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Sample records for bioethanol production process

  1. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    OpenAIRE

    Johnner P Sitompul; W. W.; Tatang H. Soerawidjaja

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, eac...

  2. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  3. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process...

  4. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P Sitompul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.

  5. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production. PMID:27017125

  6. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y C; V. Sanggari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast) also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples w...

  7. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples were prepared to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol yield, the pH was kept constant at 4.5. The ethanol concentrations were determined by running the samples in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that at highest ethanol concentration was obtained pH 4.5 and temperature 350C. This indicated that pH 4.5 and 350C was the optimum parameter for the yeast to produce ethanol.

  8. Improvement of saccharification process for bioethanol production from Undaria sp. by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Recently, many research works have reported on improvements to the saccharification process that increase bioethanol production from cellulosic materials. Gamma irradiation has been studied as an effective method for the depolymerization of complex polysaccharides. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on saccharification of Undaria biomass for bioethanol production was investigated. The Undaria biomass was irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy and then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid. The effects of gamma irradiation were measured through microscopic analysis to determine morphological changes and concentration of the reducing sugar of hydrolysates. Microscopic images show that gamma irradiation causes structure breakage of the Undaria cell wall. The concentration of reducing sugar of hydrolysates significantly increased as a result of gamma irradiation, with or without acid hydrolysis. These results indicate that the combined method of gamma irradiation with acid hydrolysis can significantly improve the saccharification process for bioethanol production from marine algae materials.

  9. A Model-Based Methodology for Simultaneous Design and Control of a Bioethanol Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan;

    2010-01-01

    . The PGC methodology is used to generate more efficient separation designs in terms of energy consumption by targeting the separation task at the largest DF. Both methodologies are highlighted through the application of two case studies, a bioethanol production process and a succinic acid production...

  10. Recycling of cellulases in a continuous process for production of bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard

    The focus of the work presented in this thesis is recycling of commercial enzymes in a continuous process for production of bioethanol from biomass. To get a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the potential for enzyme recycling, the interactions between enzymes and biomass, the...... adsorption and desorption as well as stability and recovery of activity was investigated. More knowledge on these factors have enabled a process adapted for enzyme recycling. The driver being that enzyme consumption remains a major cost when producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Unlike previous...

  11. Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rice Flour with Batch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sari Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid waste rice flour is abundant liquid wastes but it is still underutilized. So far, it is only used for process water in factory production, wastewater, and even regarded as environment pollution. Rice flour liquid waste has higher levels of glucose, starch and protein which can be used as one of ethanol producers. This study aims to assess the process of hydrolysis, fermentation, and batch distillation process, as well as to search for alternative raw materials products of bioethanol. There are three processes of making bioethanol, namely biological hydrolysis process done by using bacillus; the process of fermentation by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; and batch distillation. After the third process was done, the results were: glucose is 5% - 10% in the process of hydrolysis; ethanol content is 11% - 16% in the fermentation process; and the levels are high enough for bio-ethanol, which is 95% - 96% in the batch distillation process. So it can be concluded that the liquid waste of rice flour can be used as raw materials for the manufacture of alternative bioethanol.

  12. Technology Evaluation of Process Configurations for Second Generation Bioethanol Production using Dynamic Model-based Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a number of different process flowsheets for bioethanol production was performed using dynamic model-based simulations. The evaluation employed diverse operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. Each configuration was evaluated...... in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol /kg dry-biomass....... against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results has shown the process configuration for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operating...

  13. Biorefinery of corn cob for microbial lipid and bio-ethanol production: An environmental friendly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    Microbial lipid and bio-ethanol were co-generated by an integrated process using corn cob bagasse as raw material. After pretreatment, the acid hydrolysate was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the solid residue was further enzymatic hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production. The effect of acid loading and pretreatment time on microbial lipid and ethanol production were evaluated. Under the optimized condition for ethanol production, ∼131.3g of ethanol and ∼11.5g of microbial lipid were co-generated from 1kg raw material. On this condition, ∼71.6% of the overall fermentable sugars in corn cob bagasse could be converted into valuable products. At the same time, at least 33% of the initial COD in the acid hydrolysate was depredated. PMID:27060242

  14. Techno-economic analysis of different pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic-based bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, André Rodrigues Gurgel; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a method based on process synthesis, simulation and evaluation has been used to setup and study the industrial scale lignocellulosic bioethanol productions processes. Scenarios for pretreatment processes of diluted acid, liquid hot water and ammonia fiber explosion were studied. Pretreatment reactor temperature, catalyst loading and water content as well as solids loading in the hydrolysis reactor were evaluated regarding its effects on the process energy consumption and bioethanol concentration. The best scenarios for maximizing ethanol concentration and minimizing total annual costs (TAC) were selected and their minimum ethanol selling price was calculated. Ethanol concentration in the range of 2-8% (wt.) was investigated after the pretreatment. The best scenarios maximizing the ethanol concentration and minimizing TAC obtained a reduction of 19.6% and 30.2% respectively in the final ethanol selling price with respect to the initial base case. PMID:27403858

  15. Performance Assessment of SOFC Systems Integrated with Bio-Ethanol Production and Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall electrical efficiencies of the integrated systems of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and bio-ethanol production with purification processes at different heat integration levels were investigated. The simulation studies were based on the condition with zero net energy. It was found that the most suitable operating voltage is between 0.7 and 0.85 V and the operating temperature is in the range from 973 to 1173 K. For the effect of percent ethanol recovery, the optimum percent ethanol recovery is at 95%. The most efficient case is the system with full heat integration between SOFC and bio-ethanol production and purification processes with biogas reformed for producing extra hydrogen feed for SOFC which has the overall electrical efficiency = 36.17%. However more equipment such as reformer and heat exchangers are required and this leads to increased investment cost.

  16. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  17. Comparison of different process strategies for bioethanol production from Eucheuma cottonii: An economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Inn Shi; Lee, Keat Teong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of red macroalgae Eucheuma cottonii (EC) as feedstock for third-generation bioethanol production. Dowex (TM) Dr-G8 was explored as a potential solid catalyst to hydrolyzed carbohydrates from EC or macroalgae extract (ME) and pretreatment of macroalgae cellulosic residue (MCR), to fermentable sugars prior to fermentation process. The highest total sugars were produced at 98.7 g/L when 16% of the ME was treated under the optimum conditions of solid acid hydrolysis (8% (w/v) Dowex (TM) Dr-G8, 120°C, 1h) and 2% pretreated MCR (P-MCR) treated by enzymatic hydrolysis (pH 4.8, 50°C, 30 h). A two-stream process resulted in 11.6g/L of bioethanol from the fermentation of ME hydrolysates and 11.7 g/L from prehydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of P-MCR. The fixed price of bioethanol obtained from the EC is competitive with that obtained from other feedstocks. PMID:26283313

  18. Lignocellulosic bioethanol potential utilizing subproducts from the biodiesel production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Evan Michael; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Toledo, Olga Moraes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production is one of the most researched fields in today's biofuels industry, and one of the major problems facing the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is the challenge of collecting biomass. Oil extraction for biodiesel production yields large amounts of cellulose rich biomass sub-products, which in many cases can produce enough ethanol to meet the alcohol demands of transesterification. Soybean, castor bean, Jatropha Curcas, palm kernel, sunflower seed, rapeseed and cottonseed were studied to determine ethanol production potential from their oil extraction co-products and also the capacity to meet transesterification alcohol demands. Nearly all crops studied were capable of producing enough ethanol for biodiesel production and, in the case of palm kernels, 383% of the transesterification demands could be met with cellulosic ethanol production of the proper sub-products. Based on Brazilian yields, Palm kernels have a production potential of 6725 L ha{sup -1} of ethanol followed by Jatropha curcas with 695 L ha{sup -1}. (author)

  19. Optimization of Bioethanol Production Using Whole Plant of Water Hyacinth as Substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Weng, Chen; Huang, Huiqin; Achal, Varenyam; Wang, Duanchao

    2015-01-01

    Water hyacinth was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the present study. Combination of acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was the most effective process for sugar production that resulted in the production of 402.93 mg reducing sugar at optimal condition. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to response surface method in saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87°C in 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast, where 1.291 g/L bioethanol was produced. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced during experimentation, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this research. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content. PMID:26779125

  20. Bioethanol production from Asphodelus aestivus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polycarpou, Polycarpos [Agricultural Research Institute, Soils Science Department, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Lefkosia (Cyprus)

    2009-12-15

    The increase on the price of fossil fuels and the need to protect the environment from greenhouse gases urge the investigation of the possibility of using biofuels to replace them. Cyprus is faced with severe water shortage and unavailability of agricultural land that limit the cultivation of energy crops that supply the feedstock for biofuel production. A possibility would be to use Asphodelus aestivus L. that is encountered in Cyprus and other Mediterranean countries, growing wild in pastures. Its tubers contain starch that was measured to be 10.1%. The bioethanol is produced by fermentation of the mash produced by crashing the tubers of the plant. The first stage of the process was cooking the mash at a temperature of 95 C, combined by liquefaction and saccharification of the starch using enzymes, like alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The process was followed by fermentation of the mash for three days and finally distillation of bioethanol. The alcohol yield per kilogram tubers was 49.52 ml/kg, compared to the theoretical value of 83.72 ml/kg, mainly due to the incomplete fermentation of the sugars. The plant seems to be a potential energy plant for bioethanol production in arid regions cultivated on degraded land. (author)

  1. Bio-Ethanol Production from Banana, Plantain and Pineapple Peels by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Itelima; F. Onwuliri; E. Onwuliri; Isaac Onyimba; S. Oforji

    2013-01-01

    Most nations, whether economically advanced or at different stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of wastes. Wastes could be treated in several ways (e.g. by reducing its bulk or by recovering and reprocessing it into useful substance) to meet sanitary standards. Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. In Nigeria, many food crops have been specifically grown for the production of bio-ethanol. However, b...

  2. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  3. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. The 2nd year Research scope includes: 1) Optimization of pre-treatment conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and 2) Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis by recombinant enzymes. To optimize the pretreatment, we applied two processes: a wet process (wet milling + popping), and dry process (popping + dry milling). Out of these, the wet process presented the best glucose yield with a 93.1% conversion, while the dry process yielded 69.6%, and the unpretreated process yielded <20%. The recombinant cellulolytic enzymes showed very high specific activity, about 80-1000 times on CMC and 13-70 times on filter paper at pH 3.5 and 55 .deg. C

  4. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues in Colombia: a process simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-07-01

    In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme. PMID:23665691

  5. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  6. Optimization of Bioethanol Production Using Whole Plant of Water Hyacinth as Substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Weng, Chen; Huang, Huiqin; Achal, Varenyam; Wang, Duanchao

    2016-01-01

    Water hyacinth was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the present study. Combination of acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was the most effective process for sugar production that resulted in the production of 402.93 mg reducing sugar at optimal condition. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to response surface method in saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was...

  7. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Semenčenko Valentina V.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Ocić Ozren

    2011-01-01

    The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 b...

  8. Evaluation of the parameters effects on the bio-ethanol production process from Ricotta Cheese Whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabrò, Vincenza;

    2010-01-01

    The work consists of an experimental analysis to evaluate the effects of the variables temperature (T), pH, agitation rate (K) and initial lactose concentration (L) on the batch fermentation process of Ricotta Cheese Whey (RCW) into bio-ethanol by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A central...

  9. Effects of fertilizer application and dry/wet processing of Miscanthus x giganteus on bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Mims, Michelle; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-03-01

    The effects of wet and dry processing of miscanthus on bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process were investigated, with wet samples showing higher ethanol yields than dry samples. Miscanthus grown with no fertilizer, with fertilizer and with swine manure were sampled for analysis. Wet-fractionation was used to separate miscanthus into solid and liquid fractions. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was employed and the SSF process was performed with saccharomyces cerevisiae and a cocktail of enzymes at 35°C. After pretreatment, cellulose compositions of biomass of the wet samples increased from 61.0-67.0% to 77.0-87.0%, which were higher than the compositions of dry samples. The highest theoretical ethanol yield of 88.0% was realized for wet processed pretreated miscanthus, grown with swine manure. Changes to the morphology and chemical composition of the biomass samples after pretreatment, such as crystallinity reduction, were observed using SEM and FTIR. These changes improved ethanol production. PMID:26773953

  10. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  11. Optimization of bioethanol production using whole plant of Water Hyacinth as substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhuo eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole plant of Water Hyacinth that had potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the current study. It was found that acid pretreatment exhibited the most effective for reducing sugars production. An amount of 402.93 mg reducing sugars was achieved at optimal condition after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to Response Surface Method (RSM in Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87℃ for 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast. 1.291 g/L bioethanol could be achieved by our predicted model in optimal condition. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this study. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  12. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  13. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 billion liters during the year 2009. Even though ethanol production for decades mainly depended on energy crops containing starch and sugar (corn, sugar cane etc., new technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol are under development today. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues, forest and municipial waste, for the production of biofuels will be unavoidable if liquid fossil fuels are to be replaced by renewable and sustainable alternatives. For biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment plays a central role affecting all unit operations in the process and is also an important cost deterrent to the comercial viability of the process. The key obstacles are: pretreatment selection and optimization; decreasing the cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis; maximizing the conversion of sugars (including pentoses to ethanol; process scale-up and integration to minimize energy and water demand; characterization and evaluation of the lignin co-product; and lastly, the use of the representative and reliable data for cost estimation, and the determination of environmental and socio-economic impacts. Currently, not all pretreatments are capable of producing biomass that can be converted to sugars in high enough yield and concentration, while being economically viable. For the three main types of feedstocks, the developement of effective continuous fermentation technologies with near to 100% yields and elevated

  14. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  15. Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, José Cardoso; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Ribeiro, Belina; Lourenço, V.; Pereira, J.; Paixão, Susana M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been screened for the ability of bioethanol production. Yeasts were grown in synthetic liquid medium containing two different substrates: sucrose at different concentrations (10 to 400g/l) and cane molasses (120g/l of sucrose). The screening was made in batch regime and the growth rates, ethanol and biomass productions were determined. The results indicate a flocculent yeast strain – F as the more suitable microorganism to prod...

  16. Feasibility of bioethanol production from microalgal biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Mariana; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.; Dragone, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production has attracted great attention in recent years. Bioethanol from microalgae can be produced through two distinct pathways: direct dark fermentation or fermentation of saccharified biomass by yeast. The main objective of this work was to assess the influence of increasing glucose concentration derived from hydrolysed microalgal biomass on bioethanol production. The green microalga C. vulgaris (strain P12) was cultiv...

  17. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... hydrolysates indicate the great potential of the tested strain as a realistic candidate for industrial scale bioethanol production from lignocellulose. The study shows that the use of fluidized bed reactor technology might be a viable approach in a commercial lignocellulose-based bioethanol process using......Bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass) as a motor fuel is an attractive renewable fully sustainable energy sources as a means of lowering dependence on fossil fuels and air pollution towards greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2. Bioethanol, unlike gasoline, is an oxygenated fuel, which burns...

  18. An overview on advances of amylases production and their use in the production of bioethanol by conventional and non-conventional processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Aline M. [Petrobras, Biotechnology Division, Research and Development Center, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castilho, Leda R. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Chemical Engineering Program, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freire, Denise M.G. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of Chemistry, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Amylases comprise some of the most reported groups of enzymes for the production of biofuels. Such enzymes from fungal and bacterial origins have been used at commercial scale for decades, using conventional processes (dry grinding and wet milling) for the production of bioethanol, and most recently they have been applied in a non-conventional process named cold starch hydrolysis (or granular starch hydrolysis). This review covers the feedstocks that can be used for the production of these enzymes, the state of the art of the enzyme production processes over the last decade, as well as the main aspects of their application for the production of bioethanol. Under the concluding remarks we discuss future trends for the optimization of such technologies. (orig.)

  19. Valorizing recycled paper sludge by a bioethanol production process with cellulase recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Daniel; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of cellulase recycling in the scope of bioethanol production from recycled paper sludge (RPS), an inexpensive byproduct with around 39% of carbohydrates, is analyzed. RPS was easily converted and fermented by enzymes and cells, respectively. Final enzyme partition between solid and liquid phases was investigated, the solid-bound enzymes being efficiently recovered by alkaline washing. RPS hydrolysis and fermentation was conducted over four rounds, recycling the cellulases present in both fractions. A great overall enzyme stability was observed: 71, 64 and 100% of the initial Cel7A, Cel7B and β-glucosidase activities, respectively, were recovered. Even with only 30% of fresh enzymes added on the subsequent rounds, solid conversions of 92, 83 and 71% were achieved for the round 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This strategy enabled an enzyme saving around 53-60%, while can equally contribute to a 40% reduction in RPS disposal costs. PMID:27289054

  20. Sustainable low cost production of lignocellulosic bioethanol - "The carbon slaughterhouse". A process concept developed by BioGasol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Langvad, Niels Bo

    2008-01-01

    BioGasol is a combined biotechnology and engineering company in the field of renewable energy. The core competences lie in the development and design of process technologies for the production of bioethanol and other energy products from lignocellulosic biomasses. BioGasol has developed proprietary...... technologies within pretreatment, biogas production and a unique C5-fermentation for maximum ethanol production. The BioGasol concept is a well integrated technology with more than 90% utilization of the energy potential in the biomass. The production of other biofuels such as methane and hydrogen adds value...... to the overall process benefit. The technology can be used for green field plants or for bolt on plants to existing first generation ethanol plants. Using the yields obtained in the pilot plant 1.36 USD per Gallon is a valid estimate of the Minimum Ethanol Sales Price (MESP) for the N-th plant and...

  1. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    of fermentable sugars (glucose) as cellulose is tightly linked to hemicellulose and lignin. Lignocellulose is disrupted during pretreatment, but to degrade cellulose to single sugars, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases are needed. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are costly for...... the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol...... processes. Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  2. Potential development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2009-12-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an Autonomous Province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. Contribution of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption of Vojvodina contemporary amounts to less than 1%, apropos 280 GWh/year. By combining of methods of introduction of new and renewable sources, systematic application of methods for increasing of energetic efficacy, as well as of introduction of the new technologies, percentage of contribution of the non-conventional energy sources in Vojvodina could be increased to as much as 20%. This paper presents the potential of development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina. Production of bioethanol on small farms can be successfully applied for processing of only 30 kg of corn per day, with obtaining of crude ethanol in the so-called 'brandy ladle' and use of lygnocellulosic agricultural wastes as an energy source. In a case of construction of a larger number of such plants, the only possible solution is seen in the principle of construction of the so-called 'satellite plants', which will on small farm produce crude ethanol, with obtaining and consumption of stillage for animal feeding, and consumption of agricultural wastes as energetic fuels. If stillage is to be used as feed in wet feeding, it is estimated that, because of restrictions established by the magnitude of animal farm, the upper limit of capacity of such enterprises that process is at some 10-15 tons of corn per day, and production of 3000-3500 hL of absolute ethanol per day. In such a case, for animal feeding necessary is to have herd with 1300-1700 of milking cows or 5000-25,000 heads of sheep and/or pigs. Technological model of separate grain processing ad bioethanol production from dextrose hydrolysates of starch is interesting for countries possessing plants for bioethanol production from molasses and plants for cereals processing into starch and dextrose hydrolysates

  3. Pretreatments of lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Predojević Zlatica J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (biofuels), either as a component in the conventional fossil fuels, gasoline and diesel, or as a pure biofuel, contributes to energy saving and decrease of total CO2 emission. The use of bioethanol mixed with gasoline significantly decreases gasoline consumption and contributes to environment protection. One of the problems in the production of bioethanol is the availability of sugar and starch based feedstock used for its production. However, lignocellulos...

  4. Bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Abubackar, H.N.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from cellulosic biomass plays an important role to support energy policies. To produce cellulosic ethanol via fermentation it is required to first break the lignocellulosic complex. Numerous technologies for such pretreatment are under development or in a pilot plant stage.

  5. Numerical of Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rise Flour by Distillation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sari

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained experimentally study the composition of bioethanol a maximum of 95% to 96%, the results of experiments and simulations EWI ternary system form the temperature profile, the profile of the composition of liquid and vapor composition profile dimensionless time functions both at the bottom and in the distillate shows the results of the same approach. The simulation results before used reference in experiments performed the validation beforehand, so that the ternary system simulation EWI after validation of reference can be used in experiments.

  6. DSMZ 24726 for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate. The ....... The isolated organism is an extremely interesting and very promising organism for the establishment of a sustainable bioethanol production process. The invention further relates to a method for producing a fermentation product such as ethanol.......The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate...

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  8. Study the sensitivity of molecular functional groups to bioethanol processing in lipid biopolymer of co-products using DRIFT molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2011-11-01

    To date, there is no study on bioethanol processing-induced changes in molecular structural profiles mainly related to lipid biopolymer. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine molecular structural changes of lipid related functional groups in the co-products that occurred during bioethanol processing; (2) relatively quantify the antisymmetric CH 3 and CH 2 (ca. 2959 and 2928 cm -1, respectively), symmetric CH 3 and CH 2 (ca. 2871 and 2954 cm -1, respectively) functional groups, carbonyl C dbnd O ester (ca. 1745 cm -1) and unsaturated groups (CH attached to C dbnd C) (ca. 3007 cm -1) spectral intensities as well as their ratios of antisymmetric CH 3 to antisymmetric CH 2, and (3) illustrate the molecular spectral analyses as a research tool to detect for the sensitivity of individual moleculars to the bioethanol processing in a complex plant-based feed and food system without spectral parameterization. The hypothesis of this study was that bioethanol processing changed the molecular structure profiles in the co-products as opposed to original cereal grains. These changes could be detected by infrared molecular spectroscopy and will be related to nutrient utilization. The results showed that bioethanol processing had effects on the functional groups spectral profiles in the co-products. It was found that the CH 3-antisymmetric to CH 2-antisymmetric stretching intensity ratio was changed. The spectral features of carbonyl C dbnd O ester group and unsaturated group were also different. Since the different types of cereal grains (wheat vs. corn) had different sensitivity to the bioethanol processing, the spectral patterns and band component profiles differed between their co-products (wheat DDGS vs. corn DDGS). The multivariate molecular spectral analyses, cluster analysis and principal component analysis of original spectra (without spectral parameterization), distinguished the structural differences between the wheat and wheat DDGS and between the corn

  9. Antioxidant activity of lignin phenolic compounds as by-product of pretreatment process of bioethanol production from empty fruits palm bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliana, Y.; Setiawan, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    As by-product of pretreatment bioethanol production, ligno-cellulosic biomass creates an abundance of bioresidue. This work is devoted to studies the antioxidant activity of lignin that obtained from recovery process of bioethanol by-product. This by-product comes from pretreatment process of empty fruit palm bunch in acid (pH 2) and alkaline (pH 12) conditions. The samples of purified lignin were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). Radical scavenging efficiency of lignin was examined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method using quercetin as a standard. The value of IC50 showed that the lignin that was purified in acid condition (pH 2) gave the activity value in antioxidant active range (IC50 sample Lignin pH 2 = 69.41), on the other hand the lignin that was purified in alkaline condition (Lignin pH 12) did not have the activity value as an antioxidant (IC50 sample Lignin pH 12 = NA).

  10. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. PMID:27064733

  11. Agricultural residue valorization using a hydrothermal process for second generation bioethanol and oligosaccharides production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Fátima; Domínguez, Elena; Vila, Carlos; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Garrote, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the hydrothermal valorization of an abundant agricultural residue has been studied in order to look for high added value applications by means of hydrothermal pretreatment followed by fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, to obtain oligomers and sugars from autohydrolysis liquors and bioethanol from the solid phase. Non-isothermal autohydrolysis was applied to barley straw, leading to a solid phase with about a 90% of glucan and lignin and a liquid phase with up to 168 g kg(-1) raw material valuable hemicellulose-derived compounds. The solid phase showed a high enzymatic susceptibility (up to 95%). It was employed in the optimization study of the fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, carried out at high solids loading, led up to 52 g ethanol/L (6.5% v/v). PMID:26000836

  12. Bioethanol production from crops - recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author notes much higher rates of ethanol production in Brazil and the United States of America than in the European Economic Community. While bioethanol from arable crops makes environmental sense there is, at present, a sizeable difference between the value of fuel ethanol (Pound 100-130/t) and the cost of producing it (Pound 236-Pound 450/t). This gap could be remedied using excise duty. Farmers would like to change crop production but await a political initiative. The technology for bioethanol production still needs some fine tuning, with ETBE (an ether produced from reacting isobutylene with ethanol) being preferred to other methods. (UK)

  13. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Vasco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil. Results A total of 489 LAB isolates were obtained from four distilleries in 2007 and 2008. The abundance of LAB in the fermentation tanks varied between 6.0 × 105 and 8.9 × 108 CFUs/mL. Crude sugar cane juice contained 7.4 × 107 to 6.0 × 108 LAB CFUs. Most of the LAB isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus according to rRNA operon enzyme restriction profiles. A variety of Lactobacillus species occurred throughout the bioethanol process, but the most frequently found species towards the end of the harvest season were L. fermentum and L. vini. The different rep-PCR patterns indicate the co-occurrence of distinct populations of the species L. fermentum and L. vini, suggesting a great intraspecific diversity. Representative isolates of both species had the ability to grow in medium containing up to 10% ethanol, suggesting selection of ethanol tolerant bacteria throughout the process. Conclusions This study served as a first survey of the LAB diversity in the bioethanol process in Brazil. The abundance and diversity of LAB suggest that they have a significant impact in the bioethanol process.

  14. Determination of two-liquid mixture composition by assessing its dielectric parameters 2. modified measuring system for monitoring the dehydration process of bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.; Rucins, A.; Zihmane-Ritina, K.; Bremers, G.

    2014-02-01

    In Part 2 of the work we describe a modified measuring system for precise monitoring of the dehydration process of bioethanol production. This is based on the earlier proposed system for measuring the concentration of solutions and two-liquid mixtures using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300pF), which provides a stable measuring resolution of ± 0.005 pF at measuring the capacitance of a sensor. In this part of our work we determine additional requirements that are to be imposed on the measuring system at monitoring the ethanol dehydration process and control of bioethanol production. The most important parameters of the developed measuring system are identified. An exemplary calculation is given for the thermocompensated calibration of measuring devices. The results of tests have shown a good performance of the developed measuring system.

  15. Bioethanol Production Optimization: A Thermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Víctor H.; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Aznar, Martín

    In this work, the phase equilibrium of binary mixtures for bioethanol production by continuous extractive process was studied. The process is composed of four interlinked units: fermentor, centrifuge, cell treatment unit, and flash vessel (ethanol-congener separation unit). A proposal for modeling the vapor-liquid equilibrium in binary mixtures found in the flash vessel has been considered. This approach uses the Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state, with original and modified molecular parameters. The congeners considered were acetic acid, acetaldehyde, furfural, methanol, and 1-pentanol. The results show that the introduction of new molecular parameters r and q in the UNIFAC model gives more accurate predictions for the concentration of the congener in the gas phase for binary and ternary systems.

  16. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to obtain the necessary substrates in the processes of fermentation. Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol, which have been divided in three groups for its study in: physi- cal-chemical, hydrothermal and biological. The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of several pre- treatment methods for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials.

  17. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF BIOETHANOL USING NOVEL PERVAPORATION-DEPHLEGMATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is the most important liquid fuel made in the U.S. from domestically produced renewable resources. Traditional production of bioethanol involves batch fermation of biomass followed by ethanol recovery from the fermentation broths using distillation. The distillation st...

  18. Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H2O2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H2O2. Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H2O2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X1: 30–50 °C), solid loading (X2: 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X3: 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X4: 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (∼37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (∼8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (∼14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (∼5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

  19. A two-stage process for the anaerobic digestion of sludge generated during the production of bioethanol from sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelatou, K.; Dravillas, K.; Lyberatos, G.

    2003-07-01

    Sweet sorghum is an energy crop, often cultivated to recover energy in the form of ethanol, hydrogen etc by applying biological processes. These processes, however, produce a significant amount of sludge (bagasse) which contains the recalcitrant unconverted portion of sorghum, the non-hydrolyzed portion of the plant biomass as well as microbial biomass. In this work, the sludge from the alcoholic fermentation of sweet sorghum following a distillation step (to remove the generated bioethanol) was subjected to anaerobic digestion for further biodegradation and energy production (methane). A two-stage configuration for the anaerobic digestion of this type of industrial sludge was conceived and compared with a single stage anaerobic digestion of bagasse. For the two-stage process, the sludge was separated into one solid and one liquid stream. The solid portion of the sludge (9%) contributed mainly to the total organic load, although there was a significant organic load dissolved in the liquid portion too (28.73{+-}11.01 g/l). In the two stage system the solid and liquid phases of the sludge were separately treated under different operating conditions in two separate reactors: the solid phase in a thermophilic hydrolyzing reactor and the liquid phase in a mesophilic high-rate digester. The overall yield of the continuous two-stage process was 16 l methane/l wastewater at a hydraulic retention time of almost 20 days, while the maximum methane yield that could be achieved in batch experiments (duration 40d) was 30 l/l wastewater. (author)

  20. Bioethanol production from corn stover residues. Process design and Life Cycle Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the mass and energy balance along with a land-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is described for a corn stover-to-ethanol industrial process assumed to consist of the main technologies being researched at ENEA TRISAIA: pretreatment by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. The modelled plant has a processing capacity of 60kt/y (dimensioned on realistic supplying basins of residues in Italy); biomass is pre-treated by acid catalyzed-steam explosion; cellulose and hemicelluloses are hydrolyzed and separately fermented; enzymes are on-site produced. The main target was to minimize the consumption of fresh water, enzymes and energy. The results indicate that the production of 1kg bio ethanol (95.4 wt%) requires 3.5 kg biomass dry matter and produces an energy surplus up to 740 Wh. The main purpose of the LCA analysis was to assess the environmental impact of the entire life cycle from the bio ethanol production up to its end-use as E10 blended gasoline. Boustead Model was used as tool to compile the life cycle inventory. The results obtained and discussed in this reports suffer of some limitations deriving from the following main points: some process yields have been extrapolated according to optimistic development scenarios; the energy and steam recovery could be lower than that projected because of lacks in the real systems; water recycle could be limited by the yeast tolerance toward the potential accumulation of toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the detailed process analysis here provided has its usefulness in: showing the challenging targets (even if they are ambitious) to bet on to make the integrated process feasible; driving the choice of the most suitable technologies to bypass some process bottlenecks

  1. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in the bioethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsos, Christos K; Matis, Konstantinos A; Triantafyllidis, Kostas S

    2013-01-01

    The natural resistance to enzymatic deconstruction exhibited by lignocellulosic materials has designated pretreatment as a key step in the biological conversion of biomass to ethanol. Hydrothermal pretreatment in pure water represents a challenging approach because it is a method with low operational costs and does not involve the use of organic solvents, difficult to handle chemicals, and "external" liquid or solid catalysts. In the present work, a systematic study has been performed to optimize the hydrothermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass (beech wood) with the aim of maximizing the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in the treated solids and obtaining a liquid side product that could also be utilized for the production of ethanol or valuable chemicals. Hydrothermal treatment experiments were conducted in a batch-mode, high-pressure reactor under autogeneous pressure at varying temperature (130-220 °C) and time (15-180 min) regimes, and at a liquid-to-solid ratio (LSR) of 15. The intensification of the process was expressed by the severity factor, log R(o). The major changes induced in the solid biomass were the dissolution/removal of hemicellulose to the process liquid and the partial removal and relocation of lignin on the external surface of biomass particles in the form of recondensed droplets. The above structural changes led to a 2.5-fold increase in surface area and total pore volume of the pretreated biomass solids. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose increased from less than 7 wt% for the parent biomass to as high as 70 wt% for the treated solids. Maximum xylan recovery (60 wt%) in the hydrothermal process liquid was observed at about 80 wt% hemicellulose removal; this was accomplished by moderate treatment severities (log R(o)=3.8-4.1). At higher severities (log R(o)=4.7), xylose degradation products, mainly furfural and formic acid, were the predominant chemicals formed. PMID:23180649

  2. Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

  3. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Tokuyasu, Ken [National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, NARO, Shinsei, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0081 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production. (author)

  4. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 oC, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production.

  5. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Cǎlin C.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted bioethanol production from waste newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work deals with intensification of bioethanol production from waste newspaper using Saccharomyces cerevisiae using ultrasonic irradiations. The effect of different process parameters such as application of ultrasonic irradiation at different growth phases, irradiation time, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the bioethanol production has been investigated. The favorable conditions for the maximum yield were established as application of ultrasonic irradiation (duration of 10 min) to fermentation broth at 12 h of growth phase with 25 kHz frequency, 160 W power and 20% duty cycle. The bioethanol productivity was increased by 1.8 times from 7.8 to 14.1 g/L compared with the non-sonicated control fermentation. Decrease in glucose concentration from 0.63% to 0.2% w/v in ultrasound-assisted fermentation confirmed the improved substrate uptake of the microbial cell due to the application of ultrasound. ESEM analysis also confirmed the changes in the cell morphology leading to improved cell permeability. Results were fitted to an unstructured kinetic model comprising of the kinetic and physiological parameters. Overall, the work has demonstrated an intensified approach for the bioethanol production based on the use of ultrasound. PMID:26186818

  8. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes

  9. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO2e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: → Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. → In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. → Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  10. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  11. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  12. DesinFix TM 135 in fermentation process for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Barth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the world's largest ethanol production from sugarcane, but bacterial contamination decreases the ethanol yields. It was shown that the biocide DesinFixTM 135 can reduce the contamination without decreasing the yeasts' viability or negatively affecting the ethanol production.

  13. Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatiwada, Dilip

    2010-10-15

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal. Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production. The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies

  14. Neural network based control of an absorption column in the process of bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Eyng; Flávio Vasconcelos da Silva; Fernando Palú; Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-01-01

    Gaseous ethanol may be recovered from the effluent gas mixture of the sugar cane fermentation process using a staged absorption column. In the present work, the development of a nonlinear controller, based on a neural network inverse model (ANN controller), was proposed and tested to manipulate the absorbent flow rate in order to control the residual ethanol concentration in the effluent gas phase. Simulation studies were carried out, in which a noise was applied to the ethanol concentration ...

  15. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer. PMID:27295252

  16. Development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol. Optimization of the wet oxidation process and characterization of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of the wet oxidation pretreatment process and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated in order to efficiently solubilize the hemicellulose, degrade the lignin, and open the solid crystalline cellulose structure of wheat straw lignocellulose without generating fermentation inhibitors. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time, and concentration of straw were evaluated. The degree of lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with the reaction temperature and time. The optimum conditions were 15 minutes at 185 deg. C, producing 9.8 g/L hemicellulose. For quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose the best overall acid hydrolysis was obtained by treatment with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. The Aminex HPX-87H column was less sensitive towards impurities than the Aminex HPX-87P column. HPX-87H gave improved recovery and reproducibility, and was chosen for routine quantification of hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. The purity of the solid cellulose fraction also improved with higher temperature. The optimum condition for obtaining enzymatic convertible cellulose (90%) was 10 minutes at 170 deg. C using a high carbonate concentration. The hemicellulose yield and recovery were significantly reduced under these conditions indicating that a simultaneous optimal utilization of the hemicellulose and cellulose was difficult. The oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose, however, by combining wet oxidation with alkaline hydrolysis the formation of 2-furfural, a known microbial inhibitor, was minimal. Much more hemicellulose and lignin were solubilized from the straw by wet oxidation than by steaming(an alternative process). More cellulose was solubilized (and degraded) by steaming than by wet oxidation. Overall carbohydrates 'losses' of 20.1% for steaming and 16.2% for wet oxidation were found. More 2-furfural was formed by steaming than by wet oxidation

  17. Development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol. Optimization of the wet oxidation process and characterization of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerre, A.B.; Skammelsen Schmidt, A.

    1997-02-01

    The combination of the wet oxidation pretreatment process and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated in order to efficiently solubilize the hemicellulose, degrade the lignin, and open the solid crystalline cellulose structure of wheat straw lignocellulose without generating fermentation inhibitors. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time, and concentration of straw were evaluated. The degree of lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with the reaction temperature and time. The optimum conditions were 15 minutes at 185 deg. C, producing 9.8 g/L hemicellulose. For quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose the best overall acid hydrolysis was obtained by treatment with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. The Aminex HPX-87H column was less sensitive towards impurities than the Aminex HPX-87P column. HPX-87H gave improved recovery and reproducibility, and was chosen for routine quantification of hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. The purity of the solid cellulose fraction also improved with higher temperature. The optimum condition for obtaining enzymatic convertible cellulose (90%) was 10 minutes at 170 deg. C using a high carbonate concentration. The hemicellulose yield and recovery were significantly reduced under these conditions indicating that a simultaneous optimal utilization of the hemicellulose and cellulose was difficult. The oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose, however, by combining wet oxidation with alkaline hydrolysis the formation of 2-furfural, a known microbial inhibitor, was minimal. Much more hemicellulose and lignin were solubilized from the straw by wet oxidation than by steaming(an alternative process). More cellulose was solubilized (and degraded) by steaming than by wet oxidation. Overall carbohydrates `losses` of 20.1% for steaming and 16.2% for wet oxidation were found. More 2-furfural was formed by steaming than by wet oxidation.

  18. Neural network based control of an absorption column in the process of bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Eyng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous ethanol may be recovered from the effluent gas mixture of the sugar cane fermentation process using a staged absorption column. In the present work, the development of a nonlinear controller, based on a neural network inverse model (ANN controller, was proposed and tested to manipulate the absorbent flow rate in order to control the residual ethanol concentration in the effluent gas phase. Simulation studies were carried out, in which a noise was applied to the ethanol concentration signals from the rigorous model. The ANN controller outperformed the dynamic matrix control (DMC when step disturbances were imposed to the gas mixture composition. A security device, based on a conventional feedback algorithm, and a digital filter were added to the proposed strategy to improve the system robustness when unforeseen operating and environmental conditions occured. The results demonstrated that ANN controller was a robust and reliable tool to control the absorption column.Deseja-se recuperar o etanol perdido por evaporação durante o processo de fermentação da cana-de-açúcar. Para tanto, faz-se uso de uma coluna de absorção. O controle da concentração de etanol no efluente gasoso da coluna é realizado pela manipulação da vazão de solvente, sendo esta determinada pelo controlador não linear proposto, baseado em um modelo inverso de redes neurais (controlador ANN. Foram feitas simulações adicionando-se um sinal de ruído a medida de concentração de etanol na fase gasosa. Quando perturbações degrau foram inseridas na mistura gasosa afluente, o controlador ANN demonstrou desempenho superior ao controle por matriz dinâmica (DMC. Um dispositivo de segurança, baseado em um controlador feedback convencional, e um filtro digital foram implementados à estratégia de controle proposta para agregar robustez no tratamento de distúrbios ocorridos no ambiente operacional. Os resultados demonstraram que o controlador ANN é uma

  19. Use of extremophilic bacteria for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    . The recalcitrance of these materials and their diverse sugar composition make the industrial yeast strains currently used unsuitable for a second generation bioethanol production process. One of the alternative strategies is the use of extreme thermophilic microorganisms. Currently, selected members from the genera......The pursuit of ways to obtain viable alternatives to fossil fuels has been one of the main subjects in microbial biotechnology research in the last decade. Of all the possible fuel candidates, bioethanol is one of the most relevant, especially when considered for the transport sector. Its...... production from food crops, such as corn (starch) or sugar cane (sucrose) is already an established process, with the USA and Brazil supplying 86% of the market. The major challenge remains in the use of different waste sources – agricultural, forestry, animal and household waste - as a feedstock...

  20. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave

  1. Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production

  2. Innovative enzymes for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolongo, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    The general aim of this work was to add new knowledge on novel hemicellulolytic enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, considered as a key process for the bioethanol production. Therefore, it is not only focused on (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes from mesophilic fungi and bacteria but also on newly isolated and characterized xylanase and β-xylosidase from the thermophilic bacteria Geobacillus thermodenitrificans A333 and Anoxybacillus sp. 3M, respectively. The cove...

  3. Bioethanol Production from Indica IR.64 Rice Straw Biomass by Direct Saccharification and Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ario Betha Juanssilfero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feed stocks for bioethanol production. Indica IR.64 rice straw is one of abundant agricultural wastes in Indonesia and could be used to bioethanol production. It has several characteristics such as high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. A simple process (the direct saccharification and fermentation process to produce ethanol from rice straw was developed in order to establish an efficient bioethanol production. In this work, no harsh pre-treatment steps were applied and also use a simple one-vat reactor without the risk of losing liberated carbohydrate. The first step in using rice straw for bioethanol production is size reduction through milling and sieving process prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Direct saccharification and fermentation (DSF of Indica IR.64 rice straw was examined and compared with two type of control (systems devoid of yeast and enzyme. The experiment were carried out under anaerobic condition, where the cellulase crude enzyme and cellulosic substrates (rice straw produced glucose from the cellulose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly assimilated the glucose to bioethanol. The faster rate of bioethanol production during DSF by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained within the first 12h. The maximum ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and theoretical ethanol yield of untreated rice straw were 0.25 g/L, 10 and 14.88%, respectively. Nevertheless, the direct saccharification and fermentation shows the potential for lower cost and higher efficiency for bioethanol production.

  4. Dynamic Model-Based Evaluation of Process Configurations for Integrated Operation of Hydrolysis and Co-Fermentation for Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2011-01-01

    In this study a number of different process flowsheets were generated and their feasibility evaluated using simulations of dynamic models. A dynamic modeling framework was used for the assessment of operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. E......) operating in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass........ Each configuration was evaluated against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results show that simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF...

  5. Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis of Hardwood Aspen and Softwood Pine for Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Janga, Kando Khalifa

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has been targeted as an alternative solution to the existing dependence on fossil fuels in the transportation sector. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses has been a challenge to the hydrolytic processes and hence commercialization.This study has investigated the feasibility of the concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis (CSAH) process for bioethanol production from wood-based lignocelluloses. This is because the process enjoys h...

  6. Use of tropical maize for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hsu; Kaur, Prabhjot; Dien, Bruce; Below, Frederick; Vincent, Michael L; Singh, Vijay

    2013-08-01

    Tropical maize is an alternative energy crop being considered as a feedstock for bioethanol production in the North Central and Midwest United States. Tropical maize is advantageous because it produces large amounts of soluble sugars in its stalks, creates a large amount of biomass, and requires lower inputs (e.g. nitrogen) than grain corn. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose were extracted by pressing the stalks at dough stage (R4). The initial extracted syrup fermented faster than the control culture grown on a yeast extract/phosphate/sucrose medium. The syrup was subsequently concentrated 1.25-2.25 times, supplemented with urea, and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for up to 96 h. The final ethanol concentrations obtained were 8.1 % (v/v) to 15.6 % (v/v), equivalent to 90.3-92.2 % of the theoretical yields. However, fermentation productivity decreased with sugar concentration, suggesting that the yeast might be osmotically stressed at the increased sugar concentrations. These results provide in-depth information for utilizing tropical maize syrup for bioethanol production that will help in tropical maize breeding and development for use as another feedstock for the biofuel industry. PMID:23508398

  7. Bioethanol Production from Indica IR.64 Rice Straw Biomass by Direct Saccharification and Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ario Betha Juanssilfero; Apridah Cameliawati Djohan; Awan Purnawan; Yopi Yopi

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feed stocks for bioethanol production. Indica IR.64 rice straw is one of abundant agricultural wastes in Indonesia and could be used to bioethanol production. It has several characteristics such as high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. A simple process (the direct saccharification and fermentation process) to produce ethanol from rice straw was developed in orde...

  8. Exergy and CO2 Analyses as Key Tools for the Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Kang; Tianwei Tan

    2016-01-01

    The background of bioethanol as an alternative to conventional fuels is analyzed with the aim of examining the efficiency of bioethanol production by first (sugar-based) and second (cellulose-based) generation processes. Energy integration is of paramount importance for a complete recovery of the processes’ exergy potential. Based upon literature data and our own findings, exergy analysis is shown to be an important tool in analyzing integrated ethanol production from an efficiency and cost p...

  9. Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Tewari, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Production of liquid biofuels, such as bioethanol, has been advocated as a sustainable option to tackle the problems associated with rising crude oil prices, global warming and diminishing petroleum reserves. Second-generation bioethanol is produced from lignocellulosic feedstock by its saccharification, followed by microbial fermentation and product recovery. Agricultural residues generated as wastes during or after processing of agricultural crops are one of such renewable and lignocellulos...

  10. Yeast strains designed for 2. generation bioethanol production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennow, B.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a suitable fermentation organism for 2G bioethanol production that would efficiently ferment all of the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol at a commercially viable rate (comparable to yeast based 1G ethanol production). More specifically, a yeast strain would be developed with the ability to ferment also the pentoses in lignocellulosic biomass and thereby increase the ethanol yield of the process by 30-45% with a profound positive effect on the total process economy. The project has succeeded in developing a new industrial yeast strain V1. The yeast strain can transform the difficult C5 sugars to ethanol from waste products such as straw and the like from the agricultural sector. The classic issues relating to industrial uses such as inhibitor and ethanol tolerance and high ethanol production is resolved satisfactorily. The potential of the use of the new strain for 2nd generation bioethanol production is that the ethanol yields increase by 30-45%. With the increased ethanol yield follows a marked improvement in the overall process economics. (LN)

  11. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO2 emissions

  12. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rakin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin stillage, the bioethanol yield increased and was above 100 %. Higher bioethanol yield than 100 % can be explained by the fact that the thin stillage contains carbohydrates, amino acids and yeast cells degradation products. The bioethanol yield increased with the increased number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Dry matter content in fermenting slurry increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of the thin stillage recirculation cycles (8.04 % for the first and 9.40 % for the sixth cycle. Dry matter content in thin stillage increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that thin stillage recirculation increased the bioethanol yield. The highest bioethanol yields were obtained with recirculation of 10% thin stillage.

  13. SIMULATION OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS TO OBTAIN BIOETHANOL FROM RICE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Capdevila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper presents a simulation model of the fermentation/separation process of bioethanol from hydrolyzed pretreated rice husk, using Aspen HYSYS simulator. Sensitivity studies performed on the developed model indicated levels for selected variables: biomass/water ratio of 1:2,89 ; biomass flow of 50 t/h and inlet temperature separator of 30°C, leading to maximize the yield of bioethanol. From these variables, a bioethanol production of 8,81 t/h with a purity of 65,51% w/w is obtained, corresponding to a flow of hydrolyzed treated biomass of 50 t/h. This work represents an advance in the development of the simulation model of the complete process to obtain second generation of bioethanol from rice husks.

  14. Sustainable bioethanol production using agro-industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Pardão, J.; Diaz, I; Raposo, Sara; Manso, Teresa; Lima-Costa, Maria Emília

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate a sustainable bioethanol production by a laboratorial isolate strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, along with the use of agro-industrial by-products as carbon source. The effect of several carbon sources and their concentrations was studied using carob pod extract (CPE) and beet molasses (BM) and compared with glucose and sucrose as conventional carbohydrates at different concentrations, 15, 20 and 30 g/l.No significant difference was found between m...

  15. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  16. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    Rakin, M.; J. Pejin; O. Grujić; Lj. Mojović; D. Pejin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield) was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin still...

  17. Literature survey with chemical equilibrium calculations of bioethanol processing for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Coderch, X

    2005-07-01

    Bioethanol is being potentially considered as one of the most desirable fossil fuel substitutes. Its subsequent reforming process contributes to obtain hydrogen from a renewable source and, moreover, corroborates the theory that hydrogen fuel cells might become in a near future a truly zero-emission power engine. However, product gas obtained from bioethanol reforming needs to fulfil fuel cell requirements prior to feed the stack. Therefore, this master's thesis deals with bioethanol processing theoretical research. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is extensively detailed, concentrating on the dilute acid hydrolisis process. Bioethanol processing is conceived as a sum of a reforming process and a further gas cleaning. Steam reforming (STR) is stated as the most developed reforming process nowadays, but partial oxidation (PDX) and autothermal reforming (ATR) are emerging as valuable alternatives. Cleaning system units are helping to reduce CO/CO{sub 2} content in hydrogen gas when feeding fuel cells. Bioethanol processing equilibrium reactionsare simulatedusing HSC software, focusing on hydrogen production via steam reforming. Subsequently, these results are compared with ethanol reforming using both PDX and ATR. STR shows highest hydrogen production, increasing its amount when lowering the water/ethanol ratio at the reformer inlet. ATR leads to the smallest CO amount. Lower amounts could be achieved when using lower reaction temperatures and proper catalysts. Study of pressure influence denotes that is advisable to operate at ambient pressure. (orig.)

  18. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  19. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2009-01-01

    fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H-2/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)added, respectively....... Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus...

  20. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek;

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three...... different distillation fractions of technical 2nd generation bioethanol, produced in a pilot plant, influence the performance of nickel- and ruthenium-based catalysts during steam reforming, and we discuss what is required to obtain high activity and long catalyst lifetime. We conclude that the use of...

  1. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability. PMID:26316099

  2. Economic analysis of hydrogen production through a bio-ethanol steam reforming process: Sensitivity analyses and cost estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the hydrogen selling price from ethanol steam reforming has been estimated for two different production scenarios in the United States, i.e. central production (150,000 kg H2/day) and distributed (forecourt) production (1500 kg H2/day), based on a process flowchart generated by Aspen Plus registered including downstream purification steps and economic analysis model template published by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE). The effect of several processing parameters as well as catalyst properties on the hydrogen selling price has been evaluated. 2.69/kg is estimated as the selling price for a central production process of 150,000 kg H2/day and 4.27/kg for a distributed hydrogen production process at a scale of 1500 kg H2/day. Among the parameters investigated through sensitivity analyses, ethanol feedstock cost, catalyst cost, and catalytic performance are found to play a significant role on determining the final hydrogen selling price. (author)

  3. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from rice straw by liquid-state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayata, M. H. M.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyahb, T. M. I.; Aditiyac, H. B.; Mahliaa, T. M. I.; Shamsuddina, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy is the latest approach of the Malaysian government in an effort to find sustainable alternative energy sources and to fulfill the ever increasing energy demand. Being a country that thrives in the service and agricultural sector, bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass presents itself as a promising option. However, the lack of technical practicality and complexity in the operation system hinder it from being economically viable. Hence, this research acquired multiple case studies in order to provide an insight on the process involved and its implication on production as well as to obtain a cost analysis of bioethanol production. The energy input and cost of three main components of the bioethanol production which are the collection, logistics, and pretreatment of rice straw were evaluated extensively. The theoretical bioethanol yield and conversion efficiency obtained were 250 L/t and 60% respectively. The findings concluded that bioethanol production from rice straw is currently not economically feasible in Malaysia’s market due to lack of efficiency in the pretreatment phase and overbearing logistics and pretreatment costs. This work could serve as a reference to future studies of biofuel commercialization in Malaysia.

  4. AN ENZYMATIC PROCESS OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURAL WASTES BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC 173 AND Zymomonas mobilis (2427

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pranavya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including perfumes, flavours, colourings and medicines. The economics of ethanol production by fermentation is significantly influenced by the cost of raw materials, which accounts for more than half of production cost. In recent years efforts have been directed towards the utilization of cheap renewable agricultural resources such as banana peel, waste paper, sugarcane waste as alternative substrate for ethanol production. In this study, ethanol was produced from agricultural wastes by using two enzymes namely Amylase from Aspergillus niger and Cellulase from Trichoderma viridae to hydrolyse the starch and cellulose present in the raw materials. The hydrolysed and filtered extracts were fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. The fermented product was purified by primary distillation process at 80°C and the fractions were collected. The presence of ethanol was then determined by Alcoholmeter method. Results indicated that the Zymomonas mobilis organism yielded maximum ethanol where as minimum ethanol yield was recorded with Saccharomyces cerevisiae organism.

  5. Hybrid optical fiber sensor and artificial neural network system for bioethanol quality control and productivity enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusken, Edmilton; Salgado, Ricardo M.; Rossell, Carlos E. V.; Ohishi, Takaaki; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    2008-04-01

    Bioethanol is produced by bio-chemical process that converts sugar or biomass feedstock into ethanol. After bio-chemical process, the solution is distilled under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature, in order to obtain an ethanol-water solution. However, the ethanol concentration analysis is generally performed off-line and, sometimes, a re-distillation process becomes necessary. In this research, an optical apparatus based on Fresnel reflection has been used in combination with artificial neural networks for determination of bioethanol concentration in hydro-alcoholic solution at any temperature. The volumetric concentration and temperature effect was investigated. This intelligent system can effectively detect and update in real-time the correction of distillation parameters to reduce losses of bioethanol and also to improve the quality in a production plant.

  6. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Pak-Chung Lau; Tsz-Lung Kwong; Ka-Fu Yung

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is rep...

  7. SACCHARIFICATION OF CORNCOB USING CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITI CANDRA SUNARTI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose degrading enzyme (cellulases for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material is a part of bioethanol production process. In this experiment, delignified corncob, its cellulose fraction and alpha cellulose were used as substrates to produce fermentable sugar by using three local isolates of celluloytic bacteria (C5-1, C4-4, C11-1 and Cmix ; mixed cultures of three isolates, and Saccharomyces cereviseae to produce ethanol. The results showed that all isolates of cellulolytic bacteria can grow on cellulose fraction better than on delignified corncob, and alpha cellulose. The highest hydrolytic activity produced from cellulose fraction was by isolate C4-4, which liberated 3.50 g/l of total sugar. Ethanol can be produced by mixed culture of bacteria and yeast, but because of competitive growth, the fermentation only produced 0.39-0.47 g/l of ethanol.

  8. Toxicological challenges to microbial bioethanol production and strategies for improved tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinosho, Hannah; Rydzak, Thomas; Borole, Abhijeet; Ragauskas, Arthur; Close, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Bioethanol production output has increased steadily over the last two decades and is now beginning to become competitive with traditional liquid transportation fuels due to advances in engineering, the identification of new production host organisms, and the development of novel biodesign strategies. A significant portion of these efforts has been dedicated to mitigating the toxicological challenges encountered across the bioethanol production process. From the release of potentially cytotoxic or inhibitory compounds from input feedstocks, through the metabolic co-synthesis of ethanol and potentially detrimental byproducts, and to the potential cytotoxicity of ethanol itself, each stage of bioethanol production requires the application of genetic or engineering controls that ensure the host organisms remain healthy and productive to meet the necessary economies required for large scale production. In addition, as production levels continue to increase, there is an escalating focus on the detoxification of the resulting waste streams to minimize their environmental impact. This review will present the major toxicological challenges encountered throughout each stage of the bioethanol production process and the commonly employed strategies for reducing or eliminating potential toxic effects. PMID:26423392

  9. An integral analysis for second generation bioethanol production via a dynamic model-based simulation approach: stochastic nonlinear optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist;

    There are different technological routes to biofuels production such as, biohydrogen, biomethane, biobutanol, among others. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock has acquired special attention, and its feasibility has been demonstrated at laboratory, pilot and demo-plant scale[1......,2,3]. Despite the reported progress and the promising results, however, at present this technology is not cost-competitive compared with first generation bioethanol production or fossil-fuels. Therefore, there is further room for optimisation of the technology and improvement of its cost......-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to perform an integral analysis for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock using a rigorous dynamic modelling approach for the whole process. The bioethanol production includes different sections such as, pre-treatment of the substrate, enzymatic hydrolysis...

  10. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    glucose without a physical and chemical pre-treatment. The pre-treatment processes normally applied on the different substrates are acidic hydrolysis, steam explosion and wet oxidation. A problem for most pretreatment methods is the generation of compounds that are inhibitory towards the fermenting microorganisms, primarily phenols. Degradation products that could have inhibitory action in later fermentation steps are avoided during pre-treatment by wet oxidation. Followed by pre treatment, hydrolysed with enzymes known as cellulases and hemicellulases, which hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. The production of bioethanol requires two steps, fermentation and distillation. Practically all ethanol fermentation is still based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The fermentation using thermotolerant yeasts has more advantageous in that they have faster fermentation rates, avoid the cooling costs, and decrease the over all fermentation costs, so that ethanol can be made available at cheaper rates. In addition they can be used for efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by cellulases because the temperature optimum of cellulase enzymes (about 40 ° C to 45 ° C) is close to the fermentation temperature of thermotolerant yeasts. Hence selection and improvement of thermotolerant yeasts for bioconversion of lignocellulosic substrates is very useful.

  11. Bioethanol: industrial world perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the production of bioethanol from biomass is presented, and the future for bioethanol in the transport, cogeneration, domestic appliances, and chemicals markets are examined. Bioethanol economics are considered, and yields and estimated prices for bioethanol produced from different crops are tabulated. Specific uses of bioethanol in the different markets are highlighted including the blending of ethanol with petrol in the transport market, the use of bioethanol for cooking in the domestic market, and the production of chemicals from bioethanol

  12. Challenges for the production of bioethanol from biomass using recombinant yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, William; Fitzpatrick, James; Bond, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulose biomass, one of the most abundant renewable resources on the planet, is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second-generation biofuels. Energy in the form of simple or complex carbohydrates can be extracted from lignocellulose biomass and fermented by microorganisms to produce bioethanol. Despite 40 years of active and cutting-edge research invested into the development of technologies to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, the process remains commercially unviable. This review describes the achievements that have been made in generating microorganisms capable of utilizing both simple and complex sugars from lignocellulose biomass and the fermentation of these sugars into ethanol. We also provide a discussion on the current "roadblocks" standing in the way of making second-generation bioethanol a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuels. PMID:26003934

  13. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Velazquez-Marti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioethanol based on direct measurements of Brix grades, instead of the concentration of alcohol, during the process of cane juice bio-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This avoids the application of expensive sensors that increase the investment costs. Fermentation experiments with three concentrations of yeast and two temperatures were carried out in a laboratory reactor. In each case Brix grades, amount of ethanol and alcoholic degree were measured. A mathematical model to predict the quality and production of bioethanol was developed from Brix grade measurements, obtaining an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.97. The model was validated in a pilot plant.

  14. Spirogyra biomass a renewable source for biofuel (bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Salem Eshaq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels refer to renewable fuels from biological sources that can be used for heat, electricity and fuel. The fuels obtained from algae are termed as third generation fuels. The production of fuel from algae provides many advantages when compared to the fuel produced from other sources like agrobased raw materials. Other than environmental pollution control the algal biofuel will help in reduction of the fuel cost when compared to the agrobased and fossil fuels. In the present study algae specifically Spirogyra was used for the production of bioethanol by the fermentative process. A comparative study was carried out by using chemically pre-treated anduntreated Spirogyra biomass. The Spirogyra has a very simple cell wall made up of cellulose and starch that can be converted to ethanol by the fermentation process. The Spirogyra biomass was subjected to saccharification process by the fungal organism Aspergillus niger MTCCC 2196 for the hydrolysis, this process was followed by the fermentation using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC170 for the production of alcohol. A high yield of ethanol was recorded for untreated Spirogyra biomass when compared to chemically pre-treated biomass. The yield of alcohol using algal biomass is more when compared to alcohol produced from other sources like agrobased rawmaterials.

  15. AN ENZYMATIC PROCESS OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURAL WASTES BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC 173) AND Zymomonas mobilis (2427)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pranavya; C. Saravanamurugan; Rajendran, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including perfumes, flavours, colourings and medicines. The economics of ethanol production by fermentation is significantly influenced by the cost of raw materials, which accounts for more than half of production cost. In recent years efforts have been directed towards the utilization of cheap renewable agricultural resources such as banana peel, waste paper, sugarcane waste as alternative sub...

  16. Fractionation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by bisulfite pretreatment for the production of bioethanol and high value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Wang, Meimei; Li, Xuezhi; Li, Hongxing; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, fractionation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) by bisulfite pretreatment was studied for the production of bioethanol and high value products to achieve biorefinery of EFB. EFB was fractionated to solid and liquor components by bisulfite process. The solid components were used for bioethanol production by quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The liquor components were then converted to furfural by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. Preliminary results showed that the concentration of furfural was highest at 18.8g/L with 0.75% sulfuric acid and reaction time of 25min. The conversion of xylose to furfural was 82.5%. Furthermore, we attempted to fractionate the liquor into hemicellulose sugars and lignin by different methods for producing potential chemicals, such as xylose, xylooligosaccharide, and lignosulfonate. Our research showed that the combination of bisulfite pretreatment and resin separation could effectively fractionate EFB components to produce bioethanol and other high value chemicals. PMID:26539970

  17. Sustainable low cost production of lignocellulosic bioethanol - "The carbon slaughterhouse". A process concept developed by BioGasol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Langvad, Niels Bo

    2008-01-01

    to the overall process benefit. The technology can be used for green field plants or for bolt on plants to existing first generation ethanol plants. Using the yields obtained in the pilot plant 1.36 USD per Gallon is a valid estimate of the Minimum Ethanol Sales Price (MESP) for the N-th plant and...... BioGasol believes that its current development projects will reduce the MESP to about 1.0 USD per Gallon. BioGasol is currently building a feedstock flexible plant on the island of Bornholm in Denmark that will demonstrate how the process concept can be cost efficient adapted to the low cost available...

  18. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers.......The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  19. Molecular spectroscopic investigation on fractionation-induced changes on biomacromolecule of co-products from bioethanol processing to explore protein metabolism in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yan, Xiaogang; Beltranena, Eduardo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Fractionation processing is an efficient technology which is capable to redesign/redevelop a new food or feed product with a specified chemical and nutrient profile. This processing technique was able to produce four different fractions (called "A", "B", "C", "D" fractions/treatments) with different nutrient profile form a co-product of bioethanol processing [wheat dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS)]. To date, there is no study on the effect of fractionation processing on inherent molecular structure of different fractions and how the processing-induced structural change affect the metabolic characteristics of protein and nutrient availability. The objectives of this experiment were to: (1) investigate the effect of fractionation processing on changes of protein functional groups (amide I, amide II, and their ratio) and molecular structure (modeled α-helix, β-sheet, and their ratio), and (2) study the relationship between the fractionation processing-induced changes of protein molecular structure and nutrients availability as well as the metabolic characteristics of protein. The hypothesis of this study was that the fractionation processing changes the molecular structure and such changes affect the metabolic characteristics of protein. The protein molecular structure spectral profile of the fractions A, B, C and D were identified by Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FT/IR-ATR). The results showed that the fractionation processing significantly affected the protein molecular spectral profiles. The differences in amide I to amide II peak area and height ratios were strongly significant (P < 0.01) among the treatment fractions, ranging from 4.98 to 6.33 and 3.28 to 4.00, respectively. The difference in the modeled protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio was also strongly significant (P < 0.01) among the treatment fractions. Multivariate molecular spectral analysis with cluster (CLA) and principal component analyses (PCA

  20. Comparaison of agricultural and forest biomass with regards to biological processes for bioethanol production of second generation.

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Perez, Denilson; Briand, Sarah; Laboubée, Céline; Chabbert, Brigitte; Leygue, Jean-Philippe; Cadoux, Stéphane; LABALETTE, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the comparison between agricultural and forest resources related to the needs of biochemical processes. Recommendations and exchanges with future users (IFP, ARD) were used in this study. 234 samples from two years (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) were selected and analysed. Various species were analysed for their chemical composition, especially the content of fermentable sugars. Then the results were shown for homogeneous species groups: annuals immature, annuals mature, fo...

  1. Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marina O S; da Cunha, Marcelo Pereira; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V

    2011-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore, the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol production process, may be used as fuels, increasing the amount of surplus bagasse. In this work, simulations of the integrated bioethanol production process from sugarcane, surplus bagasse and trash were carried out. Selected pre-treatment methods followed, or not, by a delignification step were evaluated. The amount of lignocellulosic materials available for hydrolysis in each configuration was calculated assuming that 50% of sugarcane trash is recovered from the field. An economic risk analysis was carried out; the best results for the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process were obtained for steam explosion pretreatment, high solids loading for hydrolysis and 24-48 h hydrolysis. The second generation ethanol production process must be improved (e.g., decreasing required investment, improving yields and developing pentose fermentation to ethanol) in order for the integrated process to be more economically competitive. PMID:20838849

  2. Feasibility of Bioethanol Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunina, Zane; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Karlis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to discuss the potential of cellulosic ethanol production processes and compare them, to find the most appropriate production method for Latvia's situation, to perform theoretical calculations and to determine the potential ethanol price. In addition, price forecasts for future cellulosic and grain ethanol are compared. A feasibility estimate to determine the price of cellulosic ethanol in Latvia, if production were started in 2010, was made. The grain and cellulosic ethanol price comparison (future forecast) was made through to the year 2018.

  3. Bioethanol Production from Coconut Fiber Using Alkaline Pretreatment and Acid Hydrolysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asyeni Miftahul Jannah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supporting Indonesia government program to decrease fuel consumption, using renewable energy such of bioethanol is one of the best ways. This research was done in order to utilize agriculture waste (coconut fiber as raw material to produce bioetanol. However, coconut fiber contents lignin that will inhibit conversion process of glucose into ethanol. In this research, pretreatment steps aim to release and breakdown lignin in coconut fiber. Pretreatment was conducted by using alkaline method with 3% Sodium Hydroxide solution. Hydrolysis method was used to produce glucose by using Sulfuric Acid solution with various concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4 % while in fermentation process used Saccharomyces cerevisiae with various times (5, 7, 9, and 11 days and distillation used to get pure product of bioethanol. The results showed that higher H2SO4 concentration using on hydrolysis process made more glucose converted to bioethanol. The highest bioethanol content produced was 5.9420% from sample of 4% H2SO4 in 7 days of fermentation.

  4. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves; Lourdes Zumalacárregui-de Cárdenas; Olga Sánchez-Collazo; Georgina Michelena-Alvarez; Hector Yznaga-Blanco; José Luis Martínez-Hernández; Cristóbal Noé-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to o...

  5. State of the art on bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way

  6. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  7. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Braide; I. A. Kanu; S.U. Oranusi; S. A. Adeleye

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark) and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk) was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total re...

  8. Further development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol: Optimisation of pre-treatment processes and characterisation of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Schmidt, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of several processes for pre-treatment of lignocellulose has been investigated to provide suitable feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Wet oxidation (with and without alkaline) has been investigated for wheat straw,birchwood, and willow treating 60 g/L. The...

  9. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen Henning; Felby Claus; Thygesen Lisbeth G; Kristensen Jan B; Elder Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of t...

  10. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  11. Temperature Optimization for Bioethanol Production from Corn Cobs Using Mixed Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence S. Yah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dilute sulphuric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were used for sugar extraction. Xylose and glucose sugars were obtained from corn cobs. Approach: Acid hydrolysis of corn cobs gave higher amount of sugars than enzymatic hydrolysis. Results: The results showed that optimal temperature and time for sugar fermentation were approximately 25°C and 50 h by two yeast strains (S. cerevisiae and P. Stipitis respectively. At 20 and 40°C, less bioethanol was produced. Bioethanol produced at 25°C was 11.99 mg mL-1, while at 40 and 20°C were 2.50 and 6.40 mg mL-1 respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Data obtained revealed that xylose level decreased from 27.87-3.92 mg mL-1 during the first 50 h of fermentation and complete metabolism of glucose was observed during this time. Xylose and bioethanol levels remained constant after 50 h. Varying the temperature of the fermentation process improves the effective utilization of corn cobs sugars for bioethanol production can be achieved.

  12. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  13. Further development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol: Optimisation of pre-treatment processes and characterisation of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Anette Skammelsen

    1999-03-01

    The efficiency of several processes for pre-treatment of lignocellulose has been investigated to provide feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Wet oxidation (WO) (with and without alkaline) has been investigated for wheat straw, birch wood, and willow treating 60 g/L. Three different harvest years of wheat straw were included to evaluate the effect of crop variation from year to year. Comparative studies were made using steaming and steam explosion of wheat straw. Alkaline WO fractionated wheat straw efficiently into solubilised hemicellulose and a highly convertible cellulose fraction. High oxygen (12 bar) during WO and low lignin in treated fibres resulted in highly convertible cellulose. Different optimal reaction conditions were found for different harvest years. For straw 1993 and 1997, conditions were 185 deg. C, 15 minutes resulting in 9-10 g/L solubilised hemicellulose and 63-67% cellulose convertibility. For straw 1994, conditions were 195 deg. C, 5 minutes resulting in 7.5 g/L solubilised hemicellulose and 96% cellulose convertibility. For willow, the optimal pre-treatment was WO without alkaline using 185 deg. C, 15 minutes, giving 8.2 g/L hemicellulose in solution and 50% cellulose convertibility. For birch wood, the best process conditions were hydrothermal treatment (without oxygen and alkaline). At 200 deg. C and 15 minutes, 8 g/L hemicellulose was solubilised with high recoveries for both polysaccharides, however, poor cellulose convertibility was found (<30%). Alkaline WO resulted in the highest cellulose convertibility but low contents of solubilised hemicellulose (<4 g/L). In general, formation of furfural was avoided by adding alkaline during wet oxidation. In the absence of alkaline, furfural formation was higher (up to 130 mg/100 g wheat straw) than that of steam explosion (43 mg/100 g straw). Formation of carboxylic acids was highest during alkaline wet oxidation and highest for birch wood (up to 8 g/L). Minor amounts of

  14. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  15. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  16. A genetic base of utilisation of maize grain as a valuable renewable raw material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. Many studies have shown that the kernel composition and starch structure of maize are highly influenced by genetic background of the maize. Maize grain consists of approximately 70% of starch, which makes it a very suitable feedstock for the bioethanol production. This study was conducted with aim to understand how different genetic background affects bioethanol yield and other fermentation properties of the selected maize genotypes in the process of maize grain- based bioethanol production. Twenty seven maize hybrids, including genotypes of standard chemical composition as well as specialty maize hybrids such as popping, waxy, white kernel and red kernel hybrids, developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, were investigated in this study. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w obtained for hybrid ZP 611k after 48 h of fermentation and the highest by genotype ZP 434 (8.96% w/w. A very significant positive correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation, as well as volumetric productivity (48h (r=0.67. Between bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation and soft endosperm content in kernel of the investigated ZP maize hybrids a very significant positive correlation was assessed (r=0.66. Higher overall bioethanol yields have been obtained from genotypes containing higher starch and lower protein and lipid contents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31068

  17. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    OpenAIRE

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi; Md. Zahangir Alam; M. Fahrurrazi Tompang

    2010-01-01

    The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for ...

  18. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dragiša Savić; Maja Vukašinović; Svetlana Nikolić; Jelena Pejin; Marica Rakin; Siniša Markov; Dušanka Pejin; Ljiljana Mojović; Olgica Grujić

    2009-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sug...

  19. Bioconversion of biodegradable municipal solid waste (BMSW) to glucose for bio-ethanol production.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, A

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW), as an emerging biomass source, presents a unique opportunity for large-scale second-generation bioethanol production. Feedstock supply is reliable and in sufficient quantity, making it a promising biomass source but the conversion yield is currently too low to make it financially attractive. This work presented in this thesis provides a better understanding of bioconversion systems, in particular of pre-treatment and hydrolysis processes which contribute to more t...

  20. Production of bioethanol as useful biofuel through the bioconversion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Arpan(Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, 751005, India); Ghosh, Priyanka; Paul, Tanmay; Ghosh, Uma; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) represents a promising candidate for fuel ethanol production in tropical countries because of their high availability and high biomass yield. Bioconversion of such biomass to bioethanol could be wisely managed through proper technological approach. In this work, pretreatment of water hyacinth (10 %, w/v) with dilute sulfuric acid (2 %, v/v) at high temperature and pressure was integrated in the simulation and economic assessment of the process for further...

  1. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  2. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay in...... fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  3. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/α, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP. PMID:24373204

  4. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... production by prehydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. After pretreatment, most of the cellulose remained in the residue, ranging between 85.87% by the highest PSF (185°C, 15 min) and 92.90% obtained at the lowest PSF (185°C, 3 min). A larger part of starch, varying from 71...

  5. DELIGNIFICATION OF SWITCHGRASS CULTIVARS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiele Xu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three switchgrass cultivars (‘Performer’, ‘BoMaster’, and ‘Colony’ switchgrass were delignified using NaOH at varying concentrations and residence times at 121 oC for improved sugar production in enzymatic hydrolysis. Because of its greater carbohydrate/lignin ratio and the more substantial lignin reduction upon alkaline attack, ‘Performer’ switchgrass gave greater sugar productions under all the pretreatment conditions investigated. Maximum sugar production from ‘Performer’ was 425 mg/g raw biomass, which was achieved at 1% NaOH and 0.5 h. Sugar production increased with the improvement of delignification until the lignin reduction reached 30%. The more severe pretreatment conditions, which led to greater lignin reductions, did not favor the increase of sugar production because of greater solid losses. Linear models were proven effective in correlating a modified severity parameter log(Mo to lignin reduction and sugar production of ‘Performer’ switchgrass.

  6. DELIGNIFICATION OF SWITCHGRASS CULTIVARS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jiele Xu; Ye Chen; Cheng, Jay J.; Ratna Sharma-Shivappa; Joseph Burns

    2011-01-01

    Three switchgrass cultivars (‘Performer’, ‘BoMaster’, and ‘Colony’ switchgrass) were delignified using NaOH at varying concentrations and residence times at 121 oC for improved sugar production in enzymatic hydrolysis. Because of its greater carbohydrate/lignin ratio and the more substantial lignin reduction upon alkaline attack, ‘Performer’ switchgrass gave greater sugar productions under all the pretreatment conditions investigated. Maximum sugar production from ‘Performer’ was 425 mg/g raw...

  7. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes

  8. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  9. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by ...

  10. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera. PMID:27132221

  11. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×105 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×105 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  12. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  13. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  14. Recycle bioreactor for bioethanol production from wheat starch. 2. Fermentation and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, X.; Hill, G.A.; MacDonald, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Bioethanol has been produced using sugars from cold hydrolysis of pure wheat starch, sterile wheat flour, and unsterile wheat flour. The conversion of sugars to ethanol from pure starch reached 96% of the theoretical maximum while that from sterile wheat flour was 69% and from unsterile wheat flour only 35%. These data indicate that sequential hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat flour is not feasible. However, the simultaneous cold hydrolysis and fermentation of both wheat starch and wheat flour proved successful. Both sugar sources produced 95% of the theoretical maximum amount of ethanol. The process could be repeated in a sequential batch fashion for over 110 h of operation, achieving high ethanol yields in each run. A scale-up design of bioethanol production using sequential batch, simultaneous cold starch hydrolysis, and fermentation indicates that this process would be economically feasible. High levels of revenue are generated from both the bioethanol and the byproduct: food-grade wheat gluten. The payback period is predicted to be < 2 years with a discounted cash flow rate of return of 46%. (author)

  15. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, A.F.

    2013-05-15

    was capable of adaptation to higher substrate concentrations, at least up to 20 g l-1 xylose. T. pentosaceus was able to metabolize two typical inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furfural, up to concentrations of 1 and 0.5 g l-1, respectively. Above these levels, xylose consumption was inhibited up to 75 % (at 3.4 g l-1 5-HMF) and 70 % (at 3.4 g l-1 furfural). T. pentosaceus could grow and produce ethanol directly from the liquid fraction of pretreated rapeseed straw, without any dilution or need for additives. When T. pentosaceus was used in combination with S. cerevisiae in a sequential fermentation of pretreated rapeseed straw, it achieved 85 % of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the sugar composition of the rapeseed straw. This was 50 % and 14 % higher than the yield obtained with the bacteria or the yeast alone, respectively. When T. pentosaceus was immobilized in rapeseed straw, an improvement of 11 % in ethanol production was observed in batch mode. In continuous mode, it was shown that hydraulic retention time (HRT) affected ethanol yield, and a dramatic shift from ethanol to acetate and lactate production occurred at an HRT of 6 h. The maximum ethanol yield and concentration, 1.50 mol mol-1 consumed sugars and 12.4 g l-1, were obtained with an HRT of 12 h. The latter represented an improvement of 60 % in relation to previously obtained results. The results obtained confirm that the extreme thermophile T. pentosaceus is a promising candidate for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, and that improvement and optimization of existing processes are possible using different approaches. Further insight into the metabolism of the strain, as well as its improvement by genetic engineering can bring second-generation ethanol production one step closer to its industrial application. (Author)

  16. Lignocellulosic bioethanol production with revalorization of low-cost agroindustrial by-products as nutritional supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Kelbert, Maikon; Romaní, Aloia; Coelho, Eduardo; Pereira, Francisco B.; Teixeira, J.A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-01-01

    During the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for second generation bioethanol production, fermentation inhibitors are released. To overcome this, the use of a robust industrial strain together with agro-industrial by-products as nutritional supplementation was proposed to increase ethanol productivity and yields. Two factorial experimental designs were carried out to optimize fermentation of hydrolysate from autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus. The mostinfluential variable...

  17. Non-destructive analysis of the conformational differences among feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products from bioethanol production with molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, I. H.; Jonker, A.; Zhang, X.; Yu, P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique as a fast method to detect the source effects among original feedstock sources of wheat and their corresponding co-products, wheat DDGS, from bioethanol production. Different sources of the bioethanol feedstock and their corresponding bioethanol co-products, three samples per source, were collected from the same newly-built bioethanol plant with current bioethanol processing technology. Multivariate molecular spectral analyses were carried out using agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The molecular spectral data of different feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products were compared at four different regions of ca. 1800-1725 cm-1 (carbonyl Cdbnd O ester, mainly related to lipid structure conformation), ca. 1725-1482 cm-1 (amide I and amide II region mainly related to protein structure conformation), ca. 1482-1180 cm-1 (mainly associated with structural carbohydrate) and ca. 1180-800 cm-1 (mainly related to carbohydrates) in complex plant-based system. The results showed that the molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique could reveal the structural differences among the bioethanol feedstock sources and among their corresponding co-products. The AHCA and PCA analyses were able to distinguish the molecular structure differences associated with chemical functional groups among the different sources of the feedstock and their corresponding co-products. The molecular spectral differences indicated the differences in functional, biomolecular and biopolymer groups which were confirmed by wet chemical analysis. These biomolecular and biopolymer structural differences were associated with chemical and nutrient profiles and nutrient utilization and availability. Molecular spectral analyses had the potential to identify molecular structure difference among bioethanol feedstock sources

  18. Bioethanol production from dedicated energy crops and residues in Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, one of the major technological goals is cost-effective lignocellulosic ethanol production from biomass feedstocks. Lignocellulosic biomass of five dedicated energy crops and two crops residues were tested for bioethanol production using cellulose solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation...

  19. SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw with the addition of saccharified or fermented wheat meal in integrated bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Erdei, Borbála; Hancz, Dóra; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Background Integration of second-generation (2G) bioethanol production with existing first-generation (1G) production may facilitate commercial production of ethanol from cellulosic material. Since 2G hydrolysates have a low sugar concentration and 1G streams often have to be diluted prior to fermentation, mixing of streams is beneficial. Improved ethanol concentrations in the 2G production process lowers energy demand in distillation, improves overall energy efficiency and thus lower product...

  20. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  1. Reduction of water consumption in bioethanol production from triticale by recycling the stillage liquid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gumienna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. The distillery stillage is a major and arduous byproduct generated during ethanol production in distilleries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the stillage recirculation in the mashing process of triticale for non-byproducts production and reducing the fresh water consumption. The number of recirculation cycles which can be applied without disturbances in the ethanol fermentation process was investigated. Material and methods. Winter triticale BOGO and “Ethanol Red” Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were used in the experiments. The method of non-pressure cooking was used for gelatinizingthe triticale, commercial α-amylase SPEZYME ETHYL and glucoamylase FERMENZYME L-400 were applied for starch liquefaction and saccharification. The process was conducted at 30°C for 72 h, next after distillation the stillage was centrifuged and the liquid fraction was used instead of 75% of process water. Results. Ethanol yield from triticale fermentations during 40 cycles ranged between 82% and 95% of theoretical yield preserving yeast vitality and quantity on the same level. The obtained distillates were characterized with enhanced volatile compounds (fusel oil, esters, aldehydes, methanol as well as protein and potassium concentrations. Conclusions. The liquid part of stillage was proved that can be reused instead of water in bioethanol production from triticale, without disturbing the fermentation process. This investigated solution of distillery byproducts utilization (liquid phase of stillage constitutes the way which could significantly decrease the bioethanol production costs by reducing the water consumption, as well as wastewater production.  

  2. Ensiling – Wet-storage method for lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2011-01-01

    Ensiling of humid biomass samples wrapped in plastic bales has been investigated as a wet-storage for bioethanol production from three lignocellulosic biomass samples i.e. maize, rye, and clover grass. During the silage process, lactic acid bacteria fermented free sugars to lactic acid...... of SSF (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation) were carried out using combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation with two different microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus. The ethanol production was 33.0%, 27.5%, 36.9% (by K. marxianus) and 29.0%, 28.1%, 34...

  3. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech;

    2015-01-01

    The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...... of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton...... of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor...

  4. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass......, were considered. Material and energy flows were assessed to evaluate the bioethanol yield, the production efficiency in terms of Emergy used compared to energy produced (transformity), and the environmental load (ELR) in terms of use of non-renewable resources. These three indicators varied among...... the four feedstock production scenarios to the same extent as among the three different industrial production scenarios and in each case the efficiency was lower and the use of non-renewables higher for the non-recycling system. The system most efficient for production of bioethanol (lowest transformity...

  5. The energetic potential of bioethanol in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the bioethanol production is the agriculture, mostly the corn and wheat growing. With the analysis of their domestic harvest results, the process of the starch formation and the chemical-thermodynamical processes of the alcohol's fermentation, we calculate the annual amount of the producible bioethanol on average and its energy. We determine the specific values of the CO2 cycle. We examine the energetic possibilities of total substitution of the 2 billion litres of domestic petrol consumption with bioethanol. (authors)

  6. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. - Research highlights: →Bioethanol in Thailand derived from molasses, cassava, sugarcane juice could yield reductions of 64%, 49% and 87% in GHGs when compared to conventional gasoline. →High yields improvement are required for a reliable and sufficient supply of molasses, cassava and sugarcane to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. →Other factors to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bioethanol production in Thailand include increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock and promoting production of bioethanol derived from agricultural residues.

  7. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Forough Nazarpour; Dzulkefly Kuang Abdullah; Norhafizah Abdullah; Nazila Motedayen; Reza Zamiri

    2013-01-01

    Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm) and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatmen...

  8. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed I. Hamouda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558 showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield.

  9. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Hamed I; Nassar, Hussein N; Madian, Hekmat R; Abu Amr, Salem S; El-Gendy, Nour Sh

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield. PMID:26779347

  10. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Hamed I.; Nassar, Hussein N.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Abu Amr, Salem S.; El-Gendy, Nour Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield. PMID:26779347

  11. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  12. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL α-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  13. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  14. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes; Energie a partir de petit-lait : comparaison des filieres biogaz et bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  15. Susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors and impact on bioethanol production yield

    OpenAIRE

    Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis; Marx, Sanette; Meyer, Anton

    2014-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns in developing countries over the competition between food and energy resulting from the production of bioethanol from edible biomass. Second generation lignocellulose feedstock is an attractive alternative, as bioethanol can be produced from non-edible materials. However, the pretreatment required for hydrolysis of lignocellulose into pentose and hexose sugars often results in the production of inhibitors likely to impede the activity of Saccharomyces cerev...

  16. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  17. The potential for bioethanol production from wheat in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol, currently widely used in cosmetic chemical and pharmaceutical applications, can be manufactured either from petroleum deriviatives (synthetic ethanol), or by the biological fermentation of carbohydrate. This report looks at the United Kingdom potential for production of the latter, so called, bioethanol from wheat. Ethanol from wheat is already produced for the grain spirit industry, and two such bioethanol plants operating in Sweden and France are described. Although there is, at present, no overall cost advantage in using bioethanol from wheat over synthetic ethanol, environmental benefits may sway the balance in its failure. (UK)

  18. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all...... of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered...... by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol...

  19. Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L. PMID:23269634

  20. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  1. Study of bio-ethanol production from cellulosic waste (rice straw)

    OpenAIRE

    Tadayosi, YOSHIMURA; Marie, HATAKAWA; Fumio, TAKAHASHI; Takatoshi, KAWASHIMA

    2012-01-01

    This basic research was carried out on bio-ethanol derived from cellulosic waste (rice straw). In view of the fact that rice straw is incorporated into the soil after harvesting the grains to increase mineral soil content, we examined the option of using high pressure pretreatment which does not involve chemical treatment, thus allowing residues from bio-ethanol production to be returned to the soil as a liquid fertilizer. Results from this study showed that i) high-pressure treatment enhance...

  2. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqiong Zheng

    Full Text Available The application of active dry yeast (ADY in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  3. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Kusmiyati (2010) Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many st...

  4. Perspectives for the production of bioethanol from wood and straw in Austria: technical, economic, and ecological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravanja, Philipp; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Thermal Process Engineering-Process Simulation, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Wien (Austria); Koenighofer, Kurt; Canella, Lorenza; Jungmeier, Gerfried [Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH - Resources, Graz (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    Bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic resources is a promising candidate for the replacement of fossil fuels. In this study, we aim to determine the perspectives to produce lignocellulosic ethanol in Austria. Technical, environmental and economic aspects are being considered. Thirteen biotechnological production concepts using the raw materials straw and softwood were established and simulated with the steady state flowsheeting software IPSEpro. Bioethanol production cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for each system were calculated based on mass and energy balances obtained from process simulation. The emission of GHGs along the entire bioethanol process chain (''from well to wheel'') are compared to two reference systems producing the same amounts of by-products. In all concepts, process heat and considerable amounts of the by-products electricity, heat, pellets, C5 molasses, or biomethane could be obtained from residual biomass. Compared to a reference system driven by fossil energy, GHG emissions can be reduced by up to 76%. The production cost of ethanol was found to between 0.66 EUR and 0.94 EUR per liter of gasoline equivalent. The type and amount of by-product influence technical, economic, and environmental performance significantly. Converting all straw and softwood available in Austria to ethanol would result in an annual production of 340 kt. (orig.)

  5. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  6. Investigation of Bioethanol Productivity from Sargassum sp. (Brown Seaweed) by Pressure Cooker and Steam Cooker Pretreatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of biothanol from Sargassum sp. (Brown seaweed) is more suitable than using any other raw materials because it can easily collect on Chaung Tha Beach in Myanmar without any environmental damages. In this regard an attempt for bioethanol production from sargassum sp. by separation hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) with saccharomyces cerevisiae was made. Sargassum sp. was pretreated with steam cooker at 120 C and 1 bar for 30 min and pressure cooker at 65 C for 2 hour. The pretreated sargassum sp. was liquefied with the crude enzyme from Trichoderma sp. at the temperature of 50 C and pH of 4 for the first liquefaction step and 95 C, pH of 5 and enzyme of SPEZYME FERD were employed for the second liquefaction step. OPTIDEX L-400 was used as saccharified enzyme with the temperature of 65 C and pH of 4.5 at saccharification step. The process of fermentation was followed by distillation at 78 C for alcohol extraction. Concentrations of crude ethanol were about 1.8% by using steam cooker and 2% for pressure cooker treatment with enzyme mediated saccharification followed by yeast fermentation. Yields of bioethanol were 23% for pressure cooker treatment and 21% for steam cooker treatment at SHF process.

  7. Integrated bioethanol and protein production from brown seaweed Laminaria digitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Hansen, Jonas Høeg; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2015-12-01

    A wild-growing glucose-rich (i.e. 56.7% glucose content) brown seaweed species Laminaria digitata, collected from the North Coast of Denmark in August 2012, was used as the feedstock for an integrated bioethanol and protein production. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid are the two most abundant amino acids in the algal protein, both with proportional content of 10% in crude protein. Only minor pretreatment of milling was used on the biomass to facilitate the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) resulted in obviously higher ethanol yield than the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). High conversion rate at maximum of 84.1% glucose recovery by enzymatic hydrolysis and overall ethanol yield at maximum of 77.7% theoretical were achieved. Protein content in the solid residues after fermentation was enriched by 2.7 fold, with similar distributions of amino acids, due to the hydrolysis of polymers in the seaweed cell wall matrix. PMID:26342344

  8. The impact of a growing bioethanol industry on food production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauder, Martin; Graeff-Hoenninger, S.; Claupein, W. [Department of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The Brazilian production of major food commodities increased fivefold between 1961 and 2008. In the same time, the area cropped with sugar cane increased with high growth rates, currently covering 3% of the area dedicated to agricultural production in Brazil. In order to assess a possible competition between biofuel and food production, the development of agricultural productivity and area expansion in the past was analysed. Furthermore, the future situation of land resources for agricultural production was illustrated. The findings of this study indicated that area resources of more than 20 million hectare would be available for agricultural production in the upcoming years. A current constraint of food production throughout land dedicated to biofuels was not found. Three scenarios were investigated, simulating possibilities of future changes in Brazilian agriculture. The results demonstrated that primary food production could be enhanced by 1.5 times while bioethanol production was enhanced simultaneously by 1.8 times over the years 2007/2008 and 2020. The generated bioethanol volumes would meet 38% of the total energy demand in Brazilian transport sector, applied to the year 2007. The second scenario evaluated an agricultural development with a higher focus on biofuels. It was projected that the production of bioethanol could be increased by 3.0 times to 76.7 million m{sup 3} of bioethanol, while increasing at the same time primary food production with the factor 1.4 aligned to the projected population growth. This bioethanol volume represents 67% of the total energy demand in Brazilian transport sector in the year 2007. A third scenario demonstrated that food production could be increased even with no area expansion higher than the projected population growth, due to a continued increase of productivity. At the same time bioethanol production would rise to 32 million m{sup 3} without occupying more area. (author)

  9. Production of bioethanol and associated by-products from potato starch residue stream by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Mohamed [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Biological Science Department, P.O. Box 10255, Abha 61321 (Saudi Arabia); Darwish, Soumia M.I. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University (Egypt)

    2010-07-15

    Potato starch residue stream produced during chips manufacturing was used as an economical source for biomass and bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results demonstrated that 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 C for 1 h was enough to hydrolyze all starch contained in the residue stream. Two strains of S. cerevisiae (y-1646 and commercial one) were able to utilize and ferment the acid-treated residue stream under both aerobic and semi-anaerobic conditions. The maximum yield of ethanol (5.52 g L{sup -1}) was achieved at 35 C by S. cerevisiae y-1646 after 36 h when ZnCl{sub 2} (0.4 g L{sup -1}) was added. Addition of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} as a source of nitrogen did not significantly affect either growth or ethanol production by S. cerevisiae y-1646. Some secondary by-products including alcohol derivatives and medical active compound were found to be associated with the ethanol production process. (author)

  10. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially. (author)

  11. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  12. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value <0.0001. It is suggested that this model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  13. Influence of Yeast and Enzyme Variation on Bioethanol Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guifang

    2012-01-01

    This is a study concerning the procedures of bio-ethanol production from the wood based biomass hydrolysates’ fermentation process. Required process conditions are analyzed and experimental data include raw material properties; bio-ethanol productivity and its impacts are evaluated to illustrate how the bio-ethanol production potential relates with the variation of the yeasts types. Theoretical background and experimental based research are majorly applied to achieve two targets that ...

  14. The influence of sorghum grain decortication on bioethanol production and quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles using cold and conventional warm starch processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomba, Edouard Y; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Very high gravity hydrolysis-fermentation of whole and decorticated sorghum grains were compared using conventional and cold hydrolysis methods to assess the extent by which decortication could minimize enzymes dosages and affect the quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). All processing configurations achieved ethanol concentrations between 126 and 132 g/L (16.0-16.7%v/v), although decortication resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Decortication resulted in a decreased volumetric productivity during warm processing from 1.55 to 1.25 g L(-1)h(-1), whereas the required enzyme dosage for cold processing was decreased from 250 to 221 μl/100 gstarch. Cold processing decreased the average acid detergent fibre (ADF) from 35.59% to 29.32% and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 44.04% to 32.28% in the DDGS compared to the conventional (warm) processing. Due to lower enzyme requirements, the use of decorticated grains combined with cold processing presents a favourable process configuration and source of DDGS for non-ruminants. PMID:26724549

  15. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka

    2010-09-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  16. Macroscopic modelling of bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures supplemented with inorganic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, A; Ben Tahar, I; Hassouna, M; Bogaerts, Ph

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic nitrogen supplementation is commonly used to boost fermentation metabolism in yeast cultures. However, an excessive addition can induce an opposite effect. Hence, it is important to ensure that the ammonia supplemented to the culture leads to an improvement of the ethanol production while avoiding undesirable inhibition effects. To this end, a macroscopic model describing the influence of ammonia addition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism during bioethanol production from potato peel wastes has been developed. The model parameters are obtained by a simplified identification methodology in five steps. It is validated with experimental data and successfully predicts the dynamics of growth, substrate consumption (ammonia and fermentable sugar sources) and bioethanol production, even in cross validation. The model is used to determine the optimal quantity of supplemented ammonia required for maximizing bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures. PMID:26059818

  17. A co-beneficial system using aquatic plants: bioethanol production from free-floating aquatic plants used for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Mishima, D; Inoue, D; Ike, M

    2013-01-01

    A co-beneficial system using constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with aquatic plants is proposed for bioethanol production and nutrient removal from wastewater. The potential for bioethanol production from aquatic plant biomass was experimentally evaluated. Water hyacinth and water lettuce were selected because of their high growth rates and easy harvestability attributable to their free-floating vegetation form. The alkaline/oxidative pretreatment was selected for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of the aquatic plants. Ethanol was produced with yields of 0.14-0.17 g-ethanol/ g-biomass in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain or a typical yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequently, the combined benefits of the CWs planted with the aquatic plants for bioethanol production and nutrient removal were theoretically estimated. For treating domestic wastewater at 1,100 m(3)/d, it was inferred that the anoxic-oxic activated sludge process consumes energy at 3,200 MJ/d, whereas the conventional activated sludge process followed by the CW consumes only 1,800 MJ/d with ethanol production at 115 MJ/d. PMID:23752400

  18. Hierarchical economic potential approach for techno-economic evaluation of bioethanol production from palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Truong Xuan; Lim, Young-Il; Jang, Sungsoo; Chung, Hwa-Jee

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical four-level approach to determine economic potential (4-level EP) is proposed for preliminary techno-economic analysis of new processes. The 4-level EP includes input/output structure, process flow structure, heat integration (HI), and economic feasibility. Two case studies on a 30.2 t/d (or 12.7 million l/yr) bioethanol plant with and without jet fuel production from palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated by applying the 4-level EP. The plant flowsheet was established based on experiments in a 0.1t/d pilot plant, including sequential dilute acid and alkali pretreatment, and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). EP approached a more reliable value through the hierarchical 4-level EP. The heating energy was reduced considerably by HI. The product value was estimated at $0.8-$1.3/kg of equivalent bioethanol. It was suggested through sensitivity analysis that a large plant size, enhanced production yields, and capital cost reduction were necessary for the lignocellulosic bioethanol production to be profitable. PMID:25898083

  19. Development of a novel sequential pretreatment strategy for the production of bioethanol from sugarcane trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavi, Subbiah; Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Gnansounou, Edgard; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    A novel sequential pretreatment strategy using biodiesel industry generated waste glycerol assisted transition metal and alkali pretreatment of sugarcane trash were developed for the production of bioethanol. Various process parameters affecting pretreatment as well as hydrolysis were optimized by adopting a Taguchi design. This novel method was found to be superior when compared to conventional pretreatment strategies like acid and alkali in removing hemicelluloses and lignin and the hydrolyzate is devoid of major fermentation inhibitors like organic acids and furfurals. Physico-chemical changes of the native and the pretreated biomass were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Under optimized hydrolysis conditions 0.796 g of reducing sugar (pentoses and hexoses) per g of dry biomass after saccharification was produced. Fermentation of the non-detoxified hydrolyzate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 31.928 g of bioethanol per g of dry biomass with an efficiency of 78.89%. PMID:26318846

  20. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pak-Chung; Kwong, Tsz-Lung; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 °C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost.

  1. Modelling and L1 Adaptive Control of pH in Bioethanol Enzymatic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    for pH level regulation: one is a classical PI controller; the other an L1 adaptive output feedback controller. Model-based feed-forward terms are added to the controllers to enhance their performances. A new tuning method of the L1 adaptive controller is also proposed. Further, a new performance......The enzymatic process is a key step in second generation bioethanol production. Pretreated biomass fibers are liquefied with the help of enzymes to facilitate fermentation. Enzymes are very sensitive to pH and temperature and the main control challenge in the nonlinear process is to ensure minimum...... deviations from the optimal pH level. This article develops a mathematical model for the pH, which has not been reported earlier for this particular process. The new model embeds flow dynamics and pH calculations and serves both for simulation and control design. Two control strategies are then formulated...

  2. Microalgae as a feedstock for production of bioethanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Jiří; Lívanský, Karel; Doušková, Irena; Zachleder, Vilém

    České Budějovice: Scientific Pedagogical Publishing,, 2008, s. 31-33. ISBN 80-85645-58-0. [Biotechnology 2008. České Budějovice (CZ), 13.02.2008-14.02.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biomass * microalgae * bioethanol Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. (author)

  4. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. (author)

  5. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément;

    2015-01-01

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components...... bioethanol production, and the spectra were analysed to identify components associated with recalcitrance....

  6. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassav...

  7. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials (LCM are produced in large quantities and without clear application and their use as raw material for bioethanol production shows economic and ecologic benefits. LCM are composed mainly of three polymers: cellulose made up of glucose units, hemicellulose made up of several sugars (as xylose or arabinose, and lignin made up of phenylpropane units, interconnected in a strong structure. Pretreatment is an important step for bioethanol production from LCM, causing the solubilisation of hemicellulosic fraction (leading to the recovery of hemicellulose-derived saccharides in order to obtain a solid phase enriched in cellulose and more susceptible to enzymatic attack. This study provides a comparative data regarding the chemical composition of various LCM used for bioethanol production, as well as different pretreatment technologies for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of LCM.

  8. Feasibility of bioethanol production from tubers of Dioscorea sansibarensis and Pyrenacantha kaurabassana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Nyandele, Jane P; Ndossi, Humphrey P; Eva, Sosovele M; Hosea, Ken M

    2015-11-01

    Inedible tubers from Dioscorea sansibarensis (DS) and Pyrenacantha kaurabassana (PK) were found to be suitable feedstock for bioethanol production. Important composition parameters for bioethanol production for DS and PK are dry matter (% fresh tubers) ca. 20 and 6, total carbohydrates % dry weight base (db) ca. 68 and 47 and total protein (% db) ca. 16 and 10, respectively. DS and PK were found to contain inulin and galactomannan as principal polysaccharides (% of total carbohydrate) ca. 90 and 70, respectively. Diluted acid hydrolysis yielded ca. 100% of total reducing sugars. Ethanol yield ca. 56 and 35g/L was obtained at high efficiency through batch fermentation of acid hydrolysate (25% w/v) of DS and PK, respectively. A simple technique of recording and monitoring ethanol through CO2 generated during fermentation correlated strongly with HPLC measurement R(2)=0.99. Thus, tubers from these plants are potential feedstocks for bioethanol production with no competing uses. PMID:26298406

  9. Analysis of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bioethanol production in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Birch-Thomsen, Torben;

    The present project is covered in five main reports: 1) Analyses of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bio-ethanol production in Mali 2) Agricultural residues for energy production in Mali 3) Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw 4) Estimation of wind...

  10. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  11. Integration of chlorogenic acid recovery and bioethanol production from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Cenian, Katarzyna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.;

    2016-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an abundant by-product of the coffee industry with a complex composition that makes them a promising feedstock for a biorefinery. The objective of this study was to evaluate SCG as a substrate for combined chlorogenic acid and bioethanol production after dilute acid...

  12. Sugar beet for bioethanol production: An approach based on environmental agricultural outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU imports both bioethanol and the raw material needed to produce it. Thirty percent of bioethanol is produced from sugar beets in the EU. However, sugar beet cultivated area and yields have fallen due to the 2006 sugar regime reform. Given the potential uncertainty about the future for sugar beet farmers, biofuels may represent an alternative market. This paper analyses potential contribution to the efficiency, in terms of environmental output, of the sugar beet crop both when production is oriented toward bioethanol and regarding the use of input. An empirical application is performed in Spain by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results show that 4% of farms have full technical efficiency, while the rest have an average efficiency of 55.9%. The figures show that inputs can be reduced over 40%, and also show the low average level of input-use efficiency. In addition, it cannot be said that there is a relationship between efficiency and farm scale. The consideration of aspects such as the environmental advantages of using sugar beet production for bioethanol can open new lines of action to support this crop in the EU. In addition, boosting sugar beet production may reduce potential dependency on importation. - Highlights: ► Analysing environmental outputs from agricultural input use and production orientation to bioethanol. ► DEA is applied to model farms’ efficiency in GHG emission and nitrous oxides emissions. ► A very low level of efficiency is found in sugar beet farms. ► Efficiency increase should be supported to reduce fertilizers and pesticides. ► Environmental advantages of addressing sugar beet to bioethanol open new lines to support crops

  13. Bioethanol production from sweet potato using Saccharomyces diastaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Suryani, Irma; Pradia Paundradewa, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sweet potato contains about 16 to 40% dry matter and about 70-90% of the dry matter is a carbohydrate made up of starch, sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin so suitable for used as raw material for bioethanol. In this study focused on the manufacture of bioethanol with changes in temperature and concentration variations of yeast with sweet potato raw materials used yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus. Operating variables used are at a temperature of 30°C; 31,475°C; 35°C; 38,525°C; and 40°C with a yeast concentration of 25.9%; 30%; 40%; 50% and 54.1%. The experimental results obtained, the optimum conditions of ethanol fermentation with yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus on 36,67 °C temperature and yeast concentration of 43,43 % v / v.

  14. LCA of bioethanol and furfural production from vetiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2015-06-01

    In this study a prospective life cycle assessment of biorefinery system from vetiver leaves was carried out to know the environmental benefits of this system over conventional systems considering the geographical context of India. The composition of vetiver leaves from the experimental analysis revealed that vetiver is rich in cellulose (32.6%), hemicellulose (31.5%) and lignin (17.3%) that could be used as a feedstock for biorefinery. The comparative life cycle assessment results show that the carbon dioxide emission and fossil oil depletion could be reduced by 95% and 23% respectively in case of standalone bioethanol system, and 99% and 17% respectively in case of bioethanol and furfural system compared to that of conventional petrol and furfural systems. The sensitivity study indicates that the impact could be further reduced if vetiver biomass is used as a source of energy in biorefinery plant instead to the coal. PMID:25770467

  15. Efficient Bioethanol Production From Oil Palm Frond Petiole

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifah Soplah Binti Syed Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in bioenergy and particularly in second generation bioethanol (SGB) is a great challenge as the development of lignocellulose-related technologies are not very well established in the world. Another major constraint is the relatively higher cost of SGB, both in terms of investment costs and final energy costs. This causes the commercialization of research findings on SGB faces stiff competition from fossil fuels. Hence, this study was aimed to produce SGB but using a stra...

  16. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Janušić; Duška Ćurić; Tajana Krička; Neven Voća; Ana Matin

    2008-01-01

    Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol.Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cel...

  17. Assessing the potential of wild yeasts for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Ruyters, Stefan; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Verstrepen, Kevin; Thevelein, Johan; Willems, Kris; Lievens, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Bioethanol fermentations expose yeasts to a new, complex and challenging fermentation medium with specific inhibitors and sugar mixtures depending on the type of carbon source. It is, therefore, suggested that the natural diversity of yeasts should be further exploited in order to find yeasts with good ethanol yield in stressed fermentation media. In this study, we screened more than 50 yeast isolates of which we selected five isolates with promising features. The species Candida bombi, Wicke...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2, a Useful Industrial Strain for Highly Efficient Production of Bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Sahara, Takehiko; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E.; Nezuo, Maiko; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Tochigi, Yuki; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2, which is a diploid industrial strain with flocculation activity and the ability to efficiently produce bioethanol. The approximately 11.4-Mb draft genome information provides useful insights into metabolic engineering for the production of bioethanol from biomass.

  19. A techno-economic and environmental evaluation of the life cycle of bioethanol produced from rice straw by RT-CaCCO process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has set an ambitious goal to produce bioethanol from abundant biomass in views to offset some of her greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study attempts to evaluate the life cycle of bioethanol produced from the most common variety of rice straw in Japan (cv. Koshihikari) by enzymatic hydrolysis. Three scenarios are established in the evaluation process. The net energy consumption, CO2 emission and production costs are estimated to determine if environmentally friendly and economically viable bioethanol can be produced from rice straw in Japan. The net energy consumption, CO2 emission and production costs are estimated to be 10.43–11.56 GJ/m3, 1106.34–1144.94 kg/L and 88.54–137.55 k¥/m3 (1 US$≈100¥), respectively depending on the scenarios of this study. This study reveals that despite a bit of environmental benefits, the economic viability is doubtful unless innovative technologies along with the renewable energy policy and stakeholders participation are considered. A shift in scenarios not only reduces the production cost, but may also minimize the risk of soil degradation and productivity loss and encourage more stakeholder participation and investment in the bioethanol industry in Japan. -- Highlights: ► Three scenarios are considered to evaluate the life cycle of bioethanol produced from rice straw. ► The net energy consumption, CO2 emission and production cost are estimated. ► The net energy consumption, CO2 emission and production cost are dependent on the scenarios. ► A shift in scenarios reduces the emission and production cost of bioethanol.

  20. Ensiling – Wet-storage method for lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2011-01-01

    Ensiling of humid biomass samples wrapped in plastic bales has been investigated as a wet-storage for bioethanol production from three lignocellulosic biomass samples i.e. maize, rye, and clover grass. During the silage process, lactic acid bacteria fermented free sugars to lactic acid, and...... consequently by lowing pH, inhibiting other microbes to degrade the polysaccharides. Following silage treatment, enzymatic convertibility tests showed that 51.5%, 36.5%, and 41.9% of the cellulose was converted by cellulytic enzymes in ensiled maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively. In addition, tests of.......5% (by S. cerevisiae); the yields significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment: 77.7%, 72.8%, 79.5% (by K. marxianus) and 72.0%, 80.7%, 75.7% (by S. cerevisiae) of the theoretical based on the C6 sugar contents in maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively....

  1. Continuous recycling of enzymes during production of lignocellulosic bioethanol in demonstration scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard; Lindedam, Jane; Jeppesen, Martin D.;

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of enzymes in production of lignocellulosic bioethanol has been tried for more than 30 years. So far, the successes have been few and the experiments have been carried out at conditions far from those in an industrially feasible process. Here we have tested continuous enzyme recycling at...... recycled to the hydrolysis reactor while enzyme dosage was reduced by 5%. The results demonstrate that recycling enzymes by this method can reduce overall enzyme consumption and may also increase the ethanol concentrations in the fermentation broth. Our results further show that recycling fermentation...... broth also opens up the possibility of lowering the dry matter content in hydrolysis and fermentation while still maintaining high ethanol concentrations....

  2. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias;

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4) were investigated. Each acid were used...... the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass) was significantly affected by the acid concentration used...... for the saccharification of the carbohydrates. The highest bioethanol yields of 16.32% ± 0.90% (gEtOH/gBiomass) and 16.27% ± 0.97% (gEtOH/gBiomass) were obtained in hydrolysates produced with HNO3 0.5 N and H2SO4 0.5 N, respectively....

  3. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  4. Continuous production of bio-oil by catalytic liquefaction from wet distiller’s grain with solubles (WDGS) from bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-refinery concepts are currently receiving much attention due to the drive toward flexible, highly efficient systems for utilization of biomass for food, feed, fuel and bio-chemicals. One way of achieving this is through appropriate process integration, in this particular case combining enzymatic bio-ethanol production with catalytic liquefaction of the wet distillers grains with soluble, a byproduct from the bio-ethanol process. The catalytic liquefaction process is carried out at sub-critical conditions (280–370 °C and 25 MPa) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst, a process known as the Catliq® process. In the current work, catalytic conversion of WDGS was performed in a continuous pilot plant with a maximum capacity of 30 dm3 h−1 of wet biomass. In the process, WDGS was converted to bio-oil, gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The oil obtained was characterized using several analysis methods, among them elementary analysis and GC–MS. The study shows that WDGS can be converted to bio oil with high yields. The results also indicate that through the combination of bio-ethanol production and catalytic liquefaction, it is possible to significantly increase the liquid product yield and scope, opening up for a wider end use applicability. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass. ► Product phase analysis: oil, acqeous, gas and mineral phase. ► Energy and mass balance evaluation.

  5. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    species interactions as a response to the actual growing conditions observed which is not achieved with sole cropping of one species/cultivar. It is also concluded that when growing pea as a sole cropping available soil mineral N reduce N{sub 2} fixation and the full potential of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is not exploited which is regarded as an overall inefficient use of N sources. Using clover-grass intercropping raw materials, as another potential species combination with equivalent field responses to e.g. pea-wheat intercropping, conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments show that wet oxidation is an efficient method for fractionating clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures into a convertible solid cellulose fraction and a soluble hemicellulose fraction. The highest yield of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis is achieved in clover-grass (mixed 1:1) pretreated at 195 deg. C for 10 minutes using 12 bar oxygen. The optimum pretreatment conditions for clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures is not significantly different from that of wheat, which indicates that wheat straw and clover-grass (from intercropping) could be pretreated in one step. The produced sugars were converted into ethanol by Mucor indicus giving good ethanol yields Y{sub E/TS,Aerobic} = 0.37 and Y{sub E/TS,oxygen} {sub li} It is also concluded that fructans from unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing the ethanol production significantly. Using field data and biomass conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments a decentralized biorefinery concept for co-production of bioethanol and biogas is described with strong emphasis on sustainability, localness and recycling principles. (au)

  6. Optimization of media for bioethanol production by Pichia stipitis from sugarcane bagasse pretreated by dilute acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reduction of fossil fuels due to its increasing consumption caused the biofuels production as an important topic, today. Using resources that have not food application was regarded as the second generation biofuels and consisted of lignocelluloses. Since considerable amount of lignocellulosic material are pentoses, utilizing them is important for the production of biofuels. Materials and methods: Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with dilute acid method. Pichia stipitis was used for the fermentation of released sugars. A L27 Taguchi orthogonal array was considered to optimize the fermentation process and increase the amount of ethanol. The eight factors with three levels considering nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, sulfur, magnesium, and vitamins sources were considered in this study. Results: The analysis of the results shows that corn steep liquor, ammonium hydrogen phosphate, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate and magnesium sulfate have a significant effect on the production of ethanol, respectively. Confirmation of the optimal conditions shows that ethanol production was increased 97% relative to the mean of the observed results. The yield and productivity during 48 h of the fermentation were reached to 0.26 (g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 0.125g (L.h, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: At the optimum condition the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate had higher efficiency relative to previous studies. Results of medium optimization considering cheap resources showed showed an excellent potential toward an economical bioethanol production process.

  7. Production of 2nd generation Bioethanol from Lucerne - Optimization of Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has many qualities associated with sustainable agriculture such as nitrogen fixation and high biomass yield. Therefore, there is interest in whether lucerne is a suitable biomass substrate for bioethanol production, and if hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT) of lucerne impro...

  8. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CELLULOSE IN RED ALGAE Gracilaria verrucosa BY SEPARATED HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM USING Trichoderma viride AND Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Ahyar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, renewable marine cellulose from red algae Gracilaria verrucosa was utilized for the production of bioethanol. Bioethanol from the red alga cellulose was produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation methods and the conversion value of the cellulose in Gracilaria verrucosa was estimated. Trichoderma viride fungus and Zymomonas mobilis bacterium were used for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol fermentation, r...

  9. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  10. Optimization of pretreatment conditions of sorghum bicolor straw, a substrate for bioethanol production: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demand paradigm shift from fossil fuel to Biofuel has become inevitable not only due to the scarcity of the resources but also due to renewability and environment friendly nature of Bioethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential feedstock for production of bioethanol. Pretreatment of biomass, which breaks the complex structures of biomass hence making it available for hydrolysis, is a very critical step in bioethanol production from the aspect of determining its economic viability. Sorghum bicolor straw being one of the potential lignocellulosic feedstock was used in this study to evaluate the effect of Acid concentration, Time and Temperature on pretreatment. Samples were analyzed by HPLC using Refractive Index detector and UV detector. Best results with maximum combined sugar value (Glucose-t-Xylose) of 0.43 g/g of dry mass were observed with 2% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 121 degree C for 10 minutes. These results help us to suggest these optimized pretreatment conditions could be an effective prerequisite for the production of monomer sugars which could be subsequently fermented to Bioethanol-a renewable and environment friendly fuel. (author)

  11. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gulten Izmirlioglu; Ali Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium componen...

  12. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for optimization. The optimization of process conditions, by using central composite design (CCD was carried out. Optimization of process condition was done with varied level of moisture content, pH, inoculum size, concentration of co-substrate (wheat flour and mineral solutions. Statistical analysis showed that the optimum process condition for moisture content was 50% (v/w, pH of 4, inoculum size of 10% (v/v, concentration of wheat flour of 1% (v/v and mineral solutions 1%(v/v. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the maximum production were determined. The final optimization with the developed process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 14.315 (v/v to 34.785(v/v.

  13. 小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵制取燃料乙醇%Optimization of Processing Conditions for Bioethanol Production from Wheat Straw Through Simultaneously Saccharification and Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 李文; 赵继东; 林燕; 彭兆城; 王欣泽

    2012-01-01

    利用酿酒酵母Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742对小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵(simultaneously saccharification and fermentation,SSF)生产燃料乙醇的条件进行了研究,系统考察和研究了温度、固体含量、纤维素酶投加量、酵母菌浓度对SSF过程中乙醇浓度和产率的影响,并对以上参数做了初步优化,以提高最终乙醇浓度和产率.结果表明,小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵乙醇的最优条件为:温度38℃,固体含量16.0%(m/V),纤维素酶投加量35FPU/g底物,酵母菌浓度8 g/L.在此条件下,NaOH预处理后的小麦经过120 h同步糖化发酵,乙醇浓度达到最大值,为38.32 g/L,产率达理论产率的71.71%,木糖浓度为12.94 g/L.%Experiments were carried out on the conditions of bioethanol production from wheat straw through simultaneously saccharification and fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742. The effects of temperature, solid content, enzymeloading and yeast concentration on concentration and yield of ethanol in the SSF processes were systematically investigated. These parameters were further optimized to increase the final concentration and yield of ethanol. The results showed that the optimum conditions for SSF of wheat straw were as follows: temperature 38℃ , solid content 16. 0% (w/v) , enzyme loading 35 FPU/g and substrate and yeast concentration 8 g/L. The maximum ethanol concentration reached 38. 32 g/L, which was equivalent to 71. 71% of the theoretical ethanol yield, with xylose concentration of 12. 94 g/L obtained after 120 h SSF of NaOH pretreated wheat straw under the optimized conditions.

  14. Utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, Svetlana; Mojovic, Ljiljana; Rakin, Marica [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Pejin, Dusanka; Pejin, Jelena [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2011-08-15

    Bioethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn meal by Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast in a batch system with prior ultrasound or microwave treatment was studied. The optimal duration of the pretreatments and the SSF process kinetics were assessed and determined. Also, the effect of ultrasound and microwave pretreatments on ethanol yield and productivity was investigated. An optimal duration of 5 min was determined for both pretreatments. Ultrasonic and microwave pretreatments effectively increased the glucose concentration obtained after liquefaction by 6.82 and 8.48%, respectively, compared to untreated control sample. Also, both pretreatments improved ethanol yield and productivity during the SSF process. Ultrasound and microwave pretreatments increased the maximum ethanol concentration produced in the SSF process by 11.15 and 13.40% (compared to the control sample), respectively. The application of microwave pretreatment resulted in higher glucose release during liquefaction and consequently in higher ethanol concentration, compared to ultrasound pretreatment. A maximum ethanol concentration of 9.91% (w/w) and percentage of theoretical ethanol yield of 92.27% were achieved after 44 h of the SSF process of corn meal with prior microwave treatment. (orig.)

  15. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic...... bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from...... the literature were used to evaluate the production economy. A competitive energy cost limit for the bioethanol production was found to be 0.22 Euro/L. The optimised system produced bioethanol at a mean cost of 0.14 Euro/L during integrated operation and 1.22 Euro/L during separate operation. Maintenance shut...

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... except the treated yard waste which significantly increased by 54 % in glucose over the untreated waste. The most promising waste fractions were FW, CYPPW and mixed paper wastes. Careful selection of these fractions in feedstock for biofuel production would reduce generation of the waste, improve...

  17. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli ss1

    OpenAIRE

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi; Lai-Yee Phang; Toshinari Maeda; , Suraini Abd-Aziz,; Minato Wakisaka; Yoshihito Shirai; Mohd Ali Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to ...

  18. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; HAGLIND, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2013-01-01

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. ...

  19. An integral analysis for second generation bioethanol production via a dynamic model-based simulation approach: stochastic nonlinear optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Anne S Meyer; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    There are different technological routes to biofuels production such as, biohydrogen, biomethane, biobutanol, among others. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock has acquired special attention, and its feasibility has been demonstrated at laboratory, pilot and demo-plant scale[1,2,3]. Despite the reported progress and the promising results, however, at present this technology is not cost-competitive compared with first generation bioethanol production or fossil-fuels. Therefore...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain NCIM3186 Used in the Production of Bioethanol from Sweet Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Sravanthi Goud, Burragoni; Ulaganathan, Kandasamy

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain NCIM3186 used in bioethanol production from sweet sorghum. The size of the genome is approximately 11.9 Mb and contains 5,347 protein-coding genes.

  1. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch

    OpenAIRE

    Robati, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast “Saccharomyces cerevisiae” in repeated batch. The results s...

  2. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  3. Screening of Jerusalem artichoke varieties for bio-ethanol production in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, P.C.; Oliveira, A.C.; Rosa, M.F. [INETI, Departamento de Energias Renovaveis, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, Ed. G, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the potential of 9 Jerusalem artichoke varieties for the sustainable production of bio-ethanol in Portugal. The tubers, which are the part of the plant with higher sugar content, were harvested at different stages of development (29 to 55 weeks), and crashed for juice extraction. The two phases obtained were characterized in terms of total sugars, protein, ash and dry matter. The ethanol productivity of the different J. artichoke varieties was then evaluated fermenting juice or mixtures of juice and pulp aqueous extract with a strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, a yeast able to hydrolyze and ferment inulin polymers. The chamical characteristic more dependable on the harvest period was the amount of total sugars in the tubers. Juices, obtained until 48 weeks development, contained 173 - 235 g/L of total sugars while juices from the last harvest presented markedly lower sugar contents, indicating crop degradation or sugar migration to the soil. Regarding the fermentative process, ethanol yields ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 g/g. The main conclusion of this work indicates C13 variety as the best. Although bearing a lower sugar concentration in tubers, the substantially higher agricultural productivities (kg/m2) after 8 months growing allowed to estimate productions higher than 10 000 L/ha.

  4. Bioethanol production involving recombinant C. thermocellum hydrolytic hemicellulase and fermentative microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Ahmed, Shadab; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Dinesh; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Goyal, Arun

    2012-07-01

    The enhancement of the biomass productivity of Escherichia coli cells harbouring the truncated 903 bp gene designated as glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) from Clostridium thermocellum showing hemicellulase activity along with its further use in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process is described. (Phosphoric acid) H(3)PO(4)-acetone treatment and ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) were the pretreatment strategies employed on the leafy biomass of mango, poplar, neem and asoka among various substrates owing to their high hemicellulose content. GH43 showed optimal activity at a temperature of 50 °C, pH 5.4 with stability over a pH range of 5.0-6.2. A 4-fold escalation in growth of the recombinant E. coli cells was observed when grown using repeated batch strategy in LB medium supplemented with glucose as co-substrate. Candida shehatae utilizing pentose sugars was employed for bioethanol production. AFEX pretreatment proved to be better over acid-acetone technique. The maximum ethanol concentration (1.44 g/L) was achieved for AFEX pretreated mango (1%, w/v) followed by poplar with an ethanol titre (1.32 g/L) in shake flask experiments. A 1.5-fold increase in ethanol titre (2.11 g/L) was achieved with mango (1%, w/v) in a SSF process using a table top 2-L bioreactor with 1 L working volume. PMID:22383050

  5. Integration of pulp and paper technology with bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard B; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou Min

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite decades of work and billions of dollars of investments in laboratory and pilot plant projects, commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is only now beginning to emerge. Because of: (1)high technical risk coupled with; (2) high capital investment cost relative to ethanol product value, investors have not been able to justify moving forward with large scale projects on woody biomass. Results Both issues have been addressed by targeting pulp and paper industry processes for...

  6. Energy and eMergy evaluation of bioethanol production from wheat in Henan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiaobin; Zhang, Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ulgiati, Sergio [Department of Sciences for the Environment, Parthenope University of Napoli, Napoli 80133 (Italy); Yan, Maochao [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agriculture University, Beijing 10094 (China); Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resource Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao, Wangsheng [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agriculture University, Beijing 10094 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from wheat has become an emerging economic activity in Henan Province due to the establishment in 2001 of the National Program for Alcohol Production. The program aimed at facing the unfolding world energy crisis in the near future and increasing China's energy security. Instead, in spite of claims for 'green energy', such an activity is likely to generate great environmental damage and social problems. Moreover, the international market prices for raw materials (especially cereals) and fossil oil are putting this activity under siege. This research presents an energy and eMergy analysis of a typical wheat plantation/alcohol distillery system, in the Henan Province. Comparison is drawn with bioethanol production in Italy, based on corn from intensive, industrialized agriculture. Energy and eMergy indices of ethanol production from wheat and corn in the two agro-industrial systems are respectively as follows: output/input energy ratio, 1.09 (wheat) and 1.19 (corn); transformity of bioethanol, 2.77 x 105 and 1.89 x 105 seJ/J; renewability, 20% and 11%; eMergy yield ratio, 1.24 and 1.14; environmental loading ratio, 4.05 and 7.84; and finally eMergy sustainability index, 0.31 and 0.15. Results show that bioethanol from food crops is not a sustainable source of fuel. (author)

  7. Energy and eMergy evaluation of bioethanol production from wheat in Henan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xiaobin [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ulgiati, Sergio [Department of Sciences for the Environment, Parthenope University of Napoli, Napoli 80133 (Italy); Yan Maochao [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agriculture University, Beijing 10094 (China); Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resource Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Gao Wangsheng [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agriculture University, Beijing 10094 (China)], E-mail: wshgao@cau.edu.cn

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from wheat has become an emerging economic activity in Henan Province due to the establishment in 2001 of the National Program for Alcohol Production. The program aimed at facing the unfolding world energy crisis in the near future and increasing China's energy security. Instead, in spite of claims for 'green energy', such an activity is likely to generate great environmental damage and social problems. Moreover, the international market prices for raw materials (especially cereals) and fossil oil are putting this activity under siege. This research presents an energy and eMergy analysis of a typical wheat plantation/alcohol distillery system, in the Henan Province. Comparison is drawn with bioethanol production in Italy, based on corn from intensive, industrialized agriculture. Energy and eMergy indices of ethanol production from wheat and corn in the two agro-industrial systems are respectively as follows: output/input energy ratio, 1.09 (wheat) and 1.19 (corn); transformity of bioethanol, 2.77x105 and 1.89x105 seJ/J; renewability, 20% and 11%; eMergy yield ratio, 1.24 and 1.14; environmental loading ratio, 4.05 and 7.84; and finally eMergy sustainability index, 0.31 and 0.15. Results show that bioethanol from food crops is not a sustainable source of fuel.

  8. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Nazarpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatment were first determined by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction and their best condition obtained with 1 mm particle size and 90 days pretreatment. Further morphological study on rubberwood with 1 mm particle size pretreated by fungus was performed by FT-IR spectra analysis and SEM observation and the result indicated the ability of this fungus for pretreatment. A study on enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in an increased sugar yield of 27.67% as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%. The maximum ethanol concentration and yield were 17.9 g/L and 53% yield, respectively, after 120 hours. The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood pretreated by C. subvermispora can be used as an alternative material for the enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

  9. Energy and eMergy evaluation of bioethanol production from wheat in Henan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol production from wheat has become an emerging economic activity in Henan Province due to the establishment in 2001 of the National Program for Alcohol Production. The program aimed at facing the unfolding world energy crisis in the near future and increasing China's energy security. Instead, in spite of claims for 'green energy', such an activity is likely to generate great environmental damage and social problems. Moreover, the international market prices for raw materials (especially cereals) and fossil oil are putting this activity under siege. This research presents an energy and eMergy analysis of a typical wheat plantation/alcohol distillery system, in the Henan Province. Comparison is drawn with bioethanol production in Italy, based on corn from intensive, industrialized agriculture. Energy and eMergy indices of ethanol production from wheat and corn in the two agro-industrial systems are respectively as follows: output/input energy ratio, 1.09 (wheat) and 1.19 (corn); transformity of bioethanol, 2.77x105 and 1.89x105 seJ/J; renewability, 20% and 11%; eMergy yield ratio, 1.24 and 1.14; environmental loading ratio, 4.05 and 7.84; and finally eMergy sustainability index, 0.31 and 0.15. Results show that bioethanol from food crops is not a sustainable source of fuel

  10. Bioethanol production from pretreated Melaleuca leucadendron shedding bark--simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at high solid loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim Nasser; Nguyen, Phuong Lan Tran; Huynh, Lien Huong; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2013-05-01

    Bioethanol production from the shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron (Paper-bark Tree, PBT) was studied using subcritical water (SCW) pretreatment at various severities (So). High ethanol production was attained by implementing a factorial design on three parameters (So, solid loading and enzyme loading) in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode. Ethanol concentration of 63.2 g L(-1) corresponding to ethanol yield of 80.9% were achieved from pretreated biomass (So=2.37) at 0.25 g mL(-1) solid and 16 FPU g(-1) glucan enzyme loadings. Similarly at 0.15 g mL(-1) solid loadings both high ethanol concentration (43.7 g L(-1)) and high ethanol yield (91.25%) were achieved. Regression analysis of experimental results shows that all process parameters had significant role on maximum ethanol production, glucose solubility, ethanol yield and ethanol volumetric productivity. SSF of SCW treated PBT biomass is economically feasible for production of bioethanol. PMID:23570711

  11. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem. PMID:24787319

  12. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2007-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas.In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas...

  13. Effect of Selected Fermentation Parameters on Bioethanol Production from Ripe Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica) Peelings

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa D. Gutierrez; Kerstin Mae L. Amul; Rafael M. Carpio; Adrian Rex M. Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of selected fermentation parameters on bioethanol production from ripe carabao mango (Mangifera indica) peelings. Based on the results of the study, untreated peelings has compositional analysis in w/w% of 41.51%, 32.10%, 25.94% and 20.05% of extractives, holocellulose, alpha cellulose and acid insoluble respectively. On the other hand, after dilute acid pretreatment, the compositional analysis of extractives, holocellulose, alpha cellulose, acid insol...

  14. Optimising the (Microwave) Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Brewers Spent Grains for Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Wilkinson; Smart, Katherine A.; Cook, David J.

    2015-01-01

    For the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, it is important to optimise the thermochemical pretreatment which is required to facilitate subsequent liberation of monomeric sugars. Here, we report optimisation of pretreatment conditions for brewers spent grains (BSG) with the main objectives of (1) working at commercially relevant high solids content, (2) minimising energy and chemical inputs, and (3) maximising downstream sugar yields. Studies indicated there to be a play-of...

  15. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    OpenAIRE

    Kow-Jen Duan; Bo-Hong Jiang; Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus . Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase TM 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% ( w / v ) carrot pomace; the c...

  16. Engineering of core Pentose Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Bio-ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Filipa Alexandra Barroso

    2013-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências (Especialidade em Biologia) Renewable fuels that do not contribute to atmospheric carbon dioxide have gained increased attention due to peak oil and the possibility of carbon dioxide induced climate change. Bioethanol is the currently largest biofuel in terms of annual production and is mainly produce by fermentation of hexose sugars in sucrose or starch from sugarcane or corn by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Second generation biofuel is ...

  17. Pre-treatment and hydrolysis methods for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Osman Adıgüzel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology has rapidly expended and used for human benefits over the last 20 years. Humanity can solve some problems with the help of developing technology. But, they faced with fundemantal problem such as environmental distortion from increasing population and consumption of energy, raw material acarcity, nutrient deficiency, and waste management. Therefore, the main theme in our research covers the pre-treatment and hydrolysis methods use during production bioethanol from agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes.

  18. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka,Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB)...

  19. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Möllers, K. Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated und...

  20. Development and perspective of promising energy plants for bioethanol production in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global energy crisis and continual soaring prices of fossil fuels force people to seek the new and recycled alternative energy sources hard. Biodiesel oil as well as bioethanol fuel, as two new and clean fuels for environmental protection, have already been approved as substitutes for fuel or fuel additive. Some common bottlenecks for production of biodiesel crops have been found. However, developing bioethanol crops in Taiwan has many benefits. Four most promising alcohol crops in Taiwan, i.e., sweet potato, maize, sugarcane, and sweet sorghum have been discussed. Sweet sorghum can be strongly recommended as a key alcohol crop in Taiwan, because of its short growing period, low water requirement, large amount of biomass and alcohol produced, and greater income obtained from sweet sorghum cultivation. (author)

  1. Development and perspective of promising energy plants for bioethanol production in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Sin-Yie; Lin, Chien-Yih [Agricultural Research Institute, COA, No. 189, Jhongjheng Road, Wufong, Taichung 41301 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The global energy crisis and continual soaring prices of fossil fuels force people to seek the new and recycled alternative energy sources hard. Biodiesel oil as well as bioethanol fuel, as two new and clean fuels for environmental protection, have already been approved as substitutes for fuel or fuel additive. Some common bottlenecks for production of biodiesel crops have been found. However, developing bioethanol crops in Taiwan has many benefits. Four most promising alcohol crops in Taiwan, i.e., sweet potato, maize, sugarcane, and sweet sorghum have been discussed. Sweet sorghum can be strongly recommended as a key alcohol crop in Taiwan, because of its short growing period, low water requirement, large amount of biomass and alcohol produced, and greater income obtained from sweet sorghum cultivation. (author)

  2. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  3. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Jan B; Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning; Elder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall. PMID:18471316

  4. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne-Belinda [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 C, 15 min, 2 g l{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape straw or faba bean straw was significantly affected by pretreatment. Ethanol was produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid material after wet oxidation with yields of 66%, 70% and 52% of theoretical for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively. Methane was produced with yields of 0.36, 0.42 and 0.44 l g{sup -1} volatile solids for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively, without pretreatment of the materials. However, biogas productivity was low and it took over 50 days to reach the final yield. It could be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved. (author)

  5. Comparison of different pretreatments for the production of bioethanol and biomethane from corn stover and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, G; Rodriguez, S; George, A; Schievano, A; Orzi, V; Sale, K L; Singh, S; Adani, F; Simmons, B A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the efficiency of mild ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment and pressurized hot water (PHW) is evaluated and compared in terms of bioethanol and biomethane yields, with corn stover (CS) and switchgrass (SG) as model bioenergy crops. Both feedstocks pretreated with the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im][OAc] at 100°C for 3h exhibited lower glucose yield that those treated with harsher pretreatment conditions previously used. Compared to PHW, IL pretreatment demonstrated higher bioethanol yields; moreover IL pretreatment enhanced biomethane production. Taking into consideration both bioethanol and biomethane productions, results indicated that when using IL pretreatment, the total energy produced per kg of total solids was higher compared to untreated biomasses. Specifically energy produced from CS and SG was +18.6% and +34.5% respectively, as compared to those obtained by hot water treatment, i.e. +2.3% and +23.4% for CS and SG, respectively. PMID:25725408

  6. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Yields and Potential for Bioethanol Production under Irrigation Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona C. BÂRSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to analyse three sugar beet genotypes regarding to the economic yield and the potential to produce bioethanol, under the influence of furrow irrigation regime in specific conditions of Transylvanian Plain, North-West Romania. The research factors, genotype (‘Leila’, ‘Clementina’ and ‘Libero’ and irrigation regime were studied within a polyfactorial experimental design. The results obtained indicated that in specific climatic conditions of Transylvanian Plain, ‘Libero’ genotype had a great performance and produced the highest yields. The average production of ‘Libero’ genotype was superior than ‘Clementina’ and ‘Leila’ varieties, both in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, as it follows: 38.98 t ha–1, respectively, 52.72 t ha–1 in the first year of research; 47.63 t ha–1, respectively, 59.73 t ha–1 (in the second year; 2014-60.87 t ha–1, respectively, 74.43 t ha–1 (in the third year. Moreover, the production increased with 11.5% under irrigated conditions for all the studied genotypes. The results also revealed the positive influence of the irrigation regime on the qualitative parameters of the bioethanol (ethanol, higher saturated monoalcohols, methanol, water, inorganic chloride, cooper, phosphorous, sulphur etc. indicating that the obtained bioethanol might be a viable alternative for fossil fuels.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Pretreatment Strategies on Enzymatic Saccharification of Hylocereus polyrhizus’s Pericarps for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. A. Ong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the possibility of bioethanol production from an indigenous fruit waste - pericaps of dragon fruit, the efficacy of several pretreatment methods on enzymatic digestibility of pericarps were investigated. Following that, the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSaF of pretreated pericarps to ethanol was conducted by using instant dry yeast. From our study, it was observed that the total sugar yields obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of thermally pretreated pericarps (0.6 g/g were higher than untreated pericarps powders (0.28 g/g. By using thermally pretreated pericarps as biomass resource, ethanol concentration of 1.5 g/L was achieved after 80 h of cultivation process. The ethanol yield of 27% (% w/w initial dry weight of biomass as recorded from the present study is lower compared to the theoretical yield of ethanol from pure glucose solution (51% w/w glucose. Nevertheless, these results indicate that by applying thermal pretreatment, the pericarps of dragon fruit could be considered as an economically viable lignocellulosic material for production of fermentable sugars related to bioethanol production.

  8. Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency. PMID:23768115

  9. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgakakis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4 were investigated. Each acid were used at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C. Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars with higher rates, while the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass was significantly affected by the acid concentration used for the saccharification of the carbohydrates. The highest bioethanol yields of 16.32% ± 0.90% (gEtOH/gBiomass and 16.27% ± 0.97% (gEtOH/gBiomass were obtained in hydrolysates produced with HNO3 0.5 N and H2SO4 0.5 N, respectively.

  10. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitrwung, Rujira; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR). Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol) and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol. PMID:25970750

  11. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujira Jitrwung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR. Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol.

  12. Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for efficient very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Francisco B; Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; J. A. Teixeira; Domingues, Lucília

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An optimized very high gravity (VHG) glucose medium supplemented with low cost nutrient sources was used to evaluate bio-ethanol production by 11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The industrial strains PE-2 and CA1185 exhibited the best overall fermentation performance, producing an ethanol titre of 19.2% (v/v) corresponding to a batch productivity of 2.5 g l?1 h?1, while the best laboratory strain (CEN.PK 113-7D) produced 17.5% (v/v) ethanol with a productivity of 1.7 g ...

  13. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process. PMID:10514249

  14. The Development of Materials for the Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pilar; Ramírez; de; la; Piscina; Narcís; Homs

    2007-01-01

    1 Results There is an increased interest in the hydrogen production from renewable sources. In this context, recently, numerous studies which use ethanol for hydrogen production have appeared. Ethanol is easily handled, non-toxic, and it can be obtained from biomass. The steam-reforming of bioethanol has been shown to beeffective for hydrogen production:C2H5OH + 3 H2O  6 H2 + 2 CO2. Six moles of hydrogen can be yielded for each mole of ethanol reacted. However, depending on the catalyst used, other und...

  15. Interconnected Hierarchical Porous Carbon from Lignin-Derived Byproducts of Bioethanol Production for Ultra-High Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liming; You, Tingting; Zhou, Tian; Zhou, Xia; Xu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    The advent of bioethanol production has generated abundant lignin-derived byproducts which contain proteins and polysaccharides. These byproducts are inapplicable for direct material applications. In this study, lignin-derived byproducts were used for the first time as carbon precursors to construct an interconnected hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon (HPNC) via hydrothermal treatment and activation. The obtained HPNC exhibited favorable features for supercapacitor applications, such as hierarchical bowl-like pore structures, a large specific surface area of 2218 m(2) g(-1), a high electronic conductivity of 4.8 S cm(-1), and a nitrogen doping content of 3.4%. HPNC-based supercapacitors in a 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte exhibited high-rate performance with a high specific capacitance of 312 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and 81% retention at 80 A g(-1) as well as an excellent cyclic life of 98% initial capacitance after 20 000 cycles at 10 A g(-1). Moreover, HPNC-based supercapacitors in the ionic liquid electrolyte of EMI-BF4 displayed an enhanced energy density of 44.7 Wh kg(-1) (remaining 74% of max value) at an ultrahigh power density of 73.1 kW kg(-1). The proposed strategy may facilitate lignin utilization and lead to a green bioethanol production process. PMID:27181098

  16. Enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: Bi-functional enzyme complexes expressed in Pichia pastoris improve bioethanol production from Miscanthus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Young In; Kang, Dea Hee; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant utilizable natural resource. In the process of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, an efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to release hexose and pentose is essential. We have developed a strain of Pichia pastoris that can produce ethanol via pentose and hexose using an assembly of enzyme complexes. The use of enzyme complexes is one of the strategies for effective lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Xylanase XynB from Clostridium cellulovorans and a chimeric endoglucanase cCelE from Clostridium thermocellum were selected as enzyme subunits, and were bound to a recombinant scaffolding protein mini-CbpA from C. cellulovorans to assemble the enzyme complexes. These complexes efficiently degraded xylan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), producing approximately 1.18 and 1.07 g/L ethanol from each substrate, respectively, which is 2.3-fold and 2.7-fold higher than that of the free-enzyme expressing strain. Miscanthus sinensis was investigated as the lignocellulosic biomass for producing bioethanol, and 1.08 g/L ethanol was produced using our recombinant P. pastoris strain, which is approximately 1.9-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. In future research, construction of enzyme complexes containing various hydrolysis enzymes could be used to develop biocatalysts that can completely degrade lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products such as biofuels. PMID:26479167

  17. Bioethanol production by inherent enzymes from rye and wheat with addition of organic farming cheese whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Christensen, Anne Deen; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard;

    2011-01-01

    . Throughout our studies, wheat and rye grain was used as raw material in bioethanol production with the purpose of producing in situ enzymes (during germination) for the hydrolysis of starch in the grains and compared with commercial amylase enzyme preparations. Whey permeate was incorporated into the grain......In organic farming, there is a strong effort to minimize the share of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) and use only (preferably on-farm produced) bio-based energy and renewable raw materials, with the aim of achieving sustainable production systems and to become self-sufficient in energy...

  18. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw into...... ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively in the...

  19. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  20. Using the residue of spirit production and bio-ethanol for protein production by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina F; Arcuri, Silvio L; Campos, Cássia R; Vilela, Danielle M; Alves, José G L F; Schwan, Rosane F

    2011-01-01

    The residue (vinasse) formed during the distillation of bio-ethanol and cachaça, a traditional rum-type spirit produced from sugar-cane in Brazil, is highly harmful if discharged into the environment due to high values of COD and BOD. One possibility for minimizing the impact of vinasse in soils and waters is to use the residue in the production of microbial biomass for use as an animal feed supplement that will provide high levels on nitrogen (>9% d.m.) and low content of nucleic (≤ 10% d.m.) This paper reports the production and quality of biomass produced from fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis in culture media under 12 different culture conditions and the respective effects of each variable (glucose, yeast extract, peptone, potassium phosphate, vinasse, pH and temperature). Of the S. cerevisiae isolates tested, two (VR1 and PE2) originating from fuel alcohol-producing plants were identified as offering the best potential for the industrial production of single cell protein from vinasse due to highest biomass productivity. Our results showed a potential viable and economic use of vinasse. PMID:20864326

  1. Evaluation of ligninolytic enzymes, ultrasonication and liquid hot water as pretreatments for bioethanol production from cotton gin trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plácido, Jersson; Imam, Tahmina; Capareda, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Cotton gin trash (CGT) is a ubiquitous cotton-production-waste resource which can be used for ethanol production. In this research, seven combinations of three pretreatments; ultrasonication, liquid hot water and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated on CGT to select the best pretreatments combination that increased the cellulose conversion and the ethanol yield in the saccharification and fermentation processes, respectively. The structural changes in the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from CGT were followed using FT-IR after each pretreatment. All the pretreatment combinations modified the CGT's structure and composition compared with the unpretreated CGT, and the majority of them improved release of sugars originally present in the CGT. The best results were achieved by the sequential combination of ultrasonication, hot water, and ligninolytic enzymes with an improvement of 10% in the ethanol yield and cellulose conversion compared to the other pretreatments. These results are a contribution to develop a feasible bioethanol production from CGT. PMID:23665215

  2. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  3. Improvement of bioethanol yield by pervaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nongauza, Sinethemba Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    Due to the depletion of petroleum reserves and environmental concerns, bioethanol has been identified as an alternative fuel to petrol. Bioethanol is a fuel of bio-origin derived from renewable biomass. Starch and sugar containing materials are the primary sources of carbon for bioethanol production. Starch is firstly hydrolysed into simple sugars which are later fermented to bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). The fermentation of sugars to bioethanol is however limited...

  4. 1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    production comparable to gasoline production in terms of energy loss. Utilisation of biomass in the energy sector is inevitably linked to the utilisation of land. This is a key difference between fossil and bio based energy systems. Thus evaluations of bioethanol production based on energy balances alone are...

  5. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  6. Display of phytase on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to degrade phytate phosphorus and improve bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Xiao, Yan; Shen, Wei; Govender, Algasan; Zhang, Liang; Fan, You; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2016-03-01

    Currently, development of biofuels as an alternative fuel has gained much attention due to resource and environmental challenges. Bioethanol is one of most important and dominant biofuels, and production using corn or cassava as raw materials has become a prominent technology. However, phytate contained in the raw material not only decreases the efficiency of ethanol production, but also leads to an increase in the discharge of phosphorus, thus impacting on the environment. In this study, to decrease phytate and its phosphorus content in an ethanol fermentation process, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered through a surface-displaying system utilizing the C-terminal half of the yeast α-agglutinin protein. The recombinant yeast strain, PHY, was constructed by successfully displaying phytase on the surface of cells, and enzyme activity reached 6.4 U/g wet biomass weight. Ethanol productions using various strains were compared, and the results demonstrated that the specific growth rate and average fermentation rate of the PHY strain were higher 20 and 18 %, respectively, compared to the control strain S. cerevisiae CICIMY0086, in a 5-L bioreactor process by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. More importantly, the phytate phosphorus concentration decreased by 89.8 % and free phosphorus concentration increased by 142.9 % in dry vinasse compared to the control in a 5-L bioreactor. In summary, we constructed a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain displaying phytase on the cell surface, which could improve ethanol production performance and effectively reduce the discharge of phosphorus. The strain reported here represents a useful novel engineering platform for developing an environment-friendly system for bioethanol production from a corn substrate. PMID:26610799

  7. Prioritization of Bioethanol Production Pathways in China based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study objectives are two-fold: (i) combining the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework and the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology for sustainability assessment; (ii) determining the most sustainable scenario for bioethanol production in China according......’s proposed method investigates an illustrative case about three alternative bioethanol production scenarios (wheat-based, corn-based and cassava-based): the prior sequence (based on the sustainability performances) in descending order is cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based. The proposed methodology...... is to test the combination of a MCDM methodology and LCSA for sustainability decision-making by studying three alternative pathways for bioethanol production in China. The proposed method feasibly enables the decision-makers/stakeholders to find the most sustainable scenario to achieve their objectives among...

  8. An evaluation of different bioreactor configurations for continuous bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two bioreactor configurations were constructed and compared. • Continuous bioethanol production was performed in both bioreactors. • Plate heat exchanger bioreactor was the best for solid mash fermentation. • Operational power costs of both bioreactors were different in small scale levels. • Further study needed for both bioreactors with optimized parameters. - Abstract: In this preliminary investigation, a so-called Blenke cascade and plate heat exchanger bioreactor configuration were compared in terms of mixing characteristics, contamination free process, operational power costs and overall performance. At room temperature, fermentation was initially started as batch run and switched to continuous operation, when the residual sugars within the reactor were detected to be C ⩽ 1% (g/L). Samples from both configurations were taken and analyzed for ethanol and residual sugar content, as well as for any infection of the fermentation and lactic acid content, respectively. Mixing characteristics were studied by the residence time distribution method. Both geometries behaved as a finite number n of continuous stirred tanks in series, behaving as a plug flow with superimposed axial dispersion. The number of tanks in series n obtained in the plate heat exchanger configuration was 1.5–3 times larger than those in the Blenke cascade. The average ethanol productivity was Qp = 3.07 (g/L h) and Qp = 2.31 (g/L h) for cascade and plate exchanger configuration, respectively. The analysis of operational power costs indicates relevant differences between the two reactors at laboratory scale; however, systems with different types of pumps and viscosities are compared. From an industrial scale point of view, specific operational costs decrease with scale-up, as no mechanical mixing is needed in the fermenters

  9. PRODUCTION OF FERMENTABLE SUGARS FROM OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH USING CRUDE CELLULASE COCKTAILS WITH TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM UPM1 AND ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS UPM2 FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Kartini Abu Bakar,; Zuraidah Zanirun; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Farinazleen Mohd Ghazali; Mohd Ali Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) for bioethanol production with crude cellulase cocktails from locally isolated fungi was studied. Enzymatic saccharification of alkaline pretreated OPEFB was done using different cellulase enzyme preparations. Crude cellulase cocktails from Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 produced 8.37 g/L reducing sugars with 0.17 g/g yield. Production of bioethanol from OPEFB hydrolysate using Baker’s yeast produced approximately 0...

  10. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, Hamed I.; Nassar, Hussein N.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Salem S. Abu Amr; Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the m...

  11. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... (> 95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol...

  12. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  13. The Effects of Temperature and Length of Fermentation on Bioethanol Production from Arenga Plant (Arenga pinnata MERR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrizal Fahrizal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is a fuel extracted from plant. Bioethanol can be extracted from cassava, sweet potato, sugarcane, corn, grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, sagoo, palms, coconut and rice. The aren palm is the most potential source of bioethanol, and as one of the most productive raw material of bioethanol. A research is needed to be able to produce bioethanol in a simple way so that it can be applayed by society. In this study, the effects of temperature (T and length of fermentation (t on ethanol production was examined. Temperature used is 27 oC and 32 oC. Samples from each treatment will be taken every 24 hours, starting from third days, which is 72 hours (H3, 96 hours (H4, 120 hours (H5, 144 hours (H6 and 168 hours (H7. Analysis performed includes changes in the sugar content, pH, total acid and ethanol content. The results showed that sugar content and pH decreased with increasing fermentation time, in both temperature, 27 oC and 32 oC. In contrast total acid was increased with increasing fermentation time. Increase in total acid is related to the formation of acids during fermentation. Ethanol content increased with increasing fermentation time in both 27 oC and 32 oC, though, the increase was higher at 32 oC. Highest ethanol content was obtained on day 5 in temperatures 32 oC.

  14. Production of bioethanol from organic whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A.D.; Kádár, Zsófia; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr;

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol production by K. marxianus in whey from organic cheese production was examined in batch and continuous mode. The results showed that no pasteurization or freezing of the whey was necessary and that K. marxianus was able to compete with the lactic acid bacteria added during cheese production...... high ethanol yield (~0.50 g ethanol/g lactose) at both 30°C and 40°C using low pH (4.5) or no pH control. Continuous fermentation of nonsterilized whey was performed using Ca-alginate-immobilized K. marxianus. High ethanol productivity (2.5-4.5 g/l/h) was achieved at dilution rate of 0.2/h, and it was...... concluded that K. marxianus is very suitable for industrial ethanol production from whey. © 2010 Society for Industrial Microbiology....

  15. Enhancing the Feasibility of Microcystis aeruginosa as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production under the Influence of Various Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon Geon; Seo, Hyo Jin; Shin, Jin Hyuk; Shin, Tai Sun; Kim, Min Yong; Choi, Jong Il

    2016-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater microalga, is capable of producing and accumulating different types of sugars in its biomass which make it a good feedstock for bioethanol production. Present study aims to investigate the effect of different factors increasing growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa. MF media (modified BG11 media) and additional ingredients such as aminolevulinic acid (2 mM), lysine (2.28 mM), alanine (1 mM), and Naphthalene acetic acid (1 mM) as cytokine promoted M. aeruginosa growth and sugar contents. Salmonella showed growth-assisting effect on M. aeruginosa. Enhanced growth rate and carbohydrates contents were observed in M. aeruginosa culture grown at 25°C under red LED light of 90 μmolm−2s−1 intensity. More greenish and carbohydrates rich M. aeruginosa biomass was prepared (final OD660 nm = 2.21 and sugar contents 10.39 mM/mL) as compared to control (maximum OD660 nm = 1.4 and sugar contents 3 mM/mL). The final algae biomass was converted to algae juice through a specific pretreatment method. The resulted algae Juice was used as a substrate in fermentation process. Highest yield of bioethanol (50 mM/mL) was detected when Brettanomyces custersainus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia stipitis were used in combinations for fermentation process as compared to their individual fermentation. The results indicated the influence of different factors on the growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa and its feasibility as a feedstock for fermentative ethanol production. PMID:27556034

  16. Enhancing the Feasibility of Microcystis aeruginosa as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production under the Influence of Various Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Moon Geon; Seo, Hyo Jin; Shin, Jin Hyuk; Shin, Tai Sun; Yoon, Yang Ho; Kim, Min Yong; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jong Deog

    2016-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater microalga, is capable of producing and accumulating different types of sugars in its biomass which make it a good feedstock for bioethanol production. Present study aims to investigate the effect of different factors increasing growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa. MF media (modified BG11 media) and additional ingredients such as aminolevulinic acid (2 mM), lysine (2.28 mM), alanine (1 mM), and Naphthalene acetic acid (1 mM) as cytokine promoted M. aeruginosa growth and sugar contents. Salmonella showed growth-assisting effect on M. aeruginosa. Enhanced growth rate and carbohydrates contents were observed in M. aeruginosa culture grown at 25°C under red LED light of 90 μmolm(-2)s(-1) intensity. More greenish and carbohydrates rich M. aeruginosa biomass was prepared (final OD660 nm = 2.21 and sugar contents 10.39 mM/mL) as compared to control (maximum OD660 nm = 1.4 and sugar contents 3 mM/mL). The final algae biomass was converted to algae juice through a specific pretreatment method. The resulted algae Juice was used as a substrate in fermentation process. Highest yield of bioethanol (50 mM/mL) was detected when Brettanomyces custersainus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia stipitis were used in combinations for fermentation process as compared to their individual fermentation. The results indicated the influence of different factors on the growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa and its feasibility as a feedstock for fermentative ethanol production. PMID:27556034

  17. Study of Application of Vinasse from Bio-ethanol Production to Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Shinogi, Yoshiyuki

    During bio-ethanol production from sugarcane molasses, large amounts of vinasse, which is strongly acidic with high COD and BOD, is produced as a by-product. Disposal of vinasse is one restrictive problem for sustainable bio-ethanol production. In this study, possible application of vinasse to farmland was investigated. First, the staple characteristics of vinasse were determined. Second, availability of nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium to crops and dynamics in the soil environment were studied in the laboratory, and crop growth experiments were carried out in the field. Farmland application of vinasse as a substitute for one third of the potassium showed no significant damage to the growth of red-radishes and tomatoes. When large amounts of vinasse are applied to farmland as a substitution for the nitrogen in traditional chemical fertilizers, nitrogen-hunger especially immediately after application is expected. In addition, it is necessary to take into consideration the leaching of ions and the dark material in the vinasse for proper timing of application and soil conditions.

  18. Statistical screening and selection of sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at the screening of four cultivars of sorghums as a feedstock for bioethanol production. The straw of these varieties were subjected to pretreatment (dilute sulfuric acid) followed by enzyme hydrolysis to evaluate their potential to produce sugars. Four factor full factorial experimental design (2*2*2*4=32) was used to investigate the effects of experimental factors; sorghum varieties (84-Y-01, 85-G-86, Mr. Buster and RARI S-3), acid concentration (1 and 2%), temperature (121 and 140 degree C) and pretreatment time (30 and 60 min). The tested sorghum varieties follow the order 85-G-86 (47 g/100g) > Mr. Buster (44.6 g/100g) > 84-Y-01 (42 g/100g) > RARI S-3 (36 g/100g) for their sugar yield. The factors followed given order of significance; variety > temperature > acid concentration > pretreatment time. Sorghum variety (85-G-86) was selected as an appropriate feedstock for bioethanol production due to its higher sugar yield and lower concentration of by-products and furans. (author)

  19. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Jović Jelena M.; Pejin Jelena; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica; Mojović Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes) is ...

  20. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOETHANOL RECOVERY USING MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroleum is currently used as the starting material for many commodity chemicals and fuels, but the prospect of dwindling oil supplies, reliance on unpredictable oil sources, and the carbon balance of the planet are concerns. Sustainable production of commodity chemicals and bi...

  1. A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol. Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanthera sessilis (296.8µg/ml, total sugar in Ipomoea aquatic (880.00mg/ml, starch in Alternanthera sessilis (57.13mg/ml, cellulose in Pistia stratiotes and Typha latifolia (280.00mg/ml, hemicellulose in Typha latifolia (26.85mg/ml; high cellulosic aquatic weeds were subjected to pre-treatment methods like physical, chemical and enzymatic method. Meanwhile different yeast strains from the fruits of Manilkara zapota, Cucumis melo, Musa paradisiaca, Citrullus lanatus, Punica granatum and Ananas comosus were isolated yeast of Citrullus lanatus shows highest amount of alcohol production (307µg/ml, which is inoculated to pre-treated hydrolysate, where Alternanthera sessilis and Typha latifolia shows high amount of alcohol in physical method (160.5 and 115.4µg/ml. In chemical method in acid hydrolysis it shows 387.1 and 69.63µg/ml and in alkali hydrolysis 62 and 170µg/ml, so these two weeds were taken for enzymatic method for alcohol production, on seventh day Alternanthera sessilis shows highest alcohol production (113.33µg/ml, hence among six weeds Alternanthera sessilis and the yeast of Citrullus lanatus produces more amount of alcohol than others and it also shows that enzymatic method of pre-treatment is best in hydrolysis of biomass than physical and chemical method. The study revealed the possibility of producing alcohol from locally available fruits using simple, cheap and adaptable technology with biochemically characterized yeast strains.

  2. A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil; Merin John; Venkatachalapathi Girish; Sirangala Thimappa Girisha

    2015-01-01

    A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol). Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanther...

  3. Characterisation of a novel thermostable endoglucanase from Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis of potential application in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angela; Walsh, Gary

    2015-09-01

    A novel endoglucanase encoding gene was cloned from Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis and expressed in E. coli. The deduced amino acid sequence showed highest identity with α-L-arabinofuranosidase-like proteins from glycoside hydrolase family 51. The recombinant enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography and characterised in terms of its potential suitability for lignocellulose hydrolysis at high temperature in the production of bioethanol. The purified enzyme displayed maximum activity at 80 °C and pH 3.6-4.5. Tween 20 was found to have a beneficial effect on enzyme activity and thermal stability. When incubated in the presence of 0.1% Tween 20, the enzyme retained full activity after 72 h at 70 °C and 78% of original activity after 72 h at 75 °C. Maximum activity was observed on carboxymethyl cellulose, and the purified enzyme also hydrolysed lichenan, barley β-glucan and xylan. The purified enzyme decreased the viscosity of carboxymethyl cellulose when assessed at 70-85 °C and was capable of releasing reducing sugars from acid-pretreated straw at 70 and 75 °C. The results indicate the potential suitability of the enzyme for industrial application in the production of cellulosic bioethanol. PMID:25722023

  4. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives. PMID:25453284

  5. Data-driven, data-intensive computing for modelling and analysis of biological networks: application to bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Hoon; Samatova, Nagiza F.; Karpinets, Tatiana; Jallouk, Andrew; Molony, Scott; Horton, Scott; Arcangeli, Steven

    2007-07-01

    Modelling biological networks is inherently data-driven and data-intensive. The combinatorial nature of this type of modelling, however, requires new methods capable of dealing with the enormous size and irregularity of the search. Searching via 'backtracking' is one possible solution that avoids exhaustive searches by constraining the search space to the subspace of feasible solutions. Despite its wide use in many combinatorial optimization problems, there are currently few parallel implementations of backtracking capable of effectively dealing with the memory-intensive nature of the process and the extremely unbalanced loads present. In this paper, a parallel, scalable, and memory-efficient backtracking algorithm within the context of maximal clique enumeration is presented, and its applicability to large-scale biological networks aimed at studying the mechanisms for efficient bioethanol production is discussed.

  6. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  7. Application of activated sludge as a complementary in bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzeh Imani; Azam Jeihanipour; Mohammad Ali Asadollahi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Excess activated sludge contains large amounts of components such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur which can theoretically be used as a nutrient source in fermentation processes to produce value added materials. In the present study, the possibility to grow Saccharomyces cerevisiae and produce ethanol on pretreated and untreated activated sludge as a nutrient source was investigated. Materials and methods: In this article, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CEN.PK...

  8. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina;

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also be...... used as a versatile feedstock in the chemical industry. Currently the production of carbon-containing commodity chemicals is dependent on fossil resources, and more than 95% of these chemicals are produced from non-renewable carbon resources. The question is: what will be the optimal use of bioethanol...

  9. IMPACT OF HOT COMPRESSED WATER PRETREATMENT ON THE STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF WOODY BIOMASS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ping Xiao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As an initial step in an alternative use of woody biomass to produce bioethanol, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of hot compressed water (HCW pretreatment within the temperature range 100 to 200 °C in a batch-type reactor on the structural changes of Tamarix ramosissima. The untreated and pretreated solid residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, solid-state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, as well as chemical methods. The results showed that HCW pretreatment solubilized mainly hemicelluloses and resulted in enriched cellulose and lignin content in the pretreated solids. It was found that the deposition of lignin droplets on the residual surfaces was produced during pretreatment under the hot water conditions above 140 °C. In addition, the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin re-localisation as a result of condensation reactions under the severe pretreatment condition may lead to an increase in cellulose crystallinity and thermal stability of biomass solid residues, thus consequently influencing the downstream digestibility of biomass for sugars and bioethanol production.

  10. Bioethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by solid-state fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Sujit Kumar [Division of Biotechnology, Majhighariani Institute of Technology and Science, Sriram Vihar, Bhujabal, Rayagada 765017 (India); Behera, Shuvasis [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004 (India); Swain, Manas Ranjan; Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019 (India)

    2009-05-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, the production of ethanol from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The moisture level of 70%, pH of 6.0 and temperature of 30 C were found optimum for maximum ethanol concentration (225.0 {+-} 4.0 g/kg flower) obtained from mahula flowers after 72 h of fermentation. Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, the maximum ethanol productivity (3.13 g/kg flower/h), yeast biomass (18.5 x 10{sup 8} CFU/g flower), the ethanol yield (58.44 g/100 g sugar consumed) and the fermentation efficiency (77.1%) were also obtained at these parametric levels. (author)

  11. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels;

    2008-01-01

    Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...

  12. Life cycle assessment of advanced bioethanol production from pulp and paper sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Diogo; Gonçalves, Margarida S; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco; Oliveira, Ana C; Matos, Cristina T

    2016-05-01

    This work evaluates the environmental performance of using pulp and paper sludge as feedstock for the production of second generation ethanol. An ethanol plant for converting 5400 tons of dry sludge/year was modelled and evaluated using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The sludge is a burden for pulp and paper mills that is mainly disposed in landfilling. The studied system allows for the valorisation of the waste, which due to its high polysaccharide content is a valuable feedstock for bioethanol production. Eleven impact categories were analysed and the results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis and neutralisation of the CaCO3 are the environmental hotspots of the system contributing up to 85% to the overall impacts. Two optimisation scenarios were evaluated: (1) using a reduced HCl amount in the neutralisation stage and (2) co-fermentation of xylose and glucose, for maximal ethanol yield. Both scenarios displayed significant environmental impact improvements. PMID:26926202

  13. Advances in bioethanol

    CERN Document Server

    Bajpai, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an updated and detailed overview on advances in bioethanol. It looks at the historical perspectives, chemistry, sources and production of ethanol and discusses biotechnology breakthroughs and promising developments. The book also provides the details regarding the uses, advantages, problems, environmental effects and characteristics of bioethanol as a fuel. In addition, it presents information about ethanol in different parts of the world and also highlights the challenges and future of ethanol.

  14. Bioethanol: State and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Marija B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of bioethanol production currently applied all over the world are reviewed in this paper. Attention is focused on potentially cheap biomass sources, as well as the most important operating factors controlling the progress and result of saccharification and fermentation reactions and affecting the yield of fermentable sugars and ethanol, respectively, such as: the type and concentration of acid, the type of enzyme, the type of working microorganism, operating temperature, duration time and pH. The hydrolysis conditions, namely duration time, temperature and sulfuric acid concentration, were combined in a single parameter, known as the "combined severity" (CS, in order to estimate the efficiency of bioethanol production from biomass. When the CS increases, the yield of fermentable sugars also increases. The decrease in the yield of monosaccharides coincides with the maximum concentrations of by-products, such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which are well-known as yeast inhibitors. The highest ethanol yields has been obtained using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With low oil prices and political reluctance to implement carbon taxes, fuel-ethanol production will remain uncompetitive unless some other form of cost reduction can be made, such as feedstock preparation costs.

  15. Effect of Selected Fermentation Parameters on Bioethanol Production from Ripe Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa D. Gutierrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of selected fermentation parameters on bioethanol production from ripe carabao mango (Mangifera indica peelings. Based on the results of the study, untreated peelings has compositional analysis in w/w% of 41.51%, 32.10%, 25.94% and 20.05% of extractives, holocellulose, alpha cellulose and acid insoluble respectively. On the other hand, after dilute acid pretreatment, the compositional analysis of extractives, holocellulose, alpha cellulose, acid insoluble lignin, acid soluble lignin and hemicelluloses were 15.71%, 76.01, 73.21%, 48.88%, 5.57% and 2.81% respectively.Findings also showed that there is a significant difference in the aforementioned properties before and after undergoing dilute acid pre-treatment.

  16. Bioethanol production from grape and sugar beet pomaces by solid-state fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.A.; Toro, M.E.; Vazquez, F.; Correa-Daneri, M.L.; Gouiric, S.C.; Vallejo, M.D. [Biotechnology Institute, Engineering Faculty, National University of San Juan, Av. San Martin 1109 (Oeste), 5400 San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    A suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels is the production of bioethanol from agroindustrial waste. Grape pomace is the most abundant residue in San Juan and sugar beet pomace could be important in the region. Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) is a technology that allows transforming agroindustrial waste into many valuable bioproducts, like ethanol. This work reports a laboratory scale SSF to obtain alcohol from grape and sugar beet pomace by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The initial conditions of the culture medium were: sugars 16.5% (p/p); pH 4.5; humidity 68% (p/p). Cultures were inoculated with 10{sup 8} cells/g of pomace, and incubated in anaerobic environment, at 28 C, during 96 h. SSF showed ethanol maximum concentrations at 48 h and ethanol yield on sugars consumed was more than 82%. Yield attained creates expectation about the use of SSF to obtain fuel alcohol. (author)

  17. The Effect of Microwave-NaOH Pretreatment and Hydrolysis Enzyme Using Trichoderma reesei-Aspergillus niger on Rice Straw Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Dwi Argo; Yusuf Hendrawan; Dewi Maya Maharani; Angky Wahyu Putranto; Sri Winarsih

    2016-01-01

    The process of bioethanol production from rice straw consists of two steps: (1) conversion of cellulose into simple sugars which is conducted by using microwave-NaOH pretreatment and straw hydrolysis using mold catalyst T.reesei and A. niger; and (2) fermentation of simple sugars into ethanol. In a microwave-NaOH pretreatment process has been obtained the best value content of cellulose in straw size of 100 mesh and a long exposure of 40 minutes for 72.70+1:10%. Crude cellulase enzyme activit...

  18. A spatially explicit whole-system model of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain: an assessment of decentralised processing potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nilay

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol technologies exhibit significant capacity for performance improvement across the supply chain through the development of high-yielding energy crops, integrated pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation technologies and the application of dedicated ethanol pipelines. The impact of such developments on cost-optimal plant location, scale and process composition within multiple plant infrastructures is poorly understood. A combined production and logistics model has been developed to investigate cost-optimal system configurations for a range of technological, system scale, biomass supply and ethanol demand distribution scenarios specific to European agricultural land and population densities. Results Ethanol production costs for current technologies decrease significantly from $0.71 to $0.58 per litre with increasing economies of scale, up to a maximum single-plant capacity of 550 × 106 l year-1. The development of high-yielding energy crops and consolidated bio-processing realises significant cost reductions, with production costs ranging from $0.33 to $0.36 per litre. Increased feedstock yields result in systems of eight fully integrated plants operating within a 500 × 500 km2 region, each producing between 1.24 and 2.38 × 109 l year-1 of pure ethanol. A limited potential for distributed processing and centralised purification systems is identified, requiring developments in modular, ambient pretreatment and fermentation technologies and the pipeline transport of pure ethanol. Conclusion The conceptual and mathematical modelling framework developed provides a valuable tool for the assessment and optimisation of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain. In particular, it can provide insight into the optimal configuration of multiple plant systems. This information is invaluable in ensuring (near-cost-optimal strategic development within the sector at the regional and national scale. The framework

  19. From biofuel to bioproduct: is bioethanol a suitable fermentation feedstock for synthesis of bulk chemicals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The first pilot-scale factories for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose have been installed, indicating that we are on the brink of overcoming most hurdles for an economically feasible process. When bioethanol is competitive as biofuel with fuels originating from petrochemical resources

  20. Purification of bioethanol effluent in an UASB reactor system with simultaneous biogas formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Mads Peter; Sommer, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the prospect of using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor for detoxification of process water derived from bioethanol production has been investigated. The bioethanol effluent (BEE) originated from wet oxidized wheat straw fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and The...

  1. A novel sono-assisted acid pretreatment of chili post harvest residue for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a sono-assisted acid pretreatment strategy for the effective removal of lignin and hemicelluloses and to improve the sugar yield from chili post harvest residue. Operational parameters that affect the pretreatment efficiency were studied and optimized. Inhibitor analysis of the hydrolyzate revealed that major fermentation inhibitors like furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural and organic acids like citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid were absent. Changes in structural properties of the biomass were studied in relation to the pretreatment process using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, and the changes in chemical composition was also monitored. The biomass pretreated with the optimized novel method yielded 0.465g/g of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation of the non-detoxified hydrolysate yielded 2.14% of bioethanol with a fermentation efficiency of 71.03%. PMID:26949055

  2. Integrated economic and life cycle assessment of thermochemical production of bioethanol to reduce production cost by exploiting excess of greenhouse gas savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of economics and sustainability of thermochemical ethanol production. • Exploitation of excess CO2 saving by either importing fossil energy or CO2 trading. • Significant increase in alcohol production by replacing biomass with natural gas. • CO2 emission trading is not cost-competitive versus import of fossil energy. • Lowest ethanol production cost for partial oxidation as reforming technology. - Abstract: In this work, two options are investigated to enhance the economics of the catalytic production of bioethanol from biomass gasification by exploiting the excess of CO2 emission saving: (i) to import fossil energy, in the form of natural gas and electricity or (ii) to trade CO2 emissions. To this end, an integrated life cycle and economic assessment is carried out for four process configurations, each using a different light hydrocarbon reforming technology: partial oxidation, steam methane reforming, tar reforming and autothermal reforming. The results show that for all process configurations the production of bioethanol and other alcohols significantly increases when natural gas displaces biomass, maintaining the total energy content of the feedstock. The economic advantage of the partial substitution of biomass by natural gas depends on their prices and this is explored by carrying out a sensitivity analysis, taking historical prices into account. It is also concluded that the trade of CO2 emissions is not cost-competitive compared to the import of natural gas if the CO2 emission price remains within historical European prices. The CO2 emission price would have to double or even quadruple the highest CO2 historical price for CO2 emission trading to be a cost-competitive option

  3. PRODUCTION OF FERMENTABLE SUGARS FROM OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH USING CRUDE CELLULASE COCKTAILS WITH TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM UPM1 AND ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS UPM2 FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kartini Abu Bakar,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB for bioethanol production with crude cellulase cocktails from locally isolated fungi was studied. Enzymatic saccharification of alkaline pretreated OPEFB was done using different cellulase enzyme preparations. Crude cellulase cocktails from Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 produced 8.37 g/L reducing sugars with 0.17 g/g yield. Production of bioethanol from OPEFB hydrolysate using Baker’s yeast produced approximately 0.59 g/L ethanol, corresponding to 13.8% of the theoretical yield. High reducing sugars concentration in the final fermentation samples resulted from accumulation of non-fermentable sugars such as xylose and cellobiose that were not consumed by the yeast. The results obtained support the possible utilization of OPEFB biomass for bioethanol production in the future.

  4. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. PMID:27115748

  5. Biodiesel and bioethanol production: A sustainable alternative for the energy crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castro Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution intends to give an overview of the current -status of the energy crisis and suggest some sustainable alternatives for energy production. In first place, a brief summary of the history about resources for energy production is presented. The high dependency of fossil combustibles it is well known and has been estimated that more than 90% of the used energy comes from non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and carbon. In the same way, here, it is described that oil is, by far, the main source of energy used to date and as a consequence, this resource is, unavoidably,coming to an end and at the same time is causing and increasing environmental pollution problems. Later in this work, it is suggested that in order to achieve the energetic sustainability, the development of alternative sources that will allow the reduction of toxic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions as well as a decrease of water usage along with a decrease in the energy production costs are needed. One of the alternatives that have been proposed is the production of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Here, some of the main properties at the level of the employed raw materials and production systems are cited. Finally, this work suggests some solutions that are under development worldwide in order to face thiscurrent energy situation.

  6. The effect of cassava-based bioethanol production on above-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Southern Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing energy use and the need to mitigate climate change make production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests and grassland into biofuel crops, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to biofuel crops. This paper reports the results of a study on cassava-based bioethanol production undertaken in the Sikasso region in Southern Mali. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase cassava production. The results show that expansion of cassava production for bioethanol will most likely lead to the conversion of fallow areas to cassava. A land use change from fallow to cassava creates a reduction in the above-ground carbon stocks in the order of 4–13 Mg C ha−1, depending on (a) the age of the fallow, (b) the allometric equation used and (c) whether all trees are removed or the larger, useful trees are preserved. This ‘carbon debt’ associated with the above-ground biomass loss would take 8–25 years to repay if fossil fuels are replaced with cassava-based bioethanol. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of cassava-based bioethanol a priority. ► Farmers in Southern Mali are likely to convert fallow areas to cassava production. ► Converting fallow to cassava creates reductions in above-ground carbon stocks. ► Estimates of carbon stock reductions include that farmers preserve useful trees. ► The carbon debt associated with above-ground biomass loss takes 8–25 years to repay.

  7. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Angelidaki, Irini; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2013-01-01

    Restbiomasse fra industri og kommunalt affald eller restmaterialer fra land- og skovbrug bliver brugt til produktion af andengenerations-bioethanol. Gæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae, der i dag industrielt bruges til fremstilling af førstegenerations-bioethanol, er ikke i stand til at omdanne alle de kulhydrater, der findes i de nævnte komplekse biomasser, til ethanol. Overgangen fra produktionen af andengenerations-bioethanol i pilotanlæg til industriskala er besværliggjort af det forhold, at l...

  8. Bioethanol production. Competitive strength in Germany in consideration of international competition.; Bioethanolproduktion. Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit in Deutschland unter Beruecksichtigung der internationalen Konkurrenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-07-01

    The competitive standing of bioethanol production in Germany is reviewed from a national and international scale. The production cost in the EU, Brazil, Australia, Thailand and China are compared, and the effects of imports on the German biofuels production is assessed. The surface terrain available for biocrops in Germany and the EU are estimated, the use of beetroot for biofuel production is analyzed, and relationships between crude oil prices and raw materials prices are established. The CO2 reduction cost resulting from the use of biofuels is calculated and compared with the cost of other climate protection measures. Existing bioethanol markets in Brazil and the USa are analyzed, and marketing trends of biodiesel are included for a comparison. With the aid of inquiry sheets, critical arguments of the automobile and mineral oil industries were compiled and viewed in the context of the biodiesel discussion. The results of the investigation are then discussed with a view to potentially conflicting goals. The author attempts to answer the question whether sustainable bioethanol production may be possible in Germany in the present conditions.

  9. Systemic analysis of production scenarios for bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghysel, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining alternatives for non-renewable energy sources constitutes a priority to the development of our societies. One of these alternatives is biofuels production starting from energy crops, agricultural wastes, forest products or wastes. In this context, a "second generation" biofuels production, aiming at utilizing the whole plant, including ligno-cellulosic (hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin fractions (Ogier et al., 1999 that are not used for human food, would allow the reduction of the drawbacks of bioethanol production (Schoeling, 2007. However, numerous technical, economical, ethical and environmental questions are still pending. One of the aims of the BioEtha2 project, directed by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, is to define the position of bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass among the different renewable energy alternatives that could be developed in Wallonia towards 2020. With this aim, and in order to answer the numerous questions in this field, the project aims at using tools and methods coming from the concept of "forecasting scenarios" (Sebillotte, 2002; Slegten et al., 2007; For-learn, 2008. This concept, based on a contemporary reality, aims to explore different possible scenarios for the future development of alternative sources of energy production. The principle is to evaluate, explore, possible futures of the studied problematic, through the establishment of possible evolution trajectories. We contribute to this prospective through a systemic approach (Vanloqueren, 2007 that allows lightening the existing interactions within the system "ligno-cellulosic biomass chain" without isolating it from its environment. We explain and sketch the two contexts needed to identify primary stakes. The global context includes inter-dependant and auto-regulating fields such as society, politics, technology and economy. These four fields influence each part of the "chain" with specific tools. However, the interest and

  10. Bio-ethanol production by fermentation of ricotta cheese whey as an effective alternative non-vegetable source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabro, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele [Department of Engineering Modeling, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 42/A, 87036 Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the feasibility of bio-ethanol production by batch fermentation of ricotta cheese whey (''Scotta''), a dairy industry waste characterized by lactose concentration ranging from 4.5% to 5.0% (w/w) and, with respect to traditional (raw) whey, by much lower protein content. Scotta, therefore, could represent an effective non-vegetable source for renewable energy production. The microrganism used to carry out the fermentation processes was the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Preliminary experiments, performed in aerobic conditions on different volumes of scotta, have shown the actual growth of the yeast. The subsequent fermentation experiments were carried out, in anaerobic conditions, on three different substrates: scotta, raw cheese whey and deproteinized whey. The experimental data have demonstrated the process feasibility: scotta is an excellent substrate for fermentation and exhibits better performance with respect to both raw cheese whey and deproteinized whey. Complete lactose consumption, indeed, was observed in the shortest time (13 h) and with the highest ethanol yield (97% of the theoretical value). (author)

  11. Use of magnetic nanoparticles to enhance bioethanol production in syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kee; Lee, Haryeong

    2016-03-01

    The effect of two types of nanoparticles on the enhancement of bioethanol production in syngas fermentation by Clostridium ljungdahlii was examined. Methyl-functionalized silica and methyl-functionalized cobalt ferrite-silica (CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3) nanoparticles were used to improve syngas-water mass transfer. Of these, CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles showed better enhancement of syngas mass transfer. The nanoparticles were recovered using a magnet and reused five times to evaluate reusability, and it was confirmed that their capability for mass transfer enhancement was maintained. Both types of nanoparticles were applied to syngas fermentation, and production of biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid was enhanced. CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles were more efficient for the productivity of syngas fermentation due to improved syngas mass transfer. The biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid production compared to a control were increased by 227.6%, 213.5%, and 59.6%, respectively by addition of CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles. The reusability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by reuse of recovered nanoparticles for fermentation. PMID:26773957

  12. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. PMID:26551652

  13. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rujira Jitrwung; Viviane Yargeau

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR). Fresh...

  14. Natural variation in the glucose content of dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated rice straw liquid hydrolysates: implications for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Takashi; Teramura, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Miki; Kanamaru, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Rice straw is a promising resource for bioethanol production. Because the glucose content of pretreatment liquid hydrolysates is highly correlated with ethanol yield, the selection of appropriate rice cultivars is essential. The glucose content in liquid hydrolysates of pretreated rice straws of 208 diverse cultivars was evaluated in natural field in 2013 and 2014 using a novel high-throughput system. The glucose content of the rice straw samples varied across cultivars and was affected by environmental factors such as temperature and solar radiation. Several high-quality cultivars exhibiting high glucose content in both years were identified. The results of this study can aid in development of novel rice cultivars suitable as both feedstocks for bioethanol production and cooking. PMID:26872499

  15. 生物质制乙醇预处理方法的研究进展%Pretreatment method for production of bioethanol with lignocellulosic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱萍; 谢君

    2014-01-01

    bioethanol yield .To obtain a high overall bioethanol yield and achieve an economically feasible pro-duction process , the destruction of cellulose crystalline structure and the removal of lignin and hemicellu-loses prior to fermentation has the potential to provide the effective bioethanol production .Therefore , many pretreatment methods are applied to destroy the crystalline structure of cellulose , improve the acces-sibility and hydrolysis efficiency of interior cellulosic macromolecules , and remove lignin and hemicellulo-ses as well as avoid the inhibitory degradation products .

  16. Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Francisco B; Guimarães Pedro; Gomes Daniel G; Mira Nuno P; Teixeira Miguel C; Sá-Correia Isabel; Domingues Lucília

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The optimization of industrial bioethanol production will depend on the rational design and manipulation of industrial strains to improve their robustness against the many stress factors affecting their performance during very high gravity (VHG) or lignocellulosic fermentations. In this study, a set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes found, through genome-wide screenings, to confer resistance to the simultaneous presence of different relevant stresses were identified as req...

  17. Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Francisco B; Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; Gomes, Daniel Gonçalves; Mira, Nuno P.; Teixeira, Miguel C

    2011-01-01

    Background: The optimization of industrial bioethanol production will depend on the rational design and manipulation of industrial strains to improve their robustness against the many stress factors affecting their performance during very high gravity (VHG) or lignocellulosic fermentations. In this study, a set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes found, through genome-wide screenings, to confer resistance to the simultaneous presence of different relevant stresses were identified as...

  18. Bioethanol production from taro waste using thermo-tolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus K21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Hao; Hung, Wei-Chun; Lo, Kai-Yin; Chen, Yen-Hui; Wan, Hou-Peng; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, evaluation and optimization of taro waste (TW), which was mainly composed of taro peels that contain many starch residues, as the main carbon source in medium were studied. The flask studies showed the optimal medium was using 170g/L of TW which is about 100g/L of glucose and 9g/L of CGM as alternative nitrogen source. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) exhibited higher bioethanol productivity toward separation hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The optimal condition of SSF was 5% of Kluyveromyces marxianus K21 inoculum at 40°C resulting in the maximum ethanol concentration (48.98g/L) and productivity (2.23g/L/h) after 22h of cultivation. The scaling up experiment in a 5L bioreactor demonstrated that K21 can still maintain its capability. After 20h of cultivation, 43.78g/L of ethanol (2.19g/L/h of productivity) was achieved corresponding to a 94.2% theoretical ethanol yield. PMID:26615498

  19. Improving bioethanol production from sugarcane: evaluation of distillation, thermal integration and cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demand for bioethanol has grown considerably over the last years. Even though Brazil has been producing ethanol from sugarcane on a large scale for decades, this industry is characterized by low energy efficiency, using a large fraction of the bagasse produced as fuel in the cogeneration system to supply the process energy requirements. The possibility of selling surplus electricity to the grid or using surplus bagasse as raw material of other processes has motivated investments on more efficient cogeneration systems and process thermal integration. In this work simulations of an autonomous distillery were carried out, along with utilities demand optimization using Pinch Analysis concepts. Different cogeneration systems were analyzed: a traditional Rankine Cycle, with steam of high temperature and pressure (80 bar, 510 oC) and back pressure and condensing steam turbines configuration, and a BIGCC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle), comprised by a gas turbine set operating with biomass gas produced in a gasifier that uses sugarcane bagasse as raw material. Thermoeconomic analyses determining exergy-based costs of electricity and ethanol for both cases were carried out. The main objective is to show the impact that these process improvements can produce in industrial systems, compared to the current situation.

  20. Biological hydrogen and methane production from bagasse bioethanol fermentation residues using a two-stage bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chung, Man-Chien; Chan, Kun-Chi

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of H2 and CH4 from bagasse bioethanol fermentation residues (bagasse BEFR) using a two-stage bioprocess. In the hydrogen fermentation bioreactor (HFB), carbohydrate removal efficiency was maintained at 82-93% and the highest hydrogen yield was 8.24mL/gCOD at volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 80kgCOD/m(3)/day. The results indicated a positive correlation between hydrogen yield and butyrate-to-acetate ratio, which might be due to the mechanisms of lactate/acetate utilization for hydrogen production and acetogenesis occurring in the HFB. Remaining volatile fatty acids and alcohols in the HFB effluent were further utilized for methane production in methane fermentation bioreactor (MFB), in which the highest methane yield of 345.2mL/gCOD was attained at VLR of 2.5kgCOD/m(3)/day. Overall, the two-stage bioprocess achieved a maximum COD removal of 81% from bagasse BEFR, and converted 0.3% and 72.8% of COD in the forms of H2 and CH4, respectively. PMID:26774443

  1. Perennial grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for second-generation bioethanol production in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Scordia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the suitability of three perennial, herbaceous, lignocellulosic grasses (Arundo donax, Saccharum spontaneous spp. aegyptiacum and Miscanthus x giganteus for the production of second-generation bioethanol in semi-arid Mediterranean environment was studied. Crops were established in spring 2002, supplying irrigation and nitrogen fertilization up to 2004/2005 growing season. Subsequently, crops were grown without any agronomic input and harvested annually. Data reported in this paper refers to 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons. Aboveground dry matter (DM yield was higher in Arundo (35.4±2.1 Mg ha–1 in 2009 and 32.2±1.9 Mg ha–1 in 2010 harvest than in Saccharum (27.3±2.0 and 23.9±1.9 Mg ha–1, respectively and Miscanthus (19.6±2.8 and 17.2±1.6 Mg ha–1, respectively. Structural polysaccharides of the raw material were higher in Miscanthus (63.4% w/w followed by Saccharum (61.5% w/w and Arundo (57.6% w/w. The same trend was identified for the cellulose content (41.0%, 36.8% and 34.6%, respectively. The highest values in the total hemicellulose complex were observed in Saccharum (24.7%, followed by Arundo (23.1% and Miscanthus (22.4%. The composition of structural polysaccharides leads to a higher theoretical ethanol yield (TEY from one dry ton of Miscanthus feedstock (kg DM Mg–1, followed by Saccharum and Arundo. On the other hand, the TEY per unit surface (Mg ha–1 was greater in Arundo than in Saccharum and Miscanthus. When compared to other lignocellulosic sources used in the second-generation bioethanol technology, such as agricultural residues, woody species and other herbaceous perennial crops, Arundo, Saccharum and Miscanthus showed a great potential in terms of TEY ha–1. Given the high levels of biomass yield and composition of structural polysaccharides, the three species might be introduced into the Mediterranean cropping systems to supply lignocellulosic biomass for second-generation industrial plants

  2. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  3. Bioethanol Production from Enzymatically Hydrolysed Cotton Stalk: One Approach Towards Sustainable Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Zaheer Baig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ligno cellulosic nature of cotton stalk favours to use as renewable material for variety of commercial applications. Present study was evaluating the potential of cotton stalk for bioethanol production. In this regards cotton stalk were subjected to series of treatment including pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. The resultant data shows that physically pre-treated cotton stalk when subjected to 2% alkaline solution at 121oC for 60 minute followed by enzyme hydrolysis with 100 CMC units of enzyme releases sugar of 0.49 g/g and 24.5 g/L of biomass.Furthermore when it goes to fermentation using co culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus,givesan ethanol concentration of 9.56 g/L which corresponds to a yield of 0.191 g/g of biomass, 0.298 g/g of holocelluloses and 0.392 g/g of fermentable sugars while fermentation and sugar consumption efficiencies were recorded as 76.85% and 97.81% respectively.

  4. Kinetic Modeling and Parameter Estimation in a Tower Bioreactor for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; da Costa, Aline Carvalho; Lunelli, Betânia Hoss; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work, a systematic method to support the building of bioprocess models through the use of different optimization techniques is presented. The method was applied to a tower bioreactor for bioethanol production with immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Specifically, a step-by-step procedure to the estimation problem is proposed. As the first step, the potential of global searching of real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) was applied for simultaneous estimation of the parameters. Subsequently, the most significant parameters were identified using the Placket-Burman (PB) design. Finally, the quasi-Newton algorithm (QN) was used for optimization of the most significant parameters, near the global optimum region, as the initial values were already determined by the RGA global-searching algorithm. The results have shown that the performance of the estimation procedure applied in a deterministic detailed model to describe the experimental data is improved using the proposed method (RGA-PB-QN) in comparison with a model whose parameters were only optimized by RGA.

  5. Bisulfite pretreatment changes the structure and properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch to improve enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Sun, Wan; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2015-06-01

    Bisulfite pretreatment is a proven effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm for bioethanol production. In this study, we set out to determine the changes that occur in the structure and properties of EFB materials and fractions of hemicellulose and lignin during the bisulfite pretreatment process. The results showed that the crystallinity of cellulose in EFB increased after bisulfite pretreatment, whereas the EFB surface was damaged to various degrees. The orderly structure of EFB, which was maintained by hydrogen bonds, was destroyed by bisulfite pretreatment. Bisulfite pretreatment also hydrolyzed the glycosidic bonds of the xylan backbone of hemicellulose, thereby decreasing the molecular weight and shortening the xylan chains. The lignin fractions obtained from EFB and pretreated EFB were typically G-S lignin, and with low content of H units. Meanwhile, de-etherification occurred at the β-O-4 linkage, which was accompanied by polymerization and demethoxylation as a result of bisulfite pretreatment. The adsorption ability of cellulase differed for the various lignin fractions, and the water-soluble lignin fractions had higher adsorption capacity on cellulase than the milled wood lignin. In general, the changes in the structure and properties of EFB provided insight into the benefits of bisulfite pretreatment. PMID:25866127

  6. Effect of frequency and reaction time in focused ultrasonic pretreatment of energy cane bagasse for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methrath Liyakathali, Niyaz Ahamed; Muley, Pranjali D; Aita, Giovanna; Boldor, Dorin

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a critical steps in bioethanol production. Ultrasonic pretreatment significantly improves cellulose hydrolysis increasing sugar yields, but current system designs have limitations related to efficiency and scalability. This study evaluates the ultrasonic pretreatment of energy cane bagasse in a novel scalable configuration and by maximizing coupling of ultrasound energy to the material via active modulation of frequency. Pretreatment was conducted in 28% ammonia water mixture at a sample:ammonia:water ratio of 1:0.5:8. Process performance was investigated as a function of frequency (20, 20.5, 21kHz), reaction time (30, 45, 60min), temperature, and power levels for multiple combinations of ammonia, water and sample mixture. Results indicated an increased enzymatic digestibility, with maximum glucose yield of 24.29g/100g dry biomass. Theoretical ethanol yields obtained ranged from 6.47 to a maximum of 24.29g/100g dry biomass. Maximum energy attainable was 886.34kJ/100g dry biomass. PMID:26496215

  7. Bioethanol production from carbohydrate-enriched residual biomass obtained after lipid extraction of Chlorella sp. KR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-11-01

    The residual biomass of Chlorella sp. KR-1 obtained after lipid extraction was used for saccharification and bioethanol production. The carbohydrate was saccharified using simple enzymatic and chemical methods using Pectinex at pH 5.5 and 45°C and 0.3N HCl at 121°C for 15min with 76.9% and 98.2% yield, respectively, without any pretreatment. The residual biomass contained 49.7% carbohydrate consisting of 82.4% fermentable sugar and 17.6% non-fermentable sugar, which is valuable for bioethanol fermentation. Approximately 98.2% of the total carbohydrate was converted into monosaccharide (fermentable+non-fermentable sugar) using dilute acid saccharification. The fermentable sugar was subsequently fermented to bioethanol through separate hydrolysis and fermentation with a fermentation yield of 79.3%. Overall, 0.4g ethanol/g fermentable sugar and 0.16g ethanol/g residual biomass were produced. PMID:26218538

  8. Liquid hot water pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production accompanying with high valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Wen; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong; Zhou, Guixiong; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance of biomass and enhance the ethanol conversion efficiency of polysaccharides. Compared with other pretreatment methods, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment not only reduces the downstream pressure by making cellulose more accessible to the enzymes but minimizes the formation of degradation products that inhibit the growth of fermentative microorganisms. Herein, this review summarized the improved LHW process for different biomass feedstocks, the decomposition behavior of biomass in the LHW process, the enzymatic hydrolysis of LHW-treated substrates, and production of high value-added products and ethanol. Moreover, a combined process producing ethanol and high value-added products was proposed basing on the works of Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion to make LHW pretreatment acceptable in the biorefinery of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26403722

  9. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmo...

  10. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-07-15

    Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flower is a suitable alternative cheaper carbohydrate source for production of bio-ethanol. Recent production of bio-ethanol by microbial fermentation as an alternative energy source has renewed research interest because of the increase in the fuel price. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria) are two most widely used microorganisms for ethanol production. In this study, experiments were carried out to compare the potential of the yeast S. cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) with the bacterium Z. mobilis (MTCC 92) for ethanol fermentation from mahula flowers. The ethanol production after 96 h fermentation was 149 and 122.9 g kg{sup -1} flowers using free cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. The S. cerevisiae strain showed 21.2% more final ethanol production in comparison to Z. mobilis. Ethanol yield (Yx/s), volumetric product productivity (Qp), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%) and microbial biomass concentration (X) obtained by S. cerevisiae were found to be 5.2%, 21.1%, 5.27% and 134% higher than Z. mobilis, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. (author)

  11. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flower is a suitable alternative cheaper carbohydrate source for production of bio-ethanol. Recent production of bio-ethanol by microbial fermentation as an alternative energy source has renewed research interest because of the increase in the fuel price. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria) are two most widely used microorganisms for ethanol production. In this study, experiments were carried out to compare the potential of the yeast S. cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) with the bacterium Z. mobilis (MTCC 92) for ethanol fermentation from mahula flowers. The ethanol production after 96 h fermentation was 149 and 122.9 g kg-1 flowers using free cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. The S. cerevisiae strain showed 21.2% more final ethanol production in comparison to Z. mobilis. Ethanol yield (Yx/s), volumetric product productivity (Qp), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%) and microbial biomass concentration (X) obtained by S. cerevisiae were found to be 5.2%, 21.1%, 5.27% and 134% higher than Z. mobilis, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. (author)

  12. Bioethanol Production by Calcium Alginate-Immobilised St1 Yeast System: Effects of Size of Beads, Ratio and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masniroszaime Md Zain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast-cell technology posses several advantages in bioethanol production due to its potential to increase the ethanol yield by eliminating unit process used. Thus, process expenses in cell recovery and reutilization can be minimised. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of three parameters (substrate concentrations, size of alginate beads and ratio of volume of beads to volume of medium on local isolated yeast (ST1 which immobilized using calcium alginate fermentation system. The most affected ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilised ST1 yeast system were ratio of volume of the beads to the volume of substrate and concentration of LBS. Highest theoretical yield, 78% was obtained in ST1-alginate beads with the size of beads 0.5cm, ratio volume of beads to the volume of LBS media 0.4 and 150g/l concentration of LBS.ABSTRAK: Teknologi sel yis pegun memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam penghasilan bioetanol kerana ia berpotensi meningkatkan pengeluaran etanol dengan menyingkirkan unit proses yang digunakan. Maka, proses pembiayaan dalam perolehan sel dan penggunaan semula boleh dikurangkan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh tiga parameter (kepekatan substrat, saiz manik alginat dan nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu bahantara ke atas sel tempatan terasing (local isolated yeast (ST1 yang dipegun menggunakan sistem penapaian kalsium alginat. Penghasilan etanol yang paling berkesan dengan menggunakan sistem yis ST1 kalsium alginat-pegun adalah dengan kadar nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu substrat dan kepekatan LBS. Kadar hasil teori tertinggi iaitu 78% didapati menerusi manik alginat-ST1 dengan saiz manik 0.5cm, nisbah isipadu 0.4 terhadap perantara LBS dan kepekatan LBS sebanyak 150g/l. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning;

    2014-01-01

    cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic...

  14. Bitter sweet : How sustainable is bio-ethanol production in Brazil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; de Jong, Sanne; Derudder, Ben; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    While biofuels have currently been regarded as a good alternative for fossil fuels, there remain many debates on their impacts on human and environment. This paper tried to shed light on bio-ethanol in Brazil as one of the main producers and exporters in the world. The main question was to understan

  15. Evaluation of Fermentation Parameters of Elephant foot Yam (Amorphophalluspaeoniifolius for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejie C. Magnaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol successfully finds its role in the development of renewable energy sources to supplement the world’s increasing demand in energy supply. In this study, elephant foot yam (Amorphophalluspeoniifolius, a starch-based crop, abundantly grown in tropical countries like Philippines, was used for the evaluation of the effect of substrate concentration and yeast loading (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF. In SSF, the optimum condition was observed at10% w/v substrate concentration in 20 mL yeast loadingwith an ethanol yield of 12.02 ± 0.21 %. As substrate concentration decreases and yeast loading increases, percent ethanol yield increases. Best mathematical model was generated to describe the relationship of the substrate concentration and yeast loading to ethanol yield. The generated quadratic model, 2.47= 80.63 −84.46 +126.73 −17.49+65.592 + 91.022,can explain 99.96 % (R2 of the variability in the yield. The statistical significance of the model was evaluated by F-test for analysis of variance (p<0.05. The results showed that the production of ethanol was more strongly affected by the variation of yeast loading. Using the best substrate concentration and yeast loading, ethanol yield was determined in SSF coupled with Acid Hydrolysis (SSF-AH having an ethanol yield of 19.1952%. The results revealed that subjecting first the substrate to acid hydrolysis could increase the ethanol yield for it increased the reducing sugar of the substrate.

  16. Biogas production within the bioethanol production chain: Use of co-substrates for anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, B S; Triolo, J M; Lecona, V P; Zaiat, M; Sommer, S G

    2015-08-01

    Bioethanol production generates large amounts of vinasse, which is suitable for biogas production. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse was optimised using continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) supplemented either with lime fertiliser or with 3% cow manure. In both reactors, the C/N ratio was adjusted by adding straw. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of vinasse was 267.4±4.5LCH4kgVS(-1). Due to the low content of macro- and micronutrients and low C/N ratio of vinasse, biogas production failed when vinasse alone was fed to the reactor. When co-substrate was added, biogas production achieved very close to the BMP of vinasse, being 235.7±32.2LCH4kgVS(-1) from the fertiliser supplied reactor and 265.2±26.8LCH4kgVS(-1) in manure supplied reactor at steady state. Anaerobic digestion was the most stable when cow manure was supplied to digestion of vinasse. PMID:25958146

  17. Screening of the effective cellulose-degradable strain and its application in the production of cellulose bioethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-fei Gao; Dai-di Fan; Pei Ma; Yan-e Luo; Xiao-xuan Ma; Chen-hui Zhu; Jun-feng Hui

    2009-01-01

    Strains from the cellulose-containing environment were collected. Primary screening(by filter-paper Hutchison solid culture medium and sodium carboxymethylcellulose solid culture medium) and reelection(by filter-paper inorganic salt culture medium and sodium carboxymethylcellulosc Congo red coltnre medium) indicated that five strains obtained were best suited for high performance cellulose degradation. Determination of sodium carboxymethylcellulose activity(CMCA) and filter paper activity(FPA) was accomplished for each of the five. The strongest of the five in CMCA and FPA was applied to the production of cellulose bioethanol by separate hydrolysis and fermentation(SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation(SSF) respectively.

  18. Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2014-01-01

    Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

  19. Microwave Assisted Bioethanol Production from Sago Starch by Co-Culturing of Ragi Tapai and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Environmental issues such as global warming and recent events throughout the world, including the shortage of petroleum crude oil, the sharp increase in the cost of oil and the political instability of some crude oil producing countries, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the present sources for liquid fuel. These situations have created great demand for ethanol from fermentation process as green fuel. A main challenge in producing the ethanol is the production cost. A rapid and economical single step fermentation process for reliable production of bioethanol was studied by co-culturing commercialized ragi tapai with Saccharomyces cerevisae using raw sago starch. Approach: Enzymatic hydrolysis of sago starch by various amylolytic enzymes was investigated to reveal the potential coupling mechanism of Microwave Irradiation-Enzyme Coupling Catalysis (MIECC. Results: It was shown that enzymatic hydrolysis of starch using typical enzymes may successfully be carried out at microwave condition. The MIECC resulted in increasing initial reaction rate by about 2 times. The results testify on specific activation of enzymes by microwaves and prove the existence of non-thermal effect in microwave assisted reactions. Low power microwave irradiation (80W does not increase the temperature beyond 40°C and hence denaturation of the enzyme is avoided. The maximum ethanol fermentation efficiency was achieved (97.7% of the theoretical value using 100 g L-1 sago starch concentration. The microwave assisted process improved the yield of ethanol by 45.5% compared to the non-microwave process. Among the other advantages of co-culturing of ragi tapai with S. cerevisiae is the enhancement of ethanol production and prevention of the inhibitory effect of reducing sugars on amylolytic activity and the reaction could be completed within 32±1 h. Conclusion: The present study have demonstrated the ability of using cheaply and readily ragi tapai for

  20. Life cycle assessment and resource management options for bio-ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kummamuru Venkata, Bharadwaj

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this thesis is to analyse the sustainability of producing bio-ethanol from cane molasses in Indonesia and its potential to replace gasoline in the transportation sector. A field trip was conducted in East Java, Indonesia, and data was gathered for analysis. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to analyse the net emissions and energy consumption in the process chain. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the life cycle are 17.45 gCO2e per MJ of ethanol produced. In compariso...

  1. Optimization of a low-cost defined medium for alcoholic fermentation--a case study for potential application in bioethanol production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G; Isla, Miguel A

    2016-01-25

    In bioethanol production processes, the media composition has an impact on product concentration, yields and the overall process economics. The main purpose of this research was to develop a low-cost mineral-based supplement for successful alcoholic fermentation in an attempt to provide an economically feasible alternative to produce bioethanol from novel sources, for example, sugary industrial wastewaters. Statistical experimental designs were used to select essential nutrients for yeast fermentation, and its optimal concentrations were estimated by Response Surface Methodology. Fermentations were performed on synthetic media inoculated with 2.0 g L(-1) of yeast, and the evolution of biomass, sugar, ethanol, CO2 and glycerol were monitored over time. A mix of salts [10.6 g L(-1) (NH4)2HPO4; 6.4 g L(-1) MgSO4·7H2O and 7.5 mg L(-1) ZnSO4·7H2O] was found to be optimal. It led to the complete fermentation of the sugars in less than 12h with an average ethanol yield of 0.42 g ethanol/g sugar. A general C-balance indicated that no carbonaceous compounds different from biomass, ethanol, CO2 or glycerol were produced in significant amounts in the fermentation process. Similar results were obtained when soft drink wastewaters were tested to evaluate the potential industrial application of this supplement. The ethanol yields were very close to those obtained when yeast extract was used as the supplement, but the optimized mineral-based medium is six times cheaper, which favorably impacts the process economics and makes this supplement more attractive from an industrial viewpoint. PMID:26391675

  2. Production of raw starch-degrading enzyme by Aspergillus sp. and its use in conversion of inedible wild cassava flour to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, Gashaw; Önnby, Linda; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2016-04-01

    The major bottlenecks in achieving competitive bioethanol fuel are the high cost of feedstock, energy and enzymes employed in pretreatment prior to fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as an alternative feedstock, but because of its complexity, economic viability is yet to be realized. Therefore, research around non-conventional feedstocks and deployment of bioconversion approaches that downsize the cost of energy and enzymes is justified. In this study, a non-conventional feedstock, inedible wild cassava was used for bioethanol production. Bioconversion of raw starch from the wild cassava to bioethanol at low temperature was investigated using both a co-culture of Aspergillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a monoculture of the later with enzyme preparation from the former. A newly isolated strain of Aspergillus sp. MZA-3 produced raw starch-degrading enzyme which displayed highest activity of 3.3 U/mL towards raw starch from wild cassava at 50°C, pH 5.5. A co-culture of MZA-3 and S. cerevisiae; and a monoculture of S. cerevisiae and MZA-3 enzyme (both supplemented with glucoamylase) resulted into bioethanol yield (percentage of the theoretical yield) of 91 and 95 at efficiency (percentage) of 84 and 96, respectively. Direct bioconversion of raw starch to bioethanol was achieved at 30°C through the co-culture approach. This could be attractive since it may significantly downsize energy expenses. PMID:26481161

  3. Increment of carbohydrate concentration of Chlorella minutissima microalgae for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cláudia Freitas Margarites; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae, like any other microorganism react to changes in the external environment with changes in their intracellular environment. Thus, the manipulation of cultivation conditions, especially the presence or absence of certain nutrients, stimulates the biosynthesis of compounds of interest. Their carbohydrates can be used to produce bioethanol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the medium and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphate components used ...

  4. Phenotypic evaluation of natural and industrial Saccharomyces yeasts for different traits desirable in industrial bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Vaskar; Steensels, Jan; Lievens, Bart; Van De Voorde, Ilse; Verplaetse, Alex; Aerts, Guido; Willems, Kris; Thevelein, Johan; Verstrepen, Kevin; Ruyters, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the organism of choice for many food and beverage fermentations because it thrives in high-sugar and high-ethanol conditions. However, the conditions encountered in bioethanol fermentation pose specific challenges, including extremely high sugar and ethanol concentrations, high temperature, and the presence of specific toxic compounds. It is generally considered that exploring the natural biodiversity of Saccharomyces strains may be an interesting route to find sup...

  5. An investigative study of indigenous sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production: the case of Kenya local sorghum varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangai, L.K.; Mbeo, C.O. [Kenya Industrial Research and Development Inst., Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, C.K. [Kenya Agricurtural Research Inst.(s), Machakos (Kenya)

    2012-11-01

    There are over 500 sorghum genotypes grown locally in Kenya. This study was an investigation and selection of suitable sorghum genotypes for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Kenya. For the study, 500 genotypes of sorghum were planted and grown using the recommended agricultural practices. Random sampling of 230 genotypes was done and the samples analysed for juice and sugar content. The 26 best yielding genotypes were selected and grown again in duplicate for further detailed study. Data on date of flowering, pest resistance, {sup 0}brix, wet and dry weight, plant population, ratooning, grain yield and juice yield and juice sugar content were recorded and analyzed using GENstat. Sampling was done for each genotype when about 50% of the crop had flowered and there after, every 2 weeks until the grains dried. Crushing was done with a three roller mill crusher [8]. The sugar content was measured using a digital refractometer. Sugar yield obtained ranged between 10.3{sup 0}Brix and 19.3{sup 0}Brix and juice yield between 268 litres/hectare and 11390 litres/hectare. Five indigenous sorghum varieties, GBK-007130, GBK-007076, GBK-007102, GBK-007296, GBK-007098 were found to have the highest sugar and juice yields and were considered the most suitable sweet sorghum genotypes among those studied, for bio-ethanol production in Kenya.

  6. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  7. Seawater as Alternative to Freshwater in Pretreatment of Date Palm Residues for Bioethanol Production in Coastal and/or Arid Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Chuanji; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Brudecki, Grzegorz P;

    2015-01-01

    the technical feasibility of using seawater to replace freshwater in the pretreatment of date palm leaflets, a lignocellulosic biomass from arid regions, for bioethanol production. It was shown that leaflets pretreated with seawater exhibited lower cellulose crystallinity than those pretreated with freshwater...

  8. Bio-ethanol Production from Wheat in the Winter Rainfall Region of South Africa: A Quantitative Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, James W.; Lemmer, Wessel J.; Outlaw, Joe L.

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to developments in other parts of the world, South Africa has not developed a bio-ethanol industry. The objective was to quantify the risks and economic viability of a wheat based bio-ethanol plant in the winter rainfall region of South Africa. Monte Carlo simulation of a bio-ethanol plant was used to quantify the risk that investors will likely face. Under the Base scenario a 103 million liter bio-ethanol plant would not offer a reasonable chance of being economically viable. Altern...

  9. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning;

    2014-01-01

    cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic...... hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that p...

  10. Production of bioethanol from heart and pineapple shell using the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of bioethanol production was evaluated from heart and pineapple shell, using the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, in which has been obtained a maximum output of 1,6% v/v. The research was divided into a phase of characterization and five experimental phases. The heart and pineapple shell were used as substrate for the study. The contents of glucose, reducing sugars and total, moisture, ash, crude fiber and soluble solids content were determined of the heart and golden pineapple shell (MD2). The shell has had a higher content of soluble solids, fiber content, ash and lower moisture content and reducing sugars. In the first experimental phase was made a fermentation of commercial sucrose, with the objective to corroborate the method of measurement of CO2 and the pH was measured of the water that is collected the gas. Great variation between samples has not been observed, comparing the method to estimate the losses of gas, so it is reproducible and the losses of CO2 has been at least of 22%. In the second experimental stage to compare measurement methods of ethanol, for collection of CO2 and gas chromatography, it has been found that for concentrations from 0 to 0,79% v/v, the results have shown a quadratic behavior (second-degree polynomial with 0,83173x2 +0,0024 x, R2=0,9984), while that for higher concentrations to 0,79% the relation has been linear (0,6372 x -0,099, R2=0,9424), in which x is the %v/v of ethanol, of the chromatographic method. In the third experimental stage were compared the effects of the filtration. The significant differences of this effect were not found for either of the two substrates used: hearts and shells. The adjustment parameters of the modified Gompertz equation for mixtures of 53% heart and 47% shell, and concentration of 280 g/L have been: Pm 0,72 %v/v; λ 0,3 h, Rm 0,047 (%v/v)/h; for a concentration of 400 g/L, have been Pm 1,3 %v/v λ 1,8 h and Rm 0,068 (%v/v)/h and for 523 g/L, using extract of yeast have been Pm 1

  11. Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose...

  12. Heteropoly acids: Utilization in Biodiesel and Bioethanol Production and Reuse of Glycerol [Heteropoliácidos: Utilização na Produção de Biodiesel e Bioetanol e Reaproveitamento de Glicerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina C. Arantes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heteropolyacids are a class of compounds that can be used to catalyzea great range of reactions, either in homogeneous or heterogeneous phase, because they have good stability, solubility and high acidity. These compounds show good applicability in the use of biomass for biofuel production, as demonstrated in a variety of reports. This text presents a bibliographic research on the application of heteropolyacids in the production of biodiesel and bioethanol in the last years, as wellas the reuse of byproducts of these processes.

  13. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  14. Development of a combined pretreatment and hydrolysis strategy of rice straw for the production of bioethanol and biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Kuttiraja, Mathiyazhakan; Prabisha, Thunoli Payyanvalappil; Binod, Parameswaran; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-09-01

    The present study highlights the development of a combined pretreatment and hydrolysis strategy of rice straw for the production of bioethanol and biopolymer (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate). Maximum reducing sugar yield was 0.374g/g. The hydrolyzate is devoid of major fermentation inhibitors like furfural and organic acids and can be used for fermentation without any detoxification. Fermentation of the non-detoxified hydrolyzate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded 1.48% of ethanol with a fermentation efficiency of 61.25% and with Comamonas sp. yielded 35.86% of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate without any nutrient supplementation. Characterization of native, control as well as the residue left out after combined pretreatment and hydrolysis of RS by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed difference. Compositional analysis revealed that the residue contains lignin and hemicellulose as the major component indicating that major portion of cellulose were hydrolyzed in this strategy. PMID:26949053

  15. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar bark by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Jae Taek; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Kim, Ung-Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Gon Wi, Seung; Cho, Jae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Pretreatment of poplar bark with a combination of sulfuric acid (3%, w/w, H2SO4) and gamma irradiation (0-1000 kGy) was performed in an attempt to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The yields of reducing sugar were slightly increased with an increasing irradiation dose, ranging from 35.4% to 51.5%, with a 56.1% reducing sugar yield observed after dilute acid pretreatment. These results clearly showed that soluble sugars were released faster and to a greater extent in dilute acid-pretreated poplar bark than in gamma irradiation-pretreated bark. When combined pretreatment was carried out, a drastic increase in reducing sugar yield (83.1%) was found compared with individual pretreatment, indicating the possibility of increasing the convertibility of poplar bark following combined pretreatment. These findings are likely associated with cellulose crystallinity, lignin modification, and removal of hemicelluloses.

  16. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  17. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Agave tequilana fructans by Kluyveromyces marxianus yeasts for bioethanol and tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jose-Axel; Gschaedler, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Arellano, Melchor; Arrizon, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Agave tequilana fructans (ATF) constitute a substrate for bioethanol and tequila industries. As Kluyveromyces marxianus produces specific fructanases for ATF hydrolysis, as well as ethanol, it can perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In this work, fifteen K. marxianus yeasts were evaluated to develop inoculums with fructanase activity on ATF. These inoculums were added to an ATF medium for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. All the yeasts, showed exo-fructanhydrolase activity with different substrate specificities. The yeast with highest fructanase activity in the inoculums showed the lowest ethanol production level (20 g/l). Five K. marxianus strains were the most suitable for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF. The volatile compounds composition was evaluated at the end of fermentation, and a high diversity was observed between yeasts, nevertheless all of them produced high levels of isobutyl alcohol. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF with K. marxianus strains has potential for industrial application. PMID:23941710

  18. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PMID:26384901

  19. Association mapping in Scandinavian winter wheat for yield, plant height and traits important for second-generation bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBellucci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 100 wheat varieties representing more than 100 years of wheat-breeding history in Scandinavia was established in order to identify marker-trait associations for plant height, grain yield and biomass potential for bioethanol production. The field-grown material showed variations in plant height from 54 to 122 cm and in grain yield from 2 to 6.61 t ha-1. The release of monomeric sugars was determined by high-throughput enzymatic treatment of ligno-cellulosic material and varied between 0.169 and 0.312 g/g dm for glucose and 0.146 and 0.283 g/g dm for xylose. As expected, plant height and grain yield showed to be highly influenced by genetic factors with repeatability (R equal to 0.75 and 0.53 respectively, while this was reduced for glucose and xylose (R=0.09 for both . The study of trait correlations showed how old, low-yielding, tall varieties released higher amounts of monomeric sugars after straw enzymatic hydrolysis, showing reduced recalcitrance to bioconversion compared to modern varieties. 93 lines from the collection were genotyped with the DArTseq® genotypic platform and 5525 markers were used for genome-wide association mapping. Six QTLs for grain yield, plant height and glucose released from straw were mapped. One QTL for plant height was previously reported, while the remaining QTLs constituted new genomic regions linked to trait variation. This paper is one of the first studies in wheat to identify QTLs that are important for bioethanol production based on a genome-wide association approach.

  20. Continuous cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by cyclic fed-batch cocultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-03-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter(-1), the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter(-1) and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures. PMID:23275517

  1. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, J. R.; Passarinho, Paula C.; de Gouveia, L.

    2012-01-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the mi...

  2. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. yeast for tolerance to stresses encountered during fermentation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Wimalasena, Tithira T.; Greetham, Darren; Marvin, Marcus E.; Liti, Gianni; Chandelia, Yogeshwar; Hart, Andrew; Louis, Edward J.; Phister, Trevor G.; Tucker, Gregory A.; Smart, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Background During industrial fermentation of lignocellulose residues to produce bioethanol, microorganisms are exposed to a number of factors that influence productivity. These include inhibitory compounds produced by the pre-treatment processes required to release constituent carbohydrates from biomass feed-stocks and during fermentation, exposure of the organisms to stressful conditions. In addition, for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, conversion of both pentose and hexose sugars is ...

  3. Production of fermentable sugars by combined chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To change the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulosic material for maximum hydrolysis yield, a comprehensive study was done by using sulphuric acid as an exclusive catalyst for the pretreatment process. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass [Water Hyacinth: Eichhornia crassipes] after pretreatment was determined by measuring the hydrolysis yield of the pretreated material obtained from twenty four different pretreatment conditions. These included different concentrations of sulphuric acid (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%, at two different temperatures (108 and 121 ºC for different residence times (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0h.The highest reducing sugar yield (36.65 g/L from enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained when plant material was pretreated at 121 ºC for 1.0 h residence time using 3.0% (v/v sulphuric acid and at 1:10 (w/v solid to liquid ratio. The total reducing sugars obtained from the two-stage process (pretreatment + enzymatic hydrolysis was 69.6g/L. The resulting sugars were fermented into ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield from the enzymatic hydrolyzate was 95.2% of the theoretical yield (0.51g/g glucose, as determined by GS-MS, and nearly 100% since no reducing sugars were detected in the fermenting media by TLC and DNS analysis.

  4. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars. The influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J.R.; Passarinho, P.C.; Gouveia, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal). Unidade de Bioenergia

    2012-10-15

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. (orig.)

  5. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2001-01-01

    and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production processes and cheap substrates are needed. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper...... substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex, differing, in many aspects from crop-based ethanol production. One important requirement is an efficient microorganism able to ferment a variety of sugars......With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment...

  6. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David;

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a...

  7. Bioethanol production. Competitive strength in Germany in consideration of international competition. 2. ed.; Die Bioethanolproduktion. Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit in Deutschland unter Beruecksichtigung der internationalen Konkurrenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henniges, O.

    2007-07-01

    The competitive standing of bioethanol production in Germany is reviewed from a national and international scale. The production cost in the EU, Brazil, Australia, Thailand and China are compared, and the effects of imports on the German biofuels production is assessed. The surface terrain available for biocrops in Germany and the EU are estimated, the use of beetroot for biofuel production is analyzed, and relationships between crude oil prices and raw materials prices are established. The CO2 reduction cost resulting from the use of biofuels is calculated and compared with the cost of other climate protection measures. Existing bioethanol markets in Brazil and the USa are analyzed, and marketing trends of biodiesel are included for a comparison. With the aid of inquiry sheets, critical arguments of the automobile and mineral oil industries were compiled and viewed in the context of the biodiesel discussion. The results of the investigation are then discussed with a view to potentially conflicting goals. The author attempts to answer the question whether sustainable bioethanol production may be possible in Germany in the present conditions. (orig.)

  8. Enhanced production of bioethanol from waste of beer fermentation broth at high temperature through consecutive batch strategy by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Khan, Taous; Ha, Jung Hwan; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-10-10

    Malt hydrolyzing enzymes and yeast glycolytic and fermentation enzymes in the waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB) were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A new 'one-pot consecutive batch strategy' was developed for efficient bio-ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using WBFB without additional enzymes, microbial cells, or carbohydrates. Bio-ethanol production was conducted in batches using WBFB supernatant in the first phase at 25-67°C and 50rpm, followed by the addition of 3% WBFB solid residue to the existing culture broth in the second phase at 67°C. The ethanol production increased from 50 to 102.5g/L when bare supernatant was used in the first phase, and then to 219g ethanol/L in the second phase. The amount of ethanol obtained using this strategy was almost equal to that obtained using the original WBFB containing 25% solid residue at 33°C, and more than double that obtained when bare supernatant was used. Microscopic and gel electrophoresis studies revealed yeast cell wall degradation and secretion of cellular material into the surrounding medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported the existence of enzymes in WBFB involved in bioethanol production at elevated temperatures. The results of this study will provide insight for the development of new strategies for biofuel production. PMID:24034431

  9. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  10. Current technologies, challenges, global market and perspectives of bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnological processes are responsible for the vast majority of ethanol currently produced. About 95% of ethanol produced in the world is from agricultural products such as sugarcane, sugar beet and starch crops. Although the renewable energy production from agricultural feedstocks by cultivation in set aside areas or in even larger available marginal areas worldwide has a positive impact on rural development (like the creation of new jobs and supplementary incomes),...

  11. Optimal process design for thermochemical production of fuels from biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, Martin; Maréchal, François

    2008-01-01

    Transport applications are a major global source of greenhouse gas emissions and the production of fuels that are renewable and neutral in CO2 is an important issue in chemical process research and development. Contrary to the biological routes that produce bioethanol and -diesel on industrial scale through fermentation or esterification, 2nd generation biofuels obtained through thermochemical processing of lignocellulosic and waste biomass by means of gasification and fuel reforming are expe...

  12. Optimal process design for thermochemical biofuel production plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, Martin; Maréchal, François; Favrat, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Transport applications are a major global source of greenhouse gas emissions and the production of fuels that are renewable and neutral in CO2 is an important issue in chemical process research and development. Contrary to the biological routes that produce bioethanol and -diesel on industrial scale through fermentation or esterification, 2nd generation biofuels obtained through thermochemical processing of lignocellulosic and waste biomass by means of gasification and fuel reforming are expe...

  13. Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

  14. Exploring grape marc as trove for new thermotolerant and inhibitor-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for second-generation bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Basaglia, Marina; Trento, Alberto; van Rensburg, Eugéne; García-Aparicio, Maria; van Zyl, Willem H; Casella, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Background Robust yeasts with high inhibitor, temperature, and osmotic tolerance remain a crucial requirement for the sustainable production of lignocellulosic bioethanol. These stress factors are known to severely hinder culture growth and fermentation performance. Results Grape marc was selected as an extreme environment to search for innately robust yeasts because of its limited nutrients, exposure to solar radiation, temperature fluctuations, weak acid and ethanol content. Forty newly iso...

  15. Increment of carbohydrate concentration of Chlorella minutissima microalgae for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Freitas Margarites

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae, like any other microorganism react to changes in the external environment with changes in their intracellular environment. Thus, the manipulation of cultivation conditions, especially the presence or absence of certain nutrients, stimulates the biosynthesis of compounds of interest. Their carbohydrates can be used to produce bioethanol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the medium and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphate components used in the culture medium of the microalgae Chlorella minutissima in the carbohydrate concentration of the same. Box-Behnken Planning was used, totaling 15 trials. The cultivations were carried out until early stationary phase of growth of the microalgae in closed 2 L reactors. At the end of the cultivation, the carbohydrate concentrations of dry biomass (% and yield in carbohydrates (g.L-1 .d-1 were determined. According to the analysis of effects, the microalgae Chlorella minutissima cultivated in Basal medium, with the addition of 0.125 gL-1 of the nitrogenized component (KNO3 and without addition of phosphatized components (K2HPO4 and KH2PO4 had a higher yield in carbohydrates in the cultivation (0,030 ± 0.002 g.L-1 .d-1 .

  16. Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min Ho; Lee, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chun Han; Seo, Yung Bum

    2012-12-01

    The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively. PMID:23073109

  17. The Effect of Microwave-NaOH Pretreatment and Hydrolysis Enzyme Using Trichoderma reesei-Aspergillus niger on Rice Straw Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Argo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of bioethanol production from rice straw consists of two steps: (1 conversion of cellulose into simple sugars which is conducted by using microwave-NaOH pretreatment and straw hydrolysis using mold catalyst T.reesei and A. niger; and (2 fermentation of simple sugars into ethanol. In a microwave-NaOH pretreatment process has been obtained the best value content of cellulose in straw size of 100 mesh and a long exposure of 40 minutes for 72.70+1:10%. Crude cellulase enzyme activity of T.reesei isolation, A.niger and it mixtures were optimum at temperature of 50°C. The addition of crude enzyme from A.niger and T.reesei on a comparison of 1: 2 (v/v was able to increase the yield of the rice straw cellulose hydrolysis which is produces sugar at 12.89 mg/ml (1.29% w/v or 0.15% (w/v when converted into ethanol. The glucose yield from rice straw was 25.47% with 3% ethanol.

  18. Pretreatment optimization of Sorghum pioneer biomass for bioethanol production and its scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradiya, Manoj; Duggirala, Srinivas; Tipre, Devayani; Dave, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Based on one parameter at a time, saccharification of delignified sorghum biomass by 4% and 70% v/v sulfuric acid resulted in maximum 30.8 and 33.8 g% sugar production from biomass respectively. The Box Behnken Design was applied for further optimization of acid hydrolysis. As a result of the designed experiment 36.3g% sugar production was achieved when 3% v/v H2SO4 treatment given for 60 min at 180°C. The process was scaled-up to treat 2 kg of biomass. During the screening of yeast cultures, isolate C, MK-I and N were found to be potent ethanol producers from sorghum hydrolyzate. Culture MK-I was the best so used for scale up of ethanol production up to 25 L capacity, which gave a yield of 0.49 g ethanol/g sugar from hydrolyzate obtained from 2 kg of sorghum biomass. PMID:26384087

  19. Genome-scale metabolic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks J Paul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms possess diverse metabolic capabilities that can potentially be leveraged for efficient production of biofuels. Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405 is a thermophilic anaerobe that is both cellulolytic and ethanologenic, meaning that it can directly use the plant sugar, cellulose, and biochemically convert it to ethanol. A major challenge in using microorganisms for chemical production is the need to modify the organism to increase production efficiency. The process of properly engineering an organism is typically arduous. Results Here we present a genome-scale model of C. thermocellum metabolism, iSR432, for the purpose of establishing a computational tool to study the metabolic network of C. thermocellum and facilitate efforts to engineer C. thermocellum for biofuel production. The model consists of 577 reactions involving 525 intracellular metabolites, 432 genes, and a proteomic-based representation of a cellulosome. The process of constructing this metabolic model led to suggested annotation refinements for 27 genes and identification of areas of metabolism requiring further study. The accuracy of the iSR432 model was tested using experimental growth and by-product secretion data for growth on cellobiose and fructose. Analysis using this model captures the relationship between the reduction-oxidation state of the cell and ethanol secretion and allowed for prediction of gene deletions and environmental conditions that would increase ethanol production. Conclusions By incorporating genomic sequence data, network topology, and experimental measurements of enzyme activities and metabolite fluxes, we have generated a model that is reasonably accurate at predicting the cellular phenotype of C. thermocellum and establish a strong foundation for rational strain design. In addition, we are able to draw some important conclusions regarding the underlying metabolic mechanisms for observed behaviors of C. thermocellum

  20. Advances in consolidated bioprocessing systems for bioethanol and butanol production from biomass: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both cellulytic and ethanologenic microorganisms, and genetic engineering of cellulytic microorganisms to be alcohol-producing or alcohol producing microorganisms to be cellulytic. Moreover, high-throughput techniques, such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, next generation sequencing and synthetic biology developed to explore novel microorganisms and powerful enzymes with high activity, thermostability and pH stability are also discussed. Currently, the CBP technology is in its infant stage, and ideal microorganisms and/or conditions at industrial scale are yet to be introduced. So, it is essential to bring into attention all barriers faced and take advantage of all the experiences gained to achieve a high-yield and low-cost CBP process.

  1. Samfunds- og selskabsøkonomisk analyse af bioethanol-produktion i Danmark i samproduktion med kraftvarme. Fase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; van Maarschalkerweerd, Christian

    fuel. Bioethanol co-produced with CHP and biogas (Risø-DTU concept). The biomass inputs to the process are straw, whole crop, biomass residues, domestic waste etc... By-products from the production are re-circled to agriculture as well-declared fertilizer products. These two concepts will be analyzed...... concepts are characterized by synergistic production of: Bioethanol co-produced with CHP (Combined Heat and Power) (IBUS concept). The biomass inputs to the process are straw, whole crop, biomass residues, domestic waste etc... By-products from the production are used as animal feed, fertilizer, and solid...

  2. Altered Lignin Biosynthesis Improves Cellulosic Bioethanol Production in Transgenic Maize Plants Down-Regulated for Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Fornalé; Pere Puigdomènech; Joan Rigau; David Caparrós-Ruiz; Montserrat Capellades; Antonio Encina; Kan Wang; Sami Irar; Catherine Lapierre; Katia Ruel; Jean-Paul Joseleau; Jordi Berenguer

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase(CAD)is a key enzyme involved in the last step of monolignol biosynthesis.The effect of CAD down-regulation on lignin production was investigated through a transgenic approach in maize.Transgenic CAD-RNAi plants show a different degree of enzymatic reduction depending on the analyzed tissue and show alterations in cell wall composition.Cell walls of CAD-RNAi stems contain a lignin polymer with a slight reduction in the S-to-G ratio without affecting the total lignin content.In addition,these cell walls accumulate higher levels of cellulose and arabinoxylans.In contrast,cell walls of CAD-RNAi midribs present a reduction in the total lignin content and of cell wall polysaccharides.In vitro degradability assays showed that,although to a different extent,the changes induced by the repression of CAD activity produced midribs and stems more degradable than wild-type plants.CAD-RNAi plants grown in the field presented a wild-type phenotype and produced higher amounts of dry biomass.Cellulosic bioethanol assays revealed that CAD-RNAi biomass produced higher levels of ethanol compared to wild-type,making CAD a good target to improve both the nutritional and energetic values of maize lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip J; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2008-09-01

    Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. The combination of presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis was found to give the highest sugar yields. The use of atmospheric air gave the highest xylose yield (94.9% xylose, 61.3% glucose), while hydrogen peroxide gave the highest glucose yield (82.4% xylose, 63.7% glucose). PMID:18164954

  4. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-Based Technique to Identify and Quantify Fermentable Sugars in Pineapple Waste Valorization for Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Claudia; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Loeff, Edwin; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to develop a methodology able to identify and quantify fermentable sugars present in the enzymatic hydrolysis phase of second-generation bioethanol production from pineapple waste. Thus, a low-cost non-destructive system consisting of a stainless double needle electrode associated to an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of EIS was developed. In order to validate the system, different concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose were added to the pineapple waste and analyzed both individually and in combination. Next, statistical data treatment enabled the design of specific Artificial Neural Networks-based mathematical models for each one of the studied sugars and their respective combinations. The obtained prediction models are robust and reliable and they are considered statistically valid (CCR% > 93.443%). These results allow us to introduce this EIS-based technique as an easy, fast, non-destructive, and in-situ alternative to the traditional laboratory methods for enzymatic hydrolysis monitoring. PMID:26378537

  5. Bioethanol production by reusable Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in a macroporous monolithic hydrogel matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulko, Lucinda; Rivarola, Claudia R; Barbero, Cesar A; Acevedo, Diego F

    2016-09-10

    Performance of yeasts on industrial processes can be dramatically improved by immobilization of the biocatalyst. The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inside monolithic macroporous hydrogels were produced by in-situ polymerization of acrylamide around a live yeast suspension under cryogelation conditions. Preculture of the yeasts was not necessary and this innovative and simple procedure is amenable to scaling-up to industrial production. The yeasts were efficiently retained in monolithic hydrogels, presenting excellent mechanical properties and high cell viability. Macroporous hydrogels showed a fast mass transport allowing the hydrogel-yeast complexes achieved similar ethanol yield and productivity than free yeasts, which is larger than those reached with yeasts immobilized in compact hydrogels. Moreover, the same yeasts were able to maintain its activity by up to five reaction cycles with a cell single batch during fermentation reactions. PMID:27396938

  6. Experimental study of the production of bioethanol from wheat and corn fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Santiago, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    The project consists on the experimental study of the ethanol fermentation from wheat and corn. The purpose of this project is to analyse the cell growth of the yeast Sac-charomices Cerevisiae, which is used to ferment starch, and analyse the ethanol produc-tion from this process. The starch has to be gelatinized and liquefied by means of the en-zymes α-amylase and amyloglucosidase due to the S. Cerevisiae’s lack of lack of amylo-lytic enzymes. Cell growth curves for YPD, 2% and 1% corn, and ...

  7. A Simulation Model of Combined Biogas, Bioethanol and Protein Fodder Co-Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2009-01-01

    , respectively). Results from batch and lab-scale fermentation trials provided basic input for the model. To cover the direct energy requirements on the farm, it was calculated that it requires approximately 16.2 ha of rye and 14 milking cows or 5.7 ha of clover grass, 2.5 ha of maize and 13 cows to supply a 100......In order to evaluate new strategies for the production of renewable energy within sustainable organic agriculture, a process-simulation model for a 100 ha organic farm was developed. Data used for the model was obtained from laboratory trials, literature data, consultancy with experts, and results...... fertilizer at the organic farm, based on the fact that crops grown in organic agriculture act as key carbon sources whereas manure and whey were applied primarily as the nutrient and water supply for the fermentations within the process (anaerobic digestion and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation...

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances in bio-ethanol production and utilization in Brazil (1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil in the 1996/97 season was 273 million t (harvested wet wt)/year, leading to 13.7 million m3 ethanol and 13.5 million t of sugar. Emissions of greenhouse gases were evaluated for the agronomic/industrial production processes and product utilization including N2O and methane. Up-dating the energy balance from 1985 to 1995 indicated the effect of the main technological trends; apparently, fossil fuel consumption due to the increasing agricultural mechanization is largely off-set by technological advances in transportation and overall conversion efficiencies (agricultural and industrial). Output/input energy ratio in ethanol grew to 9.2 (average) and 11.2 (best values). Net savings in CO2 (equivalent) emissions, due to ethanol and bagasse substitution for fossil fuels, correspond to 46.7 x 106 t CO2 (equivalent)/year, nearly 20% of all CO2 emissions from fuels in Brazil. Ethanol alone is responsible for 64% of the net avoided emissions. (author)

  9. Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Francisco B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of industrial bioethanol production will depend on the rational design and manipulation of industrial strains to improve their robustness against the many stress factors affecting their performance during very high gravity (VHG or lignocellulosic fermentations. In this study, a set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes found, through genome-wide screenings, to confer resistance to the simultaneous presence of different relevant stresses were identified as required for maximal fermentation performance under industrial conditions. Results Chemogenomics data were used to identify eight genes whose expression confers simultaneous resistance to high concentrations of glucose, acetic acid and ethanol, chemical stresses relevant for VHG fermentations; and eleven genes conferring simultaneous resistance to stresses relevant during lignocellulosic fermentations. These eleven genes were identified based on two different sets: one with five genes granting simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and furfural, and the other with six genes providing simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and vanillin. The expression of Bud31 and Hpr1 was found to lead to the increase of both ethanol yield and fermentation rate, while Pho85, Vrp1 and Ygl024w expression is required for maximal ethanol production in VHG fermentations. Five genes, Erg2, Prs3, Rav1, Rpb4 and Vma8, were found to contribute to the maintenance of cell viability in wheat straw hydrolysate and/or the maximal fermentation rate of this substrate. Conclusions The identified genes stand as preferential targets for genetic engineering manipulation in order to generate more robust industrial strains, able to cope with the most significant fermentation stresses and, thus, to increase ethanol production rate and final ethanol titers.

  10. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-05-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles. PMID:18338188

  11. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment and...... of a cheaper substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex, differing, in many aspects from crop-based ethanol production. One important requirement is an efficient microorganism able to ferment a...... variety of sugars (pentoses, and hexoses) as well as to tolerate stress conditions. Through metabolic engineering, bacterial and yeast strains have been constructed which feature traits that are advantageous for ethanol production using lignocellulose sugars. After several rounds of modification...

  12. State of the art on bioethanol production; Stato dell'arte della produzione di bioetanolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fonti Rinnovabili di Energia, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Policoro, Matera (Italy); Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali

    2001-07-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way. [Italian] Questo lavoro tratta della produzione di etanolo da diverse biomasse, compreso i materiali lignocellulosici. Sono riportati cenni al mercato mondiale ed europeo dell'etanolo insieme ad una breve rassegna dei processi impiegati correntemente; si tratta per lo piu' di tecnologie ormai mature basate sull'utilizzo di piante ad alto contenuto di zucchero o di amido. Per quanto riguarda la produzione di etanolo da biomasse lignocellulosiche, sono riportati i risultati di un'indagine statistica sulla disponibilita' in Europa di questi materiali in termini di coltivazini dedicate, residui agro-forestali e rifiuti domestici. E' riportata altresi una ricerca bibliografica sui recenti sviluppi dei processi di conversione a etanolo su scala banco e pilota. Infine, una breve discussione sugli aspetti economici connessi all'utilizzo di materiali lignocellulosici per la produzione di etanolo mostra come questi processi si stiano avvicinando alla completa fattibilita'.

  13. Bioethanol production from deacetylated yellow poplar pretreated with oxalic acid recovered through electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Chandan; Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Won

    2016-05-01

    Electrodialysis (ED) was used to develop a multistage oxalic acid recovery and pretreatment system to produce ethanol from deacetylated yellow poplar. Pretreatment of the biomass was performed at 150°C for 42 min using 0.16 M oxalic acid. The efficiency of oxalic acid recovery from the hydrolysate reached up to 92.32% in all the stages. Ethanol production and ethanol yield of ED-treated hydrolysate in each stage showed a uniform pattern ranging from 6.81 g/L to 7.21 g/L and 0.40 g/g to 0.43 g/g, respectively. The results showed that efficiency of ethanol production increased when deacetylated biomass and ED process was used. Ethanol yield from the pretreated biomass using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was in the range of 80.59-83.36% in all the stages. The structural characterization of the pretreated biomass at each stage was investigated and structural changes were not significantly different among the various pretreated biomass. PMID:26943934

  14. Plasma reforming of bio-ethanol for hydrogen rich gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The steam-oxidative reforming of ethanol was performed in a novel miniaturized plasma reactor. • The discharge combines the advantages of the 3-D cylindrical tornado and the supersonic/subsonic discharge. • The influence of V–I characteristic on ethanol reforming was discussed. • High conversion of ethanol was experimentally confirmed. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from ethanol by non-thermal arc discharge was investigated in a novel miniaturized plasma reactor. It is observed that ethanol–water mixture was converted into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and other products. The V–I characteristic was recorded by an oscilloscope to study the effect of discharge on the ethanol reforming. In the experiments, ethanol–water mixture entered the reaction chamber through a special gas–liquid spray nozzle for a quick evaporation and a rapid mixing with air at room temperature. Assisted by a Laval nozzle electrode, non-thermal arc plasma can improve the performance of ethanol reforming. It is found that the maximum conversion rate of ethanol was 90.9% at O/C = 1.4, S/C = 1.2 and ethanol flow rate = 0.05 g/s, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 40.9% at O/C = 1.4, S/C = 1.2 and ethanol flow rate = 0.10 g/s. The ethanol reforming process produced little coke and nitrogen oxide which was less than 10 ppm in the supersonic/subsonic plasma working condition

  15. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Kang; Lise Appels; Tianwei Tan; Raf Dewil

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and t...

  16. Response surface optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of narrow-leaf cattail for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The cellulose of pretreated sample was higher than untreated sample. • Lower hemicellulose and lignin were enhanced of hydrolyzed cellulose to sugar. • The predicted result of enzymatic hydrolysis process was fitted by quadratic model. • Predicted data was good agreement with the experimental data; with 95% confidence. - Abstract: Narrow-leaf cattail was employed as lignocellulosic biomass substrate for the investigation of the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic ethanol. Cellulose saccharification into a high yield of fermentable sugar is an important step in ethanol production. Response surface methodology was utilized in the study of variables affecting enzymatic hydrolysis on the released glucose and xylose. Five levels (−2, −1, 0, +1, +2) of independent variable factors; cellulase (5–25 FPU/g substrate), β-glucosidase (0–20 U/g substrate), hydrolysis temperature (30–50 °C), and hydrolysis time (24–96 h), were randomly setup by using the Design of Experiment program. The significance of the regression model was high; with 95% confidence interval (less than 5% error). The predicted result after optimization was also in good agreement with the experimental data. An optimal condition; 13.50 FPU/g substrate, 16.50 U/g substrate, 50 °C and 24 h, was obtained, yielding a released glucose of 552.9 mg/g substrate (75.6% saccharification) and a released xylose of 74.0 mg/g substrate (45.6% saccharification)

  17. Use of bioethanol as an additive or substitute for petrol and diesel oil increases in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has used bioethanol for decades, to replace gasoline and gasoline additives based on mineral resources. The United States initiated a bioethanol programme 15 years ago, to reduce vehicle emissions and encourage the use of renewable raw materials in fuels. Today, the bioethanol production capacity is 12 million tons/a in Brazil and 5 million tons/a in the United States. In Europe, Sweden and France have been the first to follow this trend. The first European fuel ethanol plant was constructed in France in 1995, and another plant has been designed and is awaiting an investment decision. Spain is going ahead with a project, and a fuel ethanol plant may start up in Sweden in 1998. JPI Process Contracting was chosen as the contractor for the French and Spanish projects. Since bioethanol is more expensive than fossil fuels and fuel additives for vehicles, governments typically support bioethanol production through tax exemptions for a period of 5 to 10 years. In the meantime, new processes based on cellulosic raw materials are actively studied in several countries, but development to full commercial scale could take as much as 10 years. (author)

  18. Optimal Design of Algae Biorefinery Processing Networks for the production of Protein, Ethanol and Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Vivion, Anthony; Gernaey, Krist V.;

    2015-01-01

    analysis such as microalgae production cost, composition of microalgae (e.g. oil content) and biodiesel/bioethanol market prices is considered. New optimal processing paths are found with potential of producing higher amount of biodiesel. Last, the methodology is intended as decision support tool for early...

  19. Efficient breakdown of lignocellulose using mixed-microbe populations for bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo

    2009-11-01

    This report documents progress in discovering new catalytic technologies that will support the development of advanced biofuels. The global shift from petroleum-based fuels to advanced biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in biomass deconstruction technologies, because current methods are neither cost effective nor sufficiently efficient or robust for scaleable production. Discovery and characterization of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems adapted to extreme environments will accelerate progress. Obvious extreme environments to mine for novel lignocellulolytic deconstruction technologies include aridland ecosystems (ALEs), such as those of the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in central New Mexico (NM). ALEs represent at least 40% of the terrestrial biosphere and are classic extreme environments, with low nutrient availability, high ultraviolet radiation flux, limited and erratic precipitation, and extreme variation in temperatures. ALEs are functionally distinct from temperate environments in many respects; one salient distinction is that ALEs do not accumulate soil organic carbon (SOC), in marked contrast to temperate settings, which typically have large pools of SOC. Low productivity ALEs do not accumulate carbon (C) primarily because of extraordinarily efficient extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) that are derived from underlying communities of diverse, largely uncharacterized microbes. Such efficient enzyme activities presumably reflect adaptation to this low productivity ecosystem, with the result that all available organic nutrients are assimilated rapidly. These communities are dominated by ascomycetous fungi, both in terms of abundance and contribution to ecosystem-scale metabolic processes, such as nitrogen and C cycling. To deliver novel, robust, efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme systems that will drive transformational advances in biomass deconstruction, we have: (1) secured an award through the Department of Energy

  20. Impacts of Deacetylation Prior to Dilute Acid Pretreatment on the Bioethanol Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Shekiro, J.; Franden, M. A.; Wang, W.; Johnson, D. K.; Zhang, M.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: (1) cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and (2) cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. Results: In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Conclusions: Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield.

  1. The impacts of deacetylation prior to dilute acid pretreatment on the bioethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: 1 cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and 2 cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. Results In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Conclusions Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield.

  2. Bioethanol fermentation as alternative valorization route of agricultural digestate according to a biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Monlau, F; Barakat, A

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of producing bioethanol from solid digestate after a mechanical fractionation (i.e. centrifugal milling), in order to improve the energy recovery from agricultural wastes and the sustainability of anaerobic digestion plants. A bioethanol yield of 37gkg(-1)TS was evaluated for the solid digestate fraction. Mass and energetic balances were performed and compared between two scenarios: (A) one-stage bioethanol fermentation and (B) two-stage anaerobic digestion-bioethanol fermentation, in order to evaluate the feasibility and the advantages of the two-stage process. Results revealed that, compared to the one-stage process, the dual anaerobic digestion-bioethanol process permitted: (i) to diversify biofuels production; (ii) to provide the thermal energy sufficient for drying digestate (13,351kWhthday(-1)), for the subsequent milling step; (iii) to reduce the electric energy requirement for the milling step (from 23,880 to 3580kWhelday(-1)); (iv) to produce extra electrical energy of 8483kWhelday(-1); (v) to improve the reduction of waste streams generated (from 13% to 54% of organic matter removal). PMID:27115615

  3. Evaluation of hyper thermal acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii for enhanced bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-06-01

    Hyper thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii, a red seaweed, was optimized to 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content, 180mM H2SO4 at 140°C for 5min. The maximum monosaccharide concentration of 38.3g/L and 66.7% conversion from total fermentable monosaccharides of 57.6g/L with 120gdw/L K. alvarezii slurry were obtained from HT acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. HT acid hydrolysis at a severity factor of 0.78 efficiently converted the carbohydrates of seaweed to monosaccharides and produced a low concentration of inhibitory compounds. The levels of ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation with non-adapted and adapted Kluyveromyces marxianus to high concentration of galactose were 6.1g/L with ethanol yield (YEtOH) of 0.19 at 84h and 16.0g/L with YEtOH of 0.42 at 72h, respectively. Development of the HT acid hydrolysis process and adapted yeast could enhance the overall ethanol fermentation yields of K. alvarezii seaweed. PMID:26950757

  4. Produksi bioethanol dari jerami padi (Oryza sativa) melalui hidrolisis asan dan fermentasi dengan Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    SRI KUSUMASTUTI HAYUNINGTYAS; SUNARTO; SITI LUSI ARUM SARI

    2014-01-01

    Hayuningtyas SK, Sunarto, Sari SLA. 2013. The production of bioethanol from rice straw (Oryza sativa) by acid hydrolysis and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioteknologi 11: 1-4. Bioethanol is one of the alternative fuels that are considered more environmentally friendly. Bioethanol can be obtained from material that contains cellulose, such as rice straw. This study aimed to determine the optimum fermentation time to product bioethanol from rice straw hydrolysis and measured of b...

  5. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been recognized as a widespread, potentially low cost renewable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol. Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol, remains one of the main barriers to technical and commercial success of the processing technology. Existing pretreatment methods have largely been developed on the basis of physiochemical technologies which are considered relatively expensive and usually involve adverse environmental impacts. In this study, an environmentally benign alternative, microbial pretreatment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was explored to degrade lignin in cotton stalks and facilitate their conversion into ethanol. Two submerged liquid pretreatment techniques (SmC), shallow stationary and agitated cultivation, at three inorganic salt concentrations (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+, modified salts with Mn2+) were compared by evaluating their pretreatment efficiencies. Shallow stationary cultivation with no salt was superior to other pretreatment conditions and gave 20.7% lignin degradation along with 76.3% solids recovery and 29.0% carbohydrate availability over a 14 day period. The influence of substrate moisture content (65%, 75% and 80% M.C. wet-basis), inorganic salt concentration (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+ , modified salts with Mn2+) and culture time (0-14 days) on pretreatment effectiveness in solid state (SSC) systems was also examined. It was shown that solid state cultivation at 75% M.C. without salts was the most preferable pretreatment resulting in 27.6% lignin degradation, 71.1% solids recovery and 41.6% carbohydrate availability over a period of 14 days. A study on hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks treated microbially using the most promising SmC (shallow stationary, no salts) and SSC (75% moisture content, no salts) methods resulted in no increase in cellulose conversion with direct enzyme application (10.98% and 3

  6. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  7. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P meat. PMID:26292792

  8. Simultaneous Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Anaerobic Fermentation with Immobilized Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Han; Zhanqing Wang; Hong Chen; Xin Yao; Yongfeng Li

    2011-01-01

    The effects of organic loading rates (OLRs) on fermentative productions of hydrogen and ethanol were investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with attached sludge using molasses as substrate. The CSTR reactor with attached sludge was operated under different OLRs, ranging from 8 to 24 kg/m3·d. The H2 and ethanol production rate essentially increased with increasing OLR. The highest H2 production rate (10.74 mmol/h ⋅ L) and ethanol production rate (11.72 mmol/h ⋅ L) were obtain...

  9. Bioethanol production from sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide-pretreated water hyacinth via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with a newly isolated thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianu strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinping; Wei, Zhilei; Wang, Qiaoping; He, Manman; Li, Shumei; Irbis, Chagan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, bioethanol production from NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth was investigated. Pretreatment of water hyacinth with 1.5% (v/v) H2O2 and 3% (w/v) NaOH at 25 °C increased the production of reducing sugars (223.53 mg/g dry) and decreased the cellulose crystallinity (12.18%), compared with 48.67 mg/g dry and 22.80% in the untreated sample, respectively. The newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianu K213 showed greater ethanol production from glucose (0.43 g/g glucose) at 45 °C than did the control Saccharomyces cerevisiae angel yeast. The maximum ethanol concentration (7.34 g/L) achieved with K. marxianu K213 by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from pretreated water hyacinth at 42 °C was 1.78-fold greater than that produced by angel yeast S. cerevisiae at 30 °C. The present work demonstrates that bioethanol production achieved via SSF of NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth with K. marxianu K213 is a promising strategy to utilize water hyacinth biomass. PMID:26119051

  10. Bioethanol Production from Uncooked Raw Starch by Immobilized Surface-engineered Yeast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Wu, Kuo-Wei; Fukuda, Hideki

    Surface-engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae codisplaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and Streptococcus bovis α-amylase on the cell surface was used for direct production of ethanol from uncooked raw starch. By using 50 g/L cells during batch fermentation, ethanol concentration could reach 53 g/L in 7 days. During repeated batch fermentation, the production of ethanol could be maintained for seven consecutive cycles. For cells immobilized in loofa sponge, the concentration of ethanol could reach 42 g/L in 3 days in a circulating packed-bed bioreactor. However, the production of ethanol stopped thereafter because of limited contact between cells and starch. The bioreactor could be operated for repeated batch production of ethanol, but ethanol concentration dropped to 55% of its initial value after five cycles because of a decrease in cell mass and cell viability in the bioreactor. Adding cells to the bioreactor could partially restore ethanol production to 75% of its initial value.

  11. Optimization of media for bioethanol production by Pichia stipitis from sugarcane bagasse pretreated by dilute acid

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Ahi; Mehrdad Azin; Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati; Ebrahim Vasheghani Farahani; Mohsen Nosrati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reduction of fossil fuels due to its increasing consumption caused the biofuels production as an important topic, today. Using resources that have not food application was regarded as the second generation biofuels and consisted of lignocelluloses. Since considerable amount of lignocellulosic material are pentoses, utilizing them is important for the production of biofuels. Materials and methods: Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with dilute acid method. Pichia stipitis was us...

  12. Bioethanol production on radioactively contaminated paddy field toward reconstruction of rice farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by fission product emission, paddy fields around the plant were contaminated with cesium 137 and gave to the consumer an anxiety relating to the harvest of rice. The author proposes to continue productive rice farm among all to maintain farm function. The rice can be used for produce ethanol for use to produce fuel energy. New enterprise and business will possibly appear, its economic aspects are discussed. (S. Ohno)

  13. Potential for using thermophilic anaerobic bacteria for bioethanol production from hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P.; Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    A limited number of bacteria, yeast and fungi can convert hemicellulose or its monomers (xylose, arabinose, mannose and galactose) into ethanol with a satisfactory yield and productivity. In the present study we tested a number of thermophilic enrichment cultures, and new isolates of thermophilic...... anaerobic bacterial strains growing optimally at 70-80degreesC for their ethanol production from D-Xylose. The new isolates came from different natural and man-made systems such as hot springs, paper pulp mills and brewery waste water. The test was composed of three different steps; (i) test for conversion...... Of D-Xylose into ethanol; (ii) test for viability and ethanol production in pretreated wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate; (iii) test for tolerance against high D-xylose concentrations. A total of 86 enrichment cultures and 58 pure cultures were tested and five candidates were selected which...

  14. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  15. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe;

    2013-01-01

    A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma-assisted pretre......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...

  16. Wet Oxidation Pretreatment of Tobacco Stalks and Orange Waste for Bioethanol Production. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Carlos; Fernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Ariel;

    2009-01-01

    , was inhibited compared to the fermentation of a reference glucose solution. Inhibition was more intense for the filtrate of tobacco stalks than for that of orange waste. The inhibition degree of the volumetric productivity of ethanol was higher (79.1-86.8%) than that of the ethanol yield (7.1-9.5%)....

  17. Microwave pretreatment of rape straw for bioethanol production: Focus on energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xuebin; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Yimin;

    2011-01-01

    The energy efficiency of microwave-assisted dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rape straw for the production of ethanol was investigated. Different microwave energy inputs and solid loadings were tested to find economic pretreatment conditions. The lowest energy consumption was observed when...

  18. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, Moreno L.; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Rossum, van G.; Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Kersten, S.R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the pro

  19. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  20. STRATEGIES TO RECYCLE ENZYMES AND THEIR IMPACT ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xue,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes still exhibit activities after hydrolysis of biomass according to previous studies. Recycling the enzymes and use them in subsequent hydrolysis cycles can further utilize their remaining activities. Previous studies have mainly discussed enzyme recycling processes up to three cycles, in which the processes did not reach steady state. Steady state investigation is essential for the guidance of the real life process. Four cycles of processing have usually been considered enough to bring the system to steady state in process engineering. In this work, hydrolysate was used as the source of recycled enzymes to fresh substrate for five cycles. Because a large amount of enzymes remained on the pulp, surfactant was introduced to recycle the enzymes that remained with the residue. Recycled hydrolysate from previous enzymatic hydrolysis usually carries a high concentration of sugars, which can inhibit the new round of hydrolysis. To remove sugar from the recycling stream, a wash with fresh buffer was performed. Sugars were removed, while enzymes still remain on the fresh substrates. Six recycling strategies were evaluated for enzyme recycling percentage and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency with both green-liquor pretreated softwood and hardwood in this investigation. Hydrolysis efficiency increased by about 40% for softwood at 30 mg/g enzyme dosage and about 25% for hardwood at 7.5 mg/g when a washing stage was applied with addition of surfactant.

  1. ALKALINE PRETREATMENT OF SPRUCE AND BIRCH TO IMPROVE BIOETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Jeihanipour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.

  2. 生物乙醇生产及木质纤维素稀酸预处理的研究进展%Bioethanol Production and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Materials: a Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur Redding; 陈元彩; 付时雨; 詹怀宇; Jay J.Cheng

    2012-01-01

    作为一种汽油替代品,液体燃料因其可持续及环境友好的特点引起了人们的广泛兴趣.文中介绍了几种能够替代汽油的液体燃料:生物甲醇、生物乙醇和生物丁醇,指出生物乙醇最具潜力.对生产生物乙醇的原料进行了概述,指出由于政策性限制,使用淀粉或糖来生产乙醇受到制约,因此人们转向利用木质纤维原料来生产乙醇.在分析了各种木质纤维原料不同的预处理方法后,指出稀酸或稀酸与蒸汽爆破相结合的方法具有经济可行性,但稀酸预处理木质纤维易产生糠醛、羟甲基糠醛、木素小分子等发酵抑制物,因此在未来设计生物质转化液体燃料时要考虑减少这类物质的生成,降低其后续影响.%There is a wide-spread interest in examining the alternative liquid fuels that are more sustainable and environmentally friendly than gasoline.In this paper,first,several alternative liquid fuels,such as biomethanol,bioethanol and biobutanol,are introduced,bioethanol being a leading one due to its potential.Then,the materials for bioethanol production are summarized,finding that lignocelluloses are paid more attentions to because the starch- or sugar-based productions are restricted by current policies.Moreover,the pretreatment methods for different kinds of lignocelluloses are analyzed,and the dilute acid pretreatment alone or that combined with steam explosion is found to be more efficient and economic than many other pretreatment options.However,as dilute acid has a tendency to generate compounds inhibiting fermentation,such as furfural,hydroxymethyl furfural and small-molecular lignin,some countermeasures should be taken during the analysis and process design to limit the production and impact of these compounds.

  3. Improvement Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw for Bioethanol Production by Combined Treatment of Radiation and Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The cost of ethanol production from starch and sucrose for use as a vehicle fuel is ultimately high. Consequently, it has been suggested that the large-scale use of ethanol as a fuel will require the utilization of cellulosic feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as a low cost and renewable feedstock for bioconversion into fermentable sugars, which can be further utilized for biofuel production. It is estimated that there is over one billion tons of biomass available for conversion into biofuels on a renewable basis to displace a substantial portion of the fossil fuels currently consumed within the transportation sector. Among different pretreatment methods such as biological, physical, chemical, and physic-chemical pretreatments, chemical pretreatment using dilute acid as catalyst, which has been extensively evaluated for treating a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks, is reported as one of the leading pretreatment technologies. Ionizing radiation can easily penetrate lignocellulosic structure and undoubtedly produce free radicals useful in modification of lignin structure as well as breakdown cellulose crystal regions. Phenoxy radicals appeared to be important radical intermediates that ultimately transformed into o-quinonoid structures in lignin. Therefore, ionizing radiation such as gamma ray and electron beam can be a great alternative. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation of wheat straw prior to dilute sulfuric acid treatment is investigated. The combined pretreatment for wheat straw was performed to evaluate the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and compared with that of the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis by individual pretreatment

  4. Cultivation of cereals for starch and bio-ethanol production in Saxony-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, L. [State Research Center of Agriculture, Forestry, and Horticulture Saxony-Anhalt, Center of Agronomy, Bernburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The capacity for ethanol production in Germany has strongly increased in the last few years. In addition to more than 1,000 old small agricultural and commercial distilleries with an output of 220,000 m{sup 3} there were built up three big factories and a rather small one with a capacity of 600,000 m{sup 3}/a. The new plants produce ethanol exclusively for fuel or fuel additives. Input material are cereal grains, preferably wheat, rye, and triticale. The demand of the new plants for grain amounts to more than 1.5 million tons per year. Further plants are in stage of construction or planning. The grain for ethanol production in general should be well, usual in trade, and free of pests, chemicals for conservation, and mycotoxins. Well-formed kernels and a high starch concentration in the grain are desired. Particularly suitable are high-yielding varieties of good agronomic features, high level in resistance against deseases, and of low grain protein concentration. Agronomic practices should be adjusted to a healthy crop, which produces high grain yield and grain quality, focussed on high starch concentration in the grain. Special attention has to be paid to nitrogen fertilization. Moderate rates of fertilizers should be applied in order to reach high grain yield and high grain starch concentration, as show field trials in Saxony-Anhalt. First nitrogen rate in early spring should be emphasized. Late rates in stage of shoo-ting or heading have to be rejected. (orig.)

  5. Simulation of acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic residues to fermentable sugars for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiras, Dimitris

    2012-12-01

    The dilute acid hydrolysis of fir sawdust with sulfuric acid was undertaken in a batch reactor system (autoclave). The experimental data and reaction kinetic analysis indicate that this is a potential process for cellulose and hemicelluloses hydrolysis, due to a rapid hydrolysis reaction for acid concentration 0.045 N at 160-180°C. It was found that significant sugar degradation occurred at these conditions. The optimum conditions gave a yield of 38% total fermentable sugars. The kinetics of dilute acid hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses (polysaccharides) were simulated using four pseudo-kinetic models. The reaction rate constants were calculated in each case.

  6. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  7. Functional expression of xylose isomerase in flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Cheng; Li, Guo-Ying; Gou, Min; Xia, Zi-Yuan; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with xylose isomerase (XI) pathway were constructed using a flocculating industrial strain (YC-8) as the host. Both strains expressing wild-type xylA (coding XI) from the fungus Orpinomyces sp. and the bacterium Prevotella ruminicola, respectively, showed better growth ability and fermentation capacity when using xylose as the sole sugar than most of the reported strains expressing XI. Codon optimization of both XIs did not improve the xylose fermentation ability of the strains. Adaption significantly increased XI activity resulting in improved growth and fermentation. The strains expressing codon-optimized XI showed a higher increase in xylose consumption and ethanol production compared to strains expressing wild XI. Among all strains, the adapted strain YCPA2E expressing XI from P. ruminicola showed the best performance in the fermentation of xylose to ethanol. After 48 h of fermentation, YCPA2E assimilated 16.95 g/L xylose and produced 6.98 g/L ethanol. These results indicate that YC-8 is a suitable host strain for XI expression, especially for the codon-optimized XI originating from P. ruminicola. PMID:26645659

  8. Enhancing fermentable sugar yield from cassava pulp for bioethanol production: microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, A; Sivakumar, V; Sangeetha, V; Devi, K S Priyenka

    2015-08-01

    Cassava pulp, a potential biological feedstock for ethanol production has been subjected to microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave pretreatment may be a good alternative as it can reduce the pretreatment time and improve the enzymatic activity during hydrolysis. Liquid to solid ratio for the pretreatment of cassava pulp was found to be 20:1. Cassava pulp was pretreated at various NaOH concentration, microwave temperature and gave maximum yield of reducing sugar with 1.5% NaOH at 90 °C in 30 min than conventional alkali pretreatment after enzymatic hydrolysis. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated cassava pulp using α amylase dosage of 400 IU at microwave temperature of 90 °C resulted in highest reducing sugar yield of 723 mg/g pulp. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp by increasing its accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis are found to be efficient for improving the yield of reducing sugar. PMID:25832789

  9. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  10. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  11. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  12. Analyzing the Effect of Variations in Soil and Management Practices on the Sustainability of Corn Stover-Based Bioethanol Production in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woli, Prem [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Paz, Joel [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2011-08-07

    The inherent variability in corn stover productivity due to variations in soils and crop management practices might contribute to a variation in corn stover-based bioethanol sustainability. This study was carried out to examine how changes in soil types and crop management options would affect corn stover yield (CSY) and the sustainability of the stover-based ethanol production in the Delta region of Mississippi. Based on potential acreage and geographical representation, three locations were selected. Using CERES-Maize model, stover yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and crop management options. Based on 'net energy value (NEV)' computed from CSYs, a sustainability indicator for stover-based bioethanol production was established. The effects of soils and crop management options on CSY and NEV were determined using ANOVA tests and regression analyses. Both CSY and NEV were significantly different across sandy loam, silt loam, and silty clay loam soils and also across high-, mid-, and low-yielding cultivars. With an increase in irrigation level, both CSY and NEV increased initially and decreased after reaching a peak. A third-degree polynomial relationship was found between planting date and CSY and NEV each. By moving from the lowest to the highest production scenario, values of CSY and NEV could be increased by 86 to 553%, depending on location and weather condition. The effects of variations in soils and crop management options on NEV were the same as on CSY. The NEV was positive for all scenarios, indicating that corn stover-based ethanol production system in the Delta region is sustainable.

  13. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usually, ethanol steam reforming is performed using pure ethanol, whereas the use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl2O4. It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol has no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al2O3. Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al2O3 catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl2O4, which was strongly deactivated after 2h of time-on-stream. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: Optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Valant, Anthony; Can, Fabien; Bion, Nicolas; Duprez, Daniel; Epron, Florence [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie organique, UMR6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol have no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24 h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which was strongly deactivated after 2 h of time-on -stream. (author)

  15. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Valant, A.; Can, F.; Bion, N.; Epron, F.; Duprez, D. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie organique, Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex (France)], E-mail: florence.epron.cognet@univ-poitiers.fr

    2009-07-01

    Usually, ethanol steam reforming is performed using pure ethanol, whereas the use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol has no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which was strongly deactivated after 2h of time-on-stream. (author)

  16. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriani Kasim; Anwar Kasim

    2013-01-01

    A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at low concentrations (1%) using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the obser...

  17. Production of bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjær, Michael; Sommer, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    1998-01-01

    Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol requires pretreatment and hydrolysis prior to the ethanolic fermentation. This pretreatment renders the biomass more susceptible to the subsequent hydrolysis. Of the wide variety of pretreatment methods presently available, wet oxidatio...

  18. Bioethanol jako palivo ve spalovacích motorech

    OpenAIRE

    Mikule, Luděk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's thesis is to analyse the possibilities of bioethanol production and its utilization as fuel in combustion engines. The first part of this paper focuses on the production of bioethanol from sugar beet, cereal and lignocelluloses substance. The comparison of the production potential of various raw materials for biothenol production is also included in this section. The remaining part of the thesis introduces the possible uses of fuels with a different portion of bioet...

  19. Effort of Increasing Production of Livestock Feed out of Cassava Waste by Identifying the more Suitable Cellulotic Degrading Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Yani Suryani; Poniah Andayaningsih; Iman Hernaman; Ulfanuri Fajri Muharromi

    2012-01-01

    In the bioethanol production process, as much as 90% of waste was produced. The availability of waste production is very important since waste can be processed to become livestock feed. The solid bioethanol waste contains cyanide (HCN) 5.8177 mg/kg, water 95,21%, ash 0,39%, protein 8,16%, crude fiber 5,45%, crude fat 2.06%, and carbohydrates 83,94%. Processing bioethanol solid waste into livestock feed can be done by utilizing the existing fungi on bioethanol solid waste. Crude fiber (cellulo...

  20. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture?-The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector

  1. Bioethanol from different Finnish agricultural carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautola, H.; Kymaelaeinen, M.; Tokeensuu, L.; Alatalo, T. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Caerdenas, R. (Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad Ciencias Quimicas, Escuela de Quimica, Av. America. Ciudadela Universitaria, Quito (Ecuador)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Bioethanol in fuel and its domestic production has become a great issue in Finland during the last few years. There has been discussion about what kind of raw materials should be used and are there any local priorities. In the years 2004-2007 local farmers in Haem e , in southern part of Finland, started to find alternative use for sugar beet due to drastic reduction of domestic sugar production in the near future. This was also the start of the experimental studies on bi oethanol production. The aim of the study was to find out how the change of carbon source will effect on bi oethanol yield. The bioethanol production was studied in laboratory scale using carbon sources of saccharose, glucose, sugar beet juice, sugar beet mash and barley hydrolysates pretreated with amylases, (beta-glucanase and xylanase). The yeast used was Saccharomyces sp. The pre experiments were performed in 250 mL flasks to optimize carbon, nitrogen and salts contents in production medium, also comparing different carbon sources and mixtures. The production was then studied in a 30 liter fermenter running for 36 hours. The preliminary studies showed that barley hydrolysate gave the best result 2,4% in bioethanol concentration during the performed fermentations, and saccharose was the best substrate in shake flask fermentations with a 9,6% bioethanol concentration. (orig.)

  2. Comparison between solid-state and powder-state alkali pretreatment on saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Shabina; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of different concentrations of NaOH (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) for the pretreatment of rice straw in solid and powder state in enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for the production of bioethanol was evaluated. A greater amount of biomass was recovered through solid-state pretreatment (3.74 g) from 5 g of rice straw. The highest increase in the volume of rice straw powder as a result of swelling was observed with 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (48.07%), which was statistically identical to 0.75% NaOH pretreatment (32.31%). The surface of rice straw was disrupted by the 0.75% NaOH and 1.00% NaOH pretreated samples as observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, absorbance of hydroxyl groups at 1,050 cm(-1) due to the OH group of lignin was gradually decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration. The greatest amounts of glucose and ethanol were obtained in 1.00% NaOH solid-state pretreated and powder-state hydrolyzed samples (0.804 g g(-1) and 0.379 g g(-1), respectively), which was statistically similar to the use of 0.75% NaOH (0.763 g g(-1) and 0.358 g g(-1), respectively). Thus, solid-state pretreatment with 0.75% NaOH and powder-state hydrolysis appear to be suitable for fermentation and bioethanol production from rice straw. PMID:25806867

  3. Applications and perspectives of multi-parameter flow cytometry to microbial biofuels production processes 

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Teresa Lopes da; Roseiro, J. Carlos; Reis, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Conventional microbiology methods used to monitor microbial biofuels production are based on off-line analyses. The analyses are, unfortunately, insufficient for bioprocess optimization. Real time process control strategies, such as flow cytometry (FC), can be used to monitor bioprocess development (at-line) by providing single cell information that improves process model formulation and validation. This paper reviews the current uses and potential applications of FC in biodiesel, bioethanol,...

  4. Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

    2009-02-15

    A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

  5. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  6. Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is now the third largest bioethanol producer in the world after the United State and Brazil. The overall goals of this paper are to provide an overview of China's current bioethanol program, its future trend, and the likely impacts on its agricultural economy in the future. The analysis shows that China has developed an ambitious long-run biofuel program with a series of financial and institutional supports. While there are several potential feedstock crops available for bioethanol production, lack of land for feedstock production is one of major constraints in China's bioethanol expansion. The results show that although China's bioethanol expansion will have little impacts on overall agricultural prices in international markets, it will have significant impacts on the prices, productions, and trade of those energy crops being used for bioethanol production in China. (author)

  7. Wirtschaftlichkeit von Bioethanol – Produktion und Produktionskosten im nationalen und internationalen Vergleich

    OpenAIRE

    Henniges, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    In this article the profitability of the bioethanol production in Germany is analysed under consideration of the international competition. Therefore, the production costs of bioethanol from wheat and beet in Germany as well as from sugar cane and corn in other representative countries are compared. Based on this, the competitiveness of imported as well as domestic bioethanol against gasoline on the German market are analyzed and the maximum payable feedstock price for sugar beet is calculate...

  8. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock, lignocellulose (second generation feedstock, or algae (third generation feedstock feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  9. The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production. PMID:22536020

  10. Produksi bioethanol dari jerami padi (Oryza sativa melalui hidrolisis asan dan fermentasi dengan Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI KUSUMASTUTI HAYUNINGTYAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hayuningtyas SK, Sunarto, Sari SLA. 2013. The production of bioethanol from rice straw (Oryza sativa by acid hydrolysis and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioteknologi 11: 1-4. Bioethanol is one of the alternative fuels that are considered more environmentally friendly. Bioethanol can be obtained from material that contains cellulose, such as rice straw. This study aimed to determine the optimum fermentation time to product bioethanol from rice straw hydrolysis and measured of bioethanol product from rice straw by acid hydrolysis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. The results showed that rice straw hydrolysis by sulfuric acid catalyst produced higher reducing sugar: 21.7 g/100 g rice straw. The optimum fermentation time was 5 days which produced of 8.96% bioethanol.

  11. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriani Kasim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at low concentrations (1% using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the observed reducing sugar levels by using a method Luff Schoorl. The results showed that setting temperature and time influence on sugar levels resulting hydrolyzate where the optimum temperature and time to produce the highest sugar content reducing at 130 ° C with a long 60 minutes, with the resulting reducing in sugar content was 3.51%. The results obtained are much higher than previous studies conducted by researchers who carried out the straw fibers under the same conditions by using a solution of 1% H2SO4 and hydrolysis time 1 hour, but no temperature control and heating is only done on a gas stove, which acquired sugar 0.22%. As for the gain of 0.78% sugar, hydrolysis takes 4 hours, with a concentration of 10% sulfuric acid.

  12. Bioethanol production from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour using co-culture of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Swain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the optimiation of co-culturing of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1:4 ratio on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour (SPF for the production of bio-ethanol in solid-state fermentation (SSF. Maximum ethanol (172 g/kg substrate was produced in a medium containing 80% moisture, ammonium sulphate 0.2%, pH 5.0, inoculuted with 10% inoculum size and fermented at 30ºC for 72h. .Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, maximum ethanol productivity (2.8 g/kg substrate/h, microbial biomass (23×10(8 CFU/ g substrate, ethanol yield (47 g/100g sugar consumed and fermentation efficiency (72% were also obtained under these conditions. Cell interaction was observed familiar between the viable cells of Trichoderma sp. and S. cerevisiae when co-cultured. Ethanol production ability by the co-culture was 65 % higher than the single culture of S. cerevisiae from un-saccharified SPF.

  13. Review of China's bioethanol development and a case study of fuel supply, demand and distribution of bioethanol expansion by national application of E10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing dependence on imported oil and tremendous greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is making the diversification of primary fuel such as petroleum a critical vital energy and environmental issue in China. China is promoting bioethanol by mandatory use in nine provinces and the expansion is on agenda. This paper first reviews China's bioethanol development. Next, suitable feedstock crops for expanded ethanol production are discussed. Particularly, bioethanol expansion by national application of E10 is investigated from perspectives of potential in bioethanol supply, projected ethanol demand, and the possible cost-effective bioethanol distribution system. It is calculated that by making use of un-used land for feedstock planting and introduction of improved feedstock varieties, potential bioethanol production capacity in China will be up to 25.33 million tons per year. Ethanol demand for national application of E10 is projected to be around 7 million tons per year. A linear optimization model is used to consider the economic costs of distributing bioethanol in China. The optimization result suggests that development of bioethanol industry may focus on Henan, Jilin, Anhui, Jiangxi and Sichuan basin. It also estimates 53.79 RMB per ton of bioethanol for downstream rail or truck transportation remain a relatively small fraction of total fuel cost. Thanks to the well developed railway network in China, more bioethanol can be distributed at a relatively modest premium distribution costs and with low environmental influences. -- Highlights: → China's bioethanol development is reviewed. → Ethanol potential, projected demand and efficient distribution system are studied. → We find that nationwide bioethanol application can be commercially viable. → Impacts of oil and feedstock prices on ethanol expansion are discussed. → Ecological impacts of large scale feedstock crop plantation should be inspected.

  14. Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezić, Tonči; Oros, Damir; Marković, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar

    2013-09-28

    Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively. PMID:23851274

  15. Energy analysis of using macroalgae from eutrophic waters as a bioethanol feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is an environmental problem in a majority of shallow water basins all over the world. The undesired macroalgae has been proposed as a biomass resource for bioethanol production and we have analysed the environmental sustainability of two case studies: Orbetello Lagoon (OL), Italy......, and Koge Bay (KB), Denmark. Today, macroalgae are collected and stored in landfills to provide a solution for the excess production. An emergy assessment revealed that the main environmental support for macroalgae growth relates to water in both case studies. In OL, rain represents 51% of the emergy...... analysed with the full-requirement approach as well as with a marginal-requirement approach accounting only what the bioethanol production requires of additional processes, i.e. mainly transportation and conversion of the macroalgae in a biorefinery facility which is assumed to be situated close to an...

  16. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized in agar agar and Ca-alginate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-01-15

    Batch fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L., a tree commonly found in tropical rain forest) flowers was carried out using immobilized cells (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yields were 151.2, 154.5 and 149.1 g kg{sup -1} flowers using immobilized (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells, respectively. Cell entrapment in calcium alginate was found to be marginally superior to those in agar agar (2.2% more) as well as over free cell (3.5% more) as regard to ethanol yield from mahula flowers is concerned. Further, the immobilized cells were physiologically active at least for three cycles [150.6, 148.5 and 146.5 g kg{sup -1} (agar agar) and 152.8, 151.5 and 149.5 g kg{sup -1} flowers (calcium alginate) for first, second and third cycle, respectively] of ethanol fermentation without apparently lowering the productivity. Mahula flowers, a renewable, non-food-grade cheap carbohydrate substrate from non-agricultural environment such as forest can serve as an alternative to food grade sugar/starchy crops such as maize, sugarcane for bio-ethanol production. (author)

  17. Development of yeast cell factories for consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol through cell surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    To build an energy and material secure future, a next generation of renewable fuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass is required. Although lignocellulosic biomass, which represents an abundant, inexpensive and renewable source for bioethanol production, is of great interest as a feedstock, the complicated ethanol production processes involved make the cost of producing bioethanol from it higher compared to corn starch and cane juice. Therefore, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which combines enzyme production, saccharification and fermentation in a single step, has gained increased recognition as a potential bioethanol production system. CBP requires a highly engineered microorganism developed for several different process-specific characteristics. The dominant strategy for engineering a CBP biocatalyst is to express multiple components of a cellulolytic system from either fungi or bacteria in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The development of recombinant yeast strains displaying cellulases and hemicellulases on the cell surface represents significant progress toward realization of CBP. Regardless of the process used for biomass hydrolysis, CBP-enabling microorganisms encounter a variety of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment that inhibit microbial growth and ethanol yield. Systems biology approaches including disruptome screening, transcriptomics, and metabolomics have been recently exploited to gain insight into the molecular and genetic traits involved in tolerance and adaptation to the fermentation inhibitors. In this review, we focus on recent advances in development of yeast strains with both the ability to directly convert lignocellulosic material to ethanol and tolerance in the harsh environments containing toxic compounds in the presence of ethanol. PMID:22085593

  18. Conceptual Design of an Operator Training Simulator for a Bio-Ethanol Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Gerlach; Volker C. Hass; Carl-Fredrik Mandenius

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual design methodology for the configuration and procedural training with an operating training simulator (OTS) in a large-scale plant for commercial bio-ethanol production is described. The aim of the study is to show how the methodology provides a powerful way for finding the best configuration and training structure of the OTS before constructing and implementing the software of the OTS. The OTS principle, i.e., to use a computer-based virtual representation of the real process plan...

  19. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Evanie Devi Deenanath; Sunny Iyuke; Karl Rumbold

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation fee...

  20. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  1. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  2. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 oC. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v-1) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 oC for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 ± 0.13 g l-1, a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 ± 0.13 g l-1 h-1, and a theoretical yield of 94.2 ± 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes.

  3. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., LTD, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v{sup -1}) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1}, a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 94.2 {+-} 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  4. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  5. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  6. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price (PGP. Two models were developed for the research, including the Bioethanol PGP Assessment Model (BPAM and the Feedstock Cost Estimation Model (FCEM. Results show that the PGP of the bioethanol ranges $4.68–$6.05/gal (9,550–12,356 yuan/t. The key components that contribute most to bioethanol PGP include the conversion rate of cellulose to glucose, the ratio of five-carbon sugars converted to ethanol, feedstock cost, and enzyme loading, etc. Lignocellulosic ethanol is currently unable to compete with fossil gasoline, therefore incentive policies are necessary to promote its development. It is suggested that the consumption tax be exempted, the value added tax (VAT be refunded upon collection, and feed-in tariff for excess electricity (byproduct be implemented to facilitate the industrialization of the technology. A minimum direct subsidy of $1.20/gal EtOH (2,500 yuan/t EtOH is also proposed for consideration.

  8. Measurement of sucrose and ethanol concentrations in process streams and effluents of sugarcane bioethanol industry by optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Eric; Ono, Eduardo; Manfrim, Tarcio P.; Santos, Juliana S.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    2011-05-01

    The measurement of process streams and effluents from sugar-ethanol industry by using optical fiber sensor based on Fresnel reflection principle is reported. Firstly, binary sucrose-water and ethanol-water solutions were measured in order to determine the calibration curves. Secondly, the co-products from various processing stages were analyzed in order to identify the sucrose or ethanol concentration. The absolute error was calculated by comparison between the nominal concentration values obtained by plant laboratory analysis and the sensor response, yielding errors <= 5 wt% and <= 5 vol% for sucrose and ethanol content, respectively. The fiber sensor provided reliable results even for samples with more complex compositions than pure sucrose or ethanol solutions, with perspectives of application on the several stages of the plant facility.

  9. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine Anker; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense of......Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030, regardless of...

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Katrine; Wenzel, Henrik

    , regardless of whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense......Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol for transport, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030...

  12. Effect of extrusion conditions and hydrolysis with fiber-degrading enzymes on the production of C5 and C6 sugars from brewers’ spent grain for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Heredia-Olea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioconversion of brewers’ spent grain into bioethanol was investigated in the present study using thermoplastic extrusion and the use of fiber degrading enzymes. The extrusion conditions i.e. tempering moisture, screws speed, and temperature of last zone of the barrel were taken into account in order to optimize the yield of C5 and C6 sugars during the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis step of the fibers. The most important variable that affected the sugar yield was the extrusion temperature, followed by the screws speed. The best extrusion conditions were 20% tempering moisture, 200 rpm and 50 °C. No enzymatic and yeast inhibitors were detected in any of the enzymatically-treated fiber hydrolyzates. The fermentation resulted in 5.43 mL bioethanol per 100g of extruded brewers’ spent grain (dry weight basis. The only sugar consumed was glucose. The free amino nitrogen amount quantified in the hydrolyzates was as low as >20 mg L-1, negatively affecting sugars consumption during the fermentation and consequently the ethanol yield.

  13. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  14. Optimization and analysis of a bioethanol agro-industrial system from sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Hu, Shan-ying; Li, You-run; Chen, Ding-jiang; Zhu, Bing [Center for Industrial Ecology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Smith, Karl M. [Environmental and Water Resource Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, SW72AZ London (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The use of non-food crops for bioethanol production represents an important trend for renewable energy in China. In this paper, a bioethanol agro-industrial system with distributed fermentation plants from sweet sorghum is presented. The system consists of the following processes: sweet sorghum cultivation, crude ethanol production, ethanol refining and by-product utilization. The plant capacities of crude ethanol and pure ethanol, in different fractions of useful land, are optimized. Assuming a minimum cost of investment, transport, operation and so on, the optimum capacity of the pure ethanol factory is 50,000 tonnes/year. Moreover, this bioethanol system, which requires ca. 13,300 ha (hectares) of non-cultivated land to supply the raw materials, can provide 26,000 jobs for rural workers. The income from the sale of the crops is approximately 71 million RMB Yuan and the ethanol production income is approximately 94 million RMB Yuan. The potential savings in CO{sub 2} emissions are ca. 423,000 tonnes/year and clear economic, social and environmental benefits can be realized. (author)

  15. Optimization and analysis of a bioethanol agro-industrial system from sweet sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of non-food crops for bioethanol production represents an important trend for renewable energy in China. In this paper, a bioethanol agro-industrial system with distributed fermentation plants from sweet sorghum is presented. The system consists of the following processes: sweet sorghum cultivation, crude ethanol production, ethanol refining and by-product utilization. The plant capacities of crude ethanol and pure ethanol, in different fractions of useful land, are optimized. Assuming a minimum cost of investment, transport, operation and so on, the optimum capacity of the pure ethanol factory is 50,000 tonnes/year. Moreover, this bioethanol system, which requires ca. 13,300 ha (hectares) of non-cultivated land to supply the raw materials, can provide 26,000 jobs for rural workers. The income from the sale of the crops is approximately 71 million RMB Yuan and the ethanol production income is approximately 94 million RMB Yuan. The potential savings in CO2 emissions are ca. 423,000 tonnes/year and clear economic, social and environmental benefits can be realized. (author)

  16. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  17. An integrative process model of enzymatic biodiesel production through ethanol fermentation of brown rice followed by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis in a water-containing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Koda, Risa; Hama, Shinji; Yamada, Ryosuke; Nakashima, Kazunori; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-02-01

    We attempted to integrate lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis into fermentative bioethanol production. To produce bioethanol, ethanol fermentation from brown rice was conducted using a tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing α-amylase and glucoamylase. The resultant ethanol was distilled and separated into three fractions with different concentrations of water and fusel alcohols. In ethanolysis using the first fraction with 89.3% ethanol, a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (r-FHL) afforded the highest ethyl ester content of 94.0% after 96 h. Owing to a high concentration of water in the bioethanol solutions, r-FHL, which works best in the presence of water when processing ethanolysis, was found to be more suitable for the integrative process than a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. In addition, r-FHL was used for repeated-batch ethanolysis, resulting in an ethyl ester content of more than 80% even after the fifth batch. Fusel alcohols such as 1-butanol and isobutyl alcohol are thought to decrease the lipase activity of r-FHL. Using this process, a high ethyl ester content was obtained by simply mixing bioethanol, plant oil, and lipase with an appropriate adjustment of water concentration. The developed process model, therefore, would contribute to biodiesel production from only biomass-derived feedstocks. PMID:23273281

  18. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I2/H2O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  19. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Sijbers, J.P.J.; Denis, M.; Tramper, J.

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material i

  20. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Sijbers, Jeroen P. J.; Denis, Misha; Tramper, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material is converted to glucose by cellulase enzymes, (ii)…