 379 million liters. Ensiled storage of high moisture sweet sorghum in bunkers can lead to significant losses of FC (>20%) and result in systems with net FC costs well above those of corn-derived FC. Despite relatively high transport costs, seasonal, fresh processed sweet sorghum is found to produce FC at costs competitive with corn grain derived FC.

  20. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis...

  1. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar bark by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Jae Taek; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Kim, Ung-Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Gon Wi, Seung; Cho, Jae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Pretreatment of poplar bark with a combination of sulfuric acid (3%, w/w, H2SO4) and gamma irradiation (0-1000 kGy) was performed in an attempt to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The yields of reducing sugar were slightly increased with an increasing irradiation dose, ranging from 35.4% to 51.5%, with a 56.1% reducing sugar yield observed after dilute acid pretreatment. These results clearly showed that soluble sugars were released faster and to a greater extent in dilute acid-pretreated poplar bark than in gamma irradiation-pretreated bark. When combined pretreatment was carried out, a drastic increase in reducing sugar yield (83.1%) was found compared with individual pretreatment, indicating the possibility of increasing the convertibility of poplar bark following combined pretreatment. These findings are likely associated with cellulose crystallinity, lignin modification, and removal of hemicelluloses.

  2. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Agave tequilana fructans by Kluyveromyces marxianus yeasts for bioethanol and tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jose-Axel; Gschaedler, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Arellano, Melchor; Arrizon, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Agave tequilana fructans (ATF) constitute a substrate for bioethanol and tequila industries. As Kluyveromyces marxianus produces specific fructanases for ATF hydrolysis, as well as ethanol, it can perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In this work, fifteen K. marxianus yeasts were evaluated to develop inoculums with fructanase activity on ATF. These inoculums were added to an ATF medium for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. All the yeasts, showed exo-fructanhydrolase activity with different substrate specificities. The yeast with highest fructanase activity in the inoculums showed the lowest ethanol production level (20 g/l). Five K. marxianus strains were the most suitable for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF. The volatile compounds composition was evaluated at the end of fermentation, and a high diversity was observed between yeasts, nevertheless all of them produced high levels of isobutyl alcohol. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF with K. marxianus strains has potential for industrial application.

  3. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  4. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.

  5. Optimization of Cassava Waste from Bioethanol Post-Production through Bioactivity Process Consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Suryani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The result of laboratory analysis on bioethanol waste shows nutritional and anti-nutritional content (HCN. Based on it, in order to prevent environment damage then performed a bioconversion of bioethanol waste for base material of sheep forage by fermented previously using consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger to eliminate the waste anti-nutritional content and increase nutritional content. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD factorial pattern with two factors and three replications. The first factor was inoculum dose (D and the second factor was variation of tested microorganisms (M. The variables measured were HCN content and nutrient content of fermented products, that were water content, protein content and crude fiber content by proximate analysis. Furthermore, the data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, and was there significant difference analyzed further by Duncan's multiple range test of 5% level. Nutritional compositions of bioethanol waste from cassava that had been fermented by consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger experienced changes compared to before fermentation. The results showed an increase in protein level, while fiber content, water content, and HCN content were decrease. Bioethanol waste from cassava fermented by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (k3 with 2% inoculum dose had the highest protein content increase from 11.79% to 25.41% and had the lowest crude fiber content decrease from 16.4% to 12.84 %. The highest HCN decrease obtained from the fermentation of consortium Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride.

  6. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine...... cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic...... cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used...

  7. Wastewater from the soft drinks industry as a source for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Miguel A; Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G

    2013-05-01

    Wastewaters from the soft drinks industry were examined as media for producing bioethanol using yeast-mediated fermentation. Fermentation assays were performed using cola-type, orange and lemon-lime soft drinks and the biomass, sugar and ethanol levels were monitored over time. The effect of the addition of yeast extract was evaluated; the results indicated that 15 g/L is a suitable value for successful fermentation. Depletion of the sugars contained in the soft drinks (10-12% w/v) was achieved in less than 12 h when the medium was inoculated with 2 g/L of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Windsor. Ethanol yields were close to the theoretical values. The performance of several kinetic models was evaluated, and their parameters were determined. A model including inhibition by ethanol enabled the best adjustment of the experimental results in all assayed media. Some soft drinks include sodium benzoate in their formulae, the effect of which on yeast metabolism is discussed.

  8. Antioxidant activity of lignin phenolic compounds as by-product of pretreatment process of bioethanol production from empty fruits palm bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliana, Y.; Setiawan, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    As by-product of pretreatment bioethanol production, ligno-cellulosic biomass creates an abundance of bioresidue. This work is devoted to studies the antioxidant activity of lignin that obtained from recovery process of bioethanol by-product. This by-product comes from pretreatment process of empty fruit palm bunch in acid (pH 2) and alkaline (pH 12) conditions. The samples of purified lignin were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). Radical scavenging efficiency of lignin was examined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method using quercetin as a standard. The value of IC50 showed that the lignin that was purified in acid condition (pH 2) gave the activity value in antioxidant active range (IC50 sample Lignin pH 2 = 69.41), on the other hand the lignin that was purified in alkaline condition (Lignin pH 12) did not have the activity value as an antioxidant (IC50 sample Lignin pH 12 = NA).

  9. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars. The influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J.R.; Passarinho, P.C.; Gouveia, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal). Unidade de Bioenergia

    2012-10-15

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. (orig.)

  10. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L.

  11. Study the sensitivity of molecular functional groups to bioethanol processing in lipid biopolymer of co-products using DRIFT molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2011-11-01

    To date, there is no study on bioethanol processing-induced changes in molecular structural profiles mainly related to lipid biopolymer. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine molecular structural changes of lipid related functional groups in the co-products that occurred during bioethanol processing; (2) relatively quantify the antisymmetric CH 3 and CH 2 (ca. 2959 and 2928 cm -1, respectively), symmetric CH 3 and CH 2 (ca. 2871 and 2954 cm -1, respectively) functional groups, carbonyl C dbnd O ester (ca. 1745 cm -1) and unsaturated groups (CH attached to C dbnd C) (ca. 3007 cm -1) spectral intensities as well as their ratios of antisymmetric CH 3 to antisymmetric CH 2, and (3) illustrate the molecular spectral analyses as a research tool to detect for the sensitivity of individual moleculars to the bioethanol processing in a complex plant-based feed and food system without spectral parameterization. The hypothesis of this study was that bioethanol processing changed the molecular structure profiles in the co-products as opposed to original cereal grains. These changes could be detected by infrared molecular spectroscopy and will be related to nutrient utilization. The results showed that bioethanol processing had effects on the functional groups spectral profiles in the co-products. It was found that the CH 3-antisymmetric to CH 2-antisymmetric stretching intensity ratio was changed. The spectral features of carbonyl C dbnd O ester group and unsaturated group were also different. Since the different types of cereal grains (wheat vs. corn) had different sensitivity to the bioethanol processing, the spectral patterns and band component profiles differed between their co-products (wheat DDGS vs. corn DDGS). The multivariate molecular spectral analyses, cluster analysis and principal component analysis of original spectra (without spectral parameterization), distinguished the structural differences between the wheat and wheat DDGS and between the corn

  12. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  13. Study the sensitivity of molecular functional groups to bioethanol processing in lipid biopolymer of co-products using DRIFT molecular spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2011-11-01

    To date, there is no study on bioethanol processing-induced changes in molecular structural profiles mainly related to lipid biopolymer. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine molecular structural changes of lipid related functional groups in the co-products that occurred during bioethanol processing; (2) relatively quantify the antisymmetric CH(3) and CH(2) (ca. 2959 and 2928 cm(-1), respectively), symmetric CH(3) and CH(2) (ca. 2871 and 2954 cm(-1), respectively) functional groups, carbonyl C=O ester (ca. 1745 cm(-1)) and unsaturated groups (CH attached to C=C) (ca. 3007 cm(-1)) spectral intensities as well as their ratios of antisymmetric CH(3) to antisymmetric CH(2), and (3) illustrate the molecular spectral analyses as a research tool to detect for the sensitivity of individual moleculars to the bioethanol processing in a complex plant-based feed and food system without spectral parameterization. The hypothesis of this study was that bioethanol processing changed the molecular structure profiles in the co-products as opposed to original cereal grains. These changes could be detected by infrared molecular spectroscopy and will be related to nutrient utilization. The results showed that bioethanol processing had effects on the functional groups spectral profiles in the co-products. It was found that the CH(3)-antisymmetric to CH(2)-antisymmetric stretching intensity ratio was changed. The spectral features of carbonyl C=O ester group and unsaturated group were also different. Since the different types of cereal grains (wheat vs. corn) had different sensitivity to the bioethanol processing, the spectral patterns and band component profiles differed between their co-products (wheat DDGS vs. corn DDGS). The multivariate molecular spectral analyses, cluster analysis and principal component analysis of original spectra (without spectral parameterization), distinguished the structural differences between the wheat and wheat DDGS and between the corn and

  14. Bioethanol production. Competitive strength in Germany in consideration of international competition. 2. ed.; Die Bioethanolproduktion. Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit in Deutschland unter Beruecksichtigung der internationalen Konkurrenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henniges, O.

    2007-07-01

    The competitive standing of bioethanol production in Germany is reviewed from a national and international scale. The production cost in the EU, Brazil, Australia, Thailand and China are compared, and the effects of imports on the German biofuels production is assessed. The surface terrain available for biocrops in Germany and the EU are estimated, the use of beetroot for biofuel production is analyzed, and relationships between crude oil prices and raw materials prices are established. The CO2 reduction cost resulting from the use of biofuels is calculated and compared with the cost of other climate protection measures. Existing bioethanol markets in Brazil and the USa are analyzed, and marketing trends of biodiesel are included for a comparison. With the aid of inquiry sheets, critical arguments of the automobile and mineral oil industries were compiled and viewed in the context of the biodiesel discussion. The results of the investigation are then discussed with a view to potentially conflicting goals. The author attempts to answer the question whether sustainable bioethanol production may be possible in Germany in the present conditions. (orig.)

  15. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  16. Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo, E-mail: awalter@fem.unicamp.br [University of Campinas (FEM and NIPE) (Brazil); Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE) (Brazil); Dolzan, Paulo; Quilodran, Oscar [University of Campinas (FEM and NIPE) (Brazil); Oliveira, Janaina G. de [University of Campinas (FEM and NIPE) (Brazil); Shcolar of CNPq (Brazil); Silva, Cinthia da; Piacente, Fabricio [University of Campinas (FEM and NIPE) (Brazil); Segerstedt, Anna [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

  17. Determination of two-liquid mixture composition by assessing its dielectric parameters 2. modified measuring system for monitoring the dehydration process of bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilitis O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Part 2 of the work we describe a modified measuring system for precise monitoring of the dehydration process of bioethanol production. This is based on the earlier proposed system for measuring the concentration of solutions and two-liquid mixtures using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300pF, which provides a stable measuring resolution of ± 0.005 pF at measuring the capacitance of a sensor. In this part of our work we determine additional requirements that are to be imposed on the measuring system at monitoring the ethanol dehydration process and control of bioethanol production. The most important parameters of the developed measuring system are identified. An exemplary calculation is given for the thermocompensated calibration of measuring devices. The results of tests have shown a good performance of the developed measuring system.

  18. Determination of two-liquid mixture composition by assessing its dielectric parameters 2. modified measuring system for monitoring the dehydration process of bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.; Rucins, A.; Zihmane-Ritina, K.; Bremers, G.

    2014-02-01

    In Part 2 of the work we describe a modified measuring system for precise monitoring of the dehydration process of bioethanol production. This is based on the earlier proposed system for measuring the concentration of solutions and two-liquid mixtures using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300pF), which provides a stable measuring resolution of ± 0.005 pF at measuring the capacitance of a sensor. In this part of our work we determine additional requirements that are to be imposed on the measuring system at monitoring the ethanol dehydration process and control of bioethanol production. The most important parameters of the developed measuring system are identified. An exemplary calculation is given for the thermocompensated calibration of measuring devices. The results of tests have shown a good performance of the developed measuring system.

  19. Life cycle analysis of multi-crop lignocellulosic material (perennial grasses) for bioethanol production in western Canada : a review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing; Panigrahi, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Mupondwa, E.K. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a life cycle assessment of multi-crop lignocellulosic biomass to determine the environmental performance of a bioethanol biorefinery in western Canada. The study investigated the economic aspects of the ethanol fuel system such as biorefinery operating costs and possible improvements in biorefinery economics resulting from pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation processes. The eco-efficiency was determined by comparing economic parameters with selected environmental parameters. The study also compared the efficiency of the lignoce lulosic biorefinery with grain-based dry milling ethanol plants that produce ethanol as well as dried grains and solubles used as animal feed. The study showed that the choice of feedstock and location of the biorefinery is very important. The location should be carefully chosen where there is no water shortage. Various low valued lignocellulosic energy crops such as switch grass, alfalfa, and other perennial grasses can grow in marginal or pasture land and can decrease production costs considerably, thus improving the economic viability of biorefineries. The use of co-products can also add value to the process and can decrease the cost of ethanol production. tabs., figs.

  20. Increment of carbohydrate concentration of Chlorella minutissima microalgae for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Freitas Margarites

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae, like any other microorganism react to changes in the external environment with changes in their intracellular environment. Thus, the manipulation of cultivation conditions, especially the presence or absence of certain nutrients, stimulates the biosynthesis of compounds of interest. Their carbohydrates can be used to produce bioethanol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the medium and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphate components used in the culture medium of the microalgae Chlorella minutissima in the carbohydrate concentration of the same. Box-Behnken Planning was used, totaling 15 trials. The cultivations were carried out until early stationary phase of growth of the microalgae in closed 2 L reactors. At the end of the cultivation, the carbohydrate concentrations of dry biomass (% and yield in carbohydrates (g.L-1 .d-1 were determined. According to the analysis of effects, the microalgae Chlorella minutissima cultivated in Basal medium, with the addition of 0.125 gL-1 of the nitrogenized component (KNO3 and without addition of phosphatized components (K2HPO4 and KH2PO4 had a higher yield in carbohydrates in the cultivation (0,030 ± 0.002 g.L-1 .d-1 .

  1. Bio-ethanol production by fermentation of ricotta cheese whey as an effective alternative non-vegetable source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabro, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele [Department of Engineering Modeling, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 42/A, 87036 Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the feasibility of bio-ethanol production by batch fermentation of ricotta cheese whey (''Scotta''), a dairy industry waste characterized by lactose concentration ranging from 4.5% to 5.0% (w/w) and, with respect to traditional (raw) whey, by much lower protein content. Scotta, therefore, could represent an effective non-vegetable source for renewable energy production. The microrganism used to carry out the fermentation processes was the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Preliminary experiments, performed in aerobic conditions on different volumes of scotta, have shown the actual growth of the yeast. The subsequent fermentation experiments were carried out, in anaerobic conditions, on three different substrates: scotta, raw cheese whey and deproteinized whey. The experimental data have demonstrated the process feasibility: scotta is an excellent substrate for fermentation and exhibits better performance with respect to both raw cheese whey and deproteinized whey. Complete lactose consumption, indeed, was observed in the shortest time (13 h) and with the highest ethanol yield (97% of the theoretical value). (author)

  2. Bioethanol: State and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Marija B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of bioethanol production currently applied all over the world are reviewed in this paper. Attention is focused on potentially cheap biomass sources, as well as the most important operating factors controlling the progress and result of saccharification and fermentation reactions and affecting the yield of fermentable sugars and ethanol, respectively, such as: the type and concentration of acid, the type of enzyme, the type of working microorganism, operating temperature, duration time and pH. The hydrolysis conditions, namely duration time, temperature and sulfuric acid concentration, were combined in a single parameter, known as the "combined severity" (CS, in order to estimate the efficiency of bioethanol production from biomass. When the CS increases, the yield of fermentable sugars also increases. The decrease in the yield of monosaccharides coincides with the maximum concentrations of by-products, such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which are well-known as yeast inhibitors. The highest ethanol yields has been obtained using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With low oil prices and political reluctance to implement carbon taxes, fuel-ethanol production will remain uncompetitive unless some other form of cost reduction can be made, such as feedstock preparation costs.

  3. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

  4. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-Based Technique to Identify and Quantify Fermentable Sugars in Pineapple Waste Valorization for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Conesa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS has been used to develop a methodology able to identify and quantify fermentable sugars present in the enzymatic hydrolysis phase of second-generation bioethanol production from pineapple waste. Thus, a low-cost non-destructive system consisting of a stainless double needle electrode associated to an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of EIS was developed. In order to validate the system, different concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose were added to the pineapple waste and analyzed both individually and in combination. Next, statistical data treatment enabled the design of specific Artificial Neural Networks-based mathematical models for each one of the studied sugars and their respective combinations. The obtained prediction models are robust and reliable and they are considered statistically valid (CCR% > 93.443%. These results allow us to introduce this EIS-based technique as an easy, fast, non-destructive, and in-situ alternative to the traditional laboratory methods for enzymatic hydrolysis monitoring.

  5. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-Based Technique to Identify and Quantify Fermentable Sugars in Pineapple Waste Valorization for Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Claudia; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Loeff, Edwin; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2015-09-11

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to develop a methodology able to identify and quantify fermentable sugars present in the enzymatic hydrolysis phase of second-generation bioethanol production from pineapple waste. Thus, a low-cost non-destructive system consisting of a stainless double needle electrode associated to an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of EIS was developed. In order to validate the system, different concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose were added to the pineapple waste and analyzed both individually and in combination. Next, statistical data treatment enabled the design of specific Artificial Neural Networks-based mathematical models for each one of the studied sugars and their respective combinations. The obtained prediction models are robust and reliable and they are considered statistically valid (CCR% > 93.443%). These results allow us to introduce this EIS-based technique as an easy, fast, non-destructive, and in-situ alternative to the traditional laboratory methods for enzymatic hydrolysis monitoring.

  6. Effect of frequency and reaction time in focused ultrasonic pretreatment of energy cane bagasse for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methrath Liyakathali, Niyaz Ahamed; Muley, Pranjali D; Aita, Giovanna; Boldor, Dorin

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a critical steps in bioethanol production. Ultrasonic pretreatment significantly improves cellulose hydrolysis increasing sugar yields, but current system designs have limitations related to efficiency and scalability. This study evaluates the ultrasonic pretreatment of energy cane bagasse in a novel scalable configuration and by maximizing coupling of ultrasound energy to the material via active modulation of frequency. Pretreatment was conducted in 28% ammonia water mixture at a sample:ammonia:water ratio of 1:0.5:8. Process performance was investigated as a function of frequency (20, 20.5, 21kHz), reaction time (30, 45, 60min), temperature, and power levels for multiple combinations of ammonia, water and sample mixture. Results indicated an increased enzymatic digestibility, with maximum glucose yield of 24.29g/100g dry biomass. Theoretical ethanol yields obtained ranged from 6.47 to a maximum of 24.29g/100g dry biomass. Maximum energy attainable was 886.34kJ/100g dry biomass.

  7. A novel full recycling process through two-stage anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater for bioethanol production from cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lu, Xin; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhong-Gui; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Sun, Fu-Bao

    2010-07-15

    In the present study, a novel full recycling process for bioethanol production was investigated, where three mathematical models were established to simulate the accumulation of major soluble inhibitory substances, including organic compounds, total ions, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and colorants. These inhibitory substances in the reused water reached a relative steady state after 3-7 batches of anaerobic treatment and recycling process, which coincided with the results of mathematical models. There were no negative effects of these inhibitory substances on ethanol fermentation and the final ethanol yield, fermentation time, starch utilization ratio were very close to that of the conventional process using tap water. However, approximately 7.54% (w/w) of water was lost during each circulation, which was replenished in subsequent circulations, to assure consistent fermentation broth volume. This novel process was confirmed to have a stable operation over 13 recycles. It is concluded the stable states of the inhibitory substances in the reused water can assure this recycling process will run successfully.

  8. Altered Lignin Biosynthesis Improves Cellulosic Bioethanol Production in Transgenic Maize Plants Down-Regulated for Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Fornalé; Pere Puigdomènech; Joan Rigau; David Caparrós-Ruiz; Montserrat Capellades; Antonio Encina; Kan Wang; Sami Irar; Catherine Lapierre; Katia Ruel; Jean-Paul Joseleau; Jordi Berenguer

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase(CAD)is a key enzyme involved in the last step of monolignol biosynthesis.The effect of CAD down-regulation on lignin production was investigated through a transgenic approach in maize.Transgenic CAD-RNAi plants show a different degree of enzymatic reduction depending on the analyzed tissue and show alterations in cell wall composition.Cell walls of CAD-RNAi stems contain a lignin polymer with a slight reduction in the S-to-G ratio without affecting the total lignin content.In addition,these cell walls accumulate higher levels of cellulose and arabinoxylans.In contrast,cell walls of CAD-RNAi midribs present a reduction in the total lignin content and of cell wall polysaccharides.In vitro degradability assays showed that,although to a different extent,the changes induced by the repression of CAD activity produced midribs and stems more degradable than wild-type plants.CAD-RNAi plants grown in the field presented a wild-type phenotype and produced higher amounts of dry biomass.Cellulosic bioethanol assays revealed that CAD-RNAi biomass produced higher levels of ethanol compared to wild-type,making CAD a good target to improve both the nutritional and energetic values of maize lignocellulosic biomass.

  9. Optimization of enzymatic saccharification of Chaetomorpha linum biomass for the production of macroalgae-based third generation bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Slaheddine Masmoudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of marine macro-algae Chaetomorpha linum as a potential biofuel resource, the effects of the enzymatic treatment conditions on sugar yield were evaluated using a three factor three level Box-Behnken design. The hydrothermally pretreated C. linum biomass was treated with Aspergillus niger cellulase at various liquid to solid ratios (50–100 mL/g, enzyme concentrations (10–60 U/g and incubations times (4–44 h. Data obtained from the response surface methodology were subjected to the analysis of variance and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. The fitted model was found to be robust and was used to optimize the sugar yield (% during enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum saccharification conditions were: L/S ratio 100 mL/g; enzyme concentration 52 U/g; and time 44 h. Their application led to a maximum sugar yield of 30.2 g/100g dry matter. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of the algal hydrolysate provided 8.6 g ethanol/100g dry matter. These results showed a promising future of applying C. linum biomass as potential feedstock for third generation bioethanol production.

  10. Bisulfite pretreatment changes the structure and properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch to improve enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Sun, Wan; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2015-06-01

    Bisulfite pretreatment is a proven effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm for bioethanol production. In this study, we set out to determine the changes that occur in the structure and properties of EFB materials and fractions of hemicellulose and lignin during the bisulfite pretreatment process. The results showed that the crystallinity of cellulose in EFB increased after bisulfite pretreatment, whereas the EFB surface was damaged to various degrees. The orderly structure of EFB, which was maintained by hydrogen bonds, was destroyed by bisulfite pretreatment. Bisulfite pretreatment also hydrolyzed the glycosidic bonds of the xylan backbone of hemicellulose, thereby decreasing the molecular weight and shortening the xylan chains. The lignin fractions obtained from EFB and pretreated EFB were typically G-S lignin, and with low content of H units. Meanwhile, de-etherification occurred at the β-O-4 linkage, which was accompanied by polymerization and demethoxylation as a result of bisulfite pretreatment. The adsorption ability of cellulase differed for the various lignin fractions, and the water-soluble lignin fractions had higher adsorption capacity on cellulase than the milled wood lignin. In general, the changes in the structure and properties of EFB provided insight into the benefits of bisulfite pretreatment.

  11. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-Based Technique to Identify and Quantify Fermentable Sugars in Pineapple Waste Valorization for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Claudia; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Loeff, Edwin; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to develop a methodology able to identify and quantify fermentable sugars present in the enzymatic hydrolysis phase of second-generation bioethanol production from pineapple waste. Thus, a low-cost non-destructive system consisting of a stainless double needle electrode associated to an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of EIS was developed. In order to validate the system, different concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose were added to the pineapple waste and analyzed both individually and in combination. Next, statistical data treatment enabled the design of specific Artificial Neural Networks-based mathematical models for each one of the studied sugars and their respective combinations. The obtained prediction models are robust and reliable and they are considered statistically valid (CCR% > 93.443%). These results allow us to introduce this EIS-based technique as an easy, fast, non-destructive, and in-situ alternative to the traditional laboratory methods for enzymatic hydrolysis monitoring. PMID:26378537

  12. Possible use of the carbohydrates present in tomato pomace and in byproducts of the supercritical carbon dioxide lycopene extraction process as biomass for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenucci, Marcello S; Durante, Miriana; Anna, Montefusco; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella

    2013-04-17

    This study provides information about the carbohydrate present in tomato pomace (skins, seeds, and vascular tissues) as well as in the byproducts of the lycopene supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) such as tomato serum and exhausted matrix and reports their conversion into bioethanol. The pomace, constituting approximately 4% of the tomato fruit fresh weight, and the SC-CO₂-exhausted matrix were enzyme saccharified with 0.1% Driselase leading to sugar yields of ~383 and ~301 mg/g dw, respectively. Aliquots of the hydrolysates and of the serum (80% tomato sauce fw) were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The bioethanol produced from each waste was usually >50% of the calculated theoretical amount, with the exception of the exhausted matrix hydolysate, where a sugar concentration >52.8 g/L inhibited the fermentation process. Furthermore, no differences in the chemical solubility of cell wall polysaccharides were evidenced between the SC-CO₂-lycopene extracted and unextracted matrices. The deduced glycosyl linkage composition and the calculated amount of cell wall polysaccharides remained similar in both matrices, indicating that the SC-CO₂ extraction technology does not affect their structure. Therefore, tomato wastes may well be considered as potential alternatives and low-cost feedstock for bioethanol production.

  13. The fairy tale of bio-ethanol. Het sprookje van de bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverloo, W.A. (Vakgroep Levensmiddelentechnologie, Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Netherlands))

    1992-03-01

    Agricultural products can be converted into bio-ethanol. Proponents of the bio-ethanol production however use inaccurate arguments with regard to the comparison of the prices per liter for bio-ethanol and petrol instead of using the net heating value of the fuels. Also their basic assumptions concerning the energy efficiency or the energy balances or the carbon dioxide emissions are incorrect. The production of biomass for energy does not serve any other societal interest than subsidized employment for agricultural farmers. 4 tabs., 9 refs.

  14. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-05-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles.

  15. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is among the green alternatives to fossil fuels, but as the processing techniques are today, gasolin is still heaper than bioethanol. Lignocellulose, which remains the primary resource for ioethanol production in Denmark, is complex when it comes to release...... for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes....... Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  16. Bioethanol production from starchy biomass by direct fermentation using saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilonzo, P.M.; Margaritis, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Yu, J.; Ye, Q. [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Biochemical Engineering Research Inst. and State Key Lab

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using amylolytic yeasts for the direct fermentation of starchy biomass to ethanol was discussed. Although amylolytic yeasts such as Saccharomycopsis, Lipomyces, and Schwaniomyces secrete both {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes that synergistically enhance starch degradation, they are not suitable for industrial bio-ethanol production because of low tolerance for ethanol and slow fermentation rate. For that reason, this study examined the direct ethanol fermentation of soluble starch or dextrin with the amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cells systems. Saccharomyces diastaticus secretes glucoamylase and can therefore assimilate and ferment starch and starch-like biomass. The main focus of the study was on parameters leading to higher ethanol yields from high concentration of dextrin and soluble starch using batch cultures. A natural attachment method was proposed in which polyurethane foam sheets were used as the carrier for amylolytic yeasts immobilization in ethanol fermentations. The support was chosen because it was inexpensive, autoclavable, pliable and could be tailored to suit process requirements regarding net surface charge, shape and size. It was found that Saccharomyces diastaticus was very efficient in terms of fermentation of high initial concentrations of dextrin or soluble starch. Higher concentrations of ethanol were produced. In batch fermentations, the cells fermented high dextrin concentrations more efficiently. In particular, in batch fermentation, more than 92 g-L of ethanol was produced from 240 g-L of dextrin, at conversion efficiency of 90 per cent. The conversion efficiency decreased to 60 per cent but a higher final ethanol concentration of 147 g/L was attained with a medium containing 500 g/L of dextrin. In an immobilized cell bioreactor, Saccharomyces diastaticus produced 83 g/L of ethanol from 240 g/L of dextrin, corresponding to ethanol volumetric productivity of 9.1 g

  17. Bioethanol Production by Calcium Alginate-Immobilised St1 Yeast System: Effects of Size of Beads, Ratio and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masniroszaime Md Zain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast-cell technology posses several advantages in bioethanol production due to its potential to increase the ethanol yield by eliminating unit process used. Thus, process expenses in cell recovery and reutilization can be minimised. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of three parameters (substrate concentrations, size of alginate beads and ratio of volume of beads to volume of medium on local isolated yeast (ST1 which immobilized using calcium alginate fermentation system. The most affected ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilised ST1 yeast system were ratio of volume of the beads to the volume of substrate and concentration of LBS. Highest theoretical yield, 78% was obtained in ST1-alginate beads with the size of beads 0.5cm, ratio volume of beads to the volume of LBS media 0.4 and 150g/l concentration of LBS.ABSTRAK: Teknologi sel yis pegun memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam penghasilan bioetanol kerana ia berpotensi meningkatkan pengeluaran etanol dengan menyingkirkan unit proses yang digunakan. Maka, proses pembiayaan dalam perolehan sel dan penggunaan semula boleh dikurangkan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh tiga parameter (kepekatan substrat, saiz manik alginat dan nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu bahantara ke atas sel tempatan terasing (local isolated yeast (ST1 yang dipegun menggunakan sistem penapaian kalsium alginat. Penghasilan etanol yang paling berkesan dengan menggunakan sistem yis ST1 kalsium alginat-pegun adalah dengan kadar nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu substrat dan kepekatan LBS. Kadar hasil teori tertinggi iaitu 78% didapati menerusi manik alginat-ST1 dengan saiz manik 0.5cm, nisbah isipadu 0.4 terhadap perantara LBS dan kepekatan LBS sebanyak 150g/l. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  18. 生物质制乙醇预处理方法的研究进展%Pretreatment method for production of bioethanol with lignocellulosic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱萍; 谢君

    2014-01-01

    【目的】为应对日益严峻的能源和环境污染问题,综述了木质纤维生物质制备乙醇的原料预处理方法,为广大科研工作者提供了该研究领域的最新研究进展,展望了可再生木质纤维原料高值化利用的新思路和新技术。【方法】查阅了国内外生物质原料预处理制备生物乙醇的主要研究方法,并进行了归纳总结,提出各种预处理方法存在的优缺点。【结果和结论】利用可再生的木质纤维生物质发酵制取乙醇得到了广泛的研究,由于木质纤维原料结构复杂,直接转化效率低,木质素和半纤维素水解产物对纤维素水解和发酵具有明显的抑制作用。木质纤维原料预处理是提高乙醇得率的有效途径,通过预处理,去除植物细胞壁中木质素和半纤维素组分,降低木质素和半纤维素水解产物对后续乙醇发酵的抑制作用,同时降低纤维素结晶度,提高原料的多孔性,从而提高纤维素酶对纤维素的水解效率。%Objective] With the increasing concerns on energy crisis and environmental problems , the production of bioethanol from renewable and readily available lignocellulosic biomass has received consid -erable attention around all over the world .The pretreatment methods of lignocelluloses for bioethanol pro-duction are reviewed in this paper to provide the new progress and new ideas for the production of value -added products from lignocellulosic materials .[Method] The primary pretreatment methods of lignocellu-loses from the literatures are discussed and their advantages and disadvantages are comparatively investi -gated.[Result and conclusion] Because of the complex structure , the conversion of lignocelluose into bioethanol is inefficient due to the crystalline structure of cellulose .The degraded hemicelluloses and lig-nin in the hydrolyzates produced also cause inhibition in the subsequent fermentation stage and lead to a low

  19. A two-stage process for the anaerobic digestion of sludge generated during the production of bioethanol from sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelatou, K.; Dravillas, K.; Lyberatos, G.

    2003-07-01

    Sweet sorghum is an energy crop, often cultivated to recover energy in the form of ethanol, hydrogen etc by applying biological processes. These processes, however, produce a significant amount of sludge (bagasse) which contains the recalcitrant unconverted portion of sorghum, the non-hydrolyzed portion of the plant biomass as well as microbial biomass. In this work, the sludge from the alcoholic fermentation of sweet sorghum following a distillation step (to remove the generated bioethanol) was subjected to anaerobic digestion for further biodegradation and energy production (methane). A two-stage configuration for the anaerobic digestion of this type of industrial sludge was conceived and compared with a single stage anaerobic digestion of bagasse. For the two-stage process, the sludge was separated into one solid and one liquid stream. The solid portion of the sludge (9%) contributed mainly to the total organic load, although there was a significant organic load dissolved in the liquid portion too (28.73{+-}11.01 g/l). In the two stage system the solid and liquid phases of the sludge were separately treated under different operating conditions in two separate reactors: the solid phase in a thermophilic hydrolyzing reactor and the liquid phase in a mesophilic high-rate digester. The overall yield of the continuous two-stage process was 16 l methane/l wastewater at a hydraulic retention time of almost 20 days, while the maximum methane yield that could be achieved in batch experiments (duration 40d) was 30 l/l wastewater. (author)

  20. Bioethanol production from mixed sugars by Scheffersomyces stipitis free and immobilized cells, and co-cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Isabella; De Canio, Paola; Cuna, Daniela; Liuzzi, Federico; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia

    2013-09-25

    Bioethanol can be produced from several biomasses including lignocellulosic materials. Besides 6-carbon sugars that represent the prevalent carbohydrates, some of these feedstocks contain significant amounts of 5-carbon sugars. One common limit of the major part of the xylose-fermenting yeasts is the diauxic shift between the uptake of glucose and xylose during the fermentation of mixed syrups. Thus, optimized fermentation strategies are required. In this paper the ability of Scheffersomyces stipitis strain NRRLY-11544 to ferment mixed syrups with a total sugar concentration in the range 40-80 g/L was investigated by using mono cultures, co-cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Bakers Yeast Type II and single cultures immobilized in silica-hydrogel films. The experimental design for the fermentations with immobilized cells included the process analysis in function of two parameters: the fraction of the gel in the broth and the concentration of the cells loaded in the gel. Furthermore, for each total sugars level, the fermentative course of S. stipitis was analyzed at several glucose-to xylose ratios. The results indicated that the use of S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae in free co-cultures ensured faster processes than single cultures of S. stipitis either free or immobilized. However, the rapid production of ethanol by S. cerevisiae inhibited S. stipitis and caused a stuck of the process. Immobilization of S. stipitis in silica-hydrogel increased the relative consumption rate of xylose-to-glucose by 2-6 times depending on the composition of the fermentation medium. Furthermore the films performances appeared stable over three weeks of continuous operations. However, on the whole, the final process yields obtained with the immobilized cells were not meaningfully different from that of the free cells. This was probably due to concurrent fermentations operated by the cells released in the broth. Optimization of the carrier characteristics could improve the

  1. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P Carcass fat (P carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  2. Bioethanol production from sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide-pretreated water hyacinth via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with a newly isolated thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianu strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinping; Wei, Zhilei; Wang, Qiaoping; He, Manman; Li, Shumei; Irbis, Chagan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, bioethanol production from NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth was investigated. Pretreatment of water hyacinth with 1.5% (v/v) H2O2 and 3% (w/v) NaOH at 25 °C increased the production of reducing sugars (223.53 mg/g dry) and decreased the cellulose crystallinity (12.18%), compared with 48.67 mg/g dry and 22.80% in the untreated sample, respectively. The newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianu K213 showed greater ethanol production from glucose (0.43 g/g glucose) at 45 °C than did the control Saccharomyces cerevisiae angel yeast. The maximum ethanol concentration (7.34 g/L) achieved with K. marxianu K213 by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from pretreated water hyacinth at 42 °C was 1.78-fold greater than that produced by angel yeast S. cerevisiae at 30 °C. The present work demonstrates that bioethanol production achieved via SSF of NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth with K. marxianu K213 is a promising strategy to utilize water hyacinth biomass.

  3. DesinFix TM 135 in fermentation process for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Barth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the world's largest ethanol production from sugarcane, but bacterial contamination decreases the ethanol yields. It was shown that the biocide DesinFixTM 135 can reduce the contamination without decreasing the yeasts' viability or negatively affecting the ethanol production.

  4. Bioethanol Production from Uncooked Raw Starch by Immobilized Surface-engineered Yeast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Wu, Kuo-Wei; Fukuda, Hideki

    Surface-engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae codisplaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and Streptococcus bovis α-amylase on the cell surface was used for direct production of ethanol from uncooked raw starch. By using 50 g/L cells during batch fermentation, ethanol concentration could reach 53 g/L in 7 days. During repeated batch fermentation, the production of ethanol could be maintained for seven consecutive cycles. For cells immobilized in loofa sponge, the concentration of ethanol could reach 42 g/L in 3 days in a circulating packed-bed bioreactor. However, the production of ethanol stopped thereafter because of limited contact between cells and starch. The bioreactor could be operated for repeated batch production of ethanol, but ethanol concentration dropped to 55% of its initial value after five cycles because of a decrease in cell mass and cell viability in the bioreactor. Adding cells to the bioreactor could partially restore ethanol production to 75% of its initial value.

  5. Microwave Assisted Bioethanol Production from Sago Starch by Co-Culturing of Ragi Tapai and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Environmental issues such as global warming and recent events throughout the world, including the shortage of petroleum crude oil, the sharp increase in the cost of oil and the political instability of some crude oil producing countries, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the present sources for liquid fuel. These situations have created great demand for ethanol from fermentation process as green fuel. A main challenge in producing the ethanol is the production cost. A rapid and economical single step fermentation process for reliable production of bioethanol was studied by co-culturing commercialized ragi tapai with Saccharomyces cerevisae using raw sago starch. Approach: Enzymatic hydrolysis of sago starch by various amylolytic enzymes was investigated to reveal the potential coupling mechanism of Microwave Irradiation-Enzyme Coupling Catalysis (MIECC. Results: It was shown that enzymatic hydrolysis of starch using typical enzymes may successfully be carried out at microwave condition. The MIECC resulted in increasing initial reaction rate by about 2 times. The results testify on specific activation of enzymes by microwaves and prove the existence of non-thermal effect in microwave assisted reactions. Low power microwave irradiation (80W does not increase the temperature beyond 40°C and hence denaturation of the enzyme is avoided. The maximum ethanol fermentation efficiency was achieved (97.7% of the theoretical value using 100 g L-1 sago starch concentration. The microwave assisted process improved the yield of ethanol by 45.5% compared to the non-microwave process. Among the other advantages of co-culturing of ragi tapai with S. cerevisiae is the enhancement of ethanol production and prevention of the inhibitory effect of reducing sugars on amylolytic activity and the reaction could be completed within 32±1 h. Conclusion: The present study have demonstrated the ability of using cheaply and readily ragi tapai for

  6. Simultaneous Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Anaerobic Fermentation with Immobilized Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of organic loading rates (OLRs on fermentative productions of hydrogen and ethanol were investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR with attached sludge using molasses as substrate. The CSTR reactor with attached sludge was operated under different OLRs, ranging from 8 to 24 kg/m3·d. The H2 and ethanol production rate essentially increased with increasing OLR. The highest H2 production rate (10.74 mmol/h⋅L and ethanol production rate (11.72 mmol/h⋅L were obtained both operating at OLR = 24 kg/m3·d. Linear regression results show that ethanol production rate ( and H2 production rate ( were proportionately correlated and can be expressed as =1.5365−5.054 (2=0.9751. The best energy generation rate was 19.08 kJ/h⋅L, which occurred at OLR = 24 kg/m3·d. In addition, the hydrogen yield was affected by the presence of ethanol and acetic acid in the liquid phase, and the maximum hydrogen production rate occurred while the ratio of ethanol to acetic acid was close to 1.

  7. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , however, shown that by following this path, we will lose more than we gain on both CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Being renewable, CO2 neutral and storable, biomass is a priority resource for fossil fuel substitution in general. Investigations of the magnitude of biomass that is or can be made...... available for energy purposes - be it from waste, agricultural residues or energy crops - show, however, that biomass is very limited compared to the potential use of it. Even in the most optimistic near term scenarios (30 years ahead), the total physically available biomass can at maximum substitute around......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  8. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also ...

  9. Hydrogen production by low-temperature reforming of bioethanol over ZnO-supported Co-Ni and Co-Cu catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, J.; Homs, N.; Ramirez de la Piscina, P.

    2005-07-01

    The use of a renewable, non-toxic biomass-derived source, like bioethanol, to produce hydrogen is actually very attractive. In such domain, the search of a catalytic system highly effective for the selective steam-reforming process is of current research interest, CH3CH2OH+3H2O.6H2+2CO2. The steam-reforming of ethanol involves numerous steps and usually competes with several parallel reactions that originate undesired products like CO and CH4, resulting in lower hydrogen yields and difficult practical application. Copper- and nickel-based catalysts, including catalysts containing both metals, have been extensively studied in the steam-reforming of ethanol [1-3]. It has been well established that copper favours the dehydrogenation reaction and nickel the breaking of C-C bonds. Moreover, the presence of basic supports and Cu-Ni alloys prevent the formation of carbon deposits [1-3]. On the other hand, we have shown that ZnO-supported cobalt catalysts are very selective to hydrogen and CO2 from the steam reforming of bioethanol mixtures below 673 K [4]. In addition, sodium addition to ZnO-supported cobalt catalysts results in a major stability by suppressing the deposition of carbon [5]. Here we present the catalytic behaviour at low temperature of sodium-promoted, bimetallic cobalt-nickel and cobalt copper catalysts supported on ZnO and compare their performance with mono metallic ZnO-supported Ni and Cu samples. Catalysts have been tested in the steam-reforming reaction of bioethanol at atmospheric pressure (C2H5OH:H2O1:4 v/v) and characterised by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after reaction. The effect of introduction of copper or nickel on cobalt-based catalysts is discussed in relation to their catalytic performances. (Author)

  10. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  11. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  12. Genome-scale metabolic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks J Paul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms possess diverse metabolic capabilities that can potentially be leveraged for efficient production of biofuels. Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405 is a thermophilic anaerobe that is both cellulolytic and ethanologenic, meaning that it can directly use the plant sugar, cellulose, and biochemically convert it to ethanol. A major challenge in using microorganisms for chemical production is the need to modify the organism to increase production efficiency. The process of properly engineering an organism is typically arduous. Results Here we present a genome-scale model of C. thermocellum metabolism, iSR432, for the purpose of establishing a computational tool to study the metabolic network of C. thermocellum and facilitate efforts to engineer C. thermocellum for biofuel production. The model consists of 577 reactions involving 525 intracellular metabolites, 432 genes, and a proteomic-based representation of a cellulosome. The process of constructing this metabolic model led to suggested annotation refinements for 27 genes and identification of areas of metabolism requiring further study. The accuracy of the iSR432 model was tested using experimental growth and by-product secretion data for growth on cellobiose and fructose. Analysis using this model captures the relationship between the reduction-oxidation state of the cell and ethanol secretion and allowed for prediction of gene deletions and environmental conditions that would increase ethanol production. Conclusions By incorporating genomic sequence data, network topology, and experimental measurements of enzyme activities and metabolite fluxes, we have generated a model that is reasonably accurate at predicting the cellular phenotype of C. thermocellum and establish a strong foundation for rational strain design. In addition, we are able to draw some important conclusions regarding the underlying metabolic mechanisms for observed behaviors of C. thermocellum

  13. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    into ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively...

  14. Potential for using thermophilic anaerobic bacteria for bioethanol production from hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P.; Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    A limited number of bacteria, yeast and fungi can convert hemicellulose or its monomers (xylose, arabinose, mannose and galactose) into ethanol with a satisfactory yield and productivity. In the present study we tested a number of thermophilic enrichment cultures, and new isolates of thermophilic...

  15. Microwave pretreatment of rape straw for bioethanol production: Focus on energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xuebin; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Yimin;

    2011-01-01

    The energy efficiency of microwave-assisted dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rape straw for the production of ethanol was investigated. Different microwave energy inputs and solid loadings were tested to find economic pretreatment conditions. The lowest energy consumption was observed when so...

  16. Valorization of carob waste: Definition of a second-generation bioethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahry, Hajar; Pons, Agnès; Abdallah, Rawa; Pierre, Guillaume; Delattre, Cédric; Fayad, Nidal; Taha, Samir; Vial, Christophe

    2017-03-11

    The aim of this work was to develop a strategy for second-generation ethanol production from carob solid waste issued from Lebanese food industry. The pros and cons of submerged (SF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) using S. cerevisiae on ethanol yield and productivity were compared, including the respective roles of upstream and downstream processes, such as the size reduction, or sugar and ethanol recovery processes. The design of experiments methodology was applied. Experimental results demonstrated that SSF applied to cut carob waste from carob syrup preparation was simpler to operate and more cost-effective, maintained yield and productivity (0.458g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 4.3g/(kg waste)/h) in comparison to SF (0.450g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 5.7g/(kg waste)/h), and was able to achieve ethanol production up to 155g/(kg waste) at low water demand, while SF reached only 78g/(kg waste) due to the limitations of the sugar extraction pretreatment.

  17. Reactors for Hydrogen Production by Bio-Ethanol Reforming%生物乙醇重整制氢反应器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 郎林; 阴秀丽; 吴创之

    2011-01-01

    Bio-ethanol reforming is a type of promising technology for hydrogen production,which is focused on current low-carbon energy research.The key of ethanol reforming is to develop novel reforming catalysts with high activity and high selectivity at low temperature, and new efficient catalytic reactors.The effects of reactors on ethanol reforming process are focused in this paper, and ethanol reforming reactors at home and abroad are reviewed, such as fixed-bed reactors, microchannel reactors and membrane reactors.Based on the extensive discussion of the advantages and weaknesses of various catalytic reactors, the trends in the manufacture and application of bio-ethanol reforming reactors are also prospected.In our opinions, the following aspects need to be studied systematically: (1) strengthening basic theoretical researches, especially the reaction mechanisms of bio-ethanol reforming and the principles of mass/heat transfer, (2) developing novel low-temperature reforming catalysts with high activity, high stability, and low cost, (3) designing highly integrated catalytic reactors for bio-ethanol reforming.%生物乙醇重整制氢是一种具有良好应用前景的制氢技术,是当前低碳能源领域的研究热点.发展生物乙醇重整制氢技术的关键是研发在低温下具有高活性和高选择性的新型重整催化剂,以及开发新式高效的催化反应器.本文着眼于反应器对生物乙醇重整制氢过程的影响,综述了国内外固定床反应器、微通道反应器和膜反应器等生物乙醇重整制氢反应器的研究现状及其动态,并对生物乙醇重整制氢反应器的研制与应用的发展趋势进行了展望.

  18. Bioethanol production by reusable Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in a macroporous monolithic hydrogel matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulko, Lucinda; Rivarola, Claudia R; Barbero, Cesar A; Acevedo, Diego F

    2016-09-10

    Performance of yeasts on industrial processes can be dramatically improved by immobilization of the biocatalyst. The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inside monolithic macroporous hydrogels were produced by in-situ polymerization of acrylamide around a live yeast suspension under cryogelation conditions. Preculture of the yeasts was not necessary and this innovative and simple procedure is amenable to scaling-up to industrial production. The yeasts were efficiently retained in monolithic hydrogels, presenting excellent mechanical properties and high cell viability. Macroporous hydrogels showed a fast mass transport allowing the hydrogel-yeast complexes achieved similar ethanol yield and productivity than free yeasts, which is larger than those reached with yeasts immobilized in compact hydrogels. Moreover, the same yeasts were able to maintain its activity by up to five reaction cycles with a cell single batch during fermentation reactions.

  19. Subcritical And Supercritical Technology For The Production Of Second Generation Bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Rostagno; Mauricio A.; Prado; Juliana M.; Mudhoo; Ackmez; Santos; Diego T.; Forster-Carneiro; Tania; Meireles; M. Angela A.

    2015-01-01

    There is increased interest in reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and increasing the share of renewable raw materials in our energy supply chain due to environmental and economic concerns. Ethanol is emerging as a potential alternative to liquid fuels due to its eco-friendly characteristics and relatively low production costs. As ethanol is currently produced from commodities also used for human and animal consumption, there is an urgent need of identifying renewable raw materials that do ...

  20. ALKALINE PRETREATMENT OF SPRUCE AND BIRCH TO IMPROVE BIOETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Jeihanipour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.

  1. Kinetic modeling of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated kitchen wastes for enhancing bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Uncu, Oya N

    2013-03-01

    It is well known that use of low cost and abundant waste materials in microbial fermentations can reduce product costs. Kitchen wastes disposed of in large amounts from cafeterias, restaurants, dining halls, food processing plants, and household kitchens contain high amounts of carbohydrate components such as glucose, starch, and cellulose. Efficient utilization of these sugars is another opportunity to reduce ethanol costs. In this study, the effect of pretreatment methods (hot water, acid solutions, and a control) on enzymatic hydrolysis of kitchen wastes was evaluated using a kinetic modeling approach. Fermentation experiments conducted with and without traditional fermentation nutrients were assessed at constant conditions of pH 4.5 and temperature of 30°C for 48h using commercial dry baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The control, which involved no treatment, and hot water treated samples gave close glucose concentrations after 6h. The highest and lowest rates of glucose production were found as 0.644 and 0.128 (h(-1)) for the control (or no-pretreated (NPT)) and 1% acid solutions, respectively. The fermentation results indicated that final ethanol concentrations are not significantly improved by adding nutrients (17.2-23.3g/L). Thus, it was concluded that product cost can be lowered to a large extent if (1) kitchen wastes are used as a substrate, (2) no fermentation nutrient is used, and (3) hydrolysis time is applied for about 6h. Further optimization study is needed to increase the yield to higher levels.

  2. A Simulation Model of Combined Biogas, Bioethanol and Protein Fodder Co-Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    from the BioConcens project (http://www.bioconcens.elr.dk). Different design approaches were evaluated in order to establish the most suitable configuration. Rye grains, clover grass silage, maize silage, whey and cattle manure were selected as raw materials for co-production of fuels, feed......, respectively). Results from batch and lab-scale fermentation trials provided basic input for the model. To cover the direct energy requirements on the farm, it was calculated that it requires approximately 16.2 ha of rye and 14 milking cows or 5.7 ha of clover grass, 2.5 ha of maize and 13 cows to supply a 100...

  3. N2 gas is an effective fertilizer for bioethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Timothy A; LaSarre, Breah; Posto, Amanda L; McKinlay, James B

    2015-02-17

    A nascent cellulosic ethanol industry is struggling to become cost-competitive against corn ethanol and gasoline. Millions of dollars are spent on nitrogen supplements to make up for the low nitrogen content of the cellulosic feedstock. Here we show for the first time to our knowledge that the ethanol-producing bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis, can use N2 gas in lieu of traditional nitrogen supplements. Despite being an electron-intensive process, N2 fixation by Z. mobilis did not divert electrons away from ethanol production, as the ethanol yield was greater than 97% of the theoretical maximum. In a defined medium, Z. mobilis produced ethanol 50% faster per cell and generated half the unwanted biomass when supplied N2 instead of ammonium. In a cellulosic feedstock-derived medium, Z. mobilis achieved a similar cell density and a slightly higher ethanol yield when supplied N2 instead of the industrial nitrogen supplement, corn steep liquor. We estimate that N2-utilizing Z. mobilis could save a cellulosic ethanol production facility more than $1 million/y.

  4. Soaking pretreatment of corn stover for bioethanol production followed by anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhuang; Tian, Shen; Chen, Zebing; Li, Jia; Yang, Xiushan

    2012-08-01

    The production of ethanol and methane from corn stover (CS) was investigated in a biorefinery process. Initially, a novel soaking pretreatment (NaOH and aqueous-ammonia) for CS was developed to remove lignin, swell the biomass, and improve enzymatic digestibility. Based on the sugar yield during enzymatic hydrolysis, the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1 % NaOH+8 % NH(4)OH, 50°C, 48 h, with a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:10. The results demonstrated that soaking pretreatment removed 63.6 % lignin while reserving most of the carbohydrates. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the yields of glucose and xylose were 78.5 % and 69.3 %, respectively. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated CS using Pichia stipitis resulted in an ethanol concentration of 36.1 g/L, corresponding only to 63.3 % of the theoretical maximum. In order to simplify the process and reduce the capital cost, the liquid fraction of the pretreatment was used to re-soak new CS. For methane production, the re-soaked CS and the residues of SSF were anaerobically digested for 120 days. Fifteen grams CS were converted to 1.9 g of ethanol and 1337.3 mL of methane in the entire process.

  5. Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

  6. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    .04% for SmC and SSC pretreated samples, respectively) compared with untreated cotton stalk samples (17.93%). Washing of pretreated cotton stalks alone caused no significant increase in cellulose conversion. However, a heat treatment (autoclaving) followed by washing remarkably improved (Penzyme production, and oxygen uptake associated with the growth of P. chrysosporium during 14 days fungal pretreatment were developed. For SmC pretreatment, model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression and validated using an independent set of experimental data. Models yielded sufficiently accurate predictions for holocellulose consumption (R2=0.9772 and 0.9837, 1d and 3d oxygen flushing, respectively), lignin degradation (R2=0.9879 and 0.8682) and ligninolytic enzyme production (R2=0.8135 and 0.9693) under both 1 and 3d oxygen flushing conditions. However, the prediction capabilities for fungal growth (1d and 3d), cellulase production (3d) and oxygen uptake (3d) were limited. For SSC, the models were established in three phases (I: day 0-4, II: day 4-7, III: day 7-14). After validation it was shown that the developed models can yield sufficiently accurate predictions for fungal growth (R 2=0.9724), holocellulose consumption (R2=0.9686), lignin degradation (R2=0.9309) and ligninolytic enzyme production (R2=0.9203); however predictions of cellulase production were fair (R2=0.6133). Although significant delignification occurred during fungal pretreatment indicating the presence of ligninolytic enzymes, common spectrophotometric enzyme assays failed to detect lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities in fungal pretreatment cultures. Efforts were made to overcome the drawbacks of standardized assays by performing protein gel electrophoresis and crude enzyme delignification studies. Results from this research are expected to be beneficial in the development of pretreatment technologies that are environment friendly and utilize naturally occurring

  7. Efficient breakdown of lignocellulose using mixed-microbe populations for bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo

    2009-11-01

    This report documents progress in discovering new catalytic technologies that will support the development of advanced biofuels. The global shift from petroleum-based fuels to advanced biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in biomass deconstruction technologies, because current methods are neither cost effective nor sufficiently efficient or robust for scaleable production. Discovery and characterization of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems adapted to extreme environments will accelerate progress. Obvious extreme environments to mine for novel lignocellulolytic deconstruction technologies include aridland ecosystems (ALEs), such as those of the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in central New Mexico (NM). ALEs represent at least 40% of the terrestrial biosphere and are classic extreme environments, with low nutrient availability, high ultraviolet radiation flux, limited and erratic precipitation, and extreme variation in temperatures. ALEs are functionally distinct from temperate environments in many respects; one salient distinction is that ALEs do not accumulate soil organic carbon (SOC), in marked contrast to temperate settings, which typically have large pools of SOC. Low productivity ALEs do not accumulate carbon (C) primarily because of extraordinarily efficient extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) that are derived from underlying communities of diverse, largely uncharacterized microbes. Such efficient enzyme activities presumably reflect adaptation to this low productivity ecosystem, with the result that all available organic nutrients are assimilated rapidly. These communities are dominated by ascomycetous fungi, both in terms of abundance and contribution to ecosystem-scale metabolic processes, such as nitrogen and C cycling. To deliver novel, robust, efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme systems that will drive transformational advances in biomass deconstruction, we have: (1) secured an award through the Department of Energy

  8. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma......-assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  9. A new magnesium bisulfite pretreatment (MBSP) development for bio-ethanol production from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heng; Ren, Jiwei; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Zhu, Junjun; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    This study established a new more neutral magnesium bisulfate pretreatment (MBSP) using magnesium bisulfate as sulfonating agent for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover. Using the MBSP with 5.21% magnesium bisulfate, 170°C and pH 5.2 for 60 min, about 90% of lignin and 80% of hemicellulose were removed from biomass and more than 90% cellulose conversion of substrate was achieved after 48 h hydrolysis. About 6.19 kg raw corn stover could produce 1 kg ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Meanwhile, MBSP also could protect sugars from excessive degradation, prevent fermentation inhibition formation and directly convert the hemicelluloses into xylooligosaccharides as higher-value products. These results suggested that the MBSP method offers an alternative approach to the efficient conversion of nonwoody lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and had broad space for development.

  10. Cultivation of cereals for starch and bio-ethanol production in Saxony-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, L. [State Research Center of Agriculture, Forestry, and Horticulture Saxony-Anhalt, Center of Agronomy, Bernburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The capacity for ethanol production in Germany has strongly increased in the last few years. In addition to more than 1,000 old small agricultural and commercial distilleries with an output of 220,000 m{sup 3} there were built up three big factories and a rather small one with a capacity of 600,000 m{sup 3}/a. The new plants produce ethanol exclusively for fuel or fuel additives. Input material are cereal grains, preferably wheat, rye, and triticale. The demand of the new plants for grain amounts to more than 1.5 million tons per year. Further plants are in stage of construction or planning. The grain for ethanol production in general should be well, usual in trade, and free of pests, chemicals for conservation, and mycotoxins. Well-formed kernels and a high starch concentration in the grain are desired. Particularly suitable are high-yielding varieties of good agronomic features, high level in resistance against deseases, and of low grain protein concentration. Agronomic practices should be adjusted to a healthy crop, which produces high grain yield and grain quality, focussed on high starch concentration in the grain. Special attention has to be paid to nitrogen fertilization. Moderate rates of fertilizers should be applied in order to reach high grain yield and high grain starch concentration, as show field trials in Saxony-Anhalt. First nitrogen rate in early spring should be emphasized. Late rates in stage of shoo-ting or heading have to be rejected. (orig.)

  11. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  12. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  13. High-loading-substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of palm plantation waste followed by unsterilized-mixed-culture fermentation for bio-ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Winarni, Ina; Sukmana, Hadid

    2017-01-01

    It was desired to obtain a general formula for producing bio-ethanol from any part of lignocelluloses wastes that came from palm oil industries due to its abundance. Optimum condition that obtained by using RSM for conducting high-loading-substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of palm oil empty fruit bunch was applied to palm oil trunks and then followed by unsterilized fermentation for producing bio-ethanol. From several optimized conditions investigated, the resulted ethanol concentration could reach 7.92 %v by using 36.5 %w of palm oil trunks but the results were averagely 2.46 %v lower than palm oil empty fruit bunch. The results was statistically compared and showed best correlative coefficient at 0.808 (in scale 0-1) which support the conclusion that the optimum condition for empty fruit bunch and trunks are similar. Utilization of mixed-culture yeast was investigated to produce ethanol from unsterilized hydrolysis product but the improvement wasn't significant compares to single culture yeast.

  14. A MICROWAVE-ASSISTED LIQUEFACTION AS A PRETREATMENT FOR THE BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY THE SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CORN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolić

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted liquefaction as a pretreatment for the bioethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fer entation (SSF of corn meal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast in a batch system was studied. An optimal power of microwaves of 80 W and the 5-min duration of the microwave treatment were selected by following the concentration of glucose released from the corn meal suspensions at hidromodul of 1:3 (corn meal to water ratio in the liquefaction step. The results indicated that the microwave pretreatment could increase the maximum ethanol concentration produced in the SSF process for 13.4 %. Consequently, a significant increase of the ethanol productivity on substrate (YP/S, as well as the volumetric ethanol productivity (P in this process, could be achieved

  15. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  16. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Tokuyasu, Ken [National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, NARO, Shinsei, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0081 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production. (author)

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of conditioning with sodium sulfite for bioethanol production from softwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavka, Adnan; Martín, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Mörtsell, Marlene; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-11-01

    Conditioning with reducing agents allows alleviation of inhibition of biocatalytic processes by toxic by-products generated during biomass pretreatment, without necessitating the introduction of a separate process step. In this work, conditioning of steam-pretreated spruce with sodium sulfite made it possible to lower the yeast and enzyme dosages in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to 1g/L and 5FPU/g WIS, respectively. Techno-economic evaluation indicates that the cost of sodium sulfite can be offset by benefits resulting from a reduction of either the yeast load by 0.68g/L or the enzyme load by 1FPU/g WIS. As those thresholds were surpassed, inclusion of conditioning can be justified. Another potential benefit results from shortening the SSF time, which would allow reducing the bioreactor volume and result in capital savings. Sodium sulfite conditioning emerges as an opportunity to lower the financial uncertainty and compensate the overall investment risk for commercializing a softwood-to-ethanol process.

  18. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer.

  19. Evaluation of hyper thermal acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii for enhanced bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-06-01

    Hyper thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii, a red seaweed, was optimized to 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content, 180mM H2SO4 at 140°C for 5min. The maximum monosaccharide concentration of 38.3g/L and 66.7% conversion from total fermentable monosaccharides of 57.6g/L with 120gdw/L K. alvarezii slurry were obtained from HT acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. HT acid hydrolysis at a severity factor of 0.78 efficiently converted the carbohydrates of seaweed to monosaccharides and produced a low concentration of inhibitory compounds. The levels of ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation with non-adapted and adapted Kluyveromyces marxianus to high concentration of galactose were 6.1g/L with ethanol yield (YEtOH) of 0.19 at 84h and 16.0g/L with YEtOH of 0.42 at 72h, respectively. Development of the HT acid hydrolysis process and adapted yeast could enhance the overall ethanol fermentation yields of K. alvarezii seaweed.

  20. Characterization of Lignocellulosic Fruit Waste as an Alternative Feedstock for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Sánchez Orozco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To use a new potential lignocellulosic bioresource that has several attractive agroenergy features for ethanol production, the chemical characterization and compositional analysis of several fruit wastes were carried out. Orange bagasse and orange, banana, and mango peels were studied to determine their general biomass characteristics and to provide detailed analysis of their chemical structures. Semiquantitative analysis showed that the components for each fruit waste differed with respect to chemical composition. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR of the residual biomass showed the presence of various functional groups – aldehydes or ketones (C=O, alkanes (C-C, and ethers (C-O-C. Even water molecules were detected, indicating the complex nature of the feedstocks. The concentrations of total sugars ranged between 0.487 g∙g−1 and 0.591 g∙g−1 of dry weight biomass. The thermal profiles (TG-DSC of the residual fruits occurred in at least three steps, which are associated with the main components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The decomposition by thermal analysis was completed at around 600 °C and was influenced by the nature of the component ratio.

  1. Further development of chemical and biological processes for production of bio-ethanol; Videreudvikling af kemiske og biologiske processer til produktion af bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K.; Clausen, A.; Loeth, A.H.

    1999-08-01

    The production of ethanol from both the hemicellulose and cellulose fraction of wet oxidated wheat straw was investigated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to produce of ethanol from the cellulose fraction. Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4 was used for ethanol production from the hemicellulose fraction. The utilisation of the hemicellulose fraction was investigated both after separation of cellulose and hemicellulose fraction and by using one combined process including both cellulose and hemicellulose. The conditions for wet oxidation proved to be the best for fermentation, when the oxygen pressure was 3 atm, and sodium carbonate was added. The ethanol yield was 9.9 mM with Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4. To increase the accessibility of xylose, the wet oxidated wheat straw was treated with different enzymes. Celluclast improved the ethanol yield. Addition of Pentopan{sup TH}, Mono BG or Pulpzyme HC had no effect on the ethanol yield from Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4. Glucose in the medium increased the ethanol yield from xylose significantly with Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4. Acid hydrolysis of the hydrolysates had no positive effect on ethanol yield with Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4. By using the combined process the ethanol yield from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 142 mM, 27 mM with Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4, and 63,6 m3 methane/ton wheat straw from purification of the process water for acetate and rest sugar with a consort of methanogenic bacteria from digested household waste. This corresponds to 51% of the theoretical ethanol yield. Omission /addition of yeast extract to the fermentation substrate had no effect on ethanol yield from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas ethanol yield decreased 5-6 fold if the yeast extract was omitted by fermentation with Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4. No inhibition effect was observed for either organism. 50% of the process water can be recycled to ferment with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To increase

  2. Analyzing the Effect of Variations in Soil and Management Practices on the Sustainability of Corn Stover-Based Bioethanol Production in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woli, Prem [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Paz, Joel [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2011-08-07

    The inherent variability in corn stover productivity due to variations in soils and crop management practices might contribute to a variation in corn stover-based bioethanol sustainability. This study was carried out to examine how changes in soil types and crop management options would affect corn stover yield (CSY) and the sustainability of the stover-based ethanol production in the Delta region of Mississippi. Based on potential acreage and geographical representation, three locations were selected. Using CERES-Maize model, stover yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and crop management options. Based on 'net energy value (NEV)' computed from CSYs, a sustainability indicator for stover-based bioethanol production was established. The effects of soils and crop management options on CSY and NEV were determined using ANOVA tests and regression analyses. Both CSY and NEV were significantly different across sandy loam, silt loam, and silty clay loam soils and also across high-, mid-, and low-yielding cultivars. With an increase in irrigation level, both CSY and NEV increased initially and decreased after reaching a peak. A third-degree polynomial relationship was found between planting date and CSY and NEV each. By moving from the lowest to the highest production scenario, values of CSY and NEV could be increased by 86 to 553%, depending on location and weather condition. The effects of variations in soils and crop management options on NEV were the same as on CSY. The NEV was positive for all scenarios, indicating that corn stover-based ethanol production system in the Delta region is sustainable.

  3. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N

    2010-07-01

    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market.

  4. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Valant, A.; Can, F.; Bion, N.; Epron, F.; Duprez, D. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie organique, Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex (France)], E-mail: florence.epron.cognet@univ-poitiers.fr

    2009-07-01

    Usually, ethanol steam reforming is performed using pure ethanol, whereas the use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol has no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which was strongly deactivated after 2h of time-on-stream. (author)

  5. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: Optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Valant, Anthony; Can, Fabien; Bion, Nicolas; Duprez, Daniel; Epron, Florence [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie organique, UMR6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol have no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24 h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which was strongly deactivated after 2 h of time-on -stream. (author)

  6. PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR NORMALIZING THE STATO-KINETIC FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Pasztai Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed the efficiency of physical therapy, in order to normalize the stato-kinetic function: •the efficiency of the prophylaxis and the treatment through movement; •assuring the muscular agonist-antagonist balance of the stato-kinetic functionMetods The study has been performed on 5 grups of children 6 to 10 years old ( n=76), that were examined and tested for this research. During the research we applied different programmes using the modern approaches of physical therapy, hydr...

  7. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg

    by ensiling (with lactic acid bacteria) or simple drying. Pretreatment was carried out using wet-milling and enzymatic hydrolysis in accordance with 1G bioethanol technology from corn. Different commercial enzyme mixtures for fully or partly hydrolysis of algae sugar polymers into monomers were tested...... and conversion of the differently pretreated macroalgae biomass into ethanol by fermentation were compared. The protein contents and nutrient salts in residues from ethanol fermentation trials were characterized for potential fish feed. A first-step scenario for sustainability and feasibility assessment...

  8. Production of bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjær, Michael; Sommer, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    (Bjerre et al., 1996; McGinnis et al., 1983; Schmidt & thomsen, 1997) and steam explosion (puls et al., 1985; Saddler et al., 1993) are among the most promising. However, fermentation of the pretreated hydrolysates with the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii strain A3M1, adapted......Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol requires pretreatment and hydrolysis prior to the ethanolic fermentation. This pretreatment renders the biomass more susceptible to the subsequent hydrolysis. Of the wide variety of pretreatment methods presently available, wet oxidation...... investigations of the structure of the hemicellulose fraction prior to pretreatment, prior to hydrolysis, prior to fermentation, and after fermentation. Various techniques, such as gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry...

  9. Detecting molecular features of spectra mainly associated with structural and non-structural carbohydrates in co-products from bioEthanol production using DRIFT with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Azarfar, Arash; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 1292-1198 cm(-1)), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187-950 cm(-1)), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 952-910 cm(-1)), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 880-827 cm(-1)), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm(-1) with baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm(-1) with a baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292-1198 cm(-1) and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187-950 cm(-1) with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This study indicated that

  10. Development of a novel ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment strategy for the production of bioethanol and xylanases from chili post harvest residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Abraham, Amith; Gnansounou, Edgard; Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Thomas, Leya; Pandey, Ashok

    2017-03-04

    A novel ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment strategy was developed which could effectively remove lignin and hemicelluloses and improve the sugar yield from chili post harvest residue. Operational parameters that affect the pretreatment efficiency were studied and optimized. Inhibitor analysis of the hydrolyzate revealed that major fermentation inhibitors like furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural as well as organic acids like citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid were absent. Hence fermentation can be carried out without detoxification of the hydrolyzate. Changes in structural properties of the biomass were studied in relation to the pretreatment process using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the changes in chemical composition were also monitored. The biomass pretreated with the optimized novel method could yield 0.428g/g of reducing sugars upon enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolyzate obtained by this novel pretreatment strategy was found to be suitable for bioethanol and xylanase production.

  11. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture?-The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@uah.es; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector.

  12. Optimization of a low-cost defined medium for alcoholic fermentation--a case study for potential application in bioethanol production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G; Isla, Miguel A

    2016-01-25

    In bioethanol production processes, the media composition has an impact on product concentration, yields and the overall process economics. The main purpose of this research was to develop a low-cost mineral-based supplement for successful alcoholic fermentation in an attempt to provide an economically feasible alternative to produce bioethanol from novel sources, for example, sugary industrial wastewaters. Statistical experimental designs were used to select essential nutrients for yeast fermentation, and its optimal concentrations were estimated by Response Surface Methodology. Fermentations were performed on synthetic media inoculated with 2.0 g L(-1) of yeast, and the evolution of biomass, sugar, ethanol, CO2 and glycerol were monitored over time. A mix of salts [10.6 g L(-1) (NH4)2HPO4; 6.4 g L(-1) MgSO4·7H2O and 7.5 mg L(-1) ZnSO4·7H2O] was found to be optimal. It led to the complete fermentation of the sugars in less than 12h with an average ethanol yield of 0.42 g ethanol/g sugar. A general C-balance indicated that no carbonaceous compounds different from biomass, ethanol, CO2 or glycerol were produced in significant amounts in the fermentation process. Similar results were obtained when soft drink wastewaters were tested to evaluate the potential industrial application of this supplement. The ethanol yields were very close to those obtained when yeast extract was used as the supplement, but the optimized mineral-based medium is six times cheaper, which favorably impacts the process economics and makes this supplement more attractive from an industrial viewpoint.

  13. Comparison between solid-state and powder-state alkali pretreatment on saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Shabina; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of different concentrations of NaOH (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) for the pretreatment of rice straw in solid and powder state in enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for the production of bioethanol was evaluated. A greater amount of biomass was recovered through solid-state pretreatment (3.74 g) from 5 g of rice straw. The highest increase in the volume of rice straw powder as a result of swelling was observed with 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (48.07%), which was statistically identical to 0.75% NaOH pretreatment (32.31%). The surface of rice straw was disrupted by the 0.75% NaOH and 1.00% NaOH pretreated samples as observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, absorbance of hydroxyl groups at 1,050 cm(-1) due to the OH group of lignin was gradually decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration. The greatest amounts of glucose and ethanol were obtained in 1.00% NaOH solid-state pretreated and powder-state hydrolyzed samples (0.804 g g(-1) and 0.379 g g(-1), respectively), which was statistically similar to the use of 0.75% NaOH (0.763 g g(-1) and 0.358 g g(-1), respectively). Thus, solid-state pretreatment with 0.75% NaOH and powder-state hydrolysis appear to be suitable for fermentation and bioethanol production from rice straw.

  14. Bioethanol from different Finnish agricultural carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautola, H.; Kymaelaeinen, M.; Tokeensuu, L.; Alatalo, T. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Caerdenas, R. (Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad Ciencias Quimicas, Escuela de Quimica, Av. America. Ciudadela Universitaria, Quito (Ecuador)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Bioethanol in fuel and its domestic production has become a great issue in Finland during the last few years. There has been discussion about what kind of raw materials should be used and are there any local priorities. In the years 2004-2007 local farmers in Haem e , in southern part of Finland, started to find alternative use for sugar beet due to drastic reduction of domestic sugar production in the near future. This was also the start of the experimental studies on bi oethanol production. The aim of the study was to find out how the change of carbon source will effect on bi oethanol yield. The bioethanol production was studied in laboratory scale using carbon sources of saccharose, glucose, sugar beet juice, sugar beet mash and barley hydrolysates pretreated with amylases, (beta-glucanase and xylanase). The yeast used was Saccharomyces sp. The pre experiments were performed in 250 mL flasks to optimize carbon, nitrogen and salts contents in production medium, also comparing different carbon sources and mixtures. The production was then studied in a 30 liter fermenter running for 36 hours. The preliminary studies showed that barley hydrolysate gave the best result 2,4% in bioethanol concentration during the performed fermentations, and saccharose was the best substrate in shake flask fermentations with a 9,6% bioethanol concentration. (orig.)

  15. Bioethanol production from the nutrient stress-induced microalga Chlorella vulgaris by enzymatic hydrolysis and immobilized yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Hyoun; Choi, In Seong; Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2014-02-01

    The microalga Chlorella vulgaris is a potential feedstock for bioenergy due to its rapid growth, carbon dioxide fixation efficiency, and high accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates. In particular, the carbohydrates in microalgae make them a candidate for bioethanol feedstock. In this study, nutrient stress cultivation was employed to enhance the carbohydrate content of C. vulgaris. Nitrogen limitation increased the carbohydrate content to 22.4% from the normal content of 16.0% on dry weight basis. In addition, several pretreatment methods and enzymes were investigated to increase saccharification yields. Bead-beating pretreatment increased hydrolysis by 25% compared with the processes lacking pretreatment. In the enzymatic hydrolysis process, the pectinase enzyme group was superior for releasing fermentable sugars from carbohydrates in microalgae. In particular, pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus displayed a 79% saccharification yield after 72h at 50°C. Using continuous immobilized yeast fermentation, microalgal hydrolysate was converted into ethanol at a yield of 89%.

  16. Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

    2009-02-15

    A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

  17. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant thermostable glucoamylase from a halophilic isolate, Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 and its application in raw starch hydrolysis for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Ying; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A halophilic bacterium Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 producing extracellular glucoamylase was isolated from saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. Enzyme production was strongly influenced by the salinity of growth medium with maximum in the presence of 5% NaCl. The glucoamylase was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 78.5 kDa. It showed broad substrate specificity and raw starch hydrolyzing activity. Analysis of hydrolysis products from soluble starch by thin-layer chromatography revealed that glucose was the sole end-product, indicating the enzyme was a true glucoamylase. Optimal enzyme activity was found to be at 70°C, pH 8.0, and 7.5% NaCl. In addition, it was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (0-100°C), pH (7.0-12.0), and NaCl concentration (0-20%), showing excellent thermostable, alkali stable, and halotolerant properties. Furthermore, it displayed high stability in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents. The purified glucoamylase was applied for raw corn starch hydrolysis and subsequent bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield in terms of grams of ethanol produced per gram of sugar consumed was 0.365 g/g, with 71.6% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using enzymes from halophiles for further application in bioenergy production.

  18. Bioethanol from biomass containing lignocellulose - potential and technologies; Bioethanol aus lignocellulosehaltiger Biomasse - Potenziale und Technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Schieder, D.; Wagner, U.; Staudenbauer, W.; Igelspacher, R.; Schwarz, W.H.; Meyer-Pittroff, R.; Antoni, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Prechtl, S. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Bauer, W.P.; Kroner, T. [ia GmbH, Wissensmanagement und Ingenieurleistungen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The EU biofuels directive and the tax exemption of biogenic fuels have established a new market for bioethanol in the transport sector. Low-cost lignocellulose biomass (LCB) may be an option for broadening the raw materials base for bioethanol production and to meet the increasing demand for biogenic fuels. Appropriate conversion technologies have been the subject of much research worldwide during the past few years. Against this background, the Bavarian State Minister of Agriculture and Forestry initiated a feasibility study on ethanol production by bioconversion in Bavaria. (orig.)

  19. Co/ZnO and Ni/ZnO catalysts for hydrogen production by bioethanol steam reforming. Influence of ZnO support morphology on the catalytic properties of Co and Ni active phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa-Serra, J.F.; Chica, A. [Instituto de Tecnolgia Quimica (UPV-CSIC), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Avenida de los naranjos s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Guil-Lopez, R. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Renewable hydrogen production from steam reforming of bioethanol is an interesting approach to produce sustainable hydrogen. However, simultaneous competitive reactions can occur, decreasing the hydrogen production yield. To overcome this problem, modifications in the steam reforming catalysts are being studied. Ni and Co active phases supported over modified ZnO have been widely studied in hydrogen production from steam reforming of bioethanol. However, the influence of the morphology and particle size of ZnO supports on the catalytic behaviour of the supported Ni and Co has not been reported. In the present work, we show how the morphology, shape, and size of ZnO support particles can control the impregnation process of the metal active centres, which manages the properties of active metallic particles. It has been found that nanorod particles of ZnO, obtained by calcination of Zn acetate, favour the metal-support interactions, decreasing the metallic particle sizes and avoiding metal (Co or Ni) sinterization during the calcination of metal precursors. Small metallic particle sizes lead to high values of active metal exposure surface, increasing the bioethanol conversion and hydrogen production. (author)

  20. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock, lignocellulose (second generation feedstock, or algae (third generation feedstock feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  1. The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  2. Programmazione del Network di 'Virologia Ambientale': Stato di avanzamento

    OpenAIRE

    Carlesi, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    Presentazione 'Power Point' dell'intervento all'incontro di lavoro 'VIRAMB II incontro del Network di Virologia Ambientale', presso l'Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana. Nell'intervento si presenta lo stato di avanzamento dei lavori riguardo la realizzazione dell'infrastruttura telematica del 'Network di Virologia Ambientale' promosso dal 'Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia ed Epidemiologia' dell'Universit? di Pisa.

  3. Bioethanol production from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour using co-culture of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Swain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the optimiation of co-culturing of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1:4 ratio on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour (SPF for the production of bio-ethanol in solid-state fermentation (SSF. Maximum ethanol (172 g/kg substrate was produced in a medium containing 80% moisture, ammonium sulphate 0.2%, pH 5.0, inoculuted with 10% inoculum size and fermented at 30ºC for 72h. .Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, maximum ethanol productivity (2.8 g/kg substrate/h, microbial biomass (23×10(8 CFU/ g substrate, ethanol yield (47 g/100g sugar consumed and fermentation efficiency (72% were also obtained under these conditions. Cell interaction was observed familiar between the viable cells of Trichoderma sp. and S. cerevisiae when co-cultured. Ethanol production ability by the co-culture was 65 % higher than the single culture of S. cerevisiae from un-saccharified SPF.

  4. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriani Kasim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at low concentrations (1% using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the observed reducing sugar levels by using a method Luff Schoorl. The results showed that setting temperature and time influence on sugar levels resulting hydrolyzate where the optimum temperature and time to produce the highest sugar content reducing at 130 ° C with a long 60 minutes, with the resulting reducing in sugar content was 3.51%. The results obtained are much higher than previous studies conducted by researchers who carried out the straw fibers under the same conditions by using a solution of 1% H2SO4 and hydrolysis time 1 hour, but no temperature control and heating is only done on a gas stove, which acquired sugar 0.22%. As for the gain of 0.78% sugar, hydrolysis takes 4 hours, with a concentration of 10% sulfuric acid.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine Anker; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    of whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense......Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030, regardless...... of alternative uses. In this perspective, we show that for the case of a new advanced bioethanol technology, in terms of reducing greenhouse emissions and fossil fuel dependency, more is lost than gained when prioritizing biomass or land for bioethanol. Technology pathways involving heat and power production and...

  6. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized in agar agar and Ca-alginate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-01-15

    Batch fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L., a tree commonly found in tropical rain forest) flowers was carried out using immobilized cells (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yields were 151.2, 154.5 and 149.1 g kg{sup -1} flowers using immobilized (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells, respectively. Cell entrapment in calcium alginate was found to be marginally superior to those in agar agar (2.2% more) as well as over free cell (3.5% more) as regard to ethanol yield from mahula flowers is concerned. Further, the immobilized cells were physiologically active at least for three cycles [150.6, 148.5 and 146.5 g kg{sup -1} (agar agar) and 152.8, 151.5 and 149.5 g kg{sup -1} flowers (calcium alginate) for first, second and third cycle, respectively] of ethanol fermentation without apparently lowering the productivity. Mahula flowers, a renewable, non-food-grade cheap carbohydrate substrate from non-agricultural environment such as forest can serve as an alternative to food grade sugar/starchy crops such as maize, sugarcane for bio-ethanol production. (author)

  7. Efficient utilization of hemicellulose and cellulose in alkali liquor-pretreated corncob for bioethanol production at high solid loading by Spathaspora passalidarum U1-58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Guo, Jian; Chen, Yefu; Fu, Gengxin; Li, Baozhong; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-02-11

    The bioethanol fermentation of pretreated corncob was investigated using Spathaspora passalidarum U1-58, which simultaneously utilizes glucose and xylose for high-efficiency ethanol production. Two approaches, namely, separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation (SHCF) and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF), were optimized to test the ethanol fermentation potential of U1-58. The highest ethanol titer of 42.46g/L and yield of 72.12% were acquired in SHCF, whereas 53.24g/L ethanol and yield of 75.35% were obtained in SSCF at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5 (w/v). Approximately 86.20% of cellulose and 82.99% of hemicellulose were consumed in SSCF after 96h, and at least 10.49g/L ethanol was produced from hemicellulose, which corresponded to 37.59% of the theoretical yield. Compared with the published cellulosic ethanol fermentation cases, the present work presented high ethanol titer and yield, and cellulose and hemicellulose could be efficiently utilized for ethanol production.

  8. Expression of a codon-optimized β-glucosidase from Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioethanol production from cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Fránquez, Francisco Javier; González-Bautista, Enrique; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana Carmela; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor Mario; García-Mena, Jaime; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-01-30

    Bioethanol is one of the main biofuels produced from the fermentation of saccharified agricultural waste; however, this technology needs to be optimized for profitability. Because the commonly used ethanologenic yeast strains are unable to assimilate cellobiose, several efforts have been made to express cellulose hydrolytic enzymes in these yeasts to produce ethanol from lignocellulose. The C. flavigenabglA gene encoding β-glucosidase catalytic subunit was optimized for preferential codon usage in S. cerevisiae. The optimized gene, cloned into the episomal vector pRGP-1, was expressed, which led to the secretion of an active β-glucosidase in transformants of the S. cerevisiae diploid strain 2-24D. The volumetric and specific extracellular enzymatic activities using pNPG as substrate were 155 IU L(-1) and 222 IU g(-1), respectively, as detected in the supernatant of the cultures of the S. cerevisiae RP2-BGL transformant strain growing in cellobiose (20 g L(-1)) as the sole carbon source for 48 h. Ethanol production was 5 g L(-1) after 96 h of culture, which represented a yield of 0.41 g g(-1) of substrate consumed (12 g L(-1)), equivalent to 76% of the theoretical yield. The S. cerevisiae RP2-BGL strain expressed the β-glucosidase extracellularly and produced ethanol from cellobiose, which makes this microorganism suitable for application in ethanol production processes with saccharified lignocellulose.

  9. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  10. Characteristics of corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h). The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism.

  11. Strategies for reducing supplemental medium cost in bioethanol production from waste house wood hydrolysate by ethanologenic Escherichia coli: inoculum size increase and coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simultaneous realization of both efficient ethanol production and saving medium nutrient (corn steep liquor [CSL]) during bioethanol fermentation of overliming-treated hydrolysate of waste house wood (WHW) using ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11. In cultivation using WHW hydrolysate supplemented with 4% (v/v) CSL and 0.2 g-dry cell weight (DCW)/l E. coli KO11 cells, the overall ethanol yield reached 84% of the theoretical value at 61 h. When we conducted the cultivation with 1% CSL to reduce the supplemental medium cost, the overall ethanol yield remained in the range of 66-72% even at 90 h. We proposed two alternative methods for increasing the overall yield even with 1% CSL. The first method involved increasing the inoculum size of E. coli KO11 up to 0.8 g-DCW/l, where 83% of the overall yield was attained at 60 h of cultivation. The second method involved the coculture of 0.2 g-DCW/l E. coli KO11 together with 0.02 g-DCW/l of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ1, and the overall yield reached 81% at 47 h of cultivation.

  12. Characteristics of corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Li

    Full Text Available Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h. The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Katrine; Wenzel, Henrik

    Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol for transport, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030......, regardless of whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense...... fermentation based bioethanol for transport, when held up against the consequence of losing alternative biomass utilizations. The biomass feedstock considered is an energy whole-crop in the form of whole-crop maize and the bioethanol technology considered includes fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. We...

  14. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  15. Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Niu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum, corn (Zea mays. The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1, A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm−1, A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm-1, A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm−1, A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm-1, H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm−1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1, H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm−1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1. The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05, higher (P < 0.05 intensities of the non-structural carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0 and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6 than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05 in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO at 1292–1198 cm−1 and A_CHO (total CHO at 1187–950 cm−1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05 in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS

  16. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  17. Le radici europee della laicità dello Stato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Belgiorno de Stefano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relazione al Convegno su “Multireligiosità e reazione giuridica” tenuto presso la Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli (Santa Maria Capua Vetere, 9–10 marzo 2007, destinata alla pubblicazione negli Atti.SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse – 2. La carta della laicità dello Stato scritta nel secondo comma dell’art. 9 della Convenzione europea dei Diritti dell’Uomo – 3. Gli Stati Europei e la Carta di Laicità per l’Europa.

  18. Stato nutrizionale dei bambini toscani di terza elementare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giacchi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    La Regione Toscana nel 2001/2002 ha partecipato al progetto pilota nazionale “Sorveglianza ed educazione nutrizionale basata su dati locali per la prevenzione delle malattie cronico degenerative correlate all’obesità” al fine di sperimentare una metodologia per l’implemantazione di un sistema di sorveglianza nutrizionale in età pediatrica a livello regionale.

    Obiettivi: scopo di questo lavoro è approfondire le conoscenze sullo stato nutrizionale e descrivere la relazione che questo ha con il livello di istruzione materna e l’ampiezza demografica del comune di residenza.

    Metodi: il campione è composto da 3076 bambini di cui 1585 maschi e 1491 femmine di 8-9 anni. Lo stato nutrizionale è stato valutato tramite la rilevazione delle misure antropometriche, peso e altezza, ed il successivo calcolo dell’Indice di Massa Corporea (IMC; le classi di IMC sono state individuate secondo le indicazioni di Cole et al.; il livello di istruzione della madre è stato suddiviso in tre classi: basso, medio ed alto livello. Risultati: dall’analisi dei dati è emerso che la prevalenza del sovrappeso è del 22,6% (22,7% nei maschi e 22,5% nelle femmine e quella dell’obesità dell’8,8% (9,4% nei maschi e 8,2% nelle femmine. Il 58% dei bambini normopeso e il 43% degli obesi ha la madre con livello di istruzione alto, mentre il 4% dei normopeso e il 10,5% degli obesi ha la madre con livello di istruzione basso. La percentuale più bassa di obesità (6,5% è stata riscontrata in comuni con ampiezza demografica superiore ai 30000 abitanti.

    Conclusioni: la prevalenza del sovrappeso e dell’obesità in età pediatrica in Toscana è più bassa rispetto alla media nazionale. Esiste una relazione inversa tra l’Indice di Massa Corporea del bambino ed livello di istruzione della madre (p‹ .001.

  19. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price (PGP. Two models were developed for the research, including the Bioethanol PGP Assessment Model (BPAM and the Feedstock Cost Estimation Model (FCEM. Results show that the PGP of the bioethanol ranges $4.68–$6.05/gal (9,550–12,356 yuan/t. The key components that contribute most to bioethanol PGP include the conversion rate of cellulose to glucose, the ratio of five-carbon sugars converted to ethanol, feedstock cost, and enzyme loading, etc. Lignocellulosic ethanol is currently unable to compete with fossil gasoline, therefore incentive policies are necessary to promote its development. It is suggested that the consumption tax be exempted, the value added tax (VAT be refunded upon collection, and feed-in tariff for excess electricity (byproduct be implemented to facilitate the industrialization of the technology. A minimum direct subsidy of $1.20/gal EtOH (2,500 yuan/t EtOH is also proposed for consideration.

  20. Development and Testing the Technology of Complex Transformation of Carbohydrates from Vegetable Raw Materials into Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tsygankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of development and testing the tentative technology of sweet sorghum and finger millet processing into bioethanol are described. The carbohydrates content and range of the studied vegetable biomass as the raw material is defined. Bioethanol potential output from sugar sorghum and finger millet carbohydrates and key technological parameters of preparation of both types of vegetable raw material for alcohol fermentation are defined. The concept of the tentative technology of bioethanol production from carbohydrate raw material of the first and second generations is offered. Testing of complex transformation of carbohydrates from vegetable raw materials into bioethanol is performed.

  1. Effect of extrusion conditions and hydrolysis with fiber-degrading enzymes on the production of C5 and C6 sugars from brewers’ spent grain for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Heredia-Olea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioconversion of brewers’ spent grain into bioethanol was investigated in the present study using thermoplastic extrusion and the use of fiber degrading enzymes. The extrusion conditions i.e. tempering moisture, screws speed, and temperature of last zone of the barrel were taken into account in order to optimize the yield of C5 and C6 sugars during the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis step of the fibers. The most important variable that affected the sugar yield was the extrusion temperature, followed by the screws speed. The best extrusion conditions were 20% tempering moisture, 200 rpm and 50 °C. No enzymatic and yeast inhibitors were detected in any of the enzymatically-treated fiber hydrolyzates. The fermentation resulted in 5.43 mL bioethanol per 100g of extruded brewers’ spent grain (dry weight basis. The only sugar consumed was glucose. The free amino nitrogen amount quantified in the hydrolyzates was as low as >20 mg L-1, negatively affecting sugars consumption during the fermentation and consequently the ethanol yield.

  2. From biofuel to bioproduct: is bioethanol a suitable fermentation feedstock for synthesis of bulk chemicals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The first pilot-scale factories for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose have been installed, indicating that we are on the brink of overcoming most hurdles for an economically feasible process. When bioethanol is competitive as biofuel with fuels originating from petrochemical resources

  3. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Sijbers, J.P.J.; Denis, M.; Tramper, J.

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material i

  4. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Sijbers, Jeroen P. J.; Denis, Misha; Tramper, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material is converted to glucose by cellulase enzymes, (ii)…

  5. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized.

  6. Application of yeast cell surface engineering on production of bioethanol%酵母细胞表面工程在生物乙醇生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炎锋

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives an insight into recent technological progresses in the production of bioethanol using surface engineered yeast, which provides strategies to genetically immobilize amylolytic, cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes on yeast cell surface for the production of fuel ethanol from biomass. The expression system of recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing starchy and lignocellulosic biomass is highlighted, and its potential of application in bio-ethanol production and also present existing problems are primarily summarized.%介绍了国内外利用酵母表面工程转化各种生物质原料生产生物乙醇的最新技术进展.该技术为在酵母表面基因水平固定淀粉酶、纤维素酶和木聚糖酶从而生产乙醇提供了新的策略.重点阐述了利用淀粉质和木质纤维素原料的重组酿酒酵母表达系统,并对其在生物乙醇生产中的应用潜力以及目前存在的问题做了初步总结.

  7. Cloning and extracellular expression of a raw starch digesting α-amylase (Blamy-I) and its application in bioethanol production from a non-conventional source of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jetendra K; Manhar, Ajay K; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Mandal, Manabendra; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clone and efficiently express a raw starch-digesting α-amylase enzyme in the culture media and also to investigate the potential application of this recombinant enzyme in the digestion of non-conventional raw starch for bioethanol production. A raw starch digesting α-amylase gene isolated from Bacillus licheniformis strain AS08E was cloned and extracellularly expressed in E. coli cells using the native signal peptide. The mature recombinant α-amylase (Blamy-I) consisting of 483 amino acid residues was found to be homogenous with a mass of 55.3 kDa (by SDS-PAGE analysis) and a predicted pI of 6.05. Structural and functional analysis of Blamy-I revealed the presence of an extra Ca(2+) -binding region between the A and C domains responsible for higher thermostability of this enzyme. The statistical optimization of E. coli culture conditions resulted in an approximately eightfold increase in extracellular expression of Blamy-I as compared to its production under non-optimized conditions. Blamy-I demonstrated optimum enzyme activity at 80 °C and pH 10.0, and efficiently hydrolyzed raw starch isolated from a non-conventional, underutilized jack fruit seeds. Further utilization of this starch for bioethanol production using Blamy-I and Saccharomyces cerevisiae also proved to be highly promising.

  8. Life-cycle assessment of straw use in bio-ethanol production: a case-study based on biophysical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Gagnaire, Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Cereal straw, a by-product in the production of agricultural crops, is considered as a potentially large source of energy supply with an estimated value of 47 10^18 J worldwide. However, there is some debate regarding the actual amounts of straw which could be removed from arable soils without jeopardizing their quality, as well as the potential trade-offs in the overall straw-to-energy chain compared to the use of fossil energy sources. Here, we used a deterministic m...

  9. Estimating Energy- and Eco-Balances for Continuous Bio-Ethanol Production Using a Blenke Cascade System

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Energy and environmental effects of wheat-based fuel, produced continuously by a Blenke cascade system, were assessed. Two scenarios: (1) no-co-products utilization scenario; and (2) co-products utilization scenario, were compared. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model was used for analysis. The scope covered a cradle-to-gate inventory. The results from energy analysis showed, that wheat-based ethanol has a positive average net energy value (NEV), NEV = 3.35 MJ/kg ethanol with an average net en...

  10. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., LTD, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v{sup -1}) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1}, a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 94.2 {+-} 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  11. Potencialidades do sorgo sacarino [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] para a produção sustentável de bioetanol no Alentejo The potential of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] for sustainable bioethanol production in Alentejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.V. Lourenço

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fazem-se algumas considerações sobre a importância dos biocombustíveis (biodiesel e bioetanol, num futuro próximo, e acerca das potencialidades do sorgo sacarino para a produção de bioetanol. Apresentam-se resultados de um ensaio de quatro dotações de rega (1500, 2500, 3500 e 4500 m³/ha aplicadas a uma variedade de sorgo sacarino. Avaliou-se a concentração em sólidos solúveis (ºBrix nos caules verdes e a altura das plantas ao longo do ciclo. Determinou-se a produção de matéria verde em caules e de matéria seca em caules, folhas e inflorescências. Estimou-se também a produção de açúcar e bioetanol por hectare. Os dados revelaram que a dotação de rega mais aconselhável foi a de 4500 m³/ha pois conduziu aos melhores resultados em todos os parâmetros, excepto no que se refere ao Brix que foi semelhante à da dotação de 3500 m ³/ha (17 e 16%, respectivamente. Com aquela dotação de rega, se os resultados se confirmarem, será de esperar que, no Alentejo, as produções de bioetanol, da referida cultura, sejam superiores a 5000 l/ha.The importance of biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol in the next future, and the potential of sweet sorghum for bioethanol production are discussed. Results of a trial with four irrigation treatments (1500, 2500, 3500 e 4500 m³/ha applied, to one variety of sweet sorghum, are presented. The soluble solids content (ºBrix of the fresh stalks and plant height were monitored along the life cycle of the crop. The yield of fresh stalks and the dry matter yield of stalks, leaves and inflorescences were determined. Sugar and bioethanol yields were also estimated. The results showed that the 4500 m³/ha irrigation treatment conducted to the best results in all variables, except for the Brix values that were similar to the 3500 m³/ha treatment (17 and 16%, respectively. With that irrigation treatment, and if the results are confirmed in the future, it will be expected that bioethanol yields from

  12. Algal biomass conversion to bioethanol - a step-by-step assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Razif; Yip, Jason W S; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Ghani, Wan A W A K; Cherrington, Tamara; Danquah, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in global population and the ongoing development of countries such as China and India have contributed to a rapid increase in worldwide energy demand. Fossil fuels such as oil and gas are finite resources, and their current rate of consumption cannot be sustained. This, coupled with fossil fuels' role as pollutants and their contribution to global warming, has led to increased interest in alternative sources of energy production. Bioethanol, presently produced from energy crops, is one such promising alternative future energy source and much research is underway in optimizing its production. The economic and temporal constraints that crop feedstocks pose are the main downfalls in terms of the commercial viability of bioethanol production. As an alternative to crop feedstocks, significant research efforts have been put into utilizing algal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Whilst the overall process can vary, the conversion of biomass to bioethanol usually contains the following steps: (i) pretreatment of feedstock; (ii) hydrolysis; and (iii) fermentation of bioethanol. This paper reviews different technologies utilized in the pretreatment and fermentation steps, and critically assesses their applicability to bioethanol production from algal biomass. Two different established fermentation routes, single-stage fermentation and two-stage gasification/fermentation processes, are discussed. The viability of algal biomass as an alternative feedstock has been assessed adequately, and further research optimisation must be guided toward the development of cost-effective scalable methods to produce high bioethanol yield under optimum economy.

  13. Simulation of a hydrogen production and purification system for a PEM fuel-cell using bioethanol as raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunta, Pablo; Amadeo, Norma; Laborde, Miguel [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mosquera, Carlos [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-01-10

    A process to produce 'fuel-cell grade' hydrogen from ethanol steam reforming is analyzed from a thermodynamic point of view. The hydrogen purification process consists of WGS and COPROX reactors. Equations to evaluate the efficiency of the system, including the fuel cell, are presented. A heat exchange network is proposed in order to improve the exploitation of the available power. The effect of key variables such as the reformer temperature and the ethanol/water molar feed ratio on the fuel-cell efficiency is discussed. Results show that it is feasible to carry out the energy integration of the hydrogen catalytic production and purification-PEM fuel-cell system, using ethanol as raw material. The technology of 'fuel-cell grade' hydrogen production using ethanol as raw material is a very attractive alternative to those technologies based in fossil fuels. (author)

  14. High productivity bioethanol fermentation by immobilized Saccharomyces bayanus onto carboxymethylcellulose-g- poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökgöz, Murat; Yiğitoğlu, Mustafa

    2013-04-01

    Crosslinked graft copolymers of CMC with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (N-VP) were prepared in different grafting yields. Saccharomyces bayanus was immobilized in the graft copolymers of carboxymethylcellulose-g-poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (CMC-g-PVP) for ethanol fermentation. The effects of grafting yield, initial glucose concentration, and crosslinker concentration on the yield of ethanol process was investigated. Ethanol production increased when percentage of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone in the graft copolymer was increased. The maximum concentration, productivity, and yield of ethanol were 98.78 g L (-1), 8.23 g L (-1) h (-1) and 0.494 g g (-1), respectively. Reusability of the immobilized yeasts was found that the materials can be used seven times without losing their activity.

  15. Bioprospecting of thermo- and osmo-tolerant fungi from mango pulp-peel compost for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandi, N D; Dandi, B N; Chaudhari, A B

    2013-04-01

    The persistent edaphic stress on microbial succession due to dynamic changes during composting was explored for selection of multi-stress tolerant microbe(s) desirable for ethanol production. A total of 23 strains were isolated from mango compost using four successive enrichments in YP broth (g l(-1)): glucose, 100; 150; 250 with ethanol (40) and cycloheximide (0.4) at 40 °C, pH 6.0. Based on multi-gene ribotyping, 14 yeasts (61 %) of Saccharomycetaceae, 2 filamentous fungi (8.6 %) and 7 bacteria (30.4 %) were obtained. Phenetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 14 yeasts revealed 64.3 % tolerant to 500 g l(-1) glucose, growth at 45 °C and resemblance to Candida sp. (14.3 %), Kluyveromyces marxianus (35.7 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (21.4 %) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (28.6 %). Assessment of the 14 yeasts in glucose fermentation medium (pH 4.5 at 40 °C) showed ethanol productivity of ≥92 % by 12 yeasts with theoretical yields of 90-97 %. Fermentation of molasses (150 g l(-1) glucose equivalent) by P. kudriavzevii D1C at 40 °C resulted in 73.70 ± 0.02 g l(-1) ethanol and productivity of 4.91 ± 0.01 g l(-1) h(-1). Assessment of P. kudriavzevii D1C revealed multi-stress tolerance towards 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, ethanol (20 %, v/v), high gravity and H2O2 (0.3 M) indicating suitability for ethanol production using high gravity molasses and pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass fermentation.

  16. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  17. Estimating Energy- and Eco-Balances for Continuous Bio-Ethanol Production Using a Blenke Cascade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kohlus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy and environmental effects of wheat-based fuel, produced continuously by a Blenke cascade system, were assessed. Two scenarios: (1 no-co-products utilization scenario; and (2 co-products utilization scenario, were compared. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA model was used for analysis. The scope covered a cradle-to-gate inventory. The results from energy analysis showed, that wheat-based ethanol has a positive average net energy value (NEV, NEV = 3.35 MJ/kg ethanol with an average net energy ratio (NER, NER = 1.14 MJ/MJ fossils for scenario 1, while for scenario 2, NEV = 20 MJ/kg ethanol with NER = 3.94 MJ/MJ fossils. The environmental performance analysis indicated that in scenario 1, the strongest contribution to environmental impacts was from the ethanol conversion stage; whereas in scenario 2, it was from wheat production stage. The use of a continuous fermentation system based on Blenke cascade is a promising technology that increases wheat based bio-ethanol’s energy benefits. In addition, the calculated parameters show the potential to significantly reduce emissions level.

  18. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts; Bioethanol aus Lignozellulose. Eine oekologische und oekonomische Bewertung ausgewaehlter Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-08-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  19. Cloning of affecting pyruvate decarboxylase gene in the production bioethanol of agricultural waste in the E.coli bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Zeinali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethanol made by a biomass is one of the useful strategies in terms of economic and environmental and as a clean and safe energy to replace fossil fuels considered and examined. Materials and methods: In this study, key enzyme in the production of ethanol (Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was isolated and cloned at E. coli bacteria by freeze and thaw method. For gene cloning, we used specific primers of pdc and PCR reaction and then pdc gene isolated and pET 28a plasmid double digested with (Sal I and Xho I enzymes. Digestion Products were ligated by T4 DNA ligase in 16 °C for 16 hours. Results: Results of bacteria culture showed that a few colonies containing pET 28a plasmid could grow. Result of colony pcr of pdc gene with specific primers revealed 1700 bp bands in 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of PCR with T7 promotor forward primer and pdc revers primer have proved the accurate direction of integration of pdc gene into plasmid and revealed 1885 bp band. Double digestion of recombinant plasmid with SalI and XhoI enzymes revealed same bands. Finally, RT showed the expected band of 1700 bp that implies the desired gene expression in the samples. Discussion and conclusion: Due to the increased production of ethanol via pyruvate decarboxylase gene cloning in expression plasmids with a strong promoter upstream of the cloning site can conclude that, pyruvate decarboxylase cloning as a key gene would be useful and according to beneficial properties of E. coli bacteria, transfering the gene to bacteria appears to be reasonable.

  20. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosics with hot-compressed water treatment followed by acetic acid fermentation and hydrogenolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, S.; Phaiboonsilpa, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Masuda, S.; Lu, X.; Yamauchi, K.; Miyafuji, H.; Kawamoto, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described a newly developed ethanol production system which involves hot-compressed water treatment combined with acetic acid fermentation and catalytic hydrogenation. The hot-compressed water treatment was optimized by using a semi-flow treatment on Japanese beech wood at 230 degrees C/10 MPa for 15 min, and then at 270 degrees C/10 MPa for 15 min. Under these conditions, 54 per cent of the hemicelluloses and 71 wt per cent of the cellulose were hydrolyzed, respectively. However, approximately 12 wt per cent of the wood decomposed into dehydrated and fragmented products. Approximately 88 per cent of the lignin also decomposed. The fermentability of these various compounds to acetic acid was then examined. Monosaccharides as well as some decomposed compounds and lignin-derived compounds were all found to be fermentable to acetic acid with Clostridium thermoaceticum. In particular, glucose, xylose and fructose could be effectively converted to acetic acid with a 70 to 80 per cent yield. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides were converted with C. thermocellum to glucose and organic acids. Almost all compounds obtained by the hot-compressed water treatment were converted to acetic acid in co-culture fermentation. A flow-type laboratory reactor was used to evaluate ethanol production from acetic acid using a one-step hydrogenation method to ethanol. A very dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid was effectively hydrogenated to ethanol. It was concluded that compared to conventional yeast fermentation, ethanol can be produced more efficiently from lignocellulosics by combining the 3 steps of hot-compressed water treatment followed by acetic acid fermentation and hydrogenation.

  1. Modelling Framework for the Identification of Critical Variables and Parameters under Uncertainty in the Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    ) Collection of data and the implementation of dynamic models for each unit operation in the process; (3) Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, performed to identify the critical operational variables and parameters in the process. The uncertainty analysis is carried out using the Monte-Carlo technique......This study presents the development of a systematic modelling framework for identification of the most critical variables and parameters under uncertainty, evaluated on a lignocellulosic ethanol production case study. The systematic framework starts with: (1) definition of the objectives; (2...

  2. A rapid and sensitive method for the evaluation of cereal grains in bioethanol production using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Ferdinand; Senn, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining fermentable substance and also ethanol yield in wheat, rye and triticale grains as a feedstock for fuel ethanol production was investigated. The total sample set contained 480 samples of 10 types of wheat, 24 types of triticale and 6 types of rye, which were grown on 10 locations in Germany from 2006 to 2008. Samples were scanned by NIRS as whole or ground grains, and their reference values regressed against different spectral transformations by partial least squares regression (PLS-1). Ground grains were scanned on a dispersive NIR-Spectrometer. Whole grains were scanned on a diode array NIR-Spectrometer. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that samples could be classified by crop season, growth location and species. It is shown that near infrared spectroscopy is an appropriate and useful tool for prediction of biofuel yield for both industry and research.

  3. Direct and selective production of propene from bio-ethanol on Sc-loaded IN2O3 catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masakazu; Mizuno, Shouta; Tanaka, Masashi

    2013-05-27

    Propene, one of key building blocks for manufacturing plastics and chemicals, could be directly and stably produced from ethanol in good yields. The conversion degree of ethanol to propene reached approximately 60 mol% by using a 3 atom% scandium-loaded indium oxide catalyst at 823 K in the presence of water and hydrogen. The introduction of Sc prevented the reduction of In2O3 to In metal during the reaction, and that of water decreased the coke formation. Both additions resulted in longer lifetimes of the catalysts. The hydrogen addition increased the conversion of acetone to propene. The reaction pathways are also suggested on the basis of the product distributions and the pulse experiments, ethanol→acetaldehyde→acetone→propene, which is quite different from the shape-selective catalysis on zeolites and the dimerization-metathesis of ethene on nickel ion-loaded silica catalysts.

  4. Dual effect of soluble materials in pretreated lignocellulose on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process for the bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Xia; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Guan, Qi-Man; Zhang, Man-Tong; Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, wash liquors isolated from ethylenediamine and dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover were used to evaluate the effect of soluble materials in pretreated biomass on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for ethanol production, respectively. Both of the wash liquors had different impacts on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzymatic conversions of glucan and xylan monotonically decreased as wash liquor concentration increased. Whereas, with low wash liquor concentrations, xylose consumption rate, cell viability and ethanol yield were maximally stimulated in fermentation without nutrient supplementary. Soluble lignins were found as the key composition which promoted sugars utilization and cell viability without nutrient supplementary. The dual effects of soluble materials on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation resulted in the reduction of ethanol yield as soluble materials increased in SSCF.

  5. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol--comparison of five pretreatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Leipold, Frank; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Roslander, Christian; Lilholt, Hans; Bjerre, Anne Belinda

    2013-07-01

    A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma-assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44 g ethanol/100g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol yield of 57 g ethanol/100g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae, containing high amounts of glucan and cleaned from salts, enhanced the ethanol yield significantly.

  6. Microalgae for economic applications: advantages and perspectives for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas-Rodrigues, Cíntia; Villela, Helena D M; Martins, Aline P; Marques, Luiza G; Colepicolo, Pio; Tonon, Angela P

    2015-07-01

    Renewable energy has attracted significant interest in recent years as a result of sustainability, environmental impact, and socio-economic considerations. Given existing technological knowledge and based on projections relating to biofuels derived from microalgae, microalgal feedstock is considered to be one of the most important renewable energy sources potentially available for industrial production. Therefore, this review examines microalgal bioethanol technology, which converts biomass from microalgae to fuel, the chemical processes involved, and possible ways of increasing the bioethanol yield, such as abiotic factors and genetic manipulation of fermenting organisms.

  7. Spartina argentinensis as feedstock for bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Jozami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five percent of the energy consumed in the world comes from non-renewable sources. The transportation sector, highly dependent on oil, is responsible for 20-27% of the world primary energy consumption and for 13-28% of Greenhouse Gases (GHG emissions. The main renewable energy sources that can supply this sector are bioethanol and biodiesel. Production of these biofuels is rapidly expanding mainly through food raw materials such as corn, sugar cane, soybean and rapeseed, decreasing their availability as food in the market, thereby raising their price. These food-derived biofuels are called “first generation biofuels”. There are other renewable sources that can be used to produce bioethanol, called second-generation biofuels, which have the great advantage of using lignocellulosic materials, thereafter they do not compete with food crops for fertile land. This paper describes the possibility of producing bioethanol and/or electricity using pellets from natural rangelands in the Bajos Submeridionales (Submeridional Lowlands of the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, where the dominant species is Spartina argentinensis, a C4 perennial grass with high photosynthetic rate, which tolerates the conditions of alkalinity and the recurrent droughts and floods that shape the region. According to our estimates, enough ethanol could be produced in this region to satisfy the energy demand of vehicles with Otto combustion cycle in several Argentine provinces. Pellets production would allow electricity generation via syngas and power turbines. This would allow the production of liquid fuel and/or electricity with sustainability criteria, reducing the emission of GHG and generating jobs, economical growth and development in a depopulated region.

  8. The Development Strategy of Sustainable Bioethanol Industry on Iconic Sumba Island, Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of biofuel industry in Indonesia represents the emerging phase, because of the impetus of government commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emission regulations which are decanted in President Decree No. 61 the year 2011.  Indonesia has committed to reducing greenhouse gasses by 26% below 2005 levels, equivalent to 767 million tons of greenhouse gasses on their own.  National Energy Policy set to blending bioethanol in premium 10% and 20% in 2020 and 2050 respectively.  Potency that owned by Sumba Island, especially in east eastern Indonesia, encourages the growth of bioethanol industry regarding the availability of raw material resources and tropical climate for biofuel crop cultivation. Therefore it is necessary to analyze the feasibility of bioethanol production from potential raw materials in Sumba Island. It combines a Bayes method with financial analysis and a Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT framework to propose the development strategy of sustainable bioethanol industry in the Sumba Island.  Recommended feedstock for the development of the bioethanol industry in Sumba Island is sweet sorghum and cassava.  Financial feasibility assessment of bioethanol industry is based on the assumption that at least 70% of the feedstock is supplied by the company’s land and the rest comes from the farming communities.  The proposed integration pattern is by integrating the ethanol industry with bio-farming and bio-manure to utilize the waste completely. The development of bioethanol industry in Sumba Island is still faced with many obstacles, including the sustainability of feedstock both for cassava and sweet sorghum, infrastructure constraints, and regulation enforcement. Alternative strategies for the development of an integrated bioethanol industry are (1 conducting intensification and extensification of agricultural land to meet the needs of raw materials, (2 promoting technological innovation and

  9. Sul dibattito scientifico e religioso in tema di "fine vita": accanimento terapeutico, stato vegetativo ed eutanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Carobene

    2015-03-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Il problema dell'eutanasia e il diritto alla salute - 2. Profilo medico-scientifico: definizione di morte, stato vegetativo; 3. Posizioni dottrinarie della Chiesa Cattolica - 4. Etica protestante - 5. Considerazioni conclusive.

  10. Visions for Danish bio-ethanol; Visioner for dansk bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K. [BioCentrum-DTU (Denmark); Felby, C. [Det Biovidenskabelige Fakultet -KU (Denmark); Jensen, Arne [Syddansk Univ., Ledelsessekretariatet (Denmark); Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy (Denmark); Skytte, K. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept. - DTU (Denmark); Wormslev, E.C. [NIRAS A/S (Denmark); Zinck, A.M. [Dansk Landbrug (DK)] (eds.)

    2007-02-15

    In 2006 the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences set up a working group to prepare a brief and factual presentation of visions for Danish bioenergy targeted at political actors in that area. This report presents the working group's conclusions and recommendations with focus on bioethanol. Denmark has powerful actors and good opportunities to develop and commercialize this particular type of biofuel. Bioethanol has the potential to create large gains for Denmark within supply, environment and export, and the working group considers bioethanol to be the only alternative to petrol for the transport sector in the short term. However, in order to establish Denmark as a strong and relevant partner in international development, it is crucial for the Danish actors to concentrate on a joint effort. (BA)

  11. Power plant intake quantification of wheat straw composition for 2nd generation bioethanol optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Carina J.; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Jensen, Erik Steen;

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of 2nd generation bioethanol production from wheat straw requires comprehensive knowledge of plant intake feedstock composition. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is evaluated as a potential method for instantaneous quantification of the salient fermentation wheat straw components: cellulose...

  12. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chao-Chen; Yang, Siang-Cing

    2016-02-19

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  13. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Chung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS. Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1 fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2 comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  14. Molecular spectroscopic investigation on fractionation-induced changes on biomacromolecule of co-products from bioethanol processing to explore protein metabolism in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yan, Xiaogang; Beltranena, Eduardo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Fractionation processing is an efficient technology which is capable to redesign/redevelop a new food or feed product with a specified chemical and nutrient profile. This processing technique was able to produce four different fractions (called "A", "B", "C", "D" fractions/treatments) with different nutrient profile form a co-product of bioethanol processing [wheat dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS)]. To date, there is no study on the effect of fractionation processing on inherent molecular structure of different fractions and how the processing-induced structural change affect the metabolic characteristics of protein and nutrient availability. The objectives of this experiment were to: (1) investigate the effect of fractionation processing on changes of protein functional groups (amide I, amide II, and their ratio) and molecular structure (modeled α-helix, β-sheet, and their ratio), and (2) study the relationship between the fractionation processing-induced changes of protein molecular structure and nutrients availability as well as the metabolic characteristics of protein. The hypothesis of this study was that the fractionation processing changes the molecular structure and such changes affect the metabolic characteristics of protein. The protein molecular structure spectral profile of the fractions A, B, C and D were identified by Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FT/IR-ATR). The results showed that the fractionation processing significantly affected the protein molecular spectral profiles. The differences in amide I to amide II peak area and height ratios were strongly significant (P < 0.01) among the treatment fractions, ranging from 4.98 to 6.33 and 3.28 to 4.00, respectively. The difference in the modeled protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio was also strongly significant (P < 0.01) among the treatment fractions. Multivariate molecular spectral analysis with cluster (CLA) and principal component analyses (PCA

  15. 生物乙醇生产及木质纤维素稀酸预处理的研究进展%Bioethanol Production and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Materials: a Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur Redding; 陈元彩; 付时雨; 詹怀宇; Jay J.Cheng

    2012-01-01

    作为一种汽油替代品,液体燃料因其可持续及环境友好的特点引起了人们的广泛兴趣.文中介绍了几种能够替代汽油的液体燃料:生物甲醇、生物乙醇和生物丁醇,指出生物乙醇最具潜力.对生产生物乙醇的原料进行了概述,指出由于政策性限制,使用淀粉或糖来生产乙醇受到制约,因此人们转向利用木质纤维原料来生产乙醇.在分析了各种木质纤维原料不同的预处理方法后,指出稀酸或稀酸与蒸汽爆破相结合的方法具有经济可行性,但稀酸预处理木质纤维易产生糠醛、羟甲基糠醛、木素小分子等发酵抑制物,因此在未来设计生物质转化液体燃料时要考虑减少这类物质的生成,降低其后续影响.%There is a wide-spread interest in examining the alternative liquid fuels that are more sustainable and environmentally friendly than gasoline.In this paper,first,several alternative liquid fuels,such as biomethanol,bioethanol and biobutanol,are introduced,bioethanol being a leading one due to its potential.Then,the materials for bioethanol production are summarized,finding that lignocelluloses are paid more attentions to because the starch- or sugar-based productions are restricted by current policies.Moreover,the pretreatment methods for different kinds of lignocelluloses are analyzed,and the dilute acid pretreatment alone or that combined with steam explosion is found to be more efficient and economic than many other pretreatment options.However,as dilute acid has a tendency to generate compounds inhibiting fermentation,such as furfural,hydroxymethyl furfural and small-molecular lignin,some countermeasures should be taken during the analysis and process design to limit the production and impact of these compounds.

  16. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a source of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhaty, Yasmin; Mody, Kalpana; Gandhi, Mahesh R; Thampy, Sreekumaran; Maiti, Pratyush; Brahmbhatt, Harshad; Eswaran, Karuppanan; Ghosh, Pushpito K

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes production of bio-ethanol from fresh red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii. It was crushed to expel sap--a biofertilizer--while residual biomass was saccharified at 100 °C in 0.9 N H2SO4. The hydrolysate was repeatedly treated with additional granules to achieve desired reducing sugar concentration. The best yields for saccharification, inclusive of sugar loss in residue, were 26.2% and 30.6% (w/w) at laboratory (250 g) and bench (16 kg) scales, respectively. The hydrolysate was neutralized with lime and the filtrate was desalted by electrodialysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCIM 3523) was used for ethanol production from this non-traditional bio-resource. Fermentation at laboratory and bench scales converted ca. 80% of reducing sugar into ethanol in near quantitative selectivity. A petrol vehicle was successfully run with E10 gasoline made from the seaweed-based ethanol. Co-production of ethanol and bio-fertilizer from this seaweed may emerge as a promising alternative to land-based bio-ethanol.

  17. Potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO(2) reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO(2) emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO(2) with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China's greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  18. Effect of coagulant/flocculant dosage and pH to water recovery of black liquor wastewater in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhani, Dian; Winarni, Anissa; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Coagulation and flocculation process was used to treat black liquor wastewater from alkali pretreatment of bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch. The optimization and the effect of pH, coagulant and flocculant dosage against decolorization, TSS reduction, final pH and sludge volume were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Six combination were used, however, no combination gave good result to all four responses. Decolorization percentage of 99.69% was obtained by the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide. The combination of alum and anionic polyacrylamide gave 91.12% TSS reduction. Final pH of 7.3 was resulted also from the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide While, 50 ml sludge volume was generated from the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide. From RSM with Central Composite Design (CCD) analysis, strong interaction between coagulant dosage and pH revealed to be the significant factor for black liquor wastewater treatment.

  19. FOOD VS. FUEL – A TURNING POINT FOR BIOETHANOL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Harlander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently concerns have been raised that biofuels would affect food prices. Bioethanol is made from sugar or starch containing plants that are also used in food production. In public perception this led to an emotional resistance against biofuels that in real terms is not substantiated. Generally, biofuels are a political product. Triggered by the oil crisis in the early 1970ies national fuel ethanol programmes were first launched in Brazil and in the United States. Concerns regarding energy security and sustainability together with the option of new markets for surplus agricultural production in recent years led to similar policy measures in the European Union and in numerous countries around the globe. Accordingly the industry invested heavily in new bioethanol plants - especially in the US – and created an additional demand for corn and wheat with some record-breaking prices noted in late 2007. A look back into statistics shows a drastic decline of real prices for decades and by now they are only back at the level of 30 years ago. One important detail is the real portion of grain used for bioethanol, which is still only 1.6 percent in the EU and therefore unlikely to be the real driver for the price development. Moreover the share of raw material is up to 70% of bioethanol production cost that makes the bioethanol industry itself a victim of price increases. Subsequently investor interest in this field slowed down, a development also watched in the US. The prospects of the agricultural markets of the European Commission conclude that Europe can do both, nutrition and biofuels.

  20. Exploiting the inter-strain divergence of Fusarium oxysporum for microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Khan, Mojibur; Fagan, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M

    2012-03-15

    Microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. A targeted evolution-based study was undertaken to determine if inter-strain microbial variability could be exploited for bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol. The microorganism studied was Fusarium oxysporum because of its capacity to both saccharify and ferment lignocellulose. Strains of F. oxysporum were isolated and assessed for their genetic variability. Using optimised solid-state straw culture conditions, experiments were conducted that compared fungal strains in terms of their growth, enzyme activities (cellulases, xylanase and alcohol dehydrogenase) and yield of bioethanol and the undesirable by-products acetic acid and xylitol. Significant inter-strain divergence was recorded in regards to the capacity of studied F. oxysporum strains to produce alcohol from untreated straw. No correlation was observed between bioethanol synthesis and either the biomass production or microbial enzyme activity. A strong correlation was observed between both acetic acid and xylitol production and bioethanol yield. The level of diversity recorded in the alcohol production capacity among closely-related microorganism means that a targeted screening of populations of selected microbial species could greatly improve bioprocessing yields, in terms of providing both new host strains and candidate genes for the bioethanol industry.

  1. Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment.

  2. Long-term bioethanol system and its implications on GHG emissions: a case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2011-06-01

    The study evaluates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions performance of future bioethanol systems in Thailand to ascertain whether bioethanol for transport could help the country mitigate a global warming impact. GHG emission factors of bioethanol derived from cassava, molasses, and sugar cane are analyzed using 12 scenarios covering the critical variables possibly affecting the GHG performance, i.e., (1) the possible direct land use change caused by expanding feedstock cultivation areas; (2) types of energy carriers used in ethanol plants; and (3) waste utilization, e.g., biogas recovery and dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) production. The assessment reveals that GHG performance of a Thai bioethanol system is inclined to decrease in the long run due to the effects from the expansion of plantation areas to satisfy the deficit of cassava and molasses. Therefore, bioethanol will contribute to the country's strategic plan on GHG mitigation in the transportation sector only if the production systems are sustainably managed, i.e., coal replaced by biomass in ethanol plants, biogas recovery, and adoption of improved agricultural practices to increase crop productivity without intensification of chemical fertilizers. Achieving the year 2022 government policy targets for bioethanol with recommended measures would help mitigate GHG emissions up to 4.6 Gg CO(2)-eq per year.

  3. SIMULATION OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS TO OBTAIN BIOETHANOL FROM RICE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Capdevila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper presents a simulation model of the fermentation/separation process of bioethanol from hydrolyzed pretreated rice husk, using Aspen HYSYS simulator. Sensitivity studies performed on the developed model indicated levels for selected variables: biomass/water ratio of 1:2,89 ; biomass flow of 50 t/h and inlet temperature separator of 30°C, leading to maximize the yield of bioethanol. From these variables, a bioethanol production of 8,81 t/h with a purity of 65,51% w/w is obtained, corresponding to a flow of hydrolyzed treated biomass of 50 t/h. This work represents an advance in the development of the simulation model of the complete process to obtain second generation of bioethanol from rice husks.

  4. Implications of the biofuels policy mandate in Thailand on water: the case of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheewala, Shabbir H; Silalertruksa, Thapat; Nilsalab, Pariyapat; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Perret, Sylvain R; Chaiyawannakarn, Nuttapon

    2013-12-01

    The study assesses the implications of the bioethanol policy mandate in Thailand of producing 9 M litre ethanol per day by 2021 on water use and water deprivation. The results reveal that water footprint (WF) of bioethanol varies between 1396 and 3105 L water/L ethanol. Cassava ethanol has the highest WF followed by molasses and sugarcane ethanol, respectively. However, in terms of fresh water (especially irrigation water) consumption, molasses ethanol is highest with 699-1220 L/L ethanol. To satisfy the government plan of bioethanol production in 2021, around 1625 million m(3) of irrigation water/year will be additionally required, accounting for about 3% of the current active water storage of Thailand. Two important watersheds in the northeastern region of Thailand are found to be potentially facing serious water stress if water resources are not properly managed. Measures to reduce water footprint of bioethanol are recommended.

  5. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  6. To bioethanol through genomics of microbial synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein,

    2013-08-27

    The strategic goal of this project was to advance our understanding of activities and interactions of microorganisms through the advancement of microbial cultivation approaches. In this project we aimed to develop, advance, and use both culture-dependent techniques to address our main hypothesis: “uncultivable” microorganisms and their consortia represent a untapped source of novel species for efficient production of bioethanol. This project has two specific goals: 1. To develop and optimize a high throughput diffusion chamber cultivation approach to isolation of novel environmental bacteria relevant to DOE missions. 2. To use the optimized method to identify and cultivate novel microbial species and their consortia that synergistically hydrolyze various substrates and ferment the sugars to ethanol.

  7. Operator Training Simulator for an Industrial Bioethanol Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Gerlach; Sören Tholin; Hass, Volker C; Carl-Fredrik Mandenius

    2016-01-01

    Operator training simulators (OTS) are software tools for training process operators in large-scale industrial applications. Here, we describe the development, implementation and training of an OTS for a large-scale industrial plant for bioethanol production. The design of the OTS is based on conceptual analysis (previously reported by us in this journal) of various configuration alternatives and training procedures at the plant. In this article, we report on how the conceptual design is used...

  8. Second generation bioethanol. Where do we stand?; Bioethanol der zweiten Generation. Wo stehen wir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, Doris; Sieber, V. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemie Biogener Rohstoffe; Rohowsky, B.; Faulstich, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen Wissenschaftszentrum Straubing (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoff- und Energietechnologie

    2010-07-01

    Second generation biofuels from plant biomass or from biogenic residues are often viewed as a supplement or an alternative to the first generation of biofuels as they may offer an option to enhance biofuels production without competing with food production. R + D activities on the introduction of second generation bioethanol have reached an advanced status, but there are still open questions. In spite of many projects, industrial-scale application of second generation biotechnology has not really started yet. While the biofuels substitution goals of the EU and other states may be favourable, the expected production cost is still relatively high, and the price of the end product will be the key factor to ensure successful launching in the market.

  9. Supply Portfolio of Bioethanol in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Hwan Bae

    2014-01-01

    Despite the co-benefits of bioethanol, such as energy security, environmental improvement, CO2 emission reduction and development of associated industry, bioethanolblended gasoline without subsidy is more expensive than pure gasoline in Korea. The renewable fuel standard (RFS) can contribute to the development of a bioethanol market. However, without controlling the portions of domestic bioethanol, it is highly plausible that a new bioethanol market will be filled with imported bioethanol. If...

  10. Bioethanol production by cashew apple bagasse (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparison of acid diluted and alkali pre-treatments; Producao de bioetanol a partir da fibra do caju (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparacao entre o pre-tratamento acido e alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa H.S.; Pinheiro, Alvaro D.T.; Goncalves, Luciana R.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Maria V.P.; Macedo, Gorete R. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness on the negative impact resulting from utilization of fossil fuels, and in the search for renewable energy sources, biofuels' interest as Bioethanol has rapidly expanded recently. In this context, lignocellulosic compounds have become center of attention as an abundant and economic alternative source of carbohydrates for ethanol production. In this study, cashew's bagasse acid hydrolysis was initially studied for glucose synthesis and its fermentation towards ethanol production. Sulfuric acid concentration, solids concentration and time were some of the factors evaluated. The highest glucose productivity value (162,9 mg.g de bagaco{sup -1}) , was obtained for 0,6 mol.L{sup -1} of sulfuric acid in an autoclave at 121 deg C for 15 min. For the fermentation of the hydrolyzed material by S. cerevisiae containing 16 {+-} 2,0 g.L{sup -1} of glucose metabolic, the yield and productivity obtained were 0,63 g-g glucose{sup -1} and 1,43 g.L{sup -1}h{sup -1} respectively. Ethanol concentration after 6 h of fermentation of this hydrolyzed was 11 g.L{sup -1}. In the best conditions of acid hydrolysis, a second pre-treatment with diluted sulfuric acid was performed to evaluate availability of hemicelluloses at 160 deg C and 180 deg C. For comparative purposes, alkali pre-treatment was evaluated under the conditions of 0,6 mol.L{sup -1}, 30% p/v of bagasse thermically treated at 121 deg C for 15 minutes. However, concentration of sugars was not sufficient for fermentation. Also, nitrogen supplementation of the hydrolyzed fraction did not influence significantly ethanol production. The results demonstrate that the hydrolyzed fraction from the acid pre-treatment of cashew's bagasse could be utilized for ethanol production. (author)

  11. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  12. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works.

  13. Environmental sustainability of bioethanol produced from sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Pan, Xinxing; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of a bioethanol production system that uses sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land as feedstock. The system comprises a plant cultivation unit, a feedstock transport unit, and a bioethanol conversion unit, with 1000L of bioethanol as a functional unit. The net energy ratio is 3.84, and the net energy gain is 17.21MJ/L. Agrochemical production consumes 76.58% of the life cycle fossil energy. The category with the most significant impact on the environment is eutrophication, followed by acidification, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and global warming. Allocation method, waste recycling approach, and soil salinity significantly influence the results. Using vinasse to produce pellet fuel for steam generation significantly improves energy efficiency and decreases negative environmental impacts. Promoting reasonable management practices to alleviate saline stress and increasing agrochemical utilization efficiency can further improve environmental sustainability.

  14. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast.

  15. Particulate size of microalgal biomass affects hydrolysate properties and bioethanol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Razif; Danquah, Michael K; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar

    2014-01-01

    Effective optimization of microalgae-to-bioethanol process systems hinges on an in-depth characterization of key process parameters relevant to the overall bioprocess engineering. One of the such important variables is the biomass particle size distribution and the effects on saccharification levels and bioethanol titres. This study examined the effects of three different microalgal biomass particle size ranges, 35 μm ≤ x ≤ 90 μm, 125 μm ≤ x ≤ 180 μm, and 295 μm ≤ x ≤ 425 μm, on the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production. Two scenarios were investigated: single enzyme hydrolysis (cellulase) and double enzyme hydrolysis (cellulase and cellobiase). The glucose yield from biomass in the smallest particle size range (35 μm ≤ x ≤ 90 μm) was the highest, 134.73 mg glucose/g algae, while the yield from biomass in the larger particle size range (295 μm ≤ x ≤ 425 μm) was 75.45 mg glucose/g algae. A similar trend was observed for bioethanol yield, with the highest yield of 0.47 g EtOH/g glucose obtained from biomass in the smallest particle size range. The results have shown that the microalgal biomass particle size has a significant effect on enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol yield.

  16. Bioethanol fermentation as alternative valorization route of agricultural digestate according to a biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Monlau, F; Barakat, A

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of producing bioethanol from solid digestate after a mechanical fractionation (i.e. centrifugal milling), in order to improve the energy recovery from agricultural wastes and the sustainability of anaerobic digestion plants. A bioethanol yield of 37gkg(-1)TS was evaluated for the solid digestate fraction. Mass and energetic balances were performed and compared between two scenarios: (A) one-stage bioethanol fermentation and (B) two-stage anaerobic digestion-bioethanol fermentation, in order to evaluate the feasibility and the advantages of the two-stage process. Results revealed that, compared to the one-stage process, the dual anaerobic digestion-bioethanol process permitted: (i) to diversify biofuels production; (ii) to provide the thermal energy sufficient for drying digestate (13,351kWhthday(-1)), for the subsequent milling step; (iii) to reduce the electric energy requirement for the milling step (from 23,880 to 3580kWhelday(-1)); (iv) to produce extra electrical energy of 8483kWhelday(-1); (v) to improve the reduction of waste streams generated (from 13% to 54% of organic matter removal).

  17. Energy analysis of using macroalgae from eutrophic waters as a bioethanol feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    2014-01-01

    is required directly or indirectly to produce 0.09J of bioethanol for OL or 0.44J of bioethanol for KB, i.e. the energy return on (energy) invested (EROI) is less than 1. An alternative scenario was developed in order to investigate improvements of system efficiency. This was analysed with the full-requirement...... approach as well as with a marginal-requirement approach accounting only what the bioethanol production requires of additional processes, i.e. mainly transportation and conversion of the macroalgae in a biorefinery facility which is assumed to be situated close to an existing industry producing waste heat...... instead of considered as an environmental problem. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...... to sustainability compared with the petroleum-based processes. In both cases, the effects of the market price uncertainties were also analyzed by performing quantitative economic risk analysis and presented a significant risk of investment for a lignocellulosic biorefinery (12 MM$/a and 92 MM$/a for diethyl ether...

  19. Producing bioethanol from cellulosic hydrolyzate via co-immobilized cultivation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Yang, Chih-An; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Yu-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Lignocellulose was converted into reducing sugars by using saccharification enzymes from cocultivated Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger and reducing sugars as nutrients for Zymomonas mobilis to produce bioethanol in an immobilization system. After 96 h of cultivation, cocultivated T. reesei and A. niger had enzymatical synergistic effects that enabled a reducing sugar production of 1.29 g/L and a cellulose conversion rate of 23.27%. An 18% total inoculum concentration and a 1/1 inoculation ratio of T. reesei to A. niger obtained a reducing sugar production rate and a cellulose conversion rate of 2.57 g/L and 46.27%, respectively. The co-immobilization cultivation results showed that using polyurethane as a carrier optimized total saccharification enzyme activity at an inoculum ratio of 1/1 and a total inoculum concentration of 6.5×10(6)spores/mL. Based on the experimental results, the bioreactor design was further modified to enhance bioethanol production. The three strains (A. niger, T. reesei and Z. mobilis) were cocultivated with a co-immobilization cultivation system. The experimental results showed that, after 24 h cultivation, bioethanol production reached 0.56 g/L, and reducing sugar conversion rate reached 11.2% when using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) substrates. The experimental results confirmed that the modified bioreactor enhances bioethanol production. However, further experiments are needed to determine how to prevent multi-stage failure of reducing medium volume.

  20. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  1. Modelling and L1 Adaptive Control of pH in Bioethanol Enzymatic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic process is a key step in second generation bioethanol production. Pretreated biomass fibers are liquefied with the help of enzymes to facilitate fermentation. Enzymes are very sensitive to pH and temperature and the main control challenge in the nonlinear process is to ensure minimum...

  2. Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic comput

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF BIO-ETHANOL MADE FROM RICE STRAW CONSIDERING LAND OCCUPATION EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoshita, Masaharu; Yang, Cuifen; Genchi, Yutaka; Tahara, Kiyotaka; Inaba, Atsushi

    Most of rice straw produced as a byproduct is not or low utilized in Japan. However, it may be available for the production of bio-ethanol without threatening food supply because of its characteristics as one of the lignocellulosic materials. Though it has already been revealed in previous studies that bio-ethanol made from rice straw can contribute to reducing energy consumption and repressing greenhouse gas emissions, effects on ecosystem due to land occupation for rice straw production and ethanol refinery plant have not been evaluated. Thus, environmental impacts of bio-ethanol made from rice straw including effects on ecosystem caused by land occupation were evaluated in this study. Some differences among three representative assessment methods could be found in results of the effect on ecosystem due to land occupation for rice straw production and ethanol refinery plant. However, it is common among all assessment methods that the effect on ecosystem caused by land occupation dominates large part of total environmental impact of ethanol made from rice straw (72-83% of total impact). Bio-ethanol made from rice straw showed larger environmental impact compared to that of gasoline due to land occupation. The improvement of the operating rate and the productivity of ethanol refinery plants is especially necessary for repressing the environm ental impacts related to bio-ethanol production made from rice straw.

  4. Bio-ethanol from lignocellulose: Status, perspectives and challenges in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash

    2010-07-01

    The present study reveals the perspective and challenges of bio-ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials in Malaysia. Malaysia has a large quantity of lignocellulosic biomass from agriculture waste, forest residues and municipal solid waste. In this work, the current status in Malaysia was laconically elucidated, including an estimation of biomass availability with a total amount of 47,402 dry kton/year. Total capacity and domestic demand of second-generation bio-ethanol production in Malaysia were computed to be 26,161 ton/day and 6677 ton/day, respectively. Hence, it was proven that the country's energy demand can be fulfilled with bio-ethanol if lignocellulosic biomass were fully converted into bio-ethanol and 19% of the total CO(2) emissions in Malaysia could be avoided. Apart from that, an integrated national supply network was proposed together with the collection, storage and transportation of raw materials and products. Finally, challenges and obstacles in legal context and policies implementation were elaborated, as well as infrastructures shortage and technology availabilities.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a ß-glucosidase from a Clavispora strain with potential applications in bioethanol production from cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported on a new yeast strain of Clavispora sp. NRRL Y-50464 that is capable of utilizing cellobiose as sole source of carbon and energy by producing sufficient native ß-glucosidase enzyme activity without further enzyme supplementation for cellulosic ethanol production using simultan...

  6. Nuovi strumenti di valutazione epidemiologica: indagine sullo stato di salute percepita da studenti universitari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nante

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: gli strumenti “soggettivi” di valutazione dello stato di salute appaiono sempre più utili per l’epidemiologia descrittiva di popolazioni e comunità. Il profilo di salute ottenuto con strumenti psicometrici è utilizzabile come analizzatore del bisogno assistenziale (e, conseguentemente, valutatore del risultato di interventi e attività sanitarie e si affianca ormai diffusamente alle più tradizionali misure “oggettive”.

    Obiettivo: descrivere il profilo di salute percepita dagli studenti e valutare il ruolo sullo stesso di alcune variabili.

    Materiali e Metodi: il questionario SF36 descrive lo stato di salute attraverso 8 domini, alcuni correlati con l’area fisica, altri con quella psicologica/sociale. Esso è stato distribuito a 380 studenti (179 esaminandi e 201 non esaminandi: 237 (62,4% femmine, 261 (68,7% non residenti nella provincia di Siena; età media 21 anni (range 18-41. Sono state calcolate le medie delle scale e confrontate con lo standard tramite il t test. Sono stati effettuati confronti per sesso, residenza e giorno di somministrazione del questionario (esame, non esame. Con il test del Chi quadrato si è verificato se le variabili sesso, età, residenza e giorno di somministrazione fossero associate alle 8 scale. Come standard di riferimento sono stati utilizzati i valori (fascia età 18-24 anni derivati da una indagine condotta dalla DOXA in Italia nel 1995 (progetto IQOLA. Risultati: le medie delle scale del campione risultano tutte inferiori a quelle della popolazione di riferimento; la differenza non è significativa (p›0,05. Le medie femminili presentano valori inferiori a quelle maschili in tutte le scale; le differenze sono significative (p‹0,05 eccetto che per Dolore Fisico. Le medie dei residenti risultano superiori o uguali a quelle dei non residenti (p›0,05. Le medie dei non esaminandi

  7. 小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵制取燃料乙醇%Optimization of Processing Conditions for Bioethanol Production from Wheat Straw Through Simultaneously Saccharification and Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 李文; 赵继东; 林燕; 彭兆城; 王欣泽

    2012-01-01

    利用酿酒酵母Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742对小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵(simultaneously saccharification and fermentation,SSF)生产燃料乙醇的条件进行了研究,系统考察和研究了温度、固体含量、纤维素酶投加量、酵母菌浓度对SSF过程中乙醇浓度和产率的影响,并对以上参数做了初步优化,以提高最终乙醇浓度和产率.结果表明,小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵乙醇的最优条件为:温度38℃,固体含量16.0%(m/V),纤维素酶投加量35FPU/g底物,酵母菌浓度8 g/L.在此条件下,NaOH预处理后的小麦经过120 h同步糖化发酵,乙醇浓度达到最大值,为38.32 g/L,产率达理论产率的71.71%,木糖浓度为12.94 g/L.%Experiments were carried out on the conditions of bioethanol production from wheat straw through simultaneously saccharification and fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742. The effects of temperature, solid content, enzymeloading and yeast concentration on concentration and yield of ethanol in the SSF processes were systematically investigated. These parameters were further optimized to increase the final concentration and yield of ethanol. The results showed that the optimum conditions for SSF of wheat straw were as follows: temperature 38℃ , solid content 16. 0% (w/v) , enzyme loading 35 FPU/g and substrate and yeast concentration 8 g/L. The maximum ethanol concentration reached 38. 32 g/L, which was equivalent to 71. 71% of the theoretical ethanol yield, with xylose concentration of 12. 94 g/L obtained after 120 h SSF of NaOH pretreated wheat straw under the optimized conditions.

  8. TALEN mediated targeted mutagenesis of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in highly polyploid sugarcane improves cell wall composition for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Je Hyeong; Altpeter, Fredy

    2016-09-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a prime crop for commercial biofuel production. Advanced conversion technology utilizes both, sucrose accumulating in sugarcane stems as well as cell wall bound sugars for commercial ethanol production. Reduction of lignin content significantly improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Conventional mutagenesis is not expected to confer reduction in lignin content in sugarcane due to its high polyploidy (x = 10-13) and functional redundancy among homo(eo)logs. Here we deploy transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to induce mutations in a highly conserved region of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) of sugarcane. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was validated by pyrosequencing as reliable and inexpensive high throughput method for identification and quantitative characterization of TALEN mediated mutations. Targeted COMT mutations were identified by CE in up to 74 % of the lines. In different events 8-99 % of the wild type COMT were converted to mutant COMT as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mutation frequencies among mutant lines were positively correlated to lignin reduction. Events with a mutation frequency of 99 % displayed a 29-32 % reduction of the lignin content compared to non-transgenic controls along with significantly reduced S subunit content and elevated hemicellulose content. CE analysis displayed similar peak patterns between primary COMT mutants and their vegetative progenies suggesting that TALEN mediated mutations were faithfully transmitted to vegetative progenies. This is the first report on genome editing in sugarcane. The findings demonstrate that targeted mutagenesis can improve cell wall characteristics for production of lignocellulosic ethanol in crops with highly complex genomes.

  9. Purification and biochemical properties of a thermostable, haloalkaline cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis AMF-07 and its application for hydrolysis of different cellulosic substrates to bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadian, Fatemeh; Badoei-dalfard, Arastoo; Namaki-Shoushtari, Abdolhamid; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A thermophilic strain AMF-07, hydrolyzing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was isolated from Kerman hot spring and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis based on 16S rRNA sequence homology. The carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) enzyme produced by the B. licheniformis was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band on SDS- PAGE with a molecular weight of 37 kDa. The CMCase enzyme was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (40-80ºC), pH (6.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (10-25%) with an optimum at 70ºC, pH 9.0 and 20% NaCl, which showed excellent thermostable, alkali-stable and halostable properties. Moreover, it displayed high activity in the presence of cyclohexane (134%) and chloroform (120%). Saccharification of rice bran and wheat bran by the CMCase enzyme resulted in respective yields of 24 and 32 g L-1 reducing sugars. The enzymatic hydrolysates of rice bran were then used as the substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate using S. cerevisiae, reached maximum ethanol production about 0.125 g g-1 dry substrate (pretreated wheat bran). Thus, the purified cellulase from B. licheniformis AMF-07 utilizing lignocellulosic biomass could be greatly useful to develop industrial processes. PMID:28097168

  10. Purification and biochemical properties of a thermostable, haloalkaline cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis AMF-07 and its application for hydrolysis of different cellulosic substrates to bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azadian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic strain AMF-07, hydrolyzing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was isolated from Kerman hot spring and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis based on 16S rRNA sequence homology. The carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase enzyme produced by the B. licheniformis was purified by (NH42SO4 precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 37 kDa. The CMCase enzyme was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (40-80 ºC, pH (6.0-10.0 and NaCl concentration (10-25% with an optimum at 70 ºC, pH 9.0 and 20% NaCl, which showed excellent thermostable, alkali-stable and halostable properties. Moreover, it displayed high activity in the presence of cyclohexane (134% and chloroform (120%. Saccharification of rice bran and wheat bran by the CMCase enzyme resulted in respective yields of 24 and 32 g L-1 reducing sugars. The enzymatic hydrolysates of rice bran were then used as the substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate using S. cerevisiae, reached maximum ethanol production about 0.125 g g-1 dry substrate (pretreated wheat bran. Thus, the purified cellulase from B. licheniformis AMF-07 utilizing lignocellulosic biomass could be greatly useful to develop industrial processes.

  11. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. F. Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH. It was concentrated, detoxified, and supplemented with nutrients in different formulations to prepare the fermentation medium to the yeast evaluation performance. S. shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2 (isolated from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest ecosystem was used in fermentations carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a rotator shaker at 30°C and 200 rpm for 72 h. The use of a fermentation medium composed of SBHH supplemented with 5 g/L ammonium sulfate, 3 g/L yeast extract, and 3 g/L malt extract resulted in 0.38 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.19 g L.h of volumetric productivity after 48 h of incubation time.

  12. Dalla tutela della religione di Stato alla difesa della libertà dei culti: la svolta liberale del codice Zanardelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Garlati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Testo, corredato delle note, della relazione al IV Convegno della Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (9-10 febbraio 2006 su Laicità e stato di diritto, destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti (a cura di A. Ceretti e L. Garlati per la casa editrice Giuffrè. Ora nel volume collettaneo, a cura di A. Ceretti e L. Garlati, Laicità e Stato di diritto, Addi del IV Convegno di Facoltà (Università di Milano-Bicocca, 9-10 febbraio 2006, ed. Giuffrè, Milano, 2007, p. 73 ss.

  13. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  14. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  15. Introduction: perspectives of bioethanol at the market of liquid fuels for light vehicles; Introducao: perspectivas do bioetanol no mercado de combustiveis liquidos para veiculos leves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    A significant expansion of the bioethanol production in Brazil could be a national developing project. As a matter of fact, aiming to reduce the dependence upon the fossil fuels, various countries have been incremented the use of bioethanol in their energetic matrix, not only to add directly to the gasoline but also to the fabrication of carburan. Many countries programs are specially highlighted, which have fixed goals of participation of biofuels in their matrixes to terms less than 20 years. In this book, the necessary conditions will be examined in order the Brazil to attend to sugar cane bioethanol world demand for replacing approximately 10% of the gasoline global consumption in the year 2025, which could correspond to a production of 205 billions of bioethanol liters per year, requiring an additional area of 24 Mha for the sugar cane cultivation.

  16. Obtención de Etanol y Biogás a Partir de Banano de Rechazo Biogas and Bioethanol Production from Non-Exportable Low Quality Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Guevara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un proceso fermentativo mediante hidrólisis endógena inducida para producir etanol a partir de banano verde no apto para exportación. El potencial de las vinazas también fue evaluado para obtener biogás. A escala de 1 litro se comparó la hidrólisis endógena inducida con la hidrólisis exógena usando enzimas comerciales, y la hidrólisis ácida tomando como punto de referencia el etanol producido en la fermentación. Con la hidrólisis endógena se obtuvo los mayores rendimientos y con esta metodología se realizaron fermentaciones a 15 litros Los rendimientos de etanol en promedio fueron 0.065 litros por kilogramo de banano verde y los del biogás fueron 2.24 litros por litro de vinaza. El proceso propuesto presenta rendimientos comparables con los de la fermentación de caña de azúcar. Además presenta ventajas, tales como su bajo costo, fácil operación y por ser una alternativa de solución ambientalmente compatible en el área del manejo de residuos de cosecha.In this study was developed a fermentative process to produce ethanol from green banana non optimal for exportation through one induced endogenous hydrolysis. The potential of the stillage to produce biogas was also evaluated. It was compared the induced endogenous hydrolysis, with the exogenous hydrolysis that uses commercial enzymes and the traditional acid hydrolysis done all of them in a final volume of 1 liter, the reference point was the ethanol produced in the fermentation process. The maximum performance was obtained with the endogenous hydrolysis and with these methodology fermentations at 15 liter as done. The average of ethanol produced was 0.065 liters from one kilogram of green banana and the biogas production was 2.24 liter per liter of stillage. The proposed process shows performance comparable with that obtained by sugar cane fermentation. Also the methodology demonstrated several advantages, such as low cost, simple to operate, and because it

  17. A simple and effective set of PCR-based molecular markers for the monitoring of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell population during bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Netto, Osmar V; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Rodrigues, Aline; Bragança, Welbe O; Costa, Gustavo G L; Argueso, Juan Lucas; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2013-12-01

    One of the defining features of the fermentation process used in the production of bioethanol from sugarcane feedstock is the dynamic nature of the yeast population. Minisatellite molecular markers are particularly useful for monitoring yeast communities because they produce polymorphic PCR products that typically display wide size variations. We compared the coding sequences derived from the genome of the sugarcane bioethanol strain JAY270/PE-2 to those of the reference Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strain S288c, and searched for genes containing insertion or deletion polymorphisms larger than 24 bp. We then designed oligonucleotide primers flanking nine of these sites, and used them to amplify differentially sized PCR products. We analyzed the banding patterns in the most widely adopted sugarcane bioethanol strains and in several indigenous yeast contaminants, and found that our marker set had very good discriminatory power. Subsequently, these markers were used to successfully monitor the yeast cell populations in six sugarcane bioethanol distilleries. Additionally, we showed that most of the markers described here are also polymorphic among strains unrelated to bioethanol production, suggesting that they may be applied universally in S. cerevisiae. Because the relatively large polymorphisms are detectable in conventional agarose gels, our method is well suited to modestly equipped on-site laboratories at bioethanol distilleries, therefore providing both cost and time savings.

  18. REKAYASA PROSES HIDROLISIS PATI DAN SERAT UBI KAYU (Manihot utilissima UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOETANOL Hydrolysis Process Design of Starch and Cassava (Manihot utilissima Fibers for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuana Susmiati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava (Manihot utilissima usually uses enzymatic process for starch hydrolysis. Enzymatichydrolysis by α-amylase and amyloglucosidase enzymes are not able to convert cassava fibers into sugars. Dilute acid hydrolysis is applied to convert both starch and fibers, which will increase the yield of simple sugars as fermentable sugars and resulting in high ethanol production. In this research there are two steps of dilute acid hydrolysis, first for starch hydrolysis at H SO concentration of 0.1-0.5 M, 5-15 minutes and second for fiber hydrolysis at 0.5-1.0 2 4M H SO , 10-20 minutes, at the same temperature of 121-127 oC and pressure of 1.0-1.5 atm. The disadvantage of acid hydrolysis is the formation of toxic compounds such as hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF which is inhibited yeast fermentation. Therefore, acid hydrolyzates were detoxified with NH OH before use as fermentation substrate. The best starch hydrolysis condition was obtained at 0.4 M H SO  for 10 minutes which gave 257.37 g/l of total sugars, 2 4229.38 g/l of reducing sugars, 89.59 of dextrose equivalent (DE and 0.57 g/l of HMF. While the best fiber hydrolysis performed at 1.0 M H SO  solution for 20 minutes which gave 79.74 g/l of total sugars, 70.88 g/l of reducing sugars, 2 488.99 of DE and 0.0142 g/l of HMF. Single direct acid hydrolysis was the most suitable substrate for yeast fermentationwith the ethanol concentration of 5.7 % (w/v and 30.5 % (w/w of ethanol yield. This result is comparable with enzymatic hydrolysis which gave ethanol yield of 30 % (w/w. ABSTRAK Produksi etanol dari ubi kayu biasanya menggunakan enzim untuk menghidrolisis pati. Hidrolisis secara enzimatismenggunakan enzim α-amilase dan amiloglukosidase tidak mampu mengkonversi serat menjadi gula. Hidrolisis asam  berkonsentrasi  rendah  dilakukan  untuk  mengkonversi  pati  dan  serat,  sehingga  gula-gula  sederhana  yang dapat difermentasi meningkat dan menghasilkan

  19. Thermodynamic analysis and performance of a 1 kW bioethanol processor for a PEMFC operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, M.; Padilla, R.; Sanz, J.L.; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    A thermodynamic analysis of a bioethanol steam reforming processor for CO-free hydrogen production was performed. The stages selected to perform CO purification were water gas shift and CO preferential oxidation. In order to optimize the processor efficiency, several configurations were studied. A processor efficiency of 69% for a steam/carbon ratio (S/C) of 4.8 was achieved taking advantage of the heat released during the exothermic stages. An efficiency close to 28% at the same S/C ratio for a bioethanol processor-PEMFC system, which includes a heat recovery system for off-gas from the fuel cell anode, was obtained. To produce a CO-free hydrogen rich stream, a 1 kW bioethanol processor was designed, built and operated, based on previous simulation studies. A new catalyst developed in the Institute of Catalysis and Petro-chemistry (ICP-CSIC) and tested for more than 500 h, that demonstrated excellent results at laboratory scale, was selected for the steam reforming stage. From bioethanol processor operation, a hydrogen rich stream, with CO composition as low as 3 ppmV was obtained, which is able to supply a PEMFC. (author)

  20. Report on the state of the environment; Relazione sullo stato dell'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordon, W. [Ministero dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    The report on the health of Italy's environmental heritage presented to Parliament on January 31. by Environment Minister Willer Bordon also provided an opportunity for examining the status of environment-related investments and the major issues facing the country. It is published the unabridged text of Mr. Bordon's remarks summarising the report and outlining the principles on which he believes a sustainable-development strategy for Italy should be based. [Italian] Presentata al Parlamento dal Ministero dell'Ambiente il 31 gennaio, la Relazione sul livello di salute del nostro patrimonio ambientale e' stata anche l'occasione per fare il punto sullo stato degli investimenti e sulle principali questioni aperte. Le Considerazioni del Ministro Bordon, che sono pubblicate integralmente, accompagnano e riassumono la Relazione e trattegiano i principi ispiratori per una strategia possibile di sostenibilita' del nostro Paese.

  1. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2010-01-01

    fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel......‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not account for farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from...

  2. Generation of bioethanol and VFA through anaerobic acidogenic fermentation route with press mud obtained from sugar mill as a feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruti, Kranti; Gangagni Rao, A; Gandu, Bharath; Kiran, G; Mohammad, Sameena; Sailaja, S; Swamy, Y V

    2015-09-01

    Acidogenic anaerobic fermentation route was explored for the production of bioethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) from the press mud (PM) obtained from sugar mill. Slurry was prepared from PM having 10% of total solids and the same was hydrolyzed under acidic thermal conditions. Both press mud slurry (PMS) and pre-treated press mud slurry (PTPMS) was used as feedstock with mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and enriched mixed microbial consortia (EMMC). Mix of bioethanol and VFA were obtained in all the four cases (PMS-MMC, PMS-EMMC, PTPMS-EMC and PTPMS-EMMC), but, bioethanol and VFA yield of 0.04 g/g and 0.27 g/g, respectively obtained from PTPMS with EMMC was found to be comparatively higher. Control experiments carried out with glucose yielded bioethanol and VFA of 0.042 g/g and 0.28 g/g, respectively demonstrating that the organism was using reducible sugars in the feedstock for the generation of bioethanol by simultaneously producing the VFA from COD.

  3. Optimization of Hydrothermal and Diluted Acid Pretreatments of Tunisian Luffa cylindrica (L.) Fibers for 2G Bioethanol Production through the Cubic Central Composite Experimental Design CCD: Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadi, Manel; Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, Aida; Mekni, Sabrine; Aïssi, Balkiss; Alaya, Marwen; Bergaoui, Latifa; Hamdi, Moktar

    2017-01-01

    This paper opens up a new issue dealing with Luffa cylindrica (LC) lignocellulosic biomass recovery in order to produce 2G bioethanol. LC fibers are composed of three principal fractions, namely, α-cellulose (45.80%  ± 1.3), hemicelluloses (20.76%  ± 0.3), and lignins (13.15%  ± 0.6). The optimization of LC fibers hydrothermal and diluted acid pretreatments duration and temperature were achieved through the cubic central composite experimental design CCD. The pretreatments optimization was monitored via the determination of reducing sugars. Then, the 2G bioethanol process feasibility was tested by means of three successive steps, namely, LC fibers hydrothermal pretreatment performed at 96°C during 54 minutes, enzymatic saccharification carried out by means of a commercial enzyme AP2, and the alcoholic fermentation fulfilled with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LC fibers hydrothermal pretreatment liberated 33.55 g/kg of reducing sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis allowed achieving 59.4 g/kg of reducing sugars. The conversion yield of reducing sugar to ethanol was 88.66%. After the distillation step, concentration of ethanol was 1.58% with a volumetric yield about 70%. PMID:28243606

  4. Optimization of Hydrothermal and Diluted Acid Pretreatments of Tunisian Luffa cylindrica (L. Fibers for 2G Bioethanol Production through the Cubic Central Composite Experimental Design CCD: Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther Zaafouri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper opens up a new issue dealing with Luffa cylindrica (LC lignocellulosic biomass recovery in order to produce 2G bioethanol. LC fibers are composed of three principal fractions, namely, α-cellulose (45.80%  ± 1.3, hemicelluloses (20.76%  ± 0.3, and lignins (13.15%  ± 0.6. The optimization of LC fibers hydrothermal and diluted acid pretreatments duration and temperature were achieved through the cubic central composite experimental design CCD. The pretreatments optimization was monitored via the determination of reducing sugars. Then, the 2G bioethanol process feasibility was tested by means of three successive steps, namely, LC fibers hydrothermal pretreatment performed at 96°C during 54 minutes, enzymatic saccharification carried out by means of a commercial enzyme AP2, and the alcoholic fermentation fulfilled with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LC fibers hydrothermal pretreatment liberated 33.55 g/kg of reducing sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis allowed achieving 59.4 g/kg of reducing sugars. The conversion yield of reducing sugar to ethanol was 88.66%. After the distillation step, concentration of ethanol was 1.58% with a volumetric yield about 70%.

  5. High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99).

  6. Emerging bio-ethanol projects in Nigeria. Their opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohimain, Elijah I. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, North Carolina A and T State University, 1601 E. Market St., Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Despite being a major petroleum producing and exporting country, Nigeria has for a long time imported refined petroleum products for domestic consumption. The country has recently made an entrance into the bio-energy sector by seeding the market with imported ethanol until enough capability exists for the domestic production of ethanol. The Nigerian Biofuel Policy was released in 2007 calling for the domestic production of bio-ethanol to meet the national demand of 5.14 billion litres/year. Some investors have responded by investing over $3.86 billion for the construction of 19 ethanol bio-refineries, 10,000 units of mini-refineries and feedstock plantations for the production of over 2.66 billion litres of fuel grade ethanol per annum. Also, another 14 new projects are in the offing. Of the 20 pioneer projects, 4 are at the conception phase, 8 are in the planning phase, and 7 are under construction with only 1 operational. The potential benefits of the emerging bio-ethanol projects include investment in the economy, employment, energy security and boost rural infrastructure, while the major challenge is land take (859,561 ha). This is the first time an attempt is been made to document the emerging bio-ethanol projects in Nigeria. (author)

  7. Operator Training Simulator for an Industrial Bioethanol Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Gerlach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Operator training simulators (OTS are software tools for training process operators in large-scale industrial applications. Here, we describe the development, implementation and training of an OTS for a large-scale industrial plant for bioethanol production. The design of the OTS is based on conceptual analysis (previously reported by us in this journal of various configuration alternatives and training procedures at the plant. In this article, we report on how the conceptual design is used in simulation models and graphical user interfaces and how the design is applied for training of operators in the real plant environment. The results imply that OTS would be time- and cost-efficient tools for application in the biotechnological industry.

  8. Stato evolutivo delle stelle della Cintura di Orione ed implicazioni archeoastronomiche

    CERN Document Server

    Orofino, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    In the present work it is evaluated the evolutionary state of the Orion Belt stars, an asterism very important for the ancient Egyptians, finding that, when the pyramids were built, the brightness of the three stars of the Belt was practically the same as today. This not trivial result has important implications in the framework of the so-called Orion Correlation Theory, a controversial theory proposed by Bauval and Gilbert (1994), according to which a perfect coincidence would exist between the disposition of the three stars of the Orion Belt and that of the main Giza pyramids, so that the latter would represent the monumental reproduction on the ground of that important asterism. ----------- Nel presente lavoro viene determinato lo stato evolutivo delle stelle della Cintura di Orione, ricavando che, all'epoca della costruzione delle piramidi, la luminosita' delle tre stelle della Cintura era di fatto uguale a quella odierna. Tale non banale risultato riveste una importanza fondamentale nell'ambito della ver...

  9. Preliminary results on optimization of pilot scale pretreatment of wheat straw used in coproduction of bioethanol and electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Thygesen, A.; Christensen, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective in this European Union-project is to develop cost and energy effective production systems for coproduction of bioethanol and electricity based on integrated biomass utilization. A pilot plan reactor for hydrothermal pretreatment (including weak acid hydrolysis, wet oxidation...

  10. Two stage bioethanol refining with multi litre stacked microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Gloriod, Olivier; Huguenin, Gérald; Blatter, Maxime; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Ethanol, electricity, hydrogen and methane were produced in a two stage bioethanol refinery setup based on a 10L microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a 33L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC was a triple stack for ethanol and electricity co-generation. The stack configuration produced more ethanol with faster glucose consumption the higher the stack potential. Under electrolytic conditions ethanol productivity outperformed standard conditions and reached 96.3% of the theoretically best case. At lower external loads currents and working potentials oscillated in a self-synchronized manner over all three MFC units in the stack. In the second refining stage, fermentation waste was converted into methane, using the scale up MEC stack. The bioelectric methanisation reached 91% efficiency at room temperature with an applied voltage of 1.5V using nickel cathodes. The two stage bioethanol refining process employing bioelectrochemical reactors produces more energy vectors than is possible with today's ethanol distilleries.

  11. La valutazione dello stato di salute percepita: strumenti psicometrici ed econometrici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Quercioli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: per la messa a punto di modelli decisionali in Sanità Pubblica appare sempre più indispensabile collegare i tradizionali riscontri “oggettivi” (spesso insufficientemente sensibili perché molto dipendenti dal versante dell’offerta della statistica sanitaria, alle attese/percezioni soggettive degli utenti ed alla valutazione del bene salute. Perseguendo la nostra ricerca dell’ “anello mancante” tra Epidemiologia, Sociologia ed Economia, abbiamo voluto saggiare le correlazioni tra uno strumento tipicamente psicometrico ed uno econometrico di valutazione soggettiva dello stato di salute.

    Obiettivo: confrontare profili e valori di salute ottenuti con uno strumento psicometrico (SF36 ed uno econometrico (Health Utility Index-HUI. Materiali e metodi: SF36 descrive lo stato di salute attraverso 8 scale: Salute Generale, Attività Fisica, Ruolo Fisico, Ruolo Emotivo, Attività Sociali, Dolore Fisico, Vitalità e Salute Mentale. L’HUI produce sia un profilo di salute con 8 scale (Vista, Udito, Parola, Cognitività, Deambulazione, Uso delle mani, Emotività e Dolore, sia uno score riassuntivo del livello di salute. I questionari SF36 e HUI sono stati somministrati a 98 studenti dell’Università di Siena. I punteggi delle otto scale dei due questionari e lo score sono stati confrontanti mediante il Coefficiente di Spearman.

    Risultati: i punteggi raggiunti nelle 8 scale dell’HUI rientrano nel 95% dei casi nella fascia più alta (0,9-1, mentre quelli dell’SF36 rientrano nella fascia 90-100 solo per il 36%. Più discriminante sembra essere lo score (solo il 44% dei valori compresi nella fascia 0,9-1. La correlazione più forte è quella tra scala Salute Generale e score (r=0,458. La scala Attività Fisica è correlata con Deambulazione (r=0,382 e Dolore (0,312; Ruolo Fisico con Cognitività (r=0,425, Deambulazione (r=0,332, Dolore (r=0,383 e score (r= 0

  12. Simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation of furans-rich synthetic hydrolysate by digestate-based pyrochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Monlau, F; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Barakat, A

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a sustainable pathway to transform renewable biomasses into both biofuels and advanced carbonaceous materials (i.e. pyrochar) which can be used as adsorbent of furan compounds. In particular, the aim of this study was to: i) evaluate the effect of vibro-ball milling on physical characteristics of pyrochar and its consequent performance on solely detoxification of a synthetic medium, containing furans and soluble sugars; ii) study the simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation, by adding activated pyrochar into fermentation medium. Results demonstrated that, compared to untreated pyrochar, the use of milled pyrochar increased by 52% furfural removal from the synthetic medium. Furfural removal rate was also increased (adsorption kinetic constant increased from 0.015 min(-1) up to 0.215 min(-1)), at a pyrochar loading of 40 g L(-1). Although, the simultaneous addition of pyrochar into the fermentation medium did not improve the bioethanol yield of the synthetic medium, it has significantly increased the bioethanol production rate.

  13. Ruolo dell’accesso ai Servizi Sanitari nelle disuguaglianze sociali nello stato di salute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Versino

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivo: misurare la quota di differenza sociale nella salute generata dall’accesso al sistema di cure, attraverso un follow-up dei pazienti ricoverati presso il principale ospedale di Torino.

    Metodi: tutti i primi ricoveri per infarto del miocardio (patologia acuta - AD e per tumori del coloretto (patologia cronica - CD dal 2000 al 2001 erano arruolabili. A questi è stato proposto un questionario sulle modalità di accesso ai servizi sanitari. È stata inoltre analizzata la cartella clinica per la valutazione degli interventi intra-ospedalieri. Indicatore di categoria sociale: titolo di studio.

    Risultati: analizzati 268 pazienti. Il 99% con AD ed il 97.5% di quelli con CD hanno aderito. Arruolati maggiormente uomini pensionati (circa 67%, condizione dovuta al tipo di patologia in studio. Sintomatologia di esordio: tipica della patologia infartuale e del colon-retto. Per questa ultima la lievità, quando unico sintomo, risulta elemento fuorviante. I pazienti con AD si sono rivolti direttamente all’ospedale (87.4%; i pazienti con CD hanno scelto il medico di famiglia (MMG per l’iter diagnostico, una piccola percentuale lo specialista privato (8.6%.

    Il numero di medici consultati in caso di CD è mediamente
    due (prevalentemente soggetti a bassa scolarità.
    Il ritardo diagnostico risulta per la CD nettamente
    più elevato nelle prime tappe della storia dell’accesso
    per le categorie sociali più svantaggiate, con brevissimo
    tempo fra la diagnosi e il ricovero.

    Conclusioni: per le categorie sociali più basse in caso di CD, il tempo fra primo sintomo e contatto con il medico è più lungo (minore sensibilità ai primi segni e sintomi di malattia rispetto agli strati sociali più alti; cosicché il paziente giunge al ricovero con prognosi peggiore; tuttavia, a questo ritardo si contrappone una

  14. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes; Energie a partir de petit-lait : comparaison des filieres biogaz et bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  15. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Chukwu, M.A. [Department of Sustainable Chemical Engineering, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fossil fuel which is the global energy source gives rise to land contamination, air pollution, climate change, fuel crises, hike of price of petroleum products, crises in oil producing nations, dependency on oil producing countries and high risk associated with oil exploitation has led to a search for sustainable and efficient energy sources. Several types and sources of biofuels have been recently studied as potential source of energy to replace the environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels. Bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the global society, though numerous controversies and debates were associated with the technology; such as the issue of food versus fuel competition, which further encouraged more research work on a sustainable renewable bioethanol source. This study aims at determining total carbohydrates from macroalgal specie (Laminaria digitata) for use in bioethanol fermentation, also using wet and analytical chemistry to extract and spectrophotometrically analyse the sample in respect to glucose and sucrose standards. The samples were lyophilized and the resulting powder extracted in a water bath at 100oC in 15minutes. The analysis was performed using anthrone (colorimetric) method and the analyte read in a UV-visible spectrophotometer at 620nm. The result showed that carbohydrates were present in the samples, indicated by green and yellow, colourless pigments. Glucose and sucrose were the main identified sugars from the standards analysed. The concentration of sugars varied with time; months and seasons of the year. Result of the samples showed highest level of sugar concentration in May 2010 and lowest sugar concentration in November 2010. It was observed that the mass of sugars (glucose and sucrose) deposited as a result of photosynthesis, significantly contributed to the weight of biomass. The implication of the result indicated that: the smaller the biomass, the most likely it is to have lower mass of sugars

  16. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwachukwu A. N., Chukwu M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel which is the global energy source gives rise to land contamination, air pollution, climate change, fuel crises, hike of price of petroleum products, crises in oil producing nations, dependency on oil producing countries and high risk associated with oil exploitation has led to a search for sustainable and efficient energy sources. Several types and sources of biofuels have been recently studied as potential source of energy to replace the environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels. Bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the global society, though numerous controversies and debates were associated with the technology; such as the issue of food versus fuel competition, which further encouraged more research work on a sustainable renewable bioethanol source. This study aims at determining total carbohydrates from macroalgal specie (Laminaria digitata for use in bioethanol fermentation, also using wet and analytical chemistry to extract and spectrophotometrically analyse the sample in respect to glucose and sucrose standards. The samples were lyophilized and the resulting powder extracted in a water bath at 100oC in 15minutes. The analysis was performed using anthrone (colorimetric method and the analyte read in a UV-visible spectrophotometer at 620nm. The result showed that carbohydrates were present in the samples, indicated by green and yellow, colourless pigments. Glucose and sucrose were the main identified sugars from the standards analysed. The concentration of sugars varied with time; months and seasons of the year. Result of the samples showed highest level of sugar concentration in May 2010 and lowest sugar concentration in November 2010. It was observed that the mass of sugars (glucose and sucrose deposited as a result of photosynthesis, significantly contributed to the weight of biomass. The implication of the result indicated that: the smaller the biomass, the most likely it is to have lower

  17. RECTIFIED ETHANOL PRODUCTION COST ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola J Budimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of the most important factors of the total production costs in bioethanol production. The most influential factors are: total investment costs, price of raw materials (price of biomass, enzymes, yeast, and energy costs. Taking into account these factors, a procedure for estimation total production costs was establish. In order to gain insight into the relationship of production and selling price of bioethanol, price of bioethanol for some countries of the European Union and the United States are given.

  18. Ricerca del bosone di Higgs in produzione associata col bosone vettore W, nello stato finale $WH ->(\\mu\

    CERN Document Server

    Grippo, Maria Teresa

    Il Modello Standard (MS) è la teoria scientifica più dibattuta degli ultimi anni nel mondo della fisica delle alte energie. Essa racchiude i fondamenti della materia e descrive le interazioni che regolano l'universo. Il MS è stato confermato in numerosi esperimenti, quali LEP e Tevatron, ma presenta ancora un ultimo interrogativo relativo all'origine della massa delle particelle. Il MS cerca di spiegare ciò tramite il meccanismo di Higgs, proposto da Peter Higgs nel 1964 \\cite{Higgs}: viene introdotta una nuova particella, chiamata \\emph{bosone di Higgs}, che ha lo scopo tramite il suddetto meccanismo di fornire massa alle particelle. Di tale particella non si conosce la massa, che viene infatti assunta come parametro libero della teoria. Scopo di tale lavoro di tesi è stato quello di studiare presso l'esperimento CMS (\\emph{Compact Muon Solenoid}) a LHC (\\emph{Large Hadron Collider}) il canale di produzione associata WH, nell'intervallo di massa 115 GeV/$c^{2} \\leq m_H \\leq $ 135 GeV/$c^{2}$, negli stat...

  19. Cathode Assessment for Maximizing Current Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Utilizing Bioethanol Effluent as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs for electricity production requires effective current generation from waste products via robust cathode reduction. Three cathode types using dissolved oxygen cathodes (DOCs, ferricyanide cathodes (FeCs and air cathodes (AiCs were therefore assessed using bioethanol effluent, containing 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. In each set-up the anode and cathode had an electrode surface area of 88 cm2, which was used for calculation of the current density. Electricity generation was evaluated by quantifying current responses to substrate loading rates and external resistance. At the lowest external resistance of 27 Ω and highest substrate loading rate of 2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD per L·day, FeC-MFC generated highest average current density (1630 mA/m2 followed by AiC-MFC (802 mA/m2 and DOC-MFC (184 mA/m2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to determine the impedance of the cathodes. It was thereby confirmed that the FeC-MFC produced the highest current density with the lowest internal resistance for the cathode. However, in a setup using bioethanol effluent, the AiC-MFC was concluded to be the most sustainable option since it does not require ferricyanide. The data offer a new add-on option to the straw biorefinery by using bioethanol effluent for microbial electricity production.

  20. Mechanisms of enhanced cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by co-cultivation of Clostridium and Thermoanaerobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Hemme, Christopher L; Jiang, Helong; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-10-01

    Engineering microbial consortia capable of efficient ethanolic fermentation of cellulose is a strategy for the development of consolidated bioprocessing for bioethanol production. Co-cultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum with non-cellulolytic Thermoanaerobacter strains (X514 and 39E) significantly improved ethanol production by 194-440%. Strain X514 enhanced ethanolic fermentation much more effectively than strain 39E in co-cultivation, with ethanol production in X514 co-cultures at least 62% higher than that of 39E co-cultures. Comparative genome sequence analysis revealed that the higher ethanolic fermentation efficiency in strain X514 was associated with the presence of a complete vitamin B(12) biosynthesis pathway, which is incomplete in strain 39E. The significance of the vitamin B(12)de novo biosynthesis capacity was further supported by the observation of improved ethanol production in strain 39E by 203% following the addition of exogenous vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) biosynthesis pathway provides a valuable biomarker for selecting metabolically robust strains for bioethanol production.