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Sample records for bioethanol conversion inhibitor

  1. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  2. An overview of key pretreatment processes for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Devendra Prasad; Singla, Ankit; Negi, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol can be produced from various lignocellulosic biomasses such as wood, agricultural or forest residues. Lignocellulosic biomass is inexpensive, renewable and abundant source for bioethanol production. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol could be a promising technology though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and efficient pretreatment methods for total delignification of lignocellulosics. P...

  3. Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Charles; Larsen, Jan; Morgan, K. [DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Security of supply, sustainability and the market are controlling parameters for developing the energy system. Bioethanol is part of the solution to the question about security of supply and the demand for a sustainable development, and all over Europe 1st generation bioethanol plants are being established. Market demands on existing power plants and the simultaneous wish for establishing a capacity for the production of bioethanol with at first 1st generation technology and starchy biomass and then with 2nd generation technology and lignocellulose is the reason for DONG Energy's development of the concept IBUS (Integrated Biomass Utilisation System). In the IBUS concept the production of bioethanol with 1st and 2nd generation technology has been joined and integrated with the power and heat production of the central power plant. Until the summer of 2006 the IBUS straw plant at Skaerbaekvaerket was established by means of a EURO 15 mill. EU project. In addition to being a demonstration facility the plant is being upscaled to a 4 tonne straw per hour plant in preparation for demonstrating the process at a size which forms the basis of upscaling to fullscale 20 tonne per hour in 2008. The process includes continued hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis at high dry matter concentrations, fermentation and distillation. The raw materials are wheat and maize straw. The perspective for DONG Energy is that the IBUS concept, in which bioethanol and CHP production are to be joined, is a step towards materialising the vision that a central power plant can be developed into an energy refinery. The presented development work within 2nd generation bioethanol technology will be carried out in cooperation with leading international players and Danish universities and knowledge centres Risoe National Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and Novozymes. (au)

  4. Bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Abubackar, H.N.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from cellulosic biomass plays an important role to support energy policies. To produce cellulosic ethanol via fermentation it is required to first break the lignocellulosic complex. Numerous technologies for such pretreatment are under development or in a pilot plant stage.

  5. Bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, Etienne

    1994-01-01

    Bioethanol or its deriviatives (ethers), are mixed with petrol for use in combustion engines. Suitably adapted diesel or spark ignition engines can be used with pure ethanol. Several years of experience, in the USA (since 1978) and in France, have proved that bioethanol can be added to gasoline up to 5-10% without modification of engines or of their performances. In France, ethyl alcohol or ethanol is obtained mainly by fermentation of farm crops which have a high sugar content (beet) or starch content (cereals, potatoes). In future, it will be possible to obtain ethanol by using the whole plant (wood and straw) and transforming the cellulose and hemicellulose into elementary sugars (C5,C6) by enzymatic hydrolysis. Research work is underway in this field. The ether considered here is ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether), obtained from the reaction between isobutylene and ethanol. (author)

  6. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  7. Woody biomass availability for bioethanol conversion in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo; Grebner, Donald L.; Sun, Changyou; Munn, Ian A.; Schultz, Emily B.; Matney, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated woody biomass from logging residues, small-diameter trees, mill residues, and urban waste as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol conversion in Mississippi. The focus on Mississippi was to assess in-state regional variations and provide specific information of biomass estimates for those facilities interested in locating in Mississippi. Supply and cost of four woody biomass sources were derived from Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) information, a recent forest inventory conducted by the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory, and primary production costs. According to our analysis, about 4.0 million dry tons of woody biomass are available for production of up to 1.2 billion liters of ethanol each year in Mississippi. The feedstock consists of 69% logging residues, 21% small-diameter trees, 7% urban waste, and 3% mill residues. Of the total, 3.1 million dry tons (930 million liters of ethanol) can be produced for $34 dry ton -1 or less. Woody biomass from small-diameter trees is more expensive than other sources of biomass. Transportation costs accounted for the majority of total production costs. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the largest impacts in production costs of ethanol come from stumpage price of woody biomass and technological efficiency. These results provide a valuable decision support tool for resource managers and industries in identifying parameters that affect resource magnitude, type, and location of woody biomass feedstocks in Mississippi. (author)

  8. Identification and detoxification of glycolaldehyde, an unattended bioethanol fermentation inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Ferdouse, Jannatul; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Although there have been approximately 60 chemical compounds identified as potent fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysate, our research group recently discovered glycolaldehyde as a key fermentation inhibitor during second generation biofuel production. Accordingly, we have developed a yeast S. cerevisiae strain exhibiting tolerance to glycolaldehyde. During this glycolaldehyde study, we established novel approaches for rational engineering of inhibitor-tolerant S. cerevisiae strains, including engineering redox cofactors and engineering the SUMOylation pathway. These new technical dimensions provide a novel platform for engineering S. cerevisiae strains to overcome one of the key barriers for industrialization of lignocellulosic ethanol production. As such, this review discusses novel biochemical insight of glycolaldehyde in the context of the biofuel industry.

  9. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol production from biomass is becoming a hot topic internationally. Traditional static solid state fermentation (TS-SSF) for bioethanol production is similar to the traditional method of intermittent operation. The main problems of its large-scale intensive production are the low efficiency of mass and heat transfer and the high ethanol inhibition effect. In order to achieve continuous production and high conversion efficiency, gas stripping solid state fermentation (GS-SSF) for bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stalk (SSS) was systematically investigated in the present study. Results TS-SSF and GS-SSF were conducted and evaluated based on different SSS particle thicknesses under identical conditions. The ethanol yield reached 22.7 g/100 g dry SSS during GS-SSF, which was obviously higher than that during TS-SSF. The optimal initial gas stripping time, gas stripping temperature, fermentation time, and particle thickness of GS-SSF were 10 h, 35°C, 28 h, and 0.15 cm, respectively, and the corresponding ethanol stripping efficiency was 77.5%. The ethanol yield apparently increased by 30% with the particle thickness decreasing from 0.4 cm to 0.05 cm during GS-SSF. Meanwhile, the ethanol yield increased by 6% to 10% during GS-SSF compared with that during TS-SSF under the same particle thickness. The results revealed that gas stripping removed the ethanol inhibition effect and improved the mass and heat transfer efficiency, and hence strongly enhanced the solid state fermentation (SSF) performance of SSS. GS-SSF also eliminated the need for separate reactors and further simplified the bioethanol production process from SSS. As a result, a continuous conversion process of SSS and online separation of bioethanol were achieved by GS-SSF. Conclusions SSF coupled with gas stripping meet the requirements of high yield and efficient industrial bioethanol production. It should be a novel bioconversion process for bioethanol production from SSS

  10. Investigations of the pre-treatment and the conversion of energy crops into biogas and bioethanol; Untersuchungen zur Aufbereitung und Umwandlung von Energiepflanzen in Biogas und Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Britt

    2008-07-01

    Due to finite fossil resources, one opportunity for the future is to increase the supply of energy out of renewable energy sources. One of many opportunities is the use of biomass, which offers plenty combinations of different kinds of biomass, paths of utilization and conversion techniques for a flexible adaptation to natural local and regional frameworks as well as the anthropogenic needs. For an efficient utilization of the limited arable land for the supply of bioenergy, there is a need of up-to-date and proof data about specific energy yields and yields per hectare. The aim of this investigation was to determine these data for the biogas and bioethanol sectors. Batch-tests were carried out in laboratory scaled digesters to investigate specific biogas and bioethanol yields. Additionally the testing of different techniques of pre-treatment for energy crops and their effects on the biogas yield and the progression of the formation of methane were focused. The conversion of maize silage and full ripe triticale into biogas and bioethanol was compared by an energy and environmental balance. The steam explosion technique was included. Pre-treatment The steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass increases the speed of formation of methane and partly increases the methane yields. The effects differ depending on the kind of biomass and the stage of ripening. Other techniques of pre-treatment like microwaving and cooking did not show significant or partly negative effects. A variation of parameters in the trial setup might be interesting. Besides the positive effects of the steam explosion technique there are some arguments like the additional costs of investment, the diminished concentration of nutrients respectively the increase of material flow against it. The additional energy consumption, mostly thermal energy, can be supplied from waste heat out of the combined heat and power plant (CHP). The screening and the production of technical enzymes for the efficient pre

  11. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  12. Direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene on nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides with balanced acid-base sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles H F; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-27

    We report the design and synthesis of nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides for direct and high-yield conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene (~83%). ZnO is addded to ZrO(2) to selectively passivate zirconia's strong Lewis acidic sites and weaken Brönsted acidic sites, while simultaneously introducing basicity. As a result, the undesired reactions of bio-ethanol dehydration and acetone polymerization/coking are suppressed. Instead, a surface basic site-catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetone conversion via a complex pathway including aldol-condensation/dehydrogenation, and a Brönsted acidic site-catalyzed acetone-to-isobutene reaction pathway dominates on the nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxide catalyst, leading to a highly selective process for direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene.

  13. Exploring grape marc as trove for new thermotolerant and inhibitor-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for second-generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Basaglia, Marina; Trento, Alberto; Van Rensburg, Eugéne; García-Aparicio, Maria; Van Zyl, Willem H; Casella, Sergio

    2013-11-29

    Robust yeasts with high inhibitor, temperature, and osmotic tolerance remain a crucial requirement for the sustainable production of lignocellulosic bioethanol. These stress factors are known to severely hinder culture growth and fermentation performance. Grape marc was selected as an extreme environment to search for innately robust yeasts because of its limited nutrients, exposure to solar radiation, temperature fluctuations, weak acid and ethanol content. Forty newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains gave high ethanol yields at 40°C when inoculated in minimal media at high sugar concentrations of up to 200 g/l glucose. In addition, the isolates displayed distinct inhibitor tolerance in defined broth supplemented with increasing levels of single inhibitors or with a cocktail containing several inhibitory compounds. Both the fermentation ability and inhibitor resistance of these strains were greater than those of established industrial and commercial S. cerevisiae yeasts used as control strains in this study. Liquor from steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was used as a key selective condition during the isolation of robust yeasts for industrial ethanol production, thus simulating the industrial environment. The isolate Fm17 produced the highest ethanol concentration (43.4 g/l) from the hydrolysate, despite relatively high concentrations of weak acids, furans, and phenolics. This strain also exhibited a significantly greater conversion rate of inhibitory furaldehydes compared with the reference strain S. cerevisiae 27P. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a strain of S. cerevisiae able to produce an ethanol yield equal to 89% of theoretical maximum yield in the presence of high concentrations of inhibitors from sugarcane bagasse. This study showed that yeasts with high tolerance to multiple stress factors can be obtained from unconventional ecological niches. Grape marc appeared to be an unexplored and promising substrate for the

  14. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient conversion of red algal biosugars to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Soo-Jung; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the evolutionary engineering to construct a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ7-14 resistant on 2-deoxy-D-glucose and with an enhanced ability of bioethanol production from galactose, a mono-sugar in red algae. In batch and repeated-batch fermentations, HJ7-14 metabolized 5-fold more galactose and produced ethanol 2.1-fold faster than the parental D452-2 strain. Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in the galactose metabolism revealed that moderate relief from the glucose-mediated repression of the transcription of the GAL genes might enable HJ7-14 to metabolize galactose rapidly. HJ7-14 produced 7.4 g/L ethanol from hydrolysates of the red alga Gelidium amansii within 12 h, which was 1.5-times faster than that observed with D452-2. We demonstrate conclusively that evolutionary engineering is a promising tool to manipulate the complex galactose metabolism in S. cerevisiae to produce bioethanol from red alga. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Enzymatic Conversion of Major Algal and Cyanobacterial Carbohydrates to Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Abdallah, Qusai, E-mail: qalabdal@uthsc.edu [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Nixon, B. Tracy [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Fortwendel, Jarrod R. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second-, or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits; however, they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen), the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon) are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3) and β-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be converted to

  16. The Enzymatic Conversion of Major Algal and Cyanobacterial Carbohydrates to Bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Nixon, B. Tracy; Fortwendel, Jarrod R.

    2016-01-01

    The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second-, or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits; however, they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen), the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon) are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3) and β-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be converted to

  17. The enzymatic conversion of major algal and cyanobacterial carbohydrates to bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusai Al Abdallah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second- or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits, however they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen, the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4 and α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3 and β-(1→6 glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway or Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be

  18. Ultrasonic pretreatment of woodchips for the conversion of cellulose to glucose for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutun Nugraha; Rettyana Ayuputri; Mohammad Ihsan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, lignocellulosic biomass i.e. the woodchips of Albacia tree (Paraserianthes falcataria) were given different pretreatment methods, i.e. chemical (acid) and physical (ultrasonic). The pretreatment was given in order to convert the cellulose to glucose for the production of bioethanol. 1 % H_2SO_4 was applied for the acid pretreatment. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at varied time (10, 20 and 30 minutes) at 600 W, 20 khz before or after the acid pretreatment. Enzymatic attack of the pretreated sample was also applied to enhance the saccharification process of cellulose. The objective of the research was to determine the most effective ultrasonic duration and the best combination of method for enzymatic hydrolysis of the woodchips. The data showed that the highest yield of glucose was achieved at 20 minutes ultrasonic time. It was also found that substantial amount of hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose occur during the ultrasonic stage even without the presence of acid or cellulose enzyme. It is likely that the highly energetic ultrasonic process alone could assist in enhancing rate of hydrolysis of lignocellulosic cellulose into glucose. (author)

  19. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Ed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52% in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (inorganic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane, whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion, yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per

  20. Bioethanol: industrial world perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, G.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the production of bioethanol from biomass is presented, and the future for bioethanol in the transport, cogeneration, domestic appliances, and chemicals markets are examined. Bioethanol economics are considered, and yields and estimated prices for bioethanol produced from different crops are tabulated. Specific uses of bioethanol in the different markets are highlighted including the blending of ethanol with petrol in the transport market, the use of bioethanol for cooking in the domestic market, and the production of chemicals from bioethanol

  1. Genome-wide screening of the genes required for tolerance to vanillin, which is a potential inhibitor of bioethanol fermentation, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Ayako; Nakamura, Toshihide; Ando, Akira; Tokuyasu, Ken; Shima, Jun

    2008-04-15

    Lignocellulosic materials are abundant and among the most important potential sources for bioethanol production. Although the pretreatment of lignocellulose is necessary for efficient saccharification and fermentation, numerous by-products, including furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds, are generated in the pretreatment step. Many of these components inhibit the growth and fermentation of yeast. In particular, vanillin is one of the most effective inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates because it inhibits fermentation at very low concentrations. To identify the genes required for tolerance to vanillin, we screened a set of diploid yeast deletion mutants, which are powerful tools for clarifying the function of particular genes. Seventy-six deletion mutants were identified as vanillin-sensitive mutants. The numerous deleted genes in the vanillin-sensitive mutants were classified under the functional categories for 'chromatin remodeling' and 'vesicle transport', suggesting that these functions are important for vanillin tolerance. The cross-sensitivity of the vanillin-sensitive mutants to furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds was also examined. Genes for ergosterol biosynthesis were required for tolerance to all inhibitory compounds tested, suggesting that ergosterol is a key component of tolerance to various inhibitors. Our analysis predicts that vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected by various complicated processes that take place on both the molecular and the cellular level. In addition, the ergosterol biosynthetic process is important for achieving a tolerance to various inhibitors. Our findings provide a biotechnological basis for the molecular engineering as well as for screening of more robust yeast strains that may potentially be useful in bioethanol fermentation.

  2. Genome-wide screening of the genes required for tolerance to vanillin, which is a potential inhibitor of bioethanol fermentation, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuyasu Ken

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulosic materials are abundant and among the most important potential sources for bioethanol production. Although the pretreatment of lignocellulose is necessary for efficient saccharification and fermentation, numerous by-products, including furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds, are generated in the pretreatment step. Many of these components inhibit the growth and fermentation of yeast. In particular, vanillin is one of the most effective inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates because it inhibits fermentation at very low concentrations. To identify the genes required for tolerance to vanillin, we screened a set of diploid yeast deletion mutants, which are powerful tools for clarifying the function of particular genes. Results Seventy-six deletion mutants were identified as vanillin-sensitive mutants. The numerous deleted genes in the vanillin-sensitive mutants were classified under the functional categories for 'chromatin remodeling' and 'vesicle transport', suggesting that these functions are important for vanillin tolerance. The cross-sensitivity of the vanillin-sensitive mutants to furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds was also examined. Genes for ergosterol biosynthesis were required for tolerance to all inhibitory compounds tested, suggesting that ergosterol is a key component of tolerance to various inhibitors. Conclusion Our analysis predicts that vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected by various complicated processes that take place on both the molecular and the cellular level. In addition, the ergosterol biosynthetic process is important for achieving a tolerance to various inhibitors. Our findings provide a biotechnological basis for the molecular engineering as well as for screening of more robust yeast strains that may potentially be useful in bioethanol fermentation.

  3. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  4. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  5. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. yeast for tolerance to stresses encountered during fermentation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During industrial fermentation of lignocellulose residues to produce bioethanol, microorganisms are exposed to a number of factors that influence productivity. These include inhibitory compounds produced by the pre-treatment processes required to release constituent carbohydrates from biomass feed-stocks and during fermentation, exposure of the organisms to stressful conditions. In addition, for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, conversion of both pentose and hexose sugars is a pre-requisite for fermentative organisms for efficient and complete conversion. All these factors are important to maximise industrial efficiency, productivity and profit margins in order to make second-generation bioethanol an economically viable alternative to fossil fuels for future transport needs. Results The aim of the current study was to assess Saccharomyces yeasts for their capacity to tolerate osmotic, temperature and ethanol stresses and inhibitors that might typically be released during steam explosion of wheat straw. Phenotypic microarray analysis was used to measure tolerance as a function of growth and metabolic activity. Saccharomyces strains analysed in this study displayed natural variation to each stress condition common in bioethanol fermentations. In addition, many strains displayed tolerance to more than one stress, such as inhibitor tolerance combined with fermentation stresses. Conclusions Our results suggest that this study could identify a potential candidate strain or strains for efficient second generation bioethanol production. Knowledge of the Saccharomyces spp. strains grown in these conditions will aid the development of breeding programmes in order to generate more efficient strains for industrial fermentations. PMID:24670111

  6. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 billion liters during the year 2009. Even though ethanol production for decades mainly depended on energy crops containing starch and sugar (corn, sugar cane etc., new technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol are under development today. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues, forest and municipial waste, for the production of biofuels will be unavoidable if liquid fossil fuels are to be replaced by renewable and sustainable alternatives. For biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment plays a central role affecting all unit operations in the process and is also an important cost deterrent to the comercial viability of the process. The key obstacles are: pretreatment selection and optimization; decreasing the cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis; maximizing the conversion of sugars (including pentoses to ethanol; process scale-up and integration to minimize energy and water demand; characterization and evaluation of the lignin co-product; and lastly, the use of the representative and reliable data for cost estimation, and the determination of environmental and socio-economic impacts. Currently, not all pretreatments are capable of producing biomass that can be converted to sugars in high enough yield and concentration, while being economically viable. For the three main types of feedstocks, the developement of effective continuous fermentation technologies with near to 100% yields and elevated

  7. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines,

  8. Production of raw starch-degrading enzyme by Aspergillus sp. and its use in conversion of inedible wild cassava flour to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, Gashaw; Önnby, Linda; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2016-04-01

    The major bottlenecks in achieving competitive bioethanol fuel are the high cost of feedstock, energy and enzymes employed in pretreatment prior to fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as an alternative feedstock, but because of its complexity, economic viability is yet to be realized. Therefore, research around non-conventional feedstocks and deployment of bioconversion approaches that downsize the cost of energy and enzymes is justified. In this study, a non-conventional feedstock, inedible wild cassava was used for bioethanol production. Bioconversion of raw starch from the wild cassava to bioethanol at low temperature was investigated using both a co-culture of Aspergillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a monoculture of the later with enzyme preparation from the former. A newly isolated strain of Aspergillus sp. MZA-3 produced raw starch-degrading enzyme which displayed highest activity of 3.3 U/mL towards raw starch from wild cassava at 50°C, pH 5.5. A co-culture of MZA-3 and S. cerevisiae; and a monoculture of S. cerevisiae and MZA-3 enzyme (both supplemented with glucoamylase) resulted into bioethanol yield (percentage of the theoretical yield) of 91 and 95 at efficiency (percentage) of 84 and 96, respectively. Direct bioconversion of raw starch to bioethanol was achieved at 30°C through the co-culture approach. This could be attractive since it may significantly downsize energy expenses. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N

    2010-07-01

    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  11. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  12. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  13. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHAN niger UCTION OF BIOETHANOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    call by government and other organizations fo conversion of waste to wealth. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of Samples. Rice husk (fito rice) was collected from rice processer at Dawanau, Dawakin tofa loc. , November, 2017 urnal of Pure and Applied Sciences: 10(1): 280 - 284. UCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM ...

  14. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  15. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  16. Analysis and decrease of the energy demand of bioethanol-production by process integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, Martin; Wukovits, Walter; Beckmann, Georg; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Process simulation was used to decrease the external heat demand during the production of bioethanol by integration in a network of facilities for heat and power generation. Models for bioethanol fermentation and purification process, the production of DDGS as well as production and utilization of biogas were developed to calculate the heat demand of bioethanol-production and the amount of heat and power generated from residues of the bioethanol process. Depending on the form of biogas utilization (CHP-plant, biogas fired boiler) and the capacity of the bioethanol plant, the conversion of stillage from the bioethanol process to biogas covers a considerable amount of the heat demand necessary for bioethanol-production and purification. (author)

  17. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    of fermentable sugars (glucose) as cellulose is tightly linked to hemicellulose and lignin. Lignocellulose is disrupted during pretreatment, but to degrade cellulose to single sugars, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases are needed. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are costly...... for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes....... Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  18. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2009-01-01

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  19. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  20. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  1. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply aquick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early- stage sustainability assessment method that compares abioetha- nol-base d conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method

  2. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Seong; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Khanal, Sarmir Kumar; Park, Bok Jae; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  3. Production of olefins from bioethanol. Catalysts, mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusman Dossumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review describes methods of catalytic obtaining from bioethanol of valuable industrial products – olefins, particularly ethylene. Аmong olefins, ethylene is the most popular key raw material of petrochemical synthesis. The scope of appllication of ethylene is almost unlimited in petrochemical products: polyethylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride etc. It also examines catalysts for the production of olefins and their properties. The most promising and commercially advantageous process of ethylene production by catalytic dehydration of ethanol on catalysts based on modified alumina. And this review discusses the mechanisms of catalytic conversion of ethanol to ethylene.

  4. Improvement of bioethanol yield by pervaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nongauza, Sinethemba Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    Due to the depletion of petroleum reserves and environmental concerns, bioethanol has been identified as an alternative fuel to petrol. Bioethanol is a fuel of bio-origin derived from renewable biomass. Starch and sugar containing materials are the primary sources of carbon for bioethanol production. Starch is firstly hydrolysed into simple sugars which are later fermented to bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). The fermentation of sugars to bioethanol is however limited...

  5. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X

    2012-01-15

    in furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) reductions by this yeast have both cofactor preferences for NADH. Due to the low inhibitor tolerance, the growth of S. passalidarum was completely inhibited in the liquid fraction of pretreated corn stover and wheat straw. The inhibitor tolerance of S. passalidarum was improved by the method of genome shuffling including UV mutagenesis and protoplast fusion. The protoplast of a UV-induced furfural-resistant mutant of S. passalidarum (S. passalidarum M7) was fused with the protoplast of a robust yeast S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581. The finally selected hybrid strain (FS22) has desired phenotypes derived from both parents, namely the ability to ferment xylose from S. passalidarum and an increased tolerance to inhibitors from S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Phenotypic and molecular analysis indicated that S. passalidarum M7 was the dominant parental contributor to the hybrid. Rearrangement of DNA segments from the other parental strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581 possibly occurred in FS22. The inhibitor tolerance of the robust yeast S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581 was further improved by sequentially adapting this strain into media with increasing amounts of the liquid fraction of pretreated corn stover (CSLQ). The adapted strain completely fermented glucose in 100% CSLQ and the ethanol yield was 0.48 g/g glucose, while the parental strain was unable to ferment under this condition. Co-fermentation of this adapted strain with the selected protoplast fused hybrids (FS2 or FS22) in the pretreated wheat straw hydrolysate improved the final ethanol yield by 11% and 26%, respectively, due to partial conversion of xylose in the hydrolysate by the xylose-fermenting hybrids. Co-fermentation with one robust C6 fermenting yeast for detoxification and one C5 fermenting yeast for converting xylose into ethanol could be a viable strategy for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. (Author)

  6. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    involved in furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) reductions by this yeast have both cofactor preferences for NADH. Due to the low inhibitor tolerance, the growth of S. passalidarum was completely inhibited in the liquid fraction of pretreated corn stover and wheat straw. The inhibitor tolerance of S. passalidarum was improved by the method of genome shuffling including UV mutagenesis and protoplast fusion. The protoplast of a UV-induced furfural-resistant mutant of S. passalidarum (S. passalidarum M7) was fused with the protoplast of a robust yeast S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581. The finally selected hybrid strain (FS22) has desired phenotypes derived from both parents, namely the ability to ferment xylose from S. passalidarum and an increased tolerance to inhibitors from S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Phenotypic and molecular analysis indicated that S. passalidarum M7 was the dominant parental contributor to the hybrid. Rearrangement of DNA segments from the other parental strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581 possibly occurred in FS22. The inhibitor tolerance of the robust yeast S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581 was further improved by sequentially adapting this strain into media with increasing amounts of the liquid fraction of pretreated corn stover (CSLQ). The adapted strain completely fermented glucose in 100% CSLQ and the ethanol yield was 0.48 g/g glucose, while the parental strain was unable to ferment under this condition. Co-fermentation of this adapted strain with the selected protoplast fused hybrids (FS2 or FS22) in the pretreated wheat straw hydrolysate improved the final ethanol yield by 11% and 26%, respectively, due to partial conversion of xylose in the hydrolysate by the xylose-fermenting hybrids. Co-fermentation with one robust C6 fermenting yeast for detoxification and one C5 fermenting yeast for converting xylose into ethanol could be a viable strategy for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. (Author)

  7. New Estimates of Land Use Intensity of Potential Bioethanol Production in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheshgi, H. S.; Song, Y.; Torkamani, S.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    We estimate potential bioethanol land use intensity (the inverse of potential bioethanol yield per hectare) across the United States by modeling crop yields and conversion to bioethanol (via a fermentation pathway), based on crop field studies and conversion technology analyses. We apply the process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to estimate the potential yield of four crops - corn, Miscanthus, and two variants of switchgrass (Cave-in-Rock and Alamo) - across the U.S.A. landscape for the 14-year period from 1999 through 2012, for the case with fertilizer application but without irrigation. We estimate bioethanol yield based on recent experience for corn bioethanol production from corn kernel, and current cellulosic bioethanol process design specifications under the assumption of the maximum practical harvest fraction for the energy grasses (Miscanthus and switchgrasses) and a moderate (30%) harvest fraction of corn stover. We find that each of four crops included has regions where that crop is estimated to have the lowest land use intensity (highest potential bioethanol yield per hectare). We find that minimizing potential land use intensity by including both corn and the energy grasses only improves incrementally to that of corn (using both harvested kernel and stover for bioethanol). Bioethanol land use intensity is one fundamental factor influencing the desirability of biofuels, but is not the only one; others factors include economics, competition with food production and land use, water and climate, nitrogen runoff, life-cycle emissions, and the pace of crop and technology improvement into the future.

  8. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  9. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  10. Simultaneous saccharification and bioethanol production from corn cobs: Process optimization and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewsynker-Sukai, Yeshona; Gueguim Kana, E B

    2018-08-01

    This study investigates the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for bioethanol production from corn cobs with prehydrolysis (PSSF) and without prehydrolysis (OSSF). Two response surface models were developed with high coefficients of determination (>0.90). Process optimization gave high bioethanol concentrations and bioethanol conversions for the PSSF (36.92 ± 1.34 g/L and 62.36 ± 2.27%) and OSSF (35.04 ± 0.170 g/L and 58.13 ± 0.283%) models respectively. Additionally, the logistic and modified Gompertz models were used to study the kinetics of microbial cell growth and ethanol formation under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions. Cell growth in the OSSF microaerophilic process gave the highest maximum specific growth rate (µ max ) of 0.274 h -1 . The PSSF microaerophilic bioprocess gave the highest potential maximum bioethanol concentration (P m ) (42.24 g/L). This study demonstrated that microaerophilic rather than anaerobic culture conditions enhanced cell growth and bioethanol production, and that additional prehydrolysis steps do not significantly impact on the bioethanol concentration and conversion in SSF process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  12. Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2008-03-01

    Renewable biofuels are needed to displace petroleum-derived transport fuels, which contribute to global warming and are of limited availability. Biodiesel and bioethanol are the two potential renewable fuels that have attracted the most attention. As demonstrated here, biodiesel and bioethanol produced from agricultural crops using existing methods cannot sustainably replace fossil-based transport fuels, but there is an alternative. Biodiesel from microalgae seems to be the only renewable biofuel that has the potential to completely displace petroleum-derived transport fuels without adversely affecting supply of food and other crop products. Most productive oil crops, such as oil palm, do not come close to microalgae in being able to sustainably provide the necessary amounts of biodiesel. Similarly, bioethanol from sugarcane is no match for microalgal biodiesel.

  13. Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Leaflets and Rachis to Enhance Enzymatic Digestibility and Bioethanol Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanji Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Date palm residues are one of the most promising lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production in the Middle East. In this study, leaflets and rachis were subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of the biomass for enzymatic conversion. Evident morphological, structural, and chemical changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy after pretreatment. High glucan (>90% for both leaflets and rachis and xylan (>75% for leaflets and >79% for rachis recovery were achieved. Under the optimal condition of hydrothermal pretreatment (210°C/10 min highly digestible (glucan convertibility, 100% to leaflets, 78% to rachis and fermentable (ethanol yield, 96% to leaflets, 80% to rachis solid fractions were obtained. Fermentability test of the liquid fractions proved that no considerable inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae were produced in hydrothermal pretreatment. Given the high sugar recovery, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol yield, production of bioethanol by hydrothermal pretreatment could be a promising way of valorization of date palm residues in this region.

  14. Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JM, and the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study Investigators. Validation of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay modifications to allow inhibitor ... webinars on blood disorders Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  15. Effect of conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to everolimus on hepatitis C viremia in adult kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Larissa Sgaria; Garcia, Valter Duro; Prá, Ronivan Luis Dal; Cardoso, Bruna Doleys; Rodrigues, Mariana Ferras; Zanetti, Helen Kris; Meinerz, Gisele; Neumann, Jorge; Gnatta, Diego; Keitel, Elizete

    2018-05-14

    Currently, there is no specific immunosuppressive protocol for hepatitis C (HCV)-positive renal transplants recipients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the conversion effect to everolimus (EVR) on HCV in adult kidney recipients. This is an exploratory single-center, prospective, randomized, open label controlled trial with renal allograft recipients with HCV-positive serology. Participants were randomized for conversion to EVR or maintenance of calcineurin inhibitors. Thirty patients were randomized and 28 were followed-up for 12 months (conversion group, Group 1 =15 and control group, Group 2 =13). RT-PCR HCV levels reported in log values were comparable in both groups and among patients in the same group. The statistical analysis showed no interaction effect between time and group (p value G*M= 0.852), overtime intra-groups (p-value M=0.889) and between group (p-value G=0.286). Group 1 showed a higher incidence of dyslipidemia (p=0.03) and proteinuria events (p=0.01), while no difference was observed in the incidence of anemia (p=0.17), new onset of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (p=1.00) or urinary tract infection (p=0.60). The mean eGFR was similar in both groups. Our study did not show viral load decrease after conversion to EVR with maintenance of antiproliferative therapy.

  16. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50% conversion of ethanol with 98...

  17. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite‐1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2–3 nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50 % conversion of ethanol with 98...

  18. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially.

  19. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  20. Effect of adding Matrix Metallo proteinase inhibitors on the degree of conversion of monomers to polymer an experimental bonding agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: In spite of the achievements in the field of dental adhesives, we are facing challenges with dentine bonding resistance, strength and stability. According to recent studies the role of MMP inhibitors in association with bonding,s persistence and leakage reduction and restoration,s persistence is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of doxycycline as a MMP inhibitor on the degree of conversion (DC of an experimental dental adhesive. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, a new dental adhesive blend was prepared by mixing doxycycline monohydrate (in concentrations of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 wt.% with monomers. The monomers were composed of 12% Bis-GMA and 10% TMPTMA, 28% HEMA, and 50% Ethanol by weight for all groups. Comphorquinone and amines were chosen as photo initiator system. Degree of conversion of all adhesives was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. "nResults: The results showed that addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 weight percent doxycycline did not significantly reduce the DC of the adhesives compared to 0.0% control group (p>0.05%. "nConclusion: According to the results of this study, adding doxycycline to the adhesives did not adversely affect the DC.

  1. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, John A; Patel, Akshay D; Roes, Alexander; Blok, Kornelis; Faaij, André P C; Patel, Martin K

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines, by means of a multi-criteria approach, quantitative and qualitative proxy indicators describing economic, environmental, health and safety and operational aspects. Of twelve derivatives considered, five were categorized as favorable (diethyl ether, 1,3-butadiene, ethyl acetate, propylene and ethylene), two as promising (acetaldehyde and ethylene oxide) and five as unfavorable derivatives (acetic acid, n-butanol, isobutylene, hydrogen and acetone) for an integrated biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitors degradation and microbial response during continuous anaerobic conversion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Buchun; Li, Jiaming; Zhu, Zhangbing; Shen, Mengmeng; Lu, Jianwen; Duan, Na; Zhang, Yuanhui; Liao, Qiang; Huang, Yun; Liu, Zhidan

    2018-07-15

    One critical challenge of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is its complex aqueous product, which has a high concentration of organic pollutants (up to 100gCOD/L) and diverse fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural, phenolics and N-heterocyclic compounds. Here we report continuous anaerobic digestion of HTL wastewater via an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) and packed bed reactor (PBR). Specifically, we investigated the transformation of fermentation inhibitors and microbial response. GC-MS identified the complete degradation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and partial degradation (54.0-74.6%) of organic nitrogen and phenolic compounds, including 3-hydroxypyridine, phenol and 4-ethyl-phenol. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed that the bacteria families related to detoxification increased in response to the HTL aqueous phase. In addition, the increase of acetate-oxidizing bacteria in UASB and acetogens in PBR showed a strengthened acetogenesis. As for the archaeal communities, an increase in hydrogenotrophic methanogens was observed. Based on GC-MS/HPLC and microbial analysis, we speculate that dominant fermentation inhibitors were transformed into intermediates (Acetyl-CoA and acetate), further contributing to biomethane formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Haeme bioethanol and biogasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Laine, V.; Kautola, H. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland)); Enwald, H. (Insinoeoeritoimisto Valcon Oy, Valkeakoski (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    In Haeme, located in southern part of Finland, local possibilities of bioethanol production have been studied since 2002. The study, initiated by local farmers, was first aimed to find out alternative use of the sugar beet which was unprofitable to utilize in sugar production. Later on, the study extended to cover the use of barley and to find out a sustainable and cost effective solution for the utilization of agro based raw materials in the bioethanol fuel production. The Haeme plant, according to present plans, utilizes barley and sugar beet (optional) as raw materials. The plant has been designed without feed dryers thus achieving considerable savings both in investment and operational (energy) costs compared to conventional grain based bioethanol plant with DDGS (Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles) as a predominant by product. Local markets for wet feed fractions wet distillers grains (DWG) and wet condensed distillers solubles (CDS) - have been found to be ready. The capacity of the plant, around 50-60 000 tons of ethanol per year, has been adjusted for local raw material supply, as well as for the local feed markets. In addition to production of wet feed fractions, another special feature of the plant is the integration with biogasification. A part of the stillage (distillation residue) can be utilized in the production of biogas which in turn is used to increase the energy self sufficiency of the plant. In overall, the Haeme plant has been designed to fit into local circumstances, aiming to improve the energy balance and reduce GHG-emissions of agro based bioethanol production. (orig.)

  4. Renal function three years after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjörnstedt, Lars; Schwartz Sørensen, Søren; von Zur Mühlen, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    In a 36-month, open-label, multicenter trial, 202 kidney transplant recipients were randomized at week 7 post-transplant to convert to everolimus or remain on cyclosporine: 182 were analyzed to month 36 (92 everolimus, 90 controls). Mean (SD) change in measured GFR (mGFR) from randomization to mo......, but discontinuation was more frequent with everolimus (33.7% vs. 10.0%). Conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus at 7 weeks post-transplant was associated with a significant benefit in renal function at 3 years when everolimus was continued....

  5. Bioethanol production from Asphodelus aestivus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polycarpou, Polycarpos [Agricultural Research Institute, Soils Science Department, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Lefkosia (Cyprus)

    2009-12-15

    The increase on the price of fossil fuels and the need to protect the environment from greenhouse gases urge the investigation of the possibility of using biofuels to replace them. Cyprus is faced with severe water shortage and unavailability of agricultural land that limit the cultivation of energy crops that supply the feedstock for biofuel production. A possibility would be to use Asphodelus aestivus L. that is encountered in Cyprus and other Mediterranean countries, growing wild in pastures. Its tubers contain starch that was measured to be 10.1%. The bioethanol is produced by fermentation of the mash produced by crashing the tubers of the plant. The first stage of the process was cooking the mash at a temperature of 95 C, combined by liquefaction and saccharification of the starch using enzymes, like alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The process was followed by fermentation of the mash for three days and finally distillation of bioethanol. The alcohol yield per kilogram tubers was 49.52 ml/kg, compared to the theoretical value of 83.72 ml/kg, mainly due to the incomplete fermentation of the sugars. The plant seems to be a potential energy plant for bioethanol production in arid regions cultivated on degraded land. (author)

  6. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  7. Improved renal function after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjörnstedt, L; Sørensen, S S; von Zur Mühlen, B

    2012-01-01

    .2) mL/min with everolimus versus a decrease of 0.4 (12.0) mL/min in controls (p graft or patient survival. The 12-month incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) was 27.5% (n = 28) with everolimus and 11.0% (n = 11) in controls (p = 0.004). All......In an open-label, multicenter trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low to medium immunological risk were randomized at week 7 posttransplant to remain on CsA (n = 100, controls) or convert to everolimus (n = 102), both with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids...... controls (3.0%; p = 0.030). In conclusion, conversion from CsA to everolimus at week 7 after kidney transplantation was associated with a greater improvement in mGFR at month 12 versus CNI-treated controls but discontinuations and BPAR were more frequent....

  8. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  9. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because

  10. Reclamation of Marine Chitinous Materials for the Production of α-Glucosidase Inhibitors via Microbial Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Bon Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Six kinds of chitinous materials have been used as sole carbon/nitrogen (C/N sources for producing α-glucosidase inhibitors (aGI by Paenibacillus sp. TKU042. The aGI productivity was found to be highest in the culture supernatants using demineralized crab shell powder (deCSP and demineralized shrimp shell powder (deSSP as the C/N source. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 and maximum aGI activity of fermented deCSP (38 µg/mL, 98%, deSSP (108 µg/mL, 89%, squid pen powder (SPP (422 µg/mL, 98%, and shrimp head powder (SHP (455 µg/mL, 92% were compared with those of fermented nutrient broth (FNB (81 µg/mL, 93% and acarbose (1095 µg/mL, 74%, a commercial antidiabetic drug. The result of the protein/chitin ratio on aGI production showed that the optimal ratio was 0.2/1. Fermented deCSP showed lower IC50 and higher maximum inhibitory activity than those of acarbose against rat intestinal α-glucosidase.

  11. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    with a sustainability assessment method is used as evaluation tool. First, an existing superstructure representing the lignocellulosic biorefinery design network is extended to include the options for catalytic conversion of bioethanol to value-added derivatives. Second, the optimization problem for process upgrade...... of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...... to sustainability compared with the petroleum-based processes. In both cases, the effects of the market price uncertainties were also analyzed by performing quantitative economic risk analysis and presented a significant risk of investment for a lignocellulosic biorefinery (12 MM$/a and 92 MM$/a for diethyl ether...

  12. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    , were considered. Material and energy flows were assessed to evaluate the bioethanol yield, the production efficiency in terms of Emergy used compared to energy produced (transformity), and the environmental load (ELR) in terms of use of non-renewable resources. These three indicators varied among......An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass...... utilization system (IBUS) was used for combining the two kinds of feedstock. The crop was cultivated under four combinations of Danish soil conditions (sand or sandy loam) and crop managements (organic or conventional). For each of the production processes, two scenarios, with or without recycling of residues...

  13. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from rice straw by liquid-state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayata, M. H. M.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyahb, T. M. I.; Aditiyac, H. B.; Mahliaa, T. M. I.; Shamsuddina, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy is the latest approach of the Malaysian government in an effort to find sustainable alternative energy sources and to fulfill the ever increasing energy demand. Being a country that thrives in the service and agricultural sector, bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass presents itself as a promising option. However, the lack of technical practicality and complexity in the operation system hinder it from being economically viable. Hence, this research acquired multiple case studies in order to provide an insight on the process involved and its implication on production as well as to obtain a cost analysis of bioethanol production. The energy input and cost of three main components of the bioethanol production which are the collection, logistics, and pretreatment of rice straw were evaluated extensively. The theoretical bioethanol yield and conversion efficiency obtained were 250 L/t and 60% respectively. The findings concluded that bioethanol production from rice straw is currently not economically feasible in Malaysia’s market due to lack of efficiency in the pretreatment phase and overbearing logistics and pretreatment costs. This work could serve as a reference to future studies of biofuel commercialization in Malaysia.

  15. Marine Enzymes and Microorganisms for Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Natarajan, V; Krishnan, C

    Bioethanol is a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Bioethanol as a fuel has several economic and environmental benefits. Though bioethanol is produced using starch and sugarcane juice, these materials are in conflict with food availability. To avoid food-fuel conflict, the second-generation bioethanol production by utilizing nonfood lignocellulosic materials has been extensively investigated. However, due to the complexity of lignocellulose architecture, the process is complicated and not economically competitive. The cultivation of lignocellulosic energy crops indirectly affects the food supplies by extensive land use. Marine algae have attracted attention to replace the lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production, since the algae grow fast, do not use land, avoid food-fuel conflict and have several varieties to suit the cultivation environment. The composition of algae is not as complex as lignocellulose due to the absence of lignin, which renders easy hydrolysis of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. Marine organisms also produce cold-active enzymes for hydrolysis of starch, cellulose, and algal polysaccharides, which can be employed in bioethanol process. Marine microoorganisms are also capable of fermenting sugars under high salt environment. Therefore, marine biocatalysts are promising for development of efficient processes for bioethanol production. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , all having fuel potential and are good source of gasoline. These are produced as a result of fermentation and enzymatic activities of the organic compound present in the biomass sample. Keywords: Bioethanol, Cymbopogon schoenanthus, ...

  18. phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Bioethanol was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis ... tolerance, less cost and biofuel potential same ..... industries for the production of biofuel would play a greater role in boosting the nation's economy, reduce over reliance on fossil fuel,.

  19. Optimization of bioethanol production from simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    fermentation of pineapple peels using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... ABSTRACT: In this study, bioethanol production from the simultaneous ... in turn has resulted in the need to find a source of ... fruit in the world after Banana and Citrus and.

  20. Addressing land use change and uncertainty in the life-cycle assessment of wheat-based bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malça, João; Freire, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Despite the significant growth in the number of published life-cycle assessments of biofuels, important aspects have not captured sufficient attention, namely soil carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) and uncertainty analysis. The main goal of this article is to evaluate the implications of different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the life-cycle energy renewability efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gases) intensity of wheat-based bioethanol replacing gasoline. A comprehensive assessment of different LUC scenarios (grassland or cropland converted to wheat cultivation) and agricultural practices is conducted, which results in different carbon stock change values. The types of uncertainty addressed include parameter uncertainty (propagated into LC (life-cycle) results using Monte-Carlo simulation) and uncertainty concerning how bioethanol co-product credits are accounted for. Results show that GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values, mainly due to soil carbon emissions from direct LUC and N 2 O release from cultivated soil. Moreover, LUC dominates the GHG intensity of bioethanol. Very different GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario considered. Conversion of full- or low-tillage croplands to wheat cultivation results in bioethanol GHG emissions lower than gasoline emissions, whereas conversion of grassland does not contribute to bioethanol GHG savings over gasoline in the short- to mid-term. -- Highlights: ► We address different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the LCA of wheat bioethanol. ► GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values. ► Bioethanol contributes to primary energy savings over gasoline. ► Very different life-cycle GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario. ► GHG savings over gasoline are only achieved if cropland is the reference land use.

  1. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  2. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriaga, Nilson

    2009-01-01

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  3. Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial inoculants. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The potential of bioethanol production using different microbial inoculants for the simultaneous ...

  4. Yeast strains designed for 2. generation bioethanol production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennow, B.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a suitable fermentation organism for 2G bioethanol production that would efficiently ferment all of the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol at a commercially viable rate (comparable to yeast based 1G ethanol production). More specifically, a yeast strain would be developed with the ability to ferment also the pentoses in lignocellulosic biomass and thereby increase the ethanol yield of the process by 30-45% with a profound positive effect on the total process economy. The project has succeeded in developing a new industrial yeast strain V1. The yeast strain can transform the difficult C5 sugars to ethanol from waste products such as straw and the like from the agricultural sector. The classic issues relating to industrial uses such as inhibitor and ethanol tolerance and high ethanol production is resolved satisfactorily. The potential of the use of the new strain for 2nd generation bioethanol production is that the ethanol yields increase by 30-45%. With the increased ethanol yield follows a marked improvement in the overall process economics. (LN)

  5. Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Coffee Mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De León-Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A response surface methodology with 2k full factorial design was applied to obtain optimum conditions for bioethanol production using coffee mucilage (CM as the substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 as the inoculum. CM is an agro-industrial residue mainly composed of simple sugars; the product yield and productivity process were analyzed with respect to the fermentation, pH, temperature, and the initial sugar concentration. Employing the following predicted optimum operational conditions attained the highest bioethanol production: pH 5.1, temperature 32 °C, and initial sugar concentration 61.8 g/L. The estimated bioethanol production was 15.02 g/L, and the experimental production was 16.29 g/L ± 0.39 g/L, with a bioethanol yield of 0.27 g/L and a productivity process of 0.34 g/Lh. Glycerol was the predominant byproduct of the fermentative metabolism of S. cerevisiae. The response surface methodology was successfully employed to optimize CM fermentation. In the fermentative processes with yeast, optimizing the conditions of the culture medium is needed to fully exploit the potential of the strains and maximize the production of bioethanol.

  6. Simultaneous production of bioethanol and value-added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Oh, Chihoon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the production of bioethanol and value added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (JA) was attempted by an enzymatic method. An enzyme mixture used for hydrolysis of 100mgmL -1 JA. The resulting concentrations of released d-fructose and d-glucose were measured at approximately 56mgmL -1 and 15mgmL -1 , respectively. The d-psicose was epimerized from the JA hydrolyzate, and the conversion rate was calculated to be 32.1%. The residual fructose was further converted into ethanol at 18.0gL -1 and the yield was approximately 72%. Bioethanol and d-psicose were separated by pervaporation. This is the first study to report simultaneous d-psicose production and bioethanol fermentation from JA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  8. Bioethanol production from crops - recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Colin

    1992-01-01

    The author notes much higher rates of ethanol production in Brazil and the United States of America than in the European Economic Community. While bioethanol from arable crops makes environmental sense there is, at present, a sizeable difference between the value of fuel ethanol (Pound 100-130/t) and the cost of producing it (Pound 236-Pound 450/t). This gap could be remedied using excise duty. Farmers would like to change crop production but await a political initiative. The technology for bioethanol production still needs some fine tuning, with ETBE (an ether produced from reacting isobutylene with ethanol) being preferred to other methods. (UK)

  9. Production of liquid biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from brown marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salim, Mohd Razman; Salam, Zainal; Sivakumar, Pandian; Chong, Cheng Tung; Elumalai, Sanniyasi; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated concept of biofuels production from brown macroalgae P. tetrastromatica. • The activation energy was determined as Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1. • Brown marine alga produced 7.8% of biodiesel by acid and alkali transesterification. • The fuel properties of Padina biodiesel meet the ASTM specifications. • Spent biomass of Padina yields 16.1% of bioethanol after fermentation process. - Abstract: In this study, an integrated biomass conversion concept of producing liquid biofuels from brown marine macroalga Padina tetrastromatica was investigated. The algal biomass was collected from the Mandapam coastal region and processed under laboratory. Various parameters were studied to extract crude lipids from the biomass. A kinetic study was conducted for extracting the lipids from the biomass, which follows the first order kinetics and the lipid yield was 8.15 wt.%. The activation energy; Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1 and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. Since the crude algal lipids contain high amount of free fatty acids, a sequential transesterification technique was examined and 7.8% of biodiesel (78 mg/g algal biomass) yield was obtained. The biodiesel was analyzed by "1H and "1"3C–NMR spectroscopy and the conversion yield was estimated. Further, the biodiesel fuel properties were investigated and found that all the features fit the required ASTM D6751 specification limits. The residual biomass after lipid extraction was further explored for bioethanol production through the anaerobic fermentation process. The ethanol yield obtained after saccharification and fermentation were estimated and 161 mg/g residue biomass was reported. The theoretical yield of conversion of hydrolysate to bioethanol was estimated and found to be 83.4%. Therefore, this study demonstrates that macroalga P. tetrastromatica biomass has great potential to produce liquid biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol.

  10. Synergistic effect of pretreatment and fermentation process on carbohydrate-rich Scenedesmus dimorphus for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chng, Lee Muei; Lee, Keat Teong; Chan, Derek Juinn Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass of Scenedesmus dimorphus is degradable to produce fermentable sugar. • Sugar yield improves with acidic, enzymatic and organosolv pretreatment. • Pretreatment strategies are positively correlated with fermentation process. • SSF with organosolv-treated biomass is promising for bioethanol production. - Abstract: Significant development in conversion technologies to produce bioethanol from microalgae biomass is causing paradigm-shift in energy management. In this study, carbohydrate-rich microalgae, Scenedesmus dimorphus (49% w/w of carbohydrate) is selected with the aim to obtain qualitative correlation between pretreatment and fermentation process. In view of this, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were conducted experimentally. The fermentation behavior were investigated for microalgae biomass treated via organosolv, enzymatic and acidic pretreatment. Fermentation process was carried out by ethanologen microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the result, it is observed that a combination of two treatment is found to be the most effective in producing fermentable sugar for the subsequent fermentation process. The organosolv treatment which is followed with the SSF process produced a theoretical yield of bioethanol that exceeded 90%. On the other hand, hydrothermal acid-hydrolyzed fermentation produced the bioethanol yield with 80% of its theoretical yield. Enzymatic-hydrolyzed SHF produced 84% of theoretical yield at longer reaction time compared with others. The results were obtained with constant fermentation parameters conducted at pH 5, temperature of 34 °C, and microalgae biomass loading at 18 g/L. Ultimately, the coupling of organosolv-treated biomass with SSF process is found to be the most cost-effective for S. dimorphus biomass as bioethanol feedstock.

  11. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  12. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azhar, Siti Hajar; Abdulla, Rahmath; Jambo, Siti Azmah; Marbawi, Hartinie; Gansau, Jualang Azlan; Mohd Faik, Ainol Azifa; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis

    2017-07-01

    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  13. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  14. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  15. Utilization of Microalgal Biofractions for Bioethanol, Higher Alcohols, and Biodiesel Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. El-Dalatony

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a crucial energy resource used for the generation of electricity and transportation fuels. Microalgae exhibit a high content of biocomponents which makes them a potential feedstock for the generation of ecofriendly biofuels. Biofuels derived from microalgae are suitable carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. Fermentation is the major process for metabolic conversion of microalgal biocompounds into biofuels such as bioethanol and higher alcohols. In this review, we explored the use of all three major biocomponents of microalgal biomass including carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids for maximum biofuel generation. Application of several pretreatment methods for enhancement the bioavailability of substrates (simple sugar, amino acid, and fatty acid was discussed. This review goes one step further to discuss how to direct these biocomponents for the generation of various biofuels (bioethanol, higher alcohol, and biodiesel through fermentation and transesterification processes. Such an approach would result in the maximum utilization of biomasses for economically feasible biofuel production.

  16. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  17. Steps to discern sustainability criteria for a certification scheme of bioethanol in Brazil: Approach and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delzeit, R.; Holm-Mueller, K.

    2009-01-01

    Taking Brazilian bioethanol as an example, this paper presents possible sustainability criteria for a certification scheme aimed to minimize negative socio-ecological impacts and to increase the sustainable production of biomass. We describe the methods that have led us to the identification of a first set of feasible sustainability criteria for Brazilian bioethanol and discuss issues to be considered when developing certification schemes for sustainability. General problems of a certification scheme lie in the inherent danger of introducing new non-tariff trade barriers and in the problems of including important higher scale issues like land conversion and food security. A certification system cannot replace a thorough analysis of policy impacts on sustainability issues. (author)

  18. Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Jung, Sera; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA), a red seaweed species, is a popular source of food and chemicals due to its high galactose and glucose content. In this study, we investigated the potential of bioethanol production from autoclave-treated GA (ATGA). The proposed method involved autoclaving GA for 60min for hydrolysis to glucose. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation processing (SHF) achieved a maximum ethanol concentration of 3.33mg/mL, with a conversion yield of 74.7% after 6h (2% substrate loading, w/v). In contrast, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced an ethanol concentration of 3.78mg/mL, with an ethanol conversion yield of 84.9% after 12h. We also recorded an ethanol concentration of 25.7mg/mL from SSF processing of 15% (w/v) dry matter from ATGA after 24h. These results indicate that autoclaving can improve the glucose and ethanol conversion yield of GA, and that SSF is superior to SHF for ethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor- to everolimus-based therapy following kidney transplantation : Results of the randomized ELEVATE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fijter, Johan W; Holdaas, Hallvard; Øyen, Ole; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Sundar, Sankaran; Bemelman, Frederike J; Sommerer, Claudia; Pascual, Julio; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Pongskul, Cholatip; Oppenheimer, Frederic; Toselli, Lorenzo; Russ, Graeme; Wang, Zailong; Lopez, Patricia; Kochuparampil, Jossy; Cruzado, Josep M; van der Giet, Markus

    In a 24-month, multicenter, open-label, randomized trial, 715 de novo kidney transplant recipients were randomized at 10-14 weeks to convert to everolimus (n=359) or remain on standard calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy (n=356; 231 tacrolimus; 125 cyclosporine), all with mycophenolic acid and

  20. Early conversion to a sirolimus-based, calcineurin-inhibitor-free immunosuppression in the SMART trial: observational results at 24 and 36months after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guba, Markus; Pratschke, Johann; Hugo, Christian; Krämer, Bernhard K; Pascher, Andreas; Pressmar, Katharina; Hakenberg, Oliver; Fischereder, Michael; Brockmann, Jens; Andrassy, Joachim; Banas, Bernhard; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2012-04-01

    Early conversion to a calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI)-free maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus (SRL), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroids was associated with an improved 1-year renal function as compared with a cyclosporine (CsA)-based regimen (SMART core-study). This observational follow-up describes 132 patients followed up within the SMART study framework for 36months. At 36months, renal function continued to be superior in SRL-treated patients [ITT-eGFR(@36m) : 60.88 vs. 53.72 (CsA) ml/min/1.73m(2) , P=0.031]. However, significantly more patients discontinued therapy in the SRL group 59.4% vs.42.3% (CsA). Patient [99% (SRL) vs.97% (CsA) and graft 96% (SRL) vs.94% (CsA)] survival at 36months was excellent in both arms. There was no difference in late rejection episodes. Late infections and adverse events were similar in both arms except of a higher rate of hyperlipidemia in SRL and a higher incidence of malignancy in CsA-treated patients. In a multivariate analysis, donor age >60years, S-creatinine at conversion >2mg/dl, CMV naïve(-) recipients and immunosuppression with CsA were predictive of an impaired renal function at 36months. Early conversion to a CNI-free SRL-based immunosuppression is associated with a sustained improvement of renal function up to 36months after transplantation. Patient selection will be key to derive long-term benefit and avoid treatment failure using this mTOR-inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimen. © 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  1. The characteristics of bioethanol fuel made of vegetable raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaji; Sutjahjo, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to identify the most potential vegetable raw as the material to make a bioethanol fuel as the alternative energy for gasoline. This study used experimental method. The high-level bioethanol was obtained through the process of saccharification, fermentation and stratified distillation. ASTM standards were used as the method of testing the chemical element (D 5501, D 1744, D 1688, D 512, D 2622, D 381), and physical test (D 1613, D 240, D 1298-99, D 445, and D 93). The result of the analysis showed that from the seven bioethanols being studied there is one bioethanol from Saccharum of icinarum linn that has physical and chemical properties close to the standard of bioethanol. Meanwhile, the others only meet some of the physical and chemical properties of the standard bioethanol.

  2. Payer Perspectives on PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Conversation with Stephen Gorshow, MD, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Stanton R

    2016-02-01

    The new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can have significant budget effects, depending on the breadth of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approved labeling. American Health & Drug Benefits asked Stephen Gorshow, MD, Regional Medical Director, UnitedHealthcare, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA, Manager, Specialty and Pharmacy Contracts, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, to participate in a teleconference to better understand how payers are approaching the management of these agents.

  3. Designing optimal bioethanol networks with purification for integrated biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, Akshay U.; Shenoy, Uday V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical method is devised for bioethanol network integration with purification. • Minimum fresh bioethanol flow and pinch are found by the Unified Targeting Algorithm. • Optimal bioethanol networks are then synthesized by the Nearest Neighbors Algorithm. • Continuous targets and networks are developed over the purifier inlet flowrate range. • Case study of a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat shows large savings. - Abstract: Bioethanol networks with purification for processing pathways in integrated biorefineries are targeted and designed in this work by an analytical approach not requiring graphical constructions. The approach is based on six fundamental equations involving eight variables: two balance equations for the stream flowrate and the bioethanol load over the total network system; one equation for the above-pinch bioethanol load being picked up by the minimum fresh resource and the purified stream; and three equations for the purification unit. A solution strategy is devised by specifying the two variables associated with the purifier inlet stream. Importantly, continuous targeting is then possible over the entire purifier inlet flowrate range on deriving elegant formulae for the remaining six variables. The Unified Targeting Algorithm (UTA) is utilized to establish the minimum fresh bioethanol resource flowrate and identify the pinch purity. The fresh bioethanol resource flowrate target is shown to decrease linearly with purifier inlet flowrate provided the pinch is held by the same point. The Nearest Neighbors Algorithm (NNA) is used to methodically synthesize optimal networks matching bioethanol demands and sources. A case study of a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat with arabinoxylan (AX) coproduction is presented. It illustrates the versatility of the approach in generating superior practical designs with up to nearly 94% savings for integrated bioethanol networks, both with and without process

  4. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  5. Treatment of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplant with rituximab and conversion to m-TOR inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Rios, John Fredy; Gómez de Los Ríos, Sandra Milena; Serna-Higuita, Lina María; Ocampo-Kohn, Catalina; Aristizabal-Alzate, Arbey; Gálvez-Cárdenas, Kenny Mauricio; Zuluaga-Valencia, Gustavo Adolfo

    2016-12-30

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders are serious complications of organ transplantation which treatment is not yet standardized. To describe the clinical response, overall and graft survival of patients in our center with this complication after kidney transplantation, which received rituximab as part of their treatment as well as conversion to m-TOR. Retrospective study, which included patients, diagnosed with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplantation from January 2011 to July 2014. Eight cases were found with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Most had monomorphic histology, 85% were associated with Epstein-Barr virus, 25% of patients had tumor involvement of the renal graft, and 12.5% ​​had primary central nervous system lymphoma. All patients were managed with reduction of immunosuppression, conversion to m-TOR (except one who lost the graft at diagnosis) and rituximab-based therapy. The overall response rate was 87.5% (62.5% complete response, 25% partial response). Survival was 87.5% with a median follow-up of 34 months. An additional patient lost the graft, with chronic nephropathy already known. All the remaining patients had stable renal function. There are no standardized treatment regimens for lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplantation, but these patients can be managed successfully with reduction of immunosuppression, conversion to m-TOR and rituximab-based schemes.

  6. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL α-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  7. Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marketing Horizons, Inc.

    2001-11-19

    The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production.

  8. Catalytic valorization of bioethanol to biobutanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riittonen, Toni [Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka [Umea Univ. (Sweden). Chemical-Biological Center

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol, or ethyl alcohol, has several physico-chemical disadvantages as engine fuel, such as it's corrosiveness and low energy content. One way to overcome these shortcomings is to upgrade it to higher bioalcohols like 1-butanol. Several catalysts were screened in isobaric minireactors and the most promising ones were subject to further experiments in a high-pressure autoclave batch-reactor setup. (orig.)

  9. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohamed A; Abed, Raeid M M

    2017-07-10

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4±77.1ml CH 4 /g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6±0.25g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9±0.08wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production from Cynara cardunculus pretreated by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria C; Ferro, Miguel D; Paulino, Ana F C; Mendes, Joana A S; Gravitis, Janis; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2015-06-01

    The correct choice of the specific lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment allows obtaining high biomass conversions for biorefinery implementations and cellulosic bioethanol production from renewable resources. Cynara cardunculus (cardoon) pretreated by steam explosion (SE) was involved in second-generation bioethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes. Steam explosion pretreatment led to partial solubilisation of hemicelluloses and increased the accessibility of residual polysaccharides towards enzymatic hydrolysis revealing 64% of sugars yield against 11% from untreated plant material. Alkaline extraction after SE pretreatment of cardoon (CSEOH) promoted partial removal of degraded lignin, tannins, extractives and hemicelluloses thus allowing to double glucose concentration upon saccharification step. Bioethanol fermentation in SSF mode was faster than SHF process providing the best results: ethanol concentration 18.7 g L(-1), fermentation efficiency of 66.6% and a yield of 26.6g ethanol/100 g CSEOH or 10.1 g ethanol/100 g untreated cardoon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pequi cake composition, hydrolysis and fermentation to bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb fruits have been evaluated as a potential raw material for the newly established biodiesel industry. This scenario demands applications using the solid co-product derived from the extraction of pequi oil, called cake or meal. This study analyses the acid hydrolysis of carbohydrates present in the pequi meal in order to obtain fermentable sugars and evaluates their conversion to bioethanol. There was 27% starch in the pequi meal. The use of a CCRD experimental design type to study the acid saccharification of pequi meal results in 61.6% conversion of its starch content to reducing sugars. Positive and significant linear effects were observed for H2SO4 concentration and temperature factors, while the quadratic effect of H2SO4 concentration and the linear effect of solid-liquid ratio were negative. Even, with non-optimized fermentative condition using 1% of dried baker's yeast in conical flasks, it was possible to obtain a value equivalent to 53 L of ethanol per ton of hydrolyzed pequi meal.

  13. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    No other sustainable option for production of transportation fuels can match ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass with respect to its dramatic environmental, economic, strategic and infrastructure advantages. Substantial progress has been made in advancing biomass ethanol (bioethanol) production technology to the point that it now has commercial potential, and several firms are engaged in the demanding task of introducing first-of-a-kind technology into the marketplace to make bioethanol a reality in existing fuel-blending markets. In order to lower pollution India has a long-term goal to use biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel). Ethanol may be used either in pure form, or as a blend in petrol in different proportions. Since the cost of raw materials, which can account up to 50 % of the total production cost, is one of the most significant factors affecting the economy of alcohol, nowadays efforts are more concentrated on using cheap and abundant raw materials. Several forms of biomass resources exist (starch or sugar crops, weeds, oil plants, agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) but of all biomass cellulosic resources represent the most abundant global source. The lignocellulosic materials include agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes (MSW), pulp mill refuse, switchgrass and lawn, garden wastes. Lignocellulosic materials contain two types of polysaccharides, cellulose and hemicellulose, bound together by a third component lignin. The principal elements of the lignocellulosic research include: i) evaluation and characterization of the waste feedstock; ii) pretreatment including initial clean up or dewatering of the feedstock; and iii) development of effective direct conversion bioprocessing to generate ethanol as an end product. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials is a step in which some of the hemicellulose dissolves in water, either as monomeric sugars or as oligomers and polymers. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to

  14. Modeling of China's cassava-based bioethanol supply chain operation and coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Fei; Li, Yina; Lin, Qiang; Zhan, Yuanzhu

    2017-01-01

    As a useful alternative to petroleum-based fuel, biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. Cassava is viewed as an important and highly attractive nonedible feedstock for the production of biofuels. In this paper, a game-theoretic approach is proposed to explore decision behavior within a cassava-based bioethanol supply chain under the condition of yield uncertainty. In addition, a production cost sharing contract is proposed to overcome the double marginalization effect due to competition between supply chain players. With data from China's cassava-based bioethanol industry, the paper analyzes the effects of the farmer's capacity, risk aversion, yield uncertainty, the conversion ratio, the bioethanol's market price and ethanol plant's operation cost on optimal decisions within the supply chain and its overall performance. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed production cost sharing contract is tested, and the results show that it can enhance the supply of cassava, increase the utility of the whole supply chain and reduce the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The implications are set out for policy makers regarding how to promote the development of the biofuel industry, to guarantee the supply of feedstock, to reduce GHG emissions and to promote rural development. - Highlights: • Decision behavior within the cassava-based bioethanol supply chain is modeled. • Yield uncertainty and farmers' capacity and risk aversion are considered. • A production cost sharing contract is proposed to coordinate the supply chain. • The cassava supply, the utility and reduction on GHG emissions are increased. • Policy implications regarding how to promote biofuel supply chains are set out.

  15. EVALUATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM Eucalyptus WOOD WITH Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND SACSV-10 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Enid Vazquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eucalyptus spp. residues of paper industry are a potential lignocellulosic raw material for production of second-generation bioethanol as an alternative to conventional production from cereal crops. Studying the behavior at 40 ºC of a commercial cellulase (Sunson, Eucalyptus sawdust saccharification was carried out under two pH conditions. With the aim to evaluate the bioethanol production from Eucalyptus wood, a strategy combining saccharification and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF was undertaken at 40 ºC with a thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different substrate and inoculum concentrations, and different nitrogen sources. At last, the process was carried out in optimal conditions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae M522 and SacSV-10. Saccharification produced more free glucose at pH 5, reaching a maximum of 1.5 g/L. Encouraging results were obtained with 500 mg/L of ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source and 10 % v/v initial inoculum at 106 cfu/mL concentration. Yeast SacSV-10 was not inhibited by phenols present in the culture media using a wood concentration of 10 g/L, but when the solids concentration was increased, the bioprocess yield was compromised. When the process was carried out in optimal conditions the bioethanol production, expressed as the conversion percentage of cellulose to ethanol, was 71.5 % and 73.6 % for M522 and the mutant strain respectively. The studied properties of the mutant strain provide added value to it, which pose new challenges to national companies dedicated to the production and sale of inputs for bioethanol industry.

  16. Bioethanol Production from Cachaza as Hydrogen Feedstock: Effect of Ammonium Sulfate during Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Sanchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cachaza is a type of non-centrifugal sugarcane press-mud that, if it is not employed efficiently, generates water pollution, soil eutrophication, and the spread of possible pathogens. This biomass can be fermented to produce bioethanol. Our intention is to obtain bioethanol that can be catalytically reformed to produce hydrogen (H2 for further use in fuel cells for electricity production. However, some impurities could negatively affect the catalyst performance during the bioethanol reforming process. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the fermentation of Cachaza using ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to produce the highest ethanol concentration with the minimum amount of impurities in anticipation of facilitating further bioethanol purification and reforming for H2 production. The results showed that ethanol production from Cachaza fermentation was about 50 g·L−1 and the (NH42SO4 addition did not affect its production. However, it significantly reduced the production of branched alcohols. When a 160 mg·L−1 (NH42SO4 was added to the fermentation culture, 2-methyl-1-propanol was reduced by 41% and 3-methyl-1-butanol was reduced by 6%, probably due to the repression of the catabolic nitrogen mechanism. Conversely, 1-propanol doubled its concentration likely due to the higher threonine synthesis promoted by the reducing sugar presence. Afterwards, we employed the modified Gompertz model to fit the ethanol, 2M1P, 3M1B, and 1-propanol production, which provided acceptable fits (R2 > 0.881 for the tested compounds during Cachaza fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of the modelling of aliphatic production during fermentation; this model will be employed to calculate yields with further scaling and for life cycle assessment.

  17. Selective dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene catalyzed by lanthanum-phosphorous-modified HZSM-5: influence of the fusel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaochi; Zhan, Nina; Dou, Chang; Huang, He; Han, Yuwang; Yu, Dinghua; Hu, Yi

    2010-11-01

    Bio-ethanol dehydration to ethylene is an attractive alternative to oil-based ethylene. The influence of fusel, main byproducts in the fermentation process of bio-ethanol production, on the bio-ethanol dehydration should not be ignored. We studied the catalytic dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene over parent and modified HZSM-5 at 250°C, with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) equal to 2.0/h. The influences of a series of fusel, such as isopropanol, isobutanol and isopentanol, on the ethanol dehydration over the catalysts were investigated. The 0.5%La-2%PHZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher ethanol conversion (100%), ethylene selectivity (99%), and especially enhanced stability (more than 70 h) than the parent and other modified HZSM-5. We demonstrated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could weaken the negative influence of fusel on the formation of ethylene. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH(3)-TPD), nitrogen adsorption and thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermogravimetry (DTG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) (TG/DTG/DTA) techniques. The results indicated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could inhibit the formation of coking during the ethanol dehydration to ethylene in the presence of fusel. The development of an efficient catalyst is one of the key technologies for the industrialization of bio-ethylene.

  18. Plasminogen-induced aggregation of PANC-1 cells requires conversion to plasmin and is inhibited by endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshet, Naamit; Lupu-Meiri, Monica; Espinoza, Ingrid; Fili, Oded; Shapira, Yuval; Lupu, Ruth; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Oron, Yoram

    2008-09-01

    PANC-1 cells express proteinase-activated receptors (PARs)-1, -2, and respond to their activation by transient elevation of cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and accelerated aggregation (Wei et al., 2006, J Cell Physiol 206:322-328). We studied the effect of plasminogen (PGN), an inactive precursor of the PAR-1-activating protease, plasmin (PN) on aggregation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. A single dose of PGN time- and dose-dependently promoted PANC-1 cells aggregation in serum-free medium, while PN did not. PANC-1 cells express urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), which continuously converted PGN to PN. This activity and PGN-induced aggregation were inhibited by the uPA inhibitor amiloride. PGN-induced aggregation was also inhibited by alpha-antiplasmin and by the PN inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA). Direct assay of uPA activity revealed very low rate, markedly enhanced in the presence of PGN. Moreover, in PGN activator inhibitor 1-deficient PANC-1 cells, uPA activity and PGN-induced aggregation were markedly potentiated. Two additional human PDAC cell lines, MiaPaCa and Colo347, were assayed for PGN-induced aggregation. Both cell lines responded by aggregation and exhibited PGN-enhanced uPA activity. We hypothesized that the continuous conversion of PGN to PN by endogenous uPA is limited by PN's degradation and negatively controlled by endogenously produced PAI-1. Indeed, we found that PANC-1 cells inactivate PN with t1/2 of approximately 7 h, while the continuous addition of PN promoted aggregation. Our data suggest that PANC-1 cells possess intrinsic, PAI-1-sensitive mechanism for promotion of aggregation and differentiation by prolonged exposure to PGN and, possibly, additional precursors of PARs agonists.

  19. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2010-01-01

    ‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not account for farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from...... fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel...

  20. Conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus of recipients with chronic kidney graft disease grade iii for a period 2003-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tremendous breakthrough in solid organ transplantation was made with the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI. At the same time, they are potentially nephrotoxic drugs with influence on onset and progression of renal graft failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a conversion from CNIbased immunosuppressive protocol to sirolimus (SRL in recipients with graft in chronic kidney disease (CKD grade III and proteinuria below 500 mg/day. Methods. In the period 2003-2011 24 patients (6 famale and 18 male, mean age 41 ± 12.2 years, on triple immunosuppressive therapy: steroids, antiproliferative drug [mycophenolate mofetil (MMF or azathiopirine (AZA] and CNI were switched from CNI to SRL and followe-up for 76 ± 13 months. Nine patients (the group I had early postransplant conversion after 4 ± 3 months and 15 patients (the group II late conversion after 46 ± 29 months. During the regular outpatient controls we followed graft function through the serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR, proteinuria, lipidemia and side effects. Results. Thirty days after conversion, in all the patients GFR, proteinuria and lipidemia were insignificantly increased. In the first two post-conversion months all the patients had at least one urinary or respiratory infection, and 10 patients reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV infection or disease, and they were successfully treated with standard therapy. After 21 ± 11 months 15 patients from both groups discontinued SRL therapy due to reconversion to CNI (10 patients and double immunosuppressive therapy (3 patients, return to hemodialysis (1 patient and death (1 patient. Nine patients were still on SRL therapy. By the end of the follow-up they significantly improved GFR (from 53.2 ± 12.7 to 69 ± 15 mL/min, while the increase in proteinuria (from 265 ± 239 to 530.6 ± 416.7 mg/day and lipidemia (cholesterol from 4.71 ± 0.98 to 5.61 ± 1.6 mmol/L and triglycerides

  1. Pretreatment Technologies of Lignocellulosic Materials in Bioethanol Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rusdi Hidayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is one type of biofuel that developed significantly. The utilization of bioethanol is not only limited for fuel, but also could be used as material for various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. With wide utilization and relatively simple production technology has made bioethanol as the most favored biofuel currently. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, microalgae, seaweeds, even GMO (Genetically modified organisms as substrates for bioethanol production has been widely tested. Differences in the materials eventually led to change in the production technology used. Pretreatment technology in the bioethanol production using lignocellulosic currently experiencing rapid development. It is a key process and crucial for the whole next steps. Based on the advantages and disadvantages from all methods, steam explotion and liquid hot water methods are the most promising  pretreatment technology available.

  2. An assessment of bio-ethanol as a transport fuel in the UK: v. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrow, J.E. (Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (UK)); Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (GB))

    1990-02-01

    This report evaluates the potential for reducing the cost of producing bio-ethanol from agricultural feedstocks by R and D aimed at reducing production costs. Topics covered include purpose grown biomass as feedstock, lignocellulose wastes and residues and conversion technologies for lignocellulosic materials. It is concluded that enzyme hydrolysis of wood or straw with a lignin by-product could be the most cost effective in the future but even then it would be costing considerably more than ethanol's value as a fuel. (UK).

  3. Bioethanol, the rest of the breakfast; Bioethanol: Was vom Fruehstueck uebrig bleibt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.

    2007-11-30

    Maize, wheat and sugar cane are raw materials for producing cornflakes, bread and sugar but also bioethanol. The fuel is competing with foods for growth areas and water. On the other hand, it could also be produced from residues, e.g. dairy residues or orange peels. (orig.)

  4. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  5. Over production of fermentable sugar for bioethanol production from carbohydrate-rich Malaysian food waste via sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Nor 'Aini, Abdul Rahman; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Umi Kalsom, Md Shah

    2017-09-01

    In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation. In this work, a modified sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis process has been developed to produce high concentration of fermentable sugars; glucose, sucrose, fructose and maltose. The process started with hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatment by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) which aim to degrade larger molecules of polysaccharide before accessible for further steps of enzymatic hydrolysis by glucoamylase. A kinetic model is proposed to perform an optimal hydrolysis for obtaining high fermentable sugars. The results suggested that a significant increase in fermentable sugar production (2.04-folds) with conversion efficiency of 86.8% was observed via sequential acid-enzymatic pretreatment as compared to dilute acid pretreatment (∼42.4% conversion efficiency). The bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing fermentable sugar obtained shows ethanol yield of 0.42g/g with conversion efficiency of 85.38% based on the theoretical yield was achieved. The finding indicates that food waste can be considered as a promising substrate for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price (PGP. Two models were developed for the research, including the Bioethanol PGP Assessment Model (BPAM and the Feedstock Cost Estimation Model (FCEM. Results show that the PGP of the bioethanol ranges $4.68–$6.05/gal (9,550–12,356 yuan/t. The key components that contribute most to bioethanol PGP include the conversion rate of cellulose to glucose, the ratio of five-carbon sugars converted to ethanol, feedstock cost, and enzyme loading, etc. Lignocellulosic ethanol is currently unable to compete with fossil gasoline, therefore incentive policies are necessary to promote its development. It is suggested that the consumption tax be exempted, the value added tax (VAT be refunded upon collection, and feed-in tariff for excess electricity (byproduct be implemented to facilitate the industrialization of the technology. A minimum direct subsidy of $1.20/gal EtOH (2,500 yuan/t EtOH is also proposed for consideration.

  7. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, A.F.

    2013-05-15

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol production from xylose, an ethanol yield of 1.39 mol mol-1 xylose was obtained. This represents 83 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from xylose and is to date the highest reported value for a native, not genetically modified microorganism. The bacterium was identified as a new member of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, named Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and was subsequently used to investigate some of the factors that influence secondgeneration bioethanol production, such as initial substrate concentration and sensitivity to inhibitors. Furthermore, T. pentosaceus was used to develop and optimize bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass using a range of different approaches, including combination with other microorganisms and immobilization of the cells. T. pentosaceus could produce ethanol from a wide range of substrates without the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract and vitamins to the medium. It was initially sensitive to concentrations of 10 g l-1 of xylose and 1 % (v/v) ethanol. However, long term repeated batch cultivation showed that the strain

  8. Environmental Assessment of 2nd Generation Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , that biomass substitutes gas in the heat & power sector and gas substitute oil in the transport sector. By taking this path, we overall achieve almost twice as high a CO2 reduction and save almost twice as much oil, as if we want to substitute the oil via car engines through conversion to ethanol. We must...... this period of time, when we are facing a world without oil and gas, it is, moreover, very dubious if we can accept the very low efficiency of the combustion engine of say 25% energy efficiency and a conversion efficiency in ethanol fermentation of up to say 50% resulting in an overall energy conversion of 10......-20% for transportation. At that time, the electric car/fuel cell car has probably had time enough to mature, and it has a much higher energy efficiency. Therefore, bio-ethanol is not the right intermediate (short term) technology, and it is not the right long term technology either...

  9. Potential development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2009-12-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an Autonomous Province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. Contribution of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption of Vojvodina contemporary amounts to less than 1%, apropos 280 GWh/year. By combining of methods of introduction of new and renewable sources, systematic application of methods for increasing of energetic efficacy, as well as of introduction of the new technologies, percentage of contribution of the non-conventional energy sources in Vojvodina could be increased to as much as 20%. This paper presents the potential of development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina. Production of bioethanol on small farms can be successfully applied for processing of only 30 kg of corn per day, with obtaining of crude ethanol in the so-called 'brandy ladle' and use of lygnocellulosic agricultural wastes as an energy source. In a case of construction of a larger number of such plants, the only possible solution is seen in the principle of construction of the so-called 'satellite plants', which will on small farm produce crude ethanol, with obtaining and consumption of stillage for animal feeding, and consumption of agricultural wastes as energetic fuels. If stillage is to be used as feed in wet feeding, it is estimated that, because of restrictions established by the magnitude of animal farm, the upper limit of capacity of such enterprises that process is at some 10-15 tons of corn per day, and production of 3000-3500 hL of absolute ethanol per day. In such a case, for animal feeding necessary is to have herd with 1300-1700 of milking cows or 5000-25,000 heads of sheep and/or pigs. Technological model of separate grain processing ad bioethanol production from dextrose hydrolysates of starch is interesting for countries possessing plants for bioethanol production from molasses and plants for cereals processing into starch and dextrose hydrolysates

  10. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Chukwu, M.A. [Department of Sustainable Chemical Engineering, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    and hence the less likely the potentials of synthesizing bioethanol from the sample. Conversely, a larger biomass signified the presence of more sugars, hence the greater the potentials for synthesis of bioethanol from the sample with larger biomass.

  11. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rakin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin stillage, the bioethanol yield increased and was above 100 %. Higher bioethanol yield than 100 % can be explained by the fact that the thin stillage contains carbohydrates, amino acids and yeast cells degradation products. The bioethanol yield increased with the increased number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Dry matter content in fermenting slurry increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of the thin stillage recirculation cycles (8.04 % for the first and 9.40 % for the sixth cycle. Dry matter content in thin stillage increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that thin stillage recirculation increased the bioethanol yield. The highest bioethanol yields were obtained with recirculation of 10% thin stillage.

  12. Utilizing thermophilic microbe in lignocelluloses based bioethanol production: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Agustina, Wawan; Ratnawati, Lia; Rahman, Taufik; Salim, Takiyah

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of thermophilic microbe has attracted many parties, particularly in producing an alternative fuel like ethanol. Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sources substituting for earth oil in the future. The advantage of using bioethanol is that it can reduce pollution levels and global warming because the result of bioethanol burning doesn't bring in a net addition of CO2 into environment. Moreover, decrease in the reserves of earth oil globally has also contributed to the notion on searching renewable energy resources such as bioethanol. Indonesia has a high biomass potential and can be used as raw material for bioethanol. The utilization of these raw materials will reduce fears of competition foodstuffs for energy production. The enzymes that play a role in degrading lignocelluloses are cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic in nature. The main enzyme with an important role in bioethanol production is a complex enzyme capable of degrading lignocelluloses. The enzyme can be produced by the thermophilik microbes of the groups of bacteria and fungi such as Trichoderma viride, Clostridium thermocellum, Bacillus sp. Bioethanol production is heavily affected by raw material composition, microorganism type, and the condition of fermentation used.

  13. The contribution of bioethanol to sustainable development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels for the production of mechanical or electrical energy is one of the most important environmental issues nowa­days. In this respect, biofuels represent a viable source of energy. Bioethanol as a renewable energy source is derived from organic material of plant origin, so-called biomass, thus reducing environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of bioethanol in meeting future energy demands in the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. TR31002: The improvement of bioethanol production from sugar beet processing products

  14. Early Conversion from Tacrolimus to Belatacept in a Highly Sensitized Renal Allograft Recipient with Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced de novo Post-Transplant Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasishta S. Tatapudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is the first-line therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease since it offers greater long-term survival and improved quality of life when compared to dialysis. The advent of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based maintenance immunosuppression has led to a clinically significant decline in the rate of acute rejection and better short-term graft survival rates. However, these gains have not translated into improvement in long-term graft survival. CNI-related nephrotoxicity and metabolic side effects are thought to be partly responsible for this. Case Presentation: Here, we report the conversion of a highly sensitized renal transplant recipient with pretransplant donor-specific antibodies from tacrolimus to belatacept within 1 week of transplantation. This substitution was necessitated by the diagnosis of CNI-induced de novo post-transplant hemolytic uremic syndrome. Conclusion: Belatacept is a novel costimulation blocker that is devoid of the nephrotoxic properties of CNIs and has been shown to positively impact long-term graft survival and preserve renal allograft function in low-immunologic-risk kidney transplant recipients. Data regarding its use in patients who are broadly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens are scarce, and the increased risk of rejection associated with belatacept has been a deterrent to more widespread use of this immunosuppressive agent. This case serves as an example of a highly sensitized patient that has been successfully converted to a belatacept-based CNI-free regimen.

  15. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of bio-sugar and bioethanol from coffee residue (CR) by acid-chlorite pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Choi, Yong-Soo; Lee, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, coffee residue (CR) after roasting is recognized as one of the most useful resources in the world for producing the biofuel and bio-materials. In this study, we evaluated the potential of bio-sugar and bioethanol production from acid-chlorite treated CR. Notably, CR treated three times with acid-chlorite after organic solvent extraction (OSE-3), showed the high monosaccharide content, and the efficient sugar conversion yield compared to the other pretreatment conditions. The OSE-3 (6% substrate loading, w/v) can produce bio-sugar (0.568g/g OSE-3). Also, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced ethanol (0.266g/g OSE-3), and showed an ethanol conversion yield of 73.8% after a 72-h reaction period. These results suggest that acid-chlorite pretreatment can improve the bio-sugar and bioethanol production of CR by removing the phenolic and brown compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three different...... bioethanol will result in a faster catalyst deactivation than what is observed when using pure ethanol-water mixtures because of contaminants remaining in the feed. However, the initial activity of the catalysts are not affected by this, hence it is important to not only focus on catalyst activity but rather...

  18. Bioethanol sources in Pakistan: A renewable energy resource

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Biofuel in form of bioethanol can be produced using agricultural wastes by the use of enzymes, and hence the main objective of this approach is to get benefit of the agricultural wastes. .... mango peels, beans and banana.

  19. Bioethanol fuel production from rambutan fruit biomass as reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... bioethanol from rotten rambutan was to manage rambutan wastes, cleaning the ... regarding rambutan, mango, banana and pineapple for the ethanol production ... small pieces together with their skin and blended in a Philips.

  20. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rakin; J. Pejin; O. Grujić; Lj. Mojović; D. Pejin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield) was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin still...

  1. Two-year outcomes in thoracic transplant recipients after conversion to everolimus with reduced calcineurin inhibitor within a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestad, Lars; Mortensen, Svend-Aage; Eiskjær, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Use of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus with an accompanying reduction in calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) exposure has shown promise in preserving renal function in maintenance thoracic transplant patients, but robust, long-term data are required....

  2. Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection heating autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A

    2017-11-01

    This work describes the application of two forms of heating for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection heating and microwave heating processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave heating processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave heating processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  4. DSMZ 24726 for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate. The ....... The isolated organism is an extremely interesting and very promising organism for the establishment of a sustainable bioethanol production process. The invention further relates to a method for producing a fermentation product such as ethanol.......The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate...

  5. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagha, Phani

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  6. A biorefinery concept using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the coproduction of bioethanol and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Yahmed, Nesrine; Jmel, Mohamed Amine; Ben Alaya, Monia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Marzouki, M. Nejib; Smaali, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chaetomorpha linum was used as sustainable feedstock for co-production of bioethanol and biomethane. • An eco-friendly process was developed, only generating 0.3 ± 0.01 g/g of waste. • Ethanol yield obtained was 0.41 g/g reducing sugar. • Methane yield obtained was 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. - Abstract: An innovative integrated biorefinery approach using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was investigated in the present study for the co-production of bioethanol and biogas. Among three pretreatments of C. linum biomass, consisting of acidic, neutral and alkali ones, 3% NaOH pretreatment gave the best result in terms of thallus disintegration, biomass recovery and enzymatic digestibility as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and saccharification tests. The hydrolysis of C. linum feedstock with a crude specific enzyme preparation, locally produced from fermentation of Aspergillus awamori, at 45 °C, pH 5 for 30 h gave the maximum yield of fermentable sugar of 0.22 ± 0.02 g/g dry substrate. An ethanol yield of 0.41 g/g reducing sugar corresponding to about 0.093 g/g pretreated algae was obtained after alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the integrated proposed process, mycelium issued from the fungal fermentation, liquid issued from alkali pretreatment, residual from the non-hydrolysable biomass and all effluents and co-products represent a heterogeneous substrate that feed an anaerobic digester for biogas production. GC-analysis of this later showed that the biomethane yield reached 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. This study presents therefore an eco-friendly biorefining process, which efficiently coproduce bioethanol and biomethane and generate only a single waste (0.3 ± 0.01 g/g) allowing an almost complete conversion of the algal biomass.

  7. Promoting bioethanol production through clean development mechanism: Findings and lessons learnt from ASIATIC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Bedniaguine, Denis; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2005-12-15

    Global climate change mitigation policies call for increasing use of biomass fuels as renewable substitutes to fossil energy resources. Quantified targets for biofuels introduction in to the market exist in the United States, the European Union, and a number of developing countries. In this context, mixing biologically produced ethanol with conventional gasoline represents an attractive technical option allowing for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and lessening the dependence on non-renewable petrol in the transportation sector. This paper investigates technological and socio-economic aspects of ethanol production in developing countries, particularly in China, with special focus on determining eligibility of bioethanol projects for Clean Development Mechanism. Basing on the findings of the ASIATIC study (Agriculture and Small to Medium Scale Industries in Peri-urban Areas through Ethanol Production for Transport In China), we analyse how alcohol fuels can be produced in a sustainable way with mutual benefits between rural and urban people. The bioethanol production cost and life cycle CO2 eq. emissions were calculated for six different types of feedstock: sugarcane, sugarcane molasses, sweet sorghum juice, cassava, corn, and sorghum bagasse. Implications of the CDM rules and procedures for bioethanol industry were examined under the angles of environmental and economical additionality, and conformity with the principles of sustainable development. It is found that the starch-based (cassava) ethanol production path has the greatest potential for market penetration in China, followed by the conversion route using sugar-based feedstock (sorghum juice, sugarcane molasses). Meanwhile, the lignocelluloses biomass - to - ethanol technology may represent the highest interest for implementation as Clean Development Mechanism project. (Author)

  8. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  9. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  10. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  11. The effect of cassava-based bioethanol production on above-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Southern Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Kristensen, Søren B.P.; Traoré, Oumar

    2012-01-01

    Increasing energy use and the need to mitigate climate change make production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests and grassland into biofuel crops, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to biofuel crops. This paper reports the results of a study on cassava-based bioethanol production undertaken in the Sikasso region in Southern Mali. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase cassava production. The results show that expansion of cassava production for bioethanol will most likely lead to the conversion of fallow areas to cassava. A land use change from fallow to cassava creates a reduction in the above-ground carbon stocks in the order of 4–13 Mg C ha −1 , depending on (a) the age of the fallow, (b) the allometric equation used and (c) whether all trees are removed or the larger, useful trees are preserved. This ‘carbon debt’ associated with the above-ground biomass loss would take 8–25 years to repay if fossil fuels are replaced with cassava-based bioethanol. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of cassava-based bioethanol a priority. ► Farmers in Southern Mali are likely to convert fallow areas to cassava production. ► Converting fallow to cassava creates reductions in above-ground carbon stocks. ► Estimates of carbon stock reductions include that farmers preserve useful trees. ► The carbon debt associated with above-ground biomass loss takes 8–25 years to repay.

  12. Potential environmental impact of bioethanol production chain from fiber sorghum to be used in passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Annachiara; Zucaro, Amalia; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2017-11-15

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental load of a prospective local bioethanol (EtOH) production system in Southern Italy by using lignocellulosic Fiber sorghum (FS) feedstock. A two steps analysis was carried out considering: (i) a "cradle-to-farm gate" LCA to investigate thoroughly the FS cultivation on hilly marginal land and (ii) a "cradle-to-wheels" system boundary encompassing the environmental pressure of the whole EtOH supply-use chain. Primary data related to lignocellulosic biomass production were combined with experimental feedstock conversion processes through advanced second generation technology. The purpose was the evaluation of the environmental performance of different EtOH-gasoline mixtures in midsize passenger cars: E10 (10% of EtOH and 90% of gasoline) and E85 (85% of EtOH and 15% of gasoline). N fertilization appeared as the prevailing contributor of the crop phase. The "cradle-to-wheels" results concerning E10 passenger car disclosed that the main hotspots were represented by the input of low sulphur petrol (66%) and the linked tailpipe emissions (15%), for almost all the impact categories. Otherwise, for E85 flex-fuel vehicle, the major drivers were represented by the feedstock production (46%) and the imported electricity used in the conversion facility (18%). The FS EtOH blends entailed potential environmental benefits compared with the fossil counterpart (gasoline) for climate change, ozone and fossil depletions. Otherwise, they evidenced a worse profile in terms of acidification, eutrophication and particulate matter formation. Within the context of a the prospective territorial bio-refinery network, the comparison of the annual FS bioethanol based systems with similar EtOH scenarios from giant reed perennial crops highlighted: (i) the importance to optimize the N-management for FS feedstock cultivation and (ii) the need to increase the use of the renewable energy carriers along the industrial conversion

  13. Pinch analysis for bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Yanagida, T.; Nakaiwa, M.; Tatsumi, H.; Minowa, T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from carbon neutral and renewable biomass resources is an attractive process for the mitigation of greenhouse gases from vehicle exhaust. This study investigated energy utilization during bioethanol production from lignocellulose while avoiding competition with food production from corn and considering the potential mitigation of greenhouse gases. Process design and simulations were performed for bioethanol production using concentrated sulfuric acid. Mass and heat balances were obtained by process simulations, and the heat recovery ratio was determined by pinch analysis. An energy saving of 38% was achieved. However, energy supply and demand were not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. Therefore, a heat pump was used to improve the temperature range of efficient energy supply and demand. Results showed that the energy required for the process could be supplied by heat released during the process. Additionally, the power required was supplied by surplus power generated during the process. Thus, pinch analysis was used to improve the energy efficiency of the process. - Highlights: → Effective energy utilization of bioethanol production was studied by using pinch analysis. → It was found that energy was not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. → Use of a heat pump was considered to improve the ineffective utilization. → Then, remarkable energy savings could be achieved by it. → Pinch analysis effectively improved the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production.

  14. Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Márcio Santos Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Population growth and the increasing search for healthy foods have led to a major consumption of coconut water and, hence, to an environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of green coconut husks. This lignocellulosic biomass has deserved attention of researchers concerning the seeking of new usages, as, for example, in renewable fuels production technologies. This study examines the potential of green coconut husk fibers as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The coconut fibers were pretreated through an alkaline method, hydrolyzed enzymatically and submitted to ethanol fermentation with commercial yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant loss of cellulose (4.42% in relation to the fiber and 17.9% concerning the original cellulose content, the alkaline pretreatment promoted an efficient solubilization of lignin (80%, turning the coconut fibers into a feasible raw material for 2G ethanol production studies. Enzymatic hydrolysis converted 87% of the sugars and the ethanolic fermentation consumed 81% of the substrate in the hydrolyzate, leading to a sugar to ethanol convertion efficiency of 59.6%. These results points out that green coconut husks are a promising alternative to the production of renewable energy.

  15. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  16. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction...... approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most...... constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500...

  17. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi D.; Labala, Rajendra K.; Das, Sudripta; Handique, Pratap J.; Talukdar, Narayan C.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG), cassava aerial parts (CS), ficus fruits (Ficus cunia) (FF), “phumdi” (floating biomass), rice straw (RS), and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL) to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64%) was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%). Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum) resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  18. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi D., E-mail: griha789@gmail.com; Labala, Rajendra K.; Das, Sudripta [Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Imphal (India); Handique, Pratap J. [Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Talukdar, Narayan C., E-mail: griha789@gmail.com [Division of Life Sciences, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati (India)

    2017-07-11

    Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG), cassava aerial parts (CS), ficus fruits (Ficus cunia) (FF), “phumdi” (floating biomass), rice straw (RS), and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL) to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64%) was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%). Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum) resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  19. Review of China's bioethanol development and a case study of fuel supply, demand and distribution of bioethanol expansion by national application of E10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jing; Yu, Suiran; Wu, Tianxing

    2011-01-01

    The increasing dependence on imported oil and tremendous greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is making the diversification of primary fuel such as petroleum a critical vital energy and environmental issue in China. China is promoting bioethanol by mandatory use in nine provinces and the expansion is on agenda. This paper first reviews China's bioethanol development. Next, suitable feedstock crops for expanded ethanol production are discussed. Particularly, bioethanol expansion by national application of E10 is investigated from perspectives of potential in bioethanol supply, projected ethanol demand, and the possible cost-effective bioethanol distribution system. It is calculated that by making use of un-used land for feedstock planting and introduction of improved feedstock varieties, potential bioethanol production capacity in China will be up to 25.33 million tons per year. Ethanol demand for national application of E10 is projected to be around 7 million tons per year. A linear optimization model is used to consider the economic costs of distributing bioethanol in China. The optimization result suggests that development of bioethanol industry may focus on Henan, Jilin, Anhui, Jiangxi and Sichuan basin. It also estimates 53.79 RMB per ton of bioethanol for downstream rail or truck transportation remain a relatively small fraction of total fuel cost. Thanks to the well developed railway network in China, more bioethanol can be distributed at a relatively modest premium distribution costs and with low environmental influences. -- Highlights: → China's bioethanol development is reviewed. → Ethanol potential, projected demand and efficient distribution system are studied. → We find that nationwide bioethanol application can be commercially viable. → Impacts of oil and feedstock prices on ethanol expansion are discussed. → Ecological impacts of large scale feedstock crop plantation should be inspected.

  20. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyeun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Kim, Ho Myung; Kim, Su Bae

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. The 2nd year Research scope includes: 1) Optimization of pre-treatment conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and 2) Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis by recombinant enzymes. To optimize the pretreatment, we applied two processes: a wet process (wet milling + popping), and dry process (popping + dry milling). Out of these, the wet process presented the best glucose yield with a 93.1% conversion, while the dry process yielded 69.6%, and the unpretreated process yielded <20%. The recombinant cellulolytic enzymes showed very high specific activity, about 80-1000 times on CMC and 13-70 times on filter paper at pH 3.5 and 55 .deg. C

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... was performed on both untreated and hydrothermally treated unsorted and sorted fractions of the waste using standard methods for biomass conversion to bioenergy. Compositional analysis of the waste indicated that unsorted biodegradable municipal solid wastes (BMSW) consisted of 38.7 % dry matter (DM) glucan, 8.......3 % DM hemicellulose, 10.1 % DM lignin and 7.6 % DM ash. The sorted fractions with the highest glucan but least lignin and hemicellulose were the pool of cassava, yam and plantain peeling wastes (CYPPW) with 84 % DM glucan much of which was starch, 5.6 % DM lignin and 0.5 % DM hemicellulose. The highest...

  2. Liquid Biofuels: Vegetable Oils and Bioethanol; Biocombustibles Liquidos: aceites Vegetales y Bioetanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, M.; Ballesteros, I.; Oliva, J.M.; Navarro, A.A.

    1998-12-01

    The European energy policy has defined clear objectives to reduce the high dependency on fossil petroleum imports, and to increase the security of sustainable energy supply for the transport sector. Moreover, the European environmental policy is requesting clean fuels that reduce environmental risks. Liquid Biofuels (vegetable oils and bioethanol) appear to be in a good position to contribute to achieve these goals expressed by the established objective of European Union to reach for biofuels a market share of 5% of motor vehicle consumption. This work presents the current state and perspectives of the production and utilisation of liquid fuels from agricultural sources by reviewing agricultural feedstocks for energy sector, conversion technologies and different ways to use biofuels. Environmental and economical aspects are also briefly analysed. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Response surface optimization of the thermal acid pretreatment of sugar beet pulp for bioethanol production using Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Madian, Hekmat R; Nassar, Hussein N; Amr, Salem S Abu

    2015-09-15

    Worldwide nowadays, relying on the second generation bioethanol from the lignocellulosic feedstock is a mandatory aim. However, one of the major drawbacks for high ethanol yield is the physical and chemical pretreatment of this kind of feedstock. As the pretreatment is a crucial process operation that modifies the lignocellulosic structure and enhances its accessibility for the high cost hydrolytic enzymes in an attempt to maximize the yield of the fermentable sugars. The objective of this work was to optimize and integrate a physicochemical pretreatment of one of the major agricultural wastes in Egypt; the sugar beet pulp (SBP) and the enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated SBP using a whole fungal cells with a separate bioethanol fermentation batch processes to maximize the bioethanol yield. The response surface methodology was employed in this study to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for a thermal acid pretreatment of SBP. The significance and the interaction effects of the concentrations of HCl and SBP and the reaction temperature and time were studied using a three-level central composite design of experiments. A quadratic model equation was obtained to maximize the production of the total reducing sugars. The validity of the predicted model was confirmed. The thermally acid pretreated SBP was further subjected to a solid state fermentation batch process using Trichoderma viride F94. The thermal acid pretreatment and fungal hydrolyzes were integrated with two parallel batch fermentation processes of the produced hydrolyzates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y39, that yielded a total of ≈ 48 g/L bioethanol, at a conversion rate of ≈ 0.32 g bioethanol/ g SBP. Applying the proposed integrated process, approximately 97.5 gallon of ethanol would be produced from a ton (dry weight) of SBP.

  4. Bioethanol production from forestry residues: A comparative techno-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankó, Balázs; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A proposed cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Sweden was simulated with Aspen Plus. • Forestry residues with different bark contents were evaluated as raw materials. • The bark content negatively influenced the minimum ethanol selling price. • Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of raw material cost. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of using forestry residues with different bark contents for bioethanol production. A proposed cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Sweden was simulated with Aspen Plus. The plant was assumed to convert different forestry assortments (sawdust and shavings, fuel logs, early thinnings, tops and branches, hog fuel and pulpwood) to ethanol, pellets, biogas and electricity. The intention was not to obtain absolute ethanol production costs for future facilities, but to assess and compare the future potential of utilizing different forestry residues for bioethanol production. The same plant design and operating conditions were assumed in all cases, and the effect of including bark on the whole conversion process, especially how it influenced the ethanol production cost, was studied. While the energy efficiency (not including district heating) obtained for the whole process was between 67 and 69% regardless of the raw material used, the ethanol production cost differed considerably; the minimum ethanol selling price ranging from 0.77 to 1.52 USD/L. Under the basic assumptions, all the forestry residues apart from sawdust and shavings exhibited a negative net present value at current market prices. The profitability decreased with increasing bark content of the raw material. Sensitivity analyses showed that, at current market prices, the utilization of bark-containing forestry residues will not provide significant cost improvement compared with pulpwood unless the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars is improved.

  5. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  6. One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Enoch Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the ethanol production from biomass by consolidated bioprocess (CBP is considered to be the most ideal process, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF is the most appropriate strategy in practice. In this study, one-pot bioethanol production, including cellulase production, saccharification of cellulose, and ethanol production, was investigated for the conversion of biomass to biofuel by co-culture of two different microorganisms such as a hyper cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 and an ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the one-pot process were evaluated for maximizing ethanol concentration from cellulose in a single reactor. Results Ethanol production from cellulose was carried out in one-pot bioethanol production process. A. cellulolyticus C-1 and S. cerevisiae were co-cultured in a single reactor. Cellulase producing-medium supplemented with 2.5 g/l of yeast extract was used for productions of both cellulase and ethanol. Cellulase production was achieved by A. cellulolyticus C-1 using Solka-Floc (SF as a cellulase-inducing substrate. Subsequently, ethanol was produced with addition of both 10%(v/v of S. cerevisiae inoculum and SF at the culture time of 60 h. Dissolved oxygen levels were adjusted at higher than 20% during cellulase producing phase and at lower than 10% during ethanol producing phase. Cellulase activity remained 8–12 FPU/ml throughout the one-pot process. When 50–300 g SF/l was used in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale, the ethanol concentration and yield based on initial SF were as 8.7–46.3 g/l and 0.15–0.18 (g ethanol/g SF, respectively. In 3-l fermentor with 50–300 g SF/l, the ethanol concentration and yield were 9.5–35.1 g/l with their yields of 0.12–0.19 (g/g respectively, demonstrating that the one-pot bioethanol production is a reproducible process in a scale-up bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

  7. ELEVATE: an innovative study design to assess the efficacy, safety, and evolution of cardiovascular parameters in de novo kidney transplant recipients after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Giet M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Markus van der Giet,1 Josep M Cruzado,2 Johan W de Fijter,3 Hallvard Holdaas,4 Zailong Wang,5 Antonio Speziale,6 Guido Junge61Department of Nephrology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite'-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 4Section of Nephrology, Department of Transplant Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 5Biometrics and Statistical Science, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 6Research and Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandAbstract: Progressive decline in allograft function and cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation remain major clinical challenges that can potentially be addressed by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, everolimus and sirolimus. mTOR inhibitors maintain immunosuppressive efficacy after minimization of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI therapy and can achieve significant long-term improvements in renal function. Recently, data have accumulated that suggest mTOR inhibitors may offer cardioprotective effects. In animal models, inhibition of mTOR leads to regression of cardiac hypertrophy, and the limited data consistently point to a remodeling benefit following heart transplantation. Experimentally, mTOR inhibitors restrict atherogenesis, confirmed clinically by intravascular ultrasound data demonstrating lower rates of transplant vasculopathy in heart transplant recipients on everolimus. Lastly, mTOR inhibitors appear to ameliorate arterial stiffness, a known risk factor for post-transplant cardiovascular events, but data remain sparse. The ELEVATE study will examine the renal effect of early conversion from CNI therapy to everolimus after kidney transplantation. Key secondary endpoints include the change in left ventricular mass index, the first time

  8. The potential for second generation bio-ethanol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of possible bio-sources that can be used for bioethanol production with emphasis on those that have potential of replacing conventional fuels with little or minor modification of existing biomass production capacity and trend is presented. Data analysis indicates that the straw from maize, sorghum and wheat can ...

  9. Microalgal biomass pretreatment for bioethanol production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Velazquez-Lucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from microalgae biomass have received a great deal of attention owing to their high potentials as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Microalgae have a high capacity of CO2 fixation and depending on their growth conditions, they can accumulate different quantities of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Microalgal biomass can, therefore, represent a rich source of fermentable sugars for third generation bioethanol production. The utilization of microalgal carbohydrates for bioethanol production follows three main stages: i pretreatment, ii saccharification, and iii fermentation. One of the most important stages is the pretreatment, which is carried out to increase the accessibility to intracellular sugars, and thus plays an important role in improving the overall efficiency of the bioethanol production process. Diverse types of pretreatments are currently used including chemical, thermal, mechanical, biological, and their combinations, which can promote cell disruption, facilitate extraction, and result in the modification the structure of carbohydrates as well as the production of fermentable sugars. In this review, the different pretreatments used on microalgae biomass for bioethanol production are presented and discussed. Moreover, the methods used for starch and total carbohydrates quantification in microalgae biomass are also briefly presented and compared.

  10. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce

  11. Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI), and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

  12. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  13. Recent Advances on Bioethanol Dehydration using Zeolite Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy has gained increasing attention throughout the world. Bioethanol has the potential to replace existing fossil fuel usage without much modification in existing facilities. Bioethanol which generally produced from fermentation route produces low ethanol concentration. However, fuel grade ethanol requires low water content to avoid engine stall. Dehydration process has been increasingly important in fuel grade ethanol production. Among all dehydration processes, pervaporation is considered as the most promising technology. Zeolite possesses high potential in pervaporation of bioethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Zeolite membrane can either remove organic (ethanol) from aqueous mixture or water from the mixture, depending on the framework used. Hydrophilic zeolite membrane, e.g. LTA, can easily remove water from the mixture leaving high ethanol concentration. On the other hand, hydrophobic zeolite membrane, e.g. silicate-1, can remove ethanol from aqueous solution. This review presents the concept of bioethanol dehydration using zeolite membrane. Special attention is given to the performance of selected pathway related to framework selection.

  14. Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Alica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI, and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

  15. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CDPW is a renewable and sustainable resource of energy that is not greatly used in industries. The date is rich in biodegradable sugars, providing bioethanol after fermentation during 72 h at 30°C in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and the distillation of date's juice obtained. In the first experience, a solar ...

  16. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  17. Bioethanol production from Curcubita pepo and Opilia amentacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently, the highest outputs of 60.72 ± 0.68 and 50.93 ± 1.61 g ethanol/kg were obtained respectively with O. amentacea and C. pepo. In the same time, 460.97 ± 8.66 g ethanol/kg were got as maximum output from sucrose (NG). Keywords: Fruit juices, enrichment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation, bioethanol

  18. Energy Efficient Bioethanol Purification by Heat Pump Assisted Extractive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel requires an energy demanding separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol-water mixture. The classic separation sequence consists of three distillation columns that

  19. Novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation for bioethanol purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel involves an energy-intensive separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behavior of the ethanol-water mixture. The conventional separation sequence employs three distillation columns that

  20. Integrated decision making for the optimal bioethanol supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsano, Gabriela; Fumero, Yanina; Montagna, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal allocation, design and production planning of integrated ethanol plants is considered. • Mixed Integer Programming model is presented for solving the integration problem. • Different tradeoffs can be assessed and analyzed. • The modeling framework represents an useful tool for guiding decision making. - Abstract: Bioethanol production poses different challenges that require an integrated approach. Usually previous works have focused on specific perspectives of the global problem. On the contrary, bioethanol, in particular, and biofuels, in general, requires an integrated decision making framework that takes into account the needs and concerns of the different members involved in its supply chain. In this work, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model for the optimal allocation, design and production planning of integrated ethanol/yeast plants is considered. The proposed formulation addresses the relations between different aspects of the bioethanol supply chain and provides an efficient tool to assess the global operation of the supply chain taking into account different points of view. The model proposed in this work simultaneously determines the structure of a three-echelon supply chain (raw material sites, production facilities and customer zones), the design of each installed plant and operational considerations through production campaigns. Yeast production is considered in order to reduce the negative environmental impact caused by bioethanol residues. Several cases are presented in order to assess the approach capabilities and to evaluate the tradeoffs among all the decisions

  1. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P Sitompul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.

  2. Attainable region analysis for continuous production of second generation bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Felipe; Conejeros, Raúl; Aroca, Germán

    2013-11-29

    Despite its semi-commercial status, ethanol production from lignocellulosics presents many complexities not yet fully solved. Since the pretreatment stage has been recognized as a complex and yield-determining step, it has been extensively studied. However, economic success of the production process also requires optimization of the biochemical conversion stage. This work addresses the search of bioreactor configurations with improved residence times for continuous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation operations. Instead of analyzing each possible configuration through simulation, we apply graphical methods to optimize the residence time of reactor networks composed of steady-state reactors. Although this can be easily made for processes described by a single kinetic expression, reactions under analysis do not exhibit this feature. Hence, the attainable region method, able to handle multiple species and its reactions, was applied for continuous reactors. Additionally, the effects of the sugars contained in the pretreatment liquor over the enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were assessed. We obtained candidate attainable regions for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and SSF operations, both fed with pretreated corn stover. Results show that, despite the complexity of the reaction networks and underlying kinetics, the reactor networks that minimize the residence time can be constructed by using plug flow reactors and continuous stirred tank reactors. Regarding the effect of soluble solids in the feed stream to the reactor network, for SHF higher glucose concentration and yield are achieved for enzymatic hydrolysis with washed solids. Similarly, for SSF, higher yields and bioethanol titers are obtained using this substrate. In this work, we demonstrated the capabilities of the attainable region analysis as a tool to assess the optimal reactor network with minimum residence time applied to the SHF and

  3. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  4. Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatiwada, Dilip

    2010-10-15

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal. Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production. The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies

  5. FOOD VS. FUEL – A TURNING POINT FOR BIOETHANOL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Harlander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently concerns have been raised that biofuels would affect food prices. Bioethanol is made from sugar or starch containing plants that are also used in food production. In public perception this led to an emotional resistance against biofuels that in real terms is not substantiated. Generally, biofuels are a political product. Triggered by the oil crisis in the early 1970ies national fuel ethanol programmes were first launched in Brazil and in the United States. Concerns regarding energy security and sustainability together with the option of new markets for surplus agricultural production in recent years led to similar policy measures in the European Union and in numerous countries around the globe. Accordingly the industry invested heavily in new bioethanol plants - especially in the US – and created an additional demand for corn and wheat with some record-breaking prices noted in late 2007. A look back into statistics shows a drastic decline of real prices for decades and by now they are only back at the level of 30 years ago. One important detail is the real portion of grain used for bioethanol, which is still only 1.6 percent in the EU and therefore unlikely to be the real driver for the price development. Moreover the share of raw material is up to 70% of bioethanol production cost that makes the bioethanol industry itself a victim of price increases. Subsequently investor interest in this field slowed down, a development also watched in the US. The prospects of the agricultural markets of the European Commission conclude that Europe can do both, nutrition and biofuels.

  6. Genomic mechanisms of stress tolerance for the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the major chemical classes of inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists at ARS developed tolerant industrial yeast that is able to reduce major chemical classes of inhibitors into less toxic or none toxic compounds while producing ethanol. Using genomic studies, we defined mechanisms of in situ detoxification involved in novel gene functions, vital cofactor r...

  7. Long-term outcomes of thoracic transplant recipients following conversion to everolimus with reduced calcineurin inhibitor in a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial lv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestad, Lars; Eiskjaer, Hans; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    The NOCTET study randomized 282 patients ≥1 year after heart or lung transplantation to continue conventional calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy or to start everolimus with reduced-exposure CNI. Last follow-up, at ≥5 years postrandomization (mean: 5.6 years) was attended by 72/140 everolimus...

  8. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  9. Energy Balance of Bio-ethanol - A Review; Energibalans foer bioetanol - en kunskapsoeversikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2006-03-15

    This review presents a synthesis of various Swedish and international studies on the bio-ethanol energy balance, and an analysis of how and why their results differ. Other methods, such as exergy- and emergy analysis, are discussed and compared with the energy analysis method. Finally, potential improvements of the energy efficiency in bio-ethanol production are discussed. The energy balance is here expressed as the ratio of the energy content of the fuel to the primary energy input for the entire production cycle of the fuel. The energy balance of ethanol from cereals is, on average, 1.6, and varies between 0.7 and 2.8. Corresponding average figures for ethanol from corn, sugar beets and lignocellulosic biomass (e.g. energy forest) are 1.4, 1.8 and 3.2, respectively. There are several reasons why the energy balances differ between the different studies, even where the feedstock is identical. The sources of differences can be divided between those related to differences in local and geographical conditions, and those related to differences in the methodological approach applied. Depending on the definition of the system that is studied (systems boundaries), and how the energy input is divided between the ethanol and the by-products generated in the process (allocation methods), the energy balance may differ by a factor of 5. Thus, it is impossible to make reliable and fair comparisons between different studies unless all assumptions are clearly presented and defined. Results from exergy- and emergy analysis of bio-ethanol often show significantly different results from those presented in energy analyses. It is, however, not useful to compare these different results since the various methods have different focuses and are answering different questions. The energy balance of cereal-based ethanol can be improved by more efficient cultivation methods, but mainly by improved conversion processes. One possibility is by using bio-refineries where not only ethanol but also

  10. Mixtures of bioethanol and gasoline as a fuel for SI engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragoslava D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of alternative fuels, especially bioethanol and biodiesel, rises due to the limited oil sources, secure supply, prices changes, and environment pollution. Bioethanol is an alternative fuel which will be important in future, as a fuel produced from different crops and lignocelluloses materials. The quality of bioethanol has significant influence on the characteristics of mixtures with gasoline and engine performance. The investigations were performed with the bioethanol obtained as by-product from sugar industry, which is not denaturated and produced according the requests prescribed by standards for ethanol used in mixtures with gasoline. Main target was to examine the possibility of utilisation of bioethanol obtained as by-product and without additional technologies for purification and additional costs. The results of standard and non-standard investigations and engine tests of bioethanol and gasoline mixtures are presented.

  11. Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bioethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Bioethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. The price of the raw materials is highly volatile, which can highly affect the production costs of the bioethanol. One major problem with bioethanol production is the availability of raw materials for the production. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock considering its great availability and low cost, but the large-scale commercial production of fuel bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials has still not been implemented.

  12. Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Huanguang; Huang, Jikun; Yang, Jun [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 11, Datun Road, Anwai, Beijing 100101 (China); Rozelle, Scott [Shorenstein Asia Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 95305 (United States); Zhang, Yuhua; Zhang, Yanli [Institute of Rural Energy and Environmental Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, No. 41, Maizidian Street, Chaoyang, Beijing 100026 (China); Zhang, Yahui [Center of International Cooperative, Ministry of Agriculture of China, No. 55, Nongzhan Beilu, Chaoyang, Beijing 100026 (China)

    2010-01-15

    China is now the third largest bioethanol producer in the world after the United State and Brazil. The overall goals of this paper are to provide an overview of China's current bioethanol program, its future trend, and the likely impacts on its agricultural economy in the future. The analysis shows that China has developed an ambitious long-run biofuel program with a series of financial and institutional supports. While there are several potential feedstock crops available for bioethanol production, lack of land for feedstock production is one of major constraints in China's bioethanol expansion. The results show that although China's bioethanol expansion will have little impacts on overall agricultural prices in international markets, it will have significant impacts on the prices, productions, and trade of those energy crops being used for bioethanol production in China. (author)

  13. Effects of bioethanol ultrasonic generated aerosols application on diesel engine performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariasiu Florin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of an experimental bioethanol fumigation application using an experimental ultrasound device on performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Engine performance and pollutant emissions variations were considered for three different types of fuels (biodiesel, biodiesel-bioethanol blend and biodiesel and fumigated bioethanol. Reductions in brake specific fuel consumption and NOx pollutant emissions are correlated with the use of ultrasonic fumigation of bioethanol fuel, comparative to use of biodiesel-bioethanol blend. Considering the fuel consumption as diesel engine’s main performance parameter, the proposed bioethanol’s fumigation method, offers the possibility to use more efficient renewable biofuels (bioethanol, with immediate effects on environmental protection.

  14. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification of bioethanol effluent in an UASB reactor system with simultaneous biogas formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Mads Peter; Sommer, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    of these compounds were removed from the BEE in the reactor. Implementation of a UASB purification step was found to be a promising approach to detoxify process water from bioethanol production allowing for recirculation of the process water and reduced production costs.......In this study, the prospect of using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor for detoxification of process water derived from bioethanol production has been investigated. The bioethanol effluent (BEE) originated from wet oxidized wheat straw fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  16. Study of the environmental impacts of large scale bioethanol production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The report provides an analysis of the energy balance, the carbon dioxide balance, and other environmental effects. Four crops which might be used as bioethanol feedstock were considered. These were: wheat, sugar beet, sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke. Given the current agricultural capabilities in Europe, wheat and sugar beet could be cultivated immediately for bioethanol production whilst sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke represent crops which are under investigation as potential bioethanol feedstock in the longer term. (author).

  17. Study of the environmental impacts of large scale bioethanol production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The report provides an analysis of the energy balance, the carbon dioxide balance, and other environmental effects. Four crops which might be used as bioethanol feedstock were considered. These were: wheat, sugar beet, sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke. Given the current agricultural capabilities in Europe, wheat and sugar beet could be cultivated immediately for bioethanol production whilst sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke represent crops which are under investigation as potential bioethanol feedstock in the longer term. (author)

  18. Purification Simulation With Vapor Permeation and Distillation-Adsorption In Bioethanol Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Misri Gozan; Mia Sari Setiawan; Kenny Lischer

    2017-01-01

    High purity of Bioethanol is required in biofuel mixing with gasoline (EXX). In bioethanol production line, the azeotropic property of ethanol-water becomes the barrier for purification process. This study examined two bioethanol separation processes by support of simulation tools, Superpro Designer 9.0 software. Ethanol purity and a low costeconomical process were the major considerations. Purification method of vapor permeation membrane technology was compared with distillation-adsorption m...

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite Membrane for Bioethanol Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioethanol as an alternative fuel with a purity of more than 99.5% wt has prompted research on bioethanol purification. One of the promising methods used for bioethanol purification is pervaporation membrane. This research is aimed to prepare and characterize zeolite membranes for pervaporation membrane. The membrane preparation consisted of two stages, namely support preparation and zeolite deposition on the support. In support preparation, α- alumina and kaolin with specific composition (50:30; 40:40; 50:30 was mixed with additives and water. After pugging and aging process, the mixture became paste and extruded into tubular shape. The tube was then calcined at temperature of 1250 °C for 3 hours. After that, zeolite 4A was deposited on the tubes using clear solution made of 10 %wt zeolite and 90 %wt water and heated at temperature of 80 °C for 3 hours. Furthermore, the resulting zeolite membranes was washed with deionized water for 5 minutes and dried in oven at temperature of 100 °C for 24 hours. Characterization of zeolite membranes included mechanical strength test, XRD, and SEM. In the mechanical strength test, the membrane sample with α- alumina:kaolin = 50:30 (membrane A has the highest mechanical strength of 46.65 N/mm2. Result of XRD analysis for the membrane A indicated that mullite and corundum phases were formed, which mullite phase was more dominant. Meanwhile the result of SEM analysis shows that zeolite crystals have been formed and covered the pores support, but the deposition of zeolite has not been optimal yet. The performance examination for bioethanol purification showed that the membrane could increase the purity of bioethanol from 95% to 98.5% wt. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd October 2012; Revised: 15th February 2013; Accepted: 16th February 2013[How to Cite: Purbasari, A., Istirokhatun, T., Devi, A.M., Mahsunnah, L. , Susanto, H. (2013. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite

  20. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    species interactions as a response to the actual growing conditions observed which is not achieved with sole cropping of one species/cultivar. It is also concluded that when growing pea as a sole cropping available soil mineral N reduce N{sub 2} fixation and the full potential of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is not exploited which is regarded as an overall inefficient use of N sources. Using clover-grass intercropping raw materials, as another potential species combination with equivalent field responses to e.g. pea-wheat intercropping, conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments show that wet oxidation is an efficient method for fractionating clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures into a convertible solid cellulose fraction and a soluble hemicellulose fraction. The highest yield of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis is achieved in clover-grass (mixed 1:1) pretreated at 195 deg. C for 10 minutes using 12 bar oxygen. The optimum pretreatment conditions for clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures is not significantly different from that of wheat, which indicates that wheat straw and clover-grass (from intercropping) could be pretreated in one step. The produced sugars were converted into ethanol by Mucor indicus giving good ethanol yields Y{sub E/TS,Aerobic} = 0.37 and Y{sub E/TS,oxygen} {sub li} It is also concluded that fructans from unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing the ethanol production significantly. Using field data and biomass conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments a decentralized biorefinery concept for co-production of bioethanol and biogas is described with strong emphasis on sustainability, localness and recycling principles. (au)

  1. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Valant, A.; Can, F.; Bion, N.; Epron, F.; Duprez, D.

    2009-01-01

    Usually, ethanol steam reforming is performed using pure ethanol, whereas the use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl 2 O 4 . It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol has no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al 2 O 3 . Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al 2 O 3 catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl 2 O 4 , which was strongly deactivated after 2h of time-on-stream. (author)

  2. Bioethanol Production From Cellulose by Candida tropicalis, as An Alternative Microbial Agent to Produce Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Candida tropicalis isolated from Tuak is a potentially useful microorganism for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be alterbative agent replacing Saccharomyces cerevisae for fermentation process. Although C.tropicalis could not convert all carbohydrates content of lignocellulosic into bioethanol, however it is able to grow on medium in the presence of either xylose or arabinose as carbon source. Our result showed that fermentation of 10 % (w/v cellulosic as sole carbon source produced 2.88% (v/v ethanol by C.tropicalis. This ethanol production was lower than usage of 10% (w/v dextrose as sole carbon source medium which producing 5.51% (v/v ethanol. Based upon our expreiment indicated that C.tropicalis is able to conduct two main process in converting of cellulosic material- to ethanol which is hydrolysis the degradation of cellulose into glucose, and fermentation the process the conversion glucose into bioethanol. Keywords : Candida tropicalis, bioethanol, fermentation, cellulosic Abstrak (Indonesian: Candida tropicalis yang diisiolasi dari Tuak adalah agen yang berpotensi dalam produksi etanol dari biomasa lignoselulosa dan dapat dijadikan agen alternatif menggantikan Saccharomyces cerevisiae pada proses fernentasi. Walaupun C.tropicalis tidak dapat mengkonversi semua kandungan karbohidrat lignoselulosamenjadi etanol, akan tetapi C.tropicalis mampu tumbuh pada media dengan xilosa atau arabinosa sebagaisumber karbon. Hasil kami menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengguankan C.tropicalis fermentasi 10% (w/v selulosa sebagai satu-satunya sumber karbon menghasilkan 2,88% (v/v etanol, Produksi etanol ini lebih rendah jika menggunakan 10% (w/v dekstrosa sebagai satu satunya sumber karbon yang menghasilkan 5,51% (v/v etanol. Berdasarkan percobaan menunjukkan bahwa C.tropicalis mampu melakukan dua proses utama dalam mengkonversi material selulosa menjadi etanol yaitu hidrolisis degradasi selulosa menjadi glukosa, dan

  3. Development and Testing the Technology of Complex Transformation of Carbohydrates from Vegetable Raw Materials into Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tsygankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of development and testing the tentative technology of sweet sorghum and finger millet processing into bioethanol are described. The carbohydrates content and range of the studied vegetable biomass as the raw material is defined. Bioethanol potential output from sugar sorghum and finger millet carbohydrates and key technological parameters of preparation of both types of vegetable raw material for alcohol fermentation are defined. The concept of the tentative technology of bioethanol production from carbohydrate raw material of the first and second generations is offered. Testing of complex transformation of carbohydrates from vegetable raw materials into bioethanol is performed.

  4. The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  5. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock, lignocellulose (second generation feedstock, or algae (third generation feedstock feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  6. Effects of combined organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors on the nanostructure cerium based conversion coating performance on AZ31 magnesium alloy: Morphological and corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saei, E.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Amini, R.; Kalajahi, M. Salami

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Cn-Mn-polyvinyl alcohol conversion coating led to more uniform and crack free film deposition. •The corrosion resistance of Ce film was noticeably improved by using combination of polyvinyl alchol and Mn2+ cations. •A synergistic effect between polyvinyl alchol-Mn2+ resulted in Ce film with enhanced morphology and corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) AZ31 samples were chemically treated by a series of room temperature nanostructure cerium based conversion coatings containing Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O, Co(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The microstructure and corrosion protection properties of different samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Results demonstrated that the AZ31 Mg alloy sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA showed the highest corrosion resistance. A denser Ce film with lower crack was precipitated on the sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA conversion coating.

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  8. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  9. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO...

  10. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  11. Production of bioethanol from agricultural waste | Braide | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste. Keywords: bioethanol; fermentation; agro waste; Zea mays; sugar cane ...

  12. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves; Lourdes Zumalacárregui-de Cárdenas; Olga Sánchez-Collazo; Georgina Michelena-Alvarez; Hector Yznaga-Blanco; José Luis Martínez-Hernández; Cristóbal Noé-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to o...

  13. Continuous production of bio-oil by catalytic liquefaction from wet distiller’s grain with solubles (WDGS) from bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Glasius, Marianne; Rudolf, Andreas; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt

    2012-01-01

    Bio-refinery concepts are currently receiving much attention due to the drive toward flexible, highly efficient systems for utilization of biomass for food, feed, fuel and bio-chemicals. One way of achieving this is through appropriate process integration, in this particular case combining enzymatic bio-ethanol production with catalytic liquefaction of the wet distillers grains with soluble, a byproduct from the bio-ethanol process. The catalytic liquefaction process is carried out at sub-critical conditions (280–370 °C and 25 MPa) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst, a process known as the Catliq ® process. In the current work, catalytic conversion of WDGS was performed in a continuous pilot plant with a maximum capacity of 30 dm 3 h −1 of wet biomass. In the process, WDGS was converted to bio-oil, gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The oil obtained was characterized using several analysis methods, among them elementary analysis and GC–MS. The study shows that WDGS can be converted to bio oil with high yields. The results also indicate that through the combination of bio-ethanol production and catalytic liquefaction, it is possible to significantly increase the liquid product yield and scope, opening up for a wider end use applicability. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass. ► Product phase analysis: oil, acqeous, gas and mineral phase. ► Energy and mass balance evaluation.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis and production of bioethanol from common macrophytic green alga Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-12-01

    The green seaweed Ulva which proliferates fast and occurs abundantly worldwide was used as a feedstock for production of ethanol following enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the different cellulases investigated for efficient saccharification, cellulase 22119 showed the highest conversion efficiency of biomass into reducing sugars than Viscozyme L, Cellulase 22086 and 22128. Pre-heat treatment of biomass in aqueous medium at 120°C for 1h followed by incubation in 2% (v/v) enzyme for 36 h at 45°C gave a maximum yield of sugar 206.82±14.96 mg/g. The fermentation of hydrolysate gave ethanol yield of 0.45 g/g reducing sugar accounting for 88.2% conversion efficiency. These values are substantially higher than those of reported so far for both agarophytes and carrageenophytes. It was also confirmed that enzyme can be used twice without compromising on the saccharification efficiency. The findings of this study reveal that Ulva can be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Brosimum Alicastrum as a Novel Starch Source for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Olguin-Maciel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum is a forest tree native to the Mesoamerican region and the Caribbean. The flour obtained from Ramon seeds is 75% carbohydrate, of which 63% is starch, indicating its potential as a novel raw material for bioethanol production. The objective of this study was to produce ethanol from Ramon flour using a 90 °C thermic treatment for 30 min and a native yeast strain (Candida tropicalis for the fermentation process. In addition, the structure of the flour and the effects of pretreatment were observed via scanning electron microscopy. The native yeast strain was superior to the commercial strain, fermenting 98.8% of the reducing sugar (RS at 48 h and generating 31% more ethanol than commercial yeast. One ton of flour yielded 213 L of ethanol. These results suggest that Ramon flour is an excellent candidate for ethanol production. This is the first report on bioethanol production using the starch from Ramon seed flour and a native yeast strain isolated from this feedstock. This alternative material for bioethanol production minimizes the competition between food and energy production, a priority for Mexico that has led to significant changes in public policies to enhance the development of renewable energies.

  16. In vivo assay for conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by rat prostatic steroid 5 alpha-reductase and comparison of two inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomey, R.E.; Goode, R.L.; Petrow, V.; Neubauer, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    An in vivo assay for steroid 5 alpha-reductase in rat ventral prostate has been developed and used to compare the inhibitory activity of N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5 alpha-androstane-17 beta-carboxamide (4-MA) and 6-methylene-4-pregnene-3,20-dione (LY207320). Immature rats (70-80 g) received test compounds 30 min prior to s.c. injection of [3H]-T. The rats were sacrificed 30 min later and the ventral prostates were analyzed for [3H]-T metabolites. Intraprostatic [3H]-T and [3H]-DHT reached peak levels within 5 min after injection of [3H]-T and declined to about 25% of peak levels after 2 hr. 4-MA was a very potent inhibitor of [3H]-DHT formation with an estimated IC50 of 0.2 mg/kg. LY207320, an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase in vitro, was weakly active in vivo and did not achieve greater than 45% inhibition at high doses (greater than 200 mg/kg, s.c.). Tissue uptake of [3H]-T was also inhibited by LY207320, which may contribute to its inhibitory activity on accessory sex organ growth in the rat

  17. The effects of addition of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as a green corrosion inhibitor to the phosphate conversion coating on the anticorrosion and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on the steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir; Vakili, H.; Amini, R.

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Room temperature zinc phosphate coating was applied on the surface of steel sample. • Poly(vinyl) alcohol was added to the phosphating bath as a green corrosion inhibitor. • The adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating were investigated. • PVA decreased the phosphate crystal size and porosity. • PVA enhanced the corrosion protection and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating. - Abstract: Steel substrates were chemically treated by room temperature zinc phosphate conversion coating. Poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) was added to the phosphate solution as a green corrosion inhibitor. Finally, the epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and surface treated steel samples. The effects of PVA on the morphological properties of the phosphate coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measuring device. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coatings applied on the surface treated samples were investigated by pull-off and cathodic delamination tests. Also, the anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coatings were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that addition of PVA to the phosphate coating increased the population density of the phosphate crystals and decreased the phosphate grain size. The contact angle of the steel surface treated by Zn-PVA was lower than Zn treated one. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was considerably increased on the steel substrate treated by zinc phosphate conversion coating containing PVA. PVA also enhanced the adhesion properties of the epoxy coating to the steel surface and decreased the cathodic delamination significantly.

  18. Development of a new bioethanol feedstock - Anaerobically digested fiber from confined dairy operations using different digestion configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Zhengbo; Teater, Charles; MacLellan, James; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of digesters, continuous stirring-tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow reactor (PFR), were integrated into a biorefining concept to generate a new cellulosic ethanol feedstock -anaerobically digested fiber (AD fiber) from dairy cow feces. Cellulose content in AD fibers was significantly increased during the anaerobic digestion. CSTR and PFR AD fibers had cellulose contents of 357 and 322 g kg -1 dried AD fiber. The AD fibers were enzymatically hydrolyzed after being pretreated by dilute sulfuric acid or dilute sodium hydroxide, and the hydrolysates were used to produce ethanol. Alkali pretreatment was concluded as a suitable pretreatment method for AD fibers. Under the optimal conditions the AD fibers processed by CSTR and PFR produced ethanol of 26 g kg -1 and 23 g kg -1 dry feces, respectively. Energy balance analysis further indicated that CSTR was a preferred digestion method to prepare AD fiber for ethanol production. -- Highlights: → Anaerobic digestion process has been discovered as a process that is not only a downstream process, but also a pretreatment method to prepare cellulosic feedstock for biorefining. → In this study the effects of two different AD reactor configurations (CSTR and PFR) on AD fiber quality and bioethanol conversion of the AD fiber have been explored. → Mass and energy balance analysis elucidated that compared to PFR, CSTR is better AD treatment to prepare AD fiber for bioethanol production.

  19. Design and optimization of a fixed - bed reactor for hydrogen production via bio-ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria A Goula; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Global climate changes caused by CO 2 emissions are currently debated around the world. Renewable sources of energy are being sought as alternatives to replace fossil fuels. Hydrogen is theoretically the best fuel, environmentally friendly and its combustion reaction leads only to the production of water. Bio-ethanol has been proven to be effective in the production of hydrogen via steam reforming reaction. In this research the steam reforming reaction of bio-ethanol is studied at low temperatures over 15,3 % Ni/La 2 O 3 catalyst. The reaction and kinetic analysis takes place in a fixed - bed reactor in 130 - 250 C in atmospheric pressure. This study lays emphasis on the design and the optimization of the fixed - bed reactor, including the total volume of the reactor, the number and length of the tubes and the degree of ethanol conversion. Finally, it is represented an approach of the total cost of the reactor, according to the design characteristics and the materials that can be used for its construction. (authors)

  20. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-07-15

    Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flower is a suitable alternative cheaper carbohydrate source for production of bio-ethanol. Recent production of bio-ethanol by microbial fermentation as an alternative energy source has renewed research interest because of the increase in the fuel price. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria) are two most widely used microorganisms for ethanol production. In this study, experiments were carried out to compare the potential of the yeast S. cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) with the bacterium Z. mobilis (MTCC 92) for ethanol fermentation from mahula flowers. The ethanol production after 96 h fermentation was 149 and 122.9 g kg{sup -1} flowers using free cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. The S. cerevisiae strain showed 21.2% more final ethanol production in comparison to Z. mobilis. Ethanol yield (Yx/s), volumetric product productivity (Qp), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%) and microbial biomass concentration (X) obtained by S. cerevisiae were found to be 5.2%, 21.1%, 5.27% and 134% higher than Z. mobilis, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. (author)

  1. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra; Ray, Ramesh Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flower is a suitable alternative cheaper carbohydrate source for production of bio-ethanol. Recent production of bio-ethanol by microbial fermentation as an alternative energy source has renewed research interest because of the increase in the fuel price. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria) are two most widely used microorganisms for ethanol production. In this study, experiments were carried out to compare the potential of the yeast S. cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) with the bacterium Z. mobilis (MTCC 92) for ethanol fermentation from mahula flowers. The ethanol production after 96 h fermentation was 149 and 122.9 g kg -1 flowers using free cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. The S. cerevisiae strain showed 21.2% more final ethanol production in comparison to Z. mobilis. Ethanol yield (Yx/s), volumetric product productivity (Qp), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%) and microbial biomass concentration (X) obtained by S. cerevisiae were found to be 5.2%, 21.1%, 5.27% and 134% higher than Z. mobilis, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. (author)

  2. Mechano-Enzymatic Deconstruction with a New Enzymatic Cocktail to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Fermentation of Two Macroalgae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Amamou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the efficiency of a mechano-enzymatic deconstruction of two macroalgae species for sugars and bioethanol production, by using a new enzymatic cocktail (Haliatase and two types of milling modes (vibro-ball: VBM and centrifugal milling: CM. By increasing the enzymatic concentration from 3.4 to 30 g/L, the total sugars released after 72 h of hydrolysis increased (from 6.7 to 13.1 g/100 g TS and from 7.95 to 10.8 g/100 g TS for the green algae U. lactuca and the red algae G. sesquipedale, respectively. Conversely, total sugars released from G. sesquipedale increased (up to 126% and 129% after VBM and CM, respectively. The best bioethanol yield (6 geth/100 g TS was reached after 72 h of fermentation of U. lactuca and no increase was obtained after centrifugal milling. The latter led to an enhancement of the ethanol yield of G. sesquipedale (from 2 to 4 g/100 g TS.

  3. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-11-15

    This study evaluates the environmental impacts of biorefinery products using consequential (CLCA) and attributional (ALCA) life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches. Within ALCA, economic allocation method was used to distribute impacts among the main products and the coproducts, whereas within the CLCA system expansion was adopted to avoid allocation. The study seeks to answer the questions (i) what is the environmental impacts of process integration?, and (ii) do CLCA and ALCA lead to different conclusions when applied to biorefinery?. Three biorefinery systems were evaluated and compared: a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy of the integration was the exchange of useful energy necessary for biomass processing in the two standalone systems. The systems were compared against a common reference flow: "1MJ EtOH +1kg LA ", which was set on the basis of products delivered by the system C. Function of the reference flow was to provide service of both fuel (bioethanol) at 99.9% concentration (wt. basis) and biochemical (biobased lactic acid) in food industries at 90% purity; both products delivered at biorefinery gate. The environmental impacts of interest were global warming potential (GWP 100 ), eutrophication potential (EP), non-renewable energy (NRE) use and the agricultural land occupation (ALO). Regardless of the LCA approach adopted, system C performed better in most of the impact categories than both standalone systems. The process wise contribution to the obtained environmental impacts also showed similar impact pattern in both approaches. The study also highlighted that the recirculation of intermediate materials, e.g. C 5 sugar to boost bioethanol yield and that the use of residual streams in the energy

  4. From biofuel to bioproduct: is bioethanol a suitable fermentation feedstock for synthesis of bulk chemicals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The first pilot-scale factories for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose have been installed, indicating that we are on the brink of overcoming most hurdles for an economically feasible process. When bioethanol is competitive as biofuel with fuels originating from petrochemical

  5. Fuel consumption and emission on fuel mixer low-grade bioethanol fuelled motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abikusna Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is currently used as an alternative fuel for gasoline substitute (fossil fuel because it can reduce the dependence on fossil fuel and also emissions produced by fossil fuel which are CO2, HO, NOx. Bioethanol is usually used as a fuel mixed with gasoline with certain comparison. In Indonesia, the usage is still rare. Bioethanol that is commonly used is bioethanol anhydrous 99.5%. In the previous studies, bioethanol was distilled from low to high grade to produce ethanol anhydrous. But the result is only able to reach 95% or ethanol hydrous. This study is objected to design a simple mechanism in the mixing of bioethanol hydrous with the gasoline using a fuel mixer mechanism. By this mechanism, the fuel consumption and the resulting emissions from combustion engine can be analyzed. The fuel blend composition is prepared as E5, E10, and E15/E20, the result of fuel consumption and emission will be compared with pure gasoline. The using of bioethanol hydrous as a fuel mixture was tended to produce more stable bioethanol fuel consumption. However, the utilization of the mixture was found able to reduce the exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx.

  6. Energy analysis of using macroalgae from eutrophic waters as a bioethanol feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    2014-01-01

    , and in KB runoff from agricultural land constitutes 86%. The environmental support needed for producing one Joule of bioethanol is somewhat more than for a number of other bioethanol feedstocks being 2.12 x 106 solar equivalent Joules (seJ) for OL and 2.56 x 106 seJ for KB. However, a high percentage...

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine Anker; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030, regardless of....../or biogas, natural gas or electricity for transport are advantageous....

  8. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  9. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Sijbers, J.P.J.; Denis, M.; Tramper, J.

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material

  10. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts; Bioethanol aus Lignozellulose. Eine oekologische und oekonomische Bewertung ausgewaehlter Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-08-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  11. State of the art on bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A.

    2001-01-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way [it

  12. UTILIZATION OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (OPEFB FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION THROUGH ALKALI AND DILUTE ACID PRETREATMENT AND SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Sudiyani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential alternative source of bioethanol for energy. The lignocellulosics are abundantly available in Indonesia. Most of them are wastes of agriculture, plantation and forestry. Among those wastes, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OP EFB is one of a potential lignocellulosics to be converted to bioethanol. This EFB, which is wastes in oil palm factories, is quite abundant (around 25 million tons/year and also has high content of cellulose (41-47%. The conversion of OPEFB to ethanol basically consists of three steps which are pretreatment, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to simple sugars (hexoses and pentoses, and fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol. Acid and alkali pretreatments are considered the simplest methods and are potentially could be applied in the next couple of years. However, there are still some problems that have to be overcome to make the methods economically feasible. The high price of cellulose enzyme that is needed in the hydrolysis step is one of factors that cause the cost of EFB conversion is still high. Thus, the search of potential local microbes that could produce cellulase is crucial. Besides that, it is also important to explore fermenting microbes that could ferment six carbon sugars from cellulose as well as five carbon sugars from hemicellulose, so that the conversion of lignocellulosics, particularly EFB, would be more efficient. Keywords: OPEFB, lignocellulosics, pretreatment, fermentation, ethanol

  13. Prostate cancer cells differ in testosterone accumulation, dihydrotestosterone conversion, and androgen receptor signaling response to steroid 5α-reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Godoy, Alejandro; Azzouni, Faris; Wilton, John H; Ip, Clement; Mohler, James L

    2013-09-01

    Blocking 5α-reductase-mediated testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with finasteride or dutasteride is the driving hypothesis behind two prostate cancer prevention trials. Factors affecting intracellular androgen levels and the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis need to be examined systematically in order to fully understand the outcome of interventions using these drugs. The expression of three 5α-reductase isozymes, as determined by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, was studied in five human prostate cancer cell lines. Intracellular testosterone and DHT were analyzed using mass spectrometry. A luciferase reporter assay and AR-regulated genes were used to evaluate the modulation of AR activity. Prostate cancer cells were capable of accumulating testosterone to a level 15-50 times higher than that in the medium. The profile and expression of 5α-reductase isozymes did not predict the capacity to convert testosterone to DHT. Finasteride and dutasteride were able to depress testosterone uptake in addition to lowering intracellular DHT. The inhibition of AR activity following drug treatment often exceeded the expected response due to reduced availability of DHT. The ability to maintain high intracellular testosterone might compensate for the shortage of DHT. The biological effect of finasteride or dutasteride appears to be complex and may depend on the interplay of several factors, which include testosterone turnover, enzymology of DHT production, ability to use testosterone and DHT interchangeably, and propensity of cells for off-target AR inhibitory effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficient Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to 1-Butanol via the Guerbet Reaction over Copper- and Nickel-Doped Porous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhuohua; Vasconcelos, Anais Couto; Bottari, Giovanni; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Bonura, Giuseppe; Cannilla, Catia; Frusteri, Francesco; Barta, Katalin

    The direct conversion of ethanol to higher value 1-butanol is a catalytic transformation of great interest in light of the expected wide availability of bioethanol originating from the fermentation of renewable resources. In this contribution we describe several novel compositions of porous metal

  15. Co/Zr substitution in a cerium-zirconium oxide by catalytic steam reforming of bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, J.C.; Thomas, S.; Roger, A.C.; Kiennemann, A.; Vargas, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the production of hydrogen by bio-ethanol catalytic steam reforming. The aim is to develop a catalyst active in ethanol conversion, selective in hydrogen and resistant to deactivation, particularly those induced by the formation of carbon deposition. The metal-support interaction being one of the keys of this challenge, catalysts in which a transition metal is inserted into an oxide by a liquid synthesis method (by the precursor method) have been developed. The initial insertion of cobalt into a cerium oxide-zirconia structure presents the advantages to increase the redox properties of the host oxide and to allow a stable reduction of a cobalt part while favoring the metal-support interaction. (O.M.)

  16. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg

    by ensiling (with lactic acid bacteria) or simple drying. Pretreatment was carried out using wet-milling and enzymatic hydrolysis in accordance with 1G bioethanol technology from corn. Different commercial enzyme mixtures for fully or partly hydrolysis of algae sugar polymers into monomers were tested...... and conversion of the differently pretreated macroalgae biomass into ethanol by fermentation were compared. The protein contents and nutrient salts in residues from ethanol fermentation trials were characterized for potential fish feed. A first-step scenario for sustainability and feasibility assessment...... will be presented for this innovative process of biorefining of value-added algae proteins derived directly through fermentation processes of algae sugars to bioenergy carriers....

  17. Immobilised Sarawak Malaysia yeast cells for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Masniroszaime Mohd; Kofli, Noorhisham Tan; Rozaimah, Siti; Abdullah, Sheikh

    2011-05-01

    Bioethanol production using yeast has become a popular topic due to worrying depleting worldwide fuel reserve. The aim of the study was to investigate the capability of Malaysia yeast strains isolated from starter culture used in traditional fermented food and alcoholic beverages in producing Bioethanol using alginate beads entrapment method. The starter yeast consists of groups of microbes, thus the yeasts were grown in Sabouraud agar to obtain single colony called ST1 (tuak) and ST3 (tapai). The growth in Yeast Potatoes Dextrose (YPD) resulted in specific growth of ST1 at micro = 0.396 h-1 and ST3 at micro = 0.38 h-1, with maximum ethanol production of 7.36 g L-1 observed using ST1 strain. The two strains were then immobilized using calcium alginate entrapment method producing average alginate beads size of 0.51 cm and were grown in different substrates; YPD medium and Local Brown Sugar (LBS) for 8 h in flask. The maximum ethanol concentration measured after 7 h were at 6.63 and 6.59 g L-1 in YPD media and 1.54 and 1.39 g L-1in LBS media for ST1 and ST3, respectively. The use of LBS as carbon source showed higher yield of product (Yp/s), 0.59 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.25 g g-1 in ST1 and (Yp/s), 0.54 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.24 g g-1 in ST3 . This study indicated the possibility of using local strains (STI and ST3) to produce bioethanol via immobilization technique with local materials as substrate.

  18. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  19. Policy options for non-grain bioethanol in China: Insights from an economy-energy-environment CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese government has been issuing numerous incentive policies to promote non-grain bioethanol development to address the problem of excessive energy consumption and environmental pollution. In this study, we divide the incentive policies into five categories: subsidies on bioethanol production, non-grain feedstocks planting, marginal land reclamation and utilization, bioethanol consumption in more cities, and consumption tax on gasoline use. The objective of the paper is to evaluate and compare the economic, energy, and environmental effects of the incentive policies to help the government choose the optimal policies to promote bioethanol in China. The results show that subsidies on bioethanol production and consumption can boost GDP, and simultaneously, decrease crude oil and gasoline consumption, and reduce CO_2 emissions. However, the increase in bioethanol consumption is combined with the rise in coal and electricity consumption. Subsidies on bioethanol production can promote GDP and reduce energy consumption and CO_2 emission but have less effect on bioethanol development than that under the scenario of subsides on bioethanol consumption. On the contrary, although subsidies on non-grain feedstocks planting and marginal land reclamation and utilization can improve macro-economy but have a negative effect on energy saving and CO_2 emission reduction. Therefore, appropriate subsidies on bioethanol production and consumption can promote bioethanol consumption with economic, energy and environmental benefits. The Chinese government should further pay more attention to the coordination of different policy options by policy tools and intensities. - Highlights: • Non-grain bioethanol incentive policy is divided into supply and demand perspectives. • China's bioethanol CGE model is constructed. • Demand incentives have largest positive effects on GDP. • Demand incentives have better effects on energy saving and emission reduction. • Subsidies on

  20. Economic and environmental optimization of a large scale sustainable dual feedstock lignocellulosic-based bioethanol supply chain in a stochastic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Atif; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 2-Stage stochastic MILP model for optimizing the performance of a sustainable lignocellulosic-based biofuel supply chain. • Multiple uncertainties in biomass supply, purchase price of biomass, bioethanol demand, and sale price of bioethanol. • Stochastic parameters significantly impact the allocation of biomass processing capacities of biorefineries. • Location of biorefineries and choice of conversion technology is found to be insensitive to the stochastic environment. • Use of Sample Average Approximation (SAA) algorithm as a decomposition technique. - Abstract: This work proposes a two-stage stochastic optimization model to maximize the expected profit and simultaneously minimize carbon emissions of a dual-feedstock lignocellulosic-based bioethanol supply chain (LBSC) under uncertainties in supply, demand and prices. The model decides the optimal first-stage decisions and the expected values of the second-stage decisions. A case study based on a 4-state Midwestern region in the US demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed stochastic model over a deterministic model under uncertainties. Two regional modes are considered for the geographic scale of the LBSC. Under co-operation mode the 4 states are considered as a combined region while under stand-alone mode each of the 4 states is considered as an individual region. Each state under co-operation mode gives better financial and environmental outcomes when compared to stand-alone mode. Uncertainty has a significant impact on the biomass processing capacity of biorefineries. While the location and the choice of conversion technology for biorefineries i.e. biochemical vs. thermochemical, are insensitive to the stochastic environment. As variability of the stochastic parameters increases, the financial and environmental performance is degraded. Sensitivity analysis shows that levels of tax credit and carbon price have a major impact on the choice of conversion technology for a selected

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Corn Stover and Immobilized Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost and abundant corn stover in yeast fermentation can reduce product costs. In this study, bioethanol was produced from a hydrolysate of corn stover using immobilized yeast. A kinetic model was established for the total reducing sugar consumption and the production of bioethanol. The parameter estimation for kinetic modeling considered the main process variables during bioethanol production from corn stover. Total reducing sugar concentrations decreased exponentially in the bioethanol fermentation for 6 h; consumption was more than 90%. To use kinetic modelling of yeast growth for bioethanol fermentation, the value of μmax reached 0.2891 h-1, and the matrix inhibition constant (KIS and production inhibition constant (KIP were 8.9154 g/dm3 and 0.00676 g/dm3, respectively. To use kinetic modelling of fermentation time on bioethanol, the maximum ratio of bioethanol production rate (qmax reached 1.427 g/g•L. However, KIS was 2.813 g/dm3, and KIP was 0.0149 g/dm3.

  2. Characteristics of the products of hydrothermal liquefaction combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rundong; Xie, Yinghui; Yang, Tianhua; Li, Bingshuo; Zhang, Yang; Kai, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    The integration utilization of fermentation residues from cellulosic bio-ethanol has attracted a great deal of attention to balance the total cost of bio-ethanol production while simultaneously dealing with bio-ethanol wastewater. A process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of intact materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol in a batch reactor was proposed. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on the liquefaction characteristics were examined. The optimum condition for liquefaction fermentation residues was 370 °C (21.25 MPa) and 30 min with a bio-oil yield of 40.79 wt%. GC-MS results indicated that the major chemical species in the bio-oil were phenols, ketones, long-chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Supercritical conditions (375 °C, 23.50 MPa) was favored for the low-molecular-weight species formation compared to subcritical conditions (370 °C, 21.25 MPa), as some long-chain species decreased. This work thus can provide a novel idea for bio-oil production from HTL of cellulosic bio-ethanol fermentation residues. - Highlights: • Bio-oil production via HTL combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process was proposed. • Optimum condition for HTL of materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol was 370 °C and 30 min. • Bio-oil contained higher content of hydrocarbons and lower contents of organic acids.

  3. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. - Research highlights: →Bioethanol in Thailand derived from molasses, cassava, sugarcane juice could yield reductions of 64%, 49% and 87% in GHGs when compared to conventional gasoline. →High yields improvement are required for a reliable and sufficient supply of molasses, cassava and sugarcane to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. →Other factors to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bioethanol production in Thailand include increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock and promoting production of bioethanol derived from agricultural residues.

  4. Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second-generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Van de Velde, Miet; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Kerstens, Dorien; Sels, Bert F; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2017-11-01

    The residual biomass obtained from the production of Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) is a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. Even though coconut hydrolysates for ethanol production have previously been obtained, high-solid loads to obtain high sugar and ethanol levels remain a challenge. We investigated the use of a fed-batch regime in the production of sugar-rich hydrolysates from the green coconut fruit and its mesocarp. Fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained from green coconut or its mesocarp, containing 8.4 and 9.7% (w/v) sugar, resulted in 3.8 and 4.3% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. However, green coconut hydrolysate showed a prolonged fermentation lag phase. The inhibitor profile suggested that fatty acids and acetic acid were the main fermentation inhibitors. Therefore, a fed-batch regime with mild alkaline pretreatment followed by saccharification, is presented as a strategy for fermentation of such challenging biomass hydrolysates, even though further improvement of yeast inhibitor tolerance is also needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MICROALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO BIOFUELS PRODUCTION. PART 1: BIOETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand from the energy sector is one of the culminating factors to do researches that enable innovations in the biotechnology sector and to boost biofuel production. The variability of the existing feedstocks provides benefits to energy production, however, we must choose the ones that present plausible characteristics depending on the type of product that we want to obtained. In this context, it is noted that the microalgae have suitable characteristics to producing different types of fuels, depending on the type of treatment are subjected, the species being analyzed as well as the biochemical composition of the biomass. Bioethanol production from microalgae is a promising and growing energy alternative under a view that biomass of these microorganisms has an enormous biodiversity and contain high levels of carbohydrates, an indispensable factor for the bioconversion of microalgae in ethanol. Due to these factors, there is a constant search for more viable methods for pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis and fermentation, having as one of the major aspects the approach of effectives methodologies in the ambit of quality and yield of ethanol. Therefore, we have to search to increase the interest in the developing of biofuels reconciling with the importance of using microalgae, analyzing whether these micro-organisms are capable of being used in bioethanol production.

  6. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO 2 emissions

  7. Modeling of a bioethanol combustion engine under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedfi, Hachem; Jedli, Hedi; Jbara, Abdessalem; Slimi, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioethanol/gasoline blends’ fuel effects on engine’s efficiency, CO and NOx emissions. • Fuel consumption and EGR optimizations with respect to estimated engine’s work. • Ignition timing and blends’ effects on engine’s efficiency. • Rich mixture, gasoline/bioethanol blends and EGR effects on engine’s efficiency. - Abstract: A physical model based on a thermodynamic analysis was designed to characterize the combustion reaction parameters. The time-variations of pressure and temperature required for the calculation of specific heat ratio are obtained from the solution of energy conservation equation. The chemical combustion of biofuel is modeled by an overall reaction in two-steps. The rich mixture and EGR were varied to obtain the optimum operating conditions for the engine. The NOx formation is modeled by using an eight-species six-step mechanism. The effect of various formation steps of NOx in combustion is considered via a phenomenological model of combustion speed. This simplified model, which has been validated by the most available published results, is used to characterize and control, in real time, the impact of biofuel on engine performances and NOx emissions as well. It has been demonstrated that a delay of the ignition timing leads to an increase of the gas mixture temperature and cylinder pressure. Furthermore, it has been found that the CO is lower near the stoichiometry. Nevertheless, we notice that lower rich mixture values result in small NOx emission rates

  8. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The potential for bioethanol production from wheat in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, S.; Booth, E.J.; Walker, K.C.; Cook, P.

    1994-06-01

    Ethanol, currently widely used in cosmetic chemical and pharmaceutical applications, can be manufactured either from petroleum deriviatives (synthetic ethanol), or by the biological fermentation of carbohydrate. This report looks at the United Kingdom potential for production of the latter, so called, bioethanol from wheat. Ethanol from wheat is already produced for the grain spirit industry, and two such bioethanol plants operating in Sweden and France are described. Although there is, at present, no overall cost advantage in using bioethanol from wheat over synthetic ethanol, environmental benefits may sway the balance in its failure. (UK)

  10. Atomization and spray characteristics of bioethanol and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel injected through a direct injection gasoline injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Kim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Chang Sik

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the spray characteristics and atomization performance of gasoline fuel (G100), bioethanol fuel (E100), and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel (E85) in a direct injection gasoline injector in a gasoline engine. The overall spray and atomization characteristics such as an axial spray tip penetration, spray width, and overall SMD were measured experimentally and predicted by using KIVA-3V code. The development process and the appearance timing of the vortices in the test fuels were very similar. In addition, the numerical results accurately described the experimentally observed spray development pattern and shape, the beginning position of the vortex, and the spray breakup on the spray surface. Moreover, the increased injection pressure induced the occurrence of a clear circular shape in the downstream spray and a uniform mixture between the injected spray droplets and ambient air. The axial spray tip penetrations of the test fuels were similar, while the spray width and spray cone angle of E100 were slightly larger than the other fuels. In terms of atomization performance, the E100 fuel among the tested fuels had the largest droplet size because E100 has a high kinematic viscosity and surface tension.

  11. Energia alternativa de biomassa: bioetanol a partir da casca e da polpa de banana Alternative energy from biomass: bioethanol from banana pulp and peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozair Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A conversão de biomassas agroindustriais em bioetanol com consequente valorização de rejeitos e resíduos, tem sido objeto de estudos de várias pesquisas realizadas no Brasil e no mundo. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a potencialidade do uso da polpa e da casca da banana (Musa cavendishii , tanto in natura como previamente hidrolisada por ácido e enzimas, como substrato da fermentação alcoólica. Os rendimentos médios em bioetanol (em base úmida de biomassa obtidos com a polpa (0,48 ± 0,05 g g-1 e com a casca (0,34 ± 0,11 g g-1, ambos in natura, possibilitaram a eficiência do processo de conversão, da ordem de 95% do rendimento teórico. A produtividade máxima alcançada em bioetanol foi de 3,0 ± 0,7 g L-1 h-1 com o uso da polpa e de 1,32 ± 0,03 g L-1 h-1 com a casca. Nas condições operacionais avaliadas o pretratamento dos resíduos com ácido sulfúrico não é recomendado para a produção de bioetanol.The conversion of agroindustrial biomasses in bioethanol with consequent enrichment of wastes has been the object of various research projects conducted in Brazil and around the world. This study evaluated the potential of the Musa cavendishii banana pulp and peels using in natural state and also waste previously hydrolyzed by acid and enzimes, as substrate of alcoholic fermentation. The mean bioethanol yields (on wet biomass base, obtained with the pulp (0.48 ± 0.05 g g-1 and with the peels (0.34 ± 0.11 g g-1, both in natural state, enabled a conversion process efficiency to the order of 95% of theoretical yield. Maximum value reached in bioethanol was 3.0 ± 0.7 g L-1 h-1 with pulp and 1.32 ± 0.03 g L-1 h-1 with peels. Under the evaluated operating conditions, the pre-treatment of wastes with sulfuric acid is not recommended for bioethanol production.

  12. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...... separation is presented. The steady state performance and the dynamic beavior are analyzed compared with the classical configuration reported in the literature. RESULTS: Ethanol-water azeotropic separation represents a challenge for bioethanol purification. Usually a three column sequence is used to obtain...... fuel grade bioethanol by extractive distillation. In order to reduce bioethanol purification cost a two column separation sequence is proposed. This configuration shows a 10% saving in capital costs together with higher ethanol recovery and better control properties compared with the classical three...

  13. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin; Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  14. SIMULATION OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS TO OBTAIN BIOETHANOL FROM RICE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Capdevila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper presents a simulation model of the fermentation/separation process of bioethanol from hydrolyzed pretreated rice husk, using Aspen HYSYS simulator. Sensitivity studies performed on the developed model indicated levels for selected variables: biomass/water ratio of 1:2,89 ; biomass flow of 50 t/h and inlet temperature separator of 30°C, leading to maximize the yield of bioethanol. From these variables, a bioethanol production of 8,81 t/h with a purity of 65,51% w/w is obtained, corresponding to a flow of hydrolyzed treated biomass of 50 t/h. This work represents an advance in the development of the simulation model of the complete process to obtain second generation of bioethanol from rice husks.

  15. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw...

  16. Starch conversion of ganyong (Canna edulis Ker. to bioethanol using acid hydrolysis and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILY SURAYYA EKA PUTRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starch of ganyong is one of the sources of ethanol which is able to be produced by acid hydrolysis and fermentation process. It had high concentration of carbohydrate that is 80%, so it could produce glucose highly within acid hydrolysis process. The result showed that the optimal amount of reducing sugar had been produced by nitrate acid 7% (dextrose equivalent, DE = 28.4. Nevertheless, type and concentration of acid had no significantly correlation to reducing sugar yielded. The total amount of glucose had correlation to amount of ethanol, in fermentation process. The optimal amount of ethanol was yielded from 4.81% of glucose and it produced about 4.84% ethanol. The more amount of glucose was yielded the more ethanol was produced. Controlling pH every 12 hours did not affected to production of ethanol significantly.

  17. Advances in cellulosic conversion to fuels: engineering yeasts for cellulosic bioethanol and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2018-04-01

    Cellulosic fuels are expected to have great potential industrial applications in the near future, but they still face technical challenges to become cost-competitive fuels, thus presenting many opportunities for improvement. The economical production of viable biofuels requires metabolic engineering of microbial platforms to convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels with high titers and yields. Fortunately, integrating traditional and novel engineering strategies with advanced engineering toolboxes has allowed the development of more robust microbial platforms, thus expanding substrate ranges. This review highlights recent trends in the metabolic engineering of microbial platforms, such as the industrial yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica, for the production of renewable fuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioethanol production from recovered napier grass with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Yu, Fan-Chun; Chang, Fang-Chih; Yang, Bing-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Hua; Hwang, Wen-Song; Tu, Ta-Chih

    2017-12-01

    Using plants to absorb and accumulate heavy metals from polluted soil, followed by the recycling of explants containing heavy metals, can help achieve the goal of reverting contaminated soil to low heavy-metal content soil. However, the re-use of recovered explants can also be problematic. Meanwhile, bioethanol has become a popular energy source. In this study, napier grass was used for the remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals (artificially contaminated soil). The influence of bioethanol production from napier grass after phytoremediation was also investigated. The concentration of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the contaminated soil was 1000, 100, and 250 mg/kg, respectively. After napier grass phytoremediation, the concentration (dry biomass) of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the explants was 2701.97 ± 173.49, 6.1 ± 2.3, and 74.24 ± 1.42 mg/kg, respectively. Biomass production in the unpolluted soil was 861.13 ± 4.23 g. The biomass production ratio in high Zn-polluted soil was only 3.89%, while it was 4.68% for Cd and 21.4% for Cr. The biomass obtained after napier grass phytoremediation was pretreated using the steam explosion conditions of 180 °C, for 10 min, with 1.5% H 2 SO 2 , followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for Zn-polluted biomass was 90% of the unpolluted biomass, while it was 77% for Cd, and approximately the same for Cr. The fermentation efficiency of the heavy-metal-containing biomass was higher than the control biomass. The fermentation ethanol concentration obtained was 8.69-12.68, 13.03-15.50, and 18.48-19.31 g/L in Zn, Cd, and Cr environments, respectively. Results show that the heavy metals had a positive effect on bacteria fermentation. However, the fermentation efficiency was lower for biomass with severe heavy metal pollution. Thus, the utilization of napier grass phytoremediation for bioethanol production has a positive effect on the sustainability of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017

  19. Energy and environmental assessments of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hanif; T.M.I. Mahlia; H.B. Aditiya; M.S. Abu Bakar

    2017-01-01

    According to the Malaysia’s biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy efficiency and renewability, as well to estimate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in CO2 equivalent. Bioethanol production process from cassava includes cassava farming, ethanol production, and transportat...

  20. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  1. Stochastic optimization of a multi-feedstock lignocellulosic-based bioethanol supply chain under multiple uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Atif; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    An integrated multi-feedstock (i.e. switchgrass and crop residue) lignocellulosic-based bioethanol supply chain is studied under jointly occurring uncertainties in switchgrass yield, crop residue purchase price, bioethanol demand and sales price. A two-stage stochastic mathematical model is proposed to maximize expected profit by optimizing the strategic and tactical decisions. A case study based on ND (North Dakota) state in the U.S. demonstrates that in a stochastic environment it is cost effective to meet 100% of ND's annual gasoline demand from bioethanol by using switchgrass as a primary and crop residue as a secondary biomass feedstock. Although results show that the financial performance is degraded as variability of the uncertain parameters increases, the proposed stochastic model increasingly outperforms the deterministic model under uncertainties. The locations of biorefineries (i.e. first-stage integer variables) are insensitive to the uncertainties. Sensitivity analysis shows that “mean” value of stochastic parameters has a significant impact on the expected profit and optimal values of first-stage continuous variables. Increase in level of mean ethanol demand and mean sale price results in higher bioethanol production. When mean switchgrass yield is at low level and mean crop residue price is at high level, all the available marginal land is used for switchgrass cultivation. - Highlights: • Two-stage stochastic MILP model for maximizing profit of a multi-feedstock lignocellulosic-based bioethanol supply chain. • Multiple uncertainties in switchgrass yield, crop residue purchase price, bioethanol demand, and bioethanol sale price. • Proposed stochastic model outperforms the traditional deterministic model under uncertainties. • Stochastic parameters significantly affect marginal land allocation for switchgrass cultivation and bioethanol production. • Location of biorefineries is found to be insensitive to the stochastic environment

  2. Assessment of bio-ethanol as a transport fuel in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrow, J.E.; Coombs, J.; Lees, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    The technical and economic issues associated with the production of bio-ethanol as a road transport fuel (fuel ethanol) in the UK are assessed. This volume addresses the current situation (May 1987) and covers the production of bio-ethanol from available raw materials using technology that is well established on an industrial scale, as well as the use of ethanol-petrol blends in existing petrol engines.

  3. Significance of Lignin S/G Ratio in Biomass Recalcitrance of Populus trichocarpa Variants for Bioethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Chang Geun [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; UT−ORNL; Dumitrache, Alexandru [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Muchero, Wellington [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Natzke, Jace [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Akinosho, Hannah [School; Li, Mi [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; UT−ORNL; Sykes, Robert W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Brown, Steven D. [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Davison, Brian [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Tuskan, Gerald A. [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Pu, Yunqiao [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; UT−ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; UT−ORNL; Department; amp, Center for Renewable

    2017-12-27

    Lignin S/G ratio has been investigated as an important factor in biomass recalcitrance to bioethanol production. Because of the complexity and variety of biomass, recalcitrance was also reportedly influenced by several other factors, such as total lignin content, degree of cellulose polymerization, etc. In addition, the effect of S/G ratio on biomass conversion is not uniform across plant species. Herein, 11 Populus trichocarpa natural variants grown under the same conditions with similar total lignin content were selected to minimize the effects of other factors. The lignin S/G ratio of the selected P. trichocarpa natural variants showed negative correlations with p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) and ..beta..-5 linkage contents, while it had positive ones with ..beta..-O-4 linkage, lignin molecular weight, and ethanol production. This study showed the importance of lignin S/G ratio as an independent recalcitrance factor that may aid future energy crop engineering and biomass conversion strategies.

  4. The addition of zeolite adsorbents and calcium oxide on purification of bioethanol from sugar palm (arenga pinnata merr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina, Netti; Siska Dewi Harahap, Ici

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol (C2H5OH) is a biochemical liquid produced by microorganisms through fermentation process on sugar molecules from carbohydrates. Bioethanol is a fuel of vegetable oil that has similar properties to premium. With its main product of palm juice, Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a potential source of sugar and carbohydrate for bioethanol production. Production of palm juice can reach up to 12-14 liters/tree/day with total sugar content in palm juice ranges from 12-15%. The purpose of this research was to produce highly-concentrated bioethanol from palm juice through fermentation proccess to subtitude fossil fuel. This study was conducted with three stages of treatment, namely: the fermentation of palm juice, distillation of bioethanol, and purification of bioethanol with the addition of adsorbent zeolite and calcium oxide.

  5. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka

    2010-09-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  6. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Challenges in bioethanol production: Utilization of cotton fabrics as a feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol, as a clean and renewable fuel with its major environmental benefits, represents a promising biofuel today which is mostly used in combination with gasoline. It can be produced from different kinds of renewable feedstocks. Whereas the first generation of processes (saccharide-based have been well documented and are largely applied, the second and third generation of bioethanol processes (cellulose- or algae-based need further research and development since bioethanol yields are still too low to be economically viable. In this study, the possibilities of bioethanol production from cotton fabrics as valuable cellulosic raw material were investigated and presented. Potential lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production and their characteristics, especially cotton-based materials, were analyzed. Available lignocellulosic biomass, the production of textile and clothing and potential for sustainable bioethanol production in Serbia is presented. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of different pretreatment methods, optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and different ethanol fermentation process modes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31017

  8. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  9. Severe burn injuries caused by bioethanol-design fireplaces-an overview on recreational fire threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert; Knobloch, Karsten; Lorenzen, Johan; Breuing, Karl H; Koennecker, Soeren; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Vogt, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become increasingly popular additions for interior home decoration in Europe and more recently in the United States. These fireplaces are advertised as smokeless, ecologically friendly, and do not require professional installation, formal gas lines, or venting. Although manufacturers and businesses promote their safety, recent presentations of injuries have alerted the authors to the relevant danger bioethanol fireplaces can pose for the incautious user. Are bioethanol fireplaces going to become the future threat in domestic burn accidents beside common barbeque burns? A Medline literature search on barbeque and domestic fireplace accidents was performed to compare and stratify the injury patterns reported and to identify a risk profile for contemporary bioethanol-fueled fireplaces. To exemplify, two representative clinical cases of severe burn accidents caused by bioethanol-fueled fireplaces, both treated in the burn unit of the authors, are being presented. Design fireplaces are being recognized as an increasing source of fuel and fire-related danger in the home. This risk may be underestimated by the uninformed customer, resulting in severe burn injuries. Because bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become more commonplace, they may overtake barbecue-related injury as the most common domestic burn injury.

  10. Use of extremophilic bacteria for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    production from food crops, such as corn (starch) or sugar cane (sucrose) is already an established process, with the USA and Brazil supplying 86% of the market. The major challenge remains in the use of different waste sources – agricultural, forestry, animal and household waste - as a feedstock....... The recalcitrance of these materials and their diverse sugar composition make the industrial yeast strains currently used unsuitable for a second generation bioethanol production process. One of the alternative strategies is the use of extreme thermophilic microorganisms. Currently, selected members from the genera...... Clostridium, Thermoanaerobacter, Geobacillus and Thermoanaerobacterium are among the best candidates. A new strain of Thermoanaerobacter, closely related to T. italicus and T. mathranii, has achieved 0.43 gethanol/gxylose, which is 83% of the theoretical yield of ethanol based on xylose and the highest value...

  11. SACCHARIFICATION OF CORNCOB USING CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITI CANDRA SUNARTI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose degrading enzyme (cellulases for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material is a part of bioethanol production process. In this experiment, delignified corncob, its cellulose fraction and alpha cellulose were used as substrates to produce fermentable sugar by using three local isolates of celluloytic bacteria (C5-1, C4-4, C11-1 and Cmix ; mixed cultures of three isolates, and Saccharomyces cereviseae to produce ethanol. The results showed that all isolates of cellulolytic bacteria can grow on cellulose fraction better than on delignified corncob, and alpha cellulose. The highest hydrolytic activity produced from cellulose fraction was by isolate C4-4, which liberated 3.50 g/l of total sugar. Ethanol can be produced by mixed culture of bacteria and yeast, but because of competitive growth, the fermentation only produced 0.39-0.47 g/l of ethanol.

  12. Perspectives for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, Petia; Ivanova, Viara

    2010-01-01

    The most common renewable fuel today and suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels is ethanol that can be blended with petrol or used as neat alcohol in engines. Ethanol is currently produced from sugar (Brazil) or grain (starch, USA). However, this raw material base will not be sufficient because the increasing demand for fuel ethanol and the lower than expected reduction of greenhouse gases. An alternative is the production of bioethanol from agroindustrial wastes containing abundant cellulose fibers and carbohydrates such as grape pomace, sugar beet pomace, barley and rice straw, corncobs, sunflower stalks and heads, cotton waste, brewer's spent grain, forest residues etc. Lignocellulosic raw materials and agroindustrial wastes minimize the potential conflict between land use for food (and feed) production and energy feedstock production. This review summarizes recent developments in the bioconversion processes, the new technologies required and the advances achieved in recent years to bring agricultural feedstock and lignocellulosic ethanol towards industrial production.

  13. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  14. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chao-Chen; Yang, Siang-Cing

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish. PMID:26907306

  15. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chao-Chen; Yang, Siang-Cing

    2016-02-19

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  16. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Chung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS. Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1 fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2 comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  17. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  18. Co-production of bio-ethanol, electricity and heat from biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, J.H.; Den Uil, H.; Van Veen, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); De Laat, W.T.A.M.; Niessen, J.J. [Royal Nedalco, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); De Jong, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weusthuis, R. [Agrotechnological Research Institute ATO, BU Renewable Resources, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Dijken, J.P.; Raamsdonk, L. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The use of lignocellulose biomass residues as a feedstock offers good perspectives for large scale production of fuel ethanol at competitive costs. An evaluation was performed to assess the international status of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol technology and the economical and ecological system performance, to identify RandD approaches for further development. Deriving fermentable sugars from the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulose materials via suitable pretreatment and enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis is a critical RandD issue. Further development of pretreatment via mild, low temperature alkaline extraction or weak acid hydrolysis using CO2, dissolved in pressurized hot water ('carbonic acid process') shows good perspectives. Enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis with the currently available industrial cellulases accounts for 36-45% of ethanol production costs. At least a 10-fold increase of cellulase cost-effectiveness is required. Despite substantial RandD efforts, no suitable fermentation system is currently available for the fermentation of pentoses (mainly xylose) from the hemicellulose fraction. Several strains of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria are able to convert all (hemi)cellulose components into ethanol. Follow-up RandD will focus on isolation of suitable strain(s) from this group. The system evaluation shows a 40-55% energetic efficiency (LHV basis) for conversion of lignocellulose feedstocks to ethanol. Thermal conversion of non-fermentable residues (mainly lignin) in a Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) system can provide the total steam and electricity requirement for the production process and an electricity surplus for export to the grid, giving a total system efficiency of 56-68%. Water consumption in the process (28-54 liter water/liter ethanol) is much higher than in current ethanol production (lo-15 l/l ethanol). The large amount of process water (used in the pretreatment and cellulose hydrolysis

  19. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  20. Recovery of Glucose from Residual Starch of Sago Hampas for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awg-Adeni, D. S.; Bujang, K. B.; Hassan, M. A.; Abd-Aziz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, “sago hampas,” through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v) was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L) and better conversion yield (52.72%) were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker's yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media. PMID:23509813

  1. Recovery of Glucose from Residual Starch of Sago Hampas for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Awg-Adeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, “sago hampas,” through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L and better conversion yield (52.72% were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker’s yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media.

  2. Tungsten effect over co-hydrotalcite catalysts to produce hydrogen from bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J.L.; Ortiz, M.A.; Luna, R.; Nuno, L. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapozalco, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Energia; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de IPH; Salmones, J.; Zeifert, B. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Vazquez, A. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The use of bioethanol has been considered for generating hydrogen via catalytic reforming. The reaction of ethanol with stream is strongly endothermic and produces hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). However, undesirable products such as carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}) may also form during the reaction. This paper reported on the newly found stabilization effect of tungsten over the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts to produce H{sub 2} from ethanol in steam reforming. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen (N{sub 2}) physisorption (BET area), X-ray diffraction, Infrared, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. Catalytic evaluations were determined using a fixed bed reactor with a water/ethanol mol ratio of 4 at 450 degrees C. The tungsten concentration studied was from 0.5 to 3 wt percent. The intensity of crystalline reflections of the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts decreased as tungsten concentration increased. Infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the superficial chemical groups, notably -OH, H{sub 2}O, Al-OH, Mg-OH, W-O-W and CO{sub 3}{sup 2.} The highest H{sub 2} production and the best catalytic stability was found in catalysts with low tungsten. The smallest pore volume of this catalyst could be related with long residence times of ethanol in the pores. Tungsten promoted the conversion for the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts. The reaction products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and the catalysts did not produce CO. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Techno-economic and environmental assessment of bioethanol production from high starch and root yield Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation played a significant role in energy consumption and pollution subsequently. Caused by the intense growth of greenhouse gas emission, efficient and sustainable improvement of the transportation sector has elevated the concern in many nations including Malaysia. Bioethanol is an alternative and renewable energy that has a great potential to substitute for fossil gasoline in internal combustion engine (ICE. Although bioethanol has been widely utilized in road transport worldwide, the production and application of bioethanol in Malaysia is yet to be considered. Presently there is comprehensive diversity of bioethanol research on distillation, performance and emission analysis available worldwide. Yet, the study on techno-economic and feasibility of bioethanol fuel in Malaysia condition is unavailable. Thus, this study is concentrated on bioethanol production and techno-economic analysis of cassava bioethanol as an alternative fuel in Malaysia. Furthermore, the current study attempts to determine the effect of bioethanol employment towards the energy scenario, environmental and economy. From the economic analysis, determined that the life cycle cost for 54 ktons cassava bioethanol production plant with a project life time of 20 years is $132 million USD, which is equivalent to $0.11 USD per litre of bioethanol. Furthermore, substituting 5 % of gasoline fuel with bioethanol fuel in road transport can reduce the CO2 emissions up to 2,038 ktons in year 2036. In case to repay the carbon debt from converting natural forest to cassava cropland, cassava bioethanol required about 5.4 years. The cassava bioethanol is much cheaper than gasoline fuel even when 20 % taxation is subjected to bioethanol at current production cost. Thus, this study serves as a guideline for further investigation and research on bioethanol production, subsidy cost and other limitation factors before the extensive application of bioethanol can be implemented in

  4. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  5. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emission and energy use of bioethanol produced from corn stover in China: Current perspectives and future prospectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin; Chang, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a life cycle analysis (LCA) of bioethanol production from corn stover is carried out under Chinese context. Three scenarios were developed and assessed based on current and future technology levels of the ethanol conversion process. Well-to-pump (WTP) and well-to-wheels (WTW) results are presented in this paper via functional units of 1 MJ of ethanol produced, 1 MJ of E100 produced and used, and 1 km of distance driven by a light-duty vehicle on E10 fuel, respectively. It was calculated that for 1 MJ of E100, the WTW Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction relative to gasoline reaches 52%–55%, and the savings of fossil fuel and petroleum fuel reach 72%–76% and 74%–85%, respectively. For 1 MJ of ethanol produced, GHG emissions occurred in ethanol conversion process account for 51%–55%, and the contribution of chemical inputs reaches 36%–37% of the total life cycle GHG emissions. Furthermore, the life cycle results were found to be highly sensitive to allocation methods. - Highlights: • The study is focused on 2 G bioethanol derived from corn stover in Chinese context. • LCA is based on both current and future technology levels for ethanol conversion. • The life cycle GHG emission reduction of E100 relative to gasoline reaches 52%–55%. • Contributions of chemicals account for 36%–37% of life cycle GHG emissions. • E100 saves 74%–85% of petroleum fuel during its life cycle production and use.

  6. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO_2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  7. Use of bioethanol as an additive or substitute for petrol and diesel oil increases in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkkinen, K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil has used bioethanol for decades, to replace gasoline and gasoline additives based on mineral resources. The United States initiated a bioethanol programme 15 years ago, to reduce vehicle emissions and encourage the use of renewable raw materials in fuels. Today, the bioethanol production capacity is 12 million tons/a in Brazil and 5 million tons/a in the United States. In Europe, Sweden and France have been the first to follow this trend. The first European fuel ethanol plant was constructed in France in 1995, and another plant has been designed and is awaiting an investment decision. Spain is going ahead with a project, and a fuel ethanol plant may start up in Sweden in 1998. JPI Process Contracting was chosen as the contractor for the French and Spanish projects. Since bioethanol is more expensive than fossil fuels and fuel additives for vehicles, governments typically support bioethanol production through tax exemptions for a period of 5 to 10 years. In the meantime, new processes based on cellulosic raw materials are actively studied in several countries, but development to full commercial scale could take as much as 10 years. (author)

  8. Bioethanol a Microbial Biofuel Metabolite; New Insights of Yeasts Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Selim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of the non-renewable energy sources, global warming, environmental pollution, and raising the cost of petroleum are the motive for the development of renewable, eco-friendly fuels production with low costs. Bioethanol production is one of the promising materials that can subrogate the petroleum oil, and it is considered recently as a clean liquid fuel or a neutral carbon. Diverse microorganisms such as yeasts and bacteria are able to produce bioethanol on a large scale, which can satisfy our daily needs with cheap and applicable methods. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis are two of the pioneer yeasts in ethanol production due to their abilities to produce a high amount of ethanol. The recent focus is directed towards lignocellulosic biomass that contains 30–50% cellulose and 20–40% hemicellulose, and can be transformed into glucose and fundamentally xylose after enzymatic hydrolysis. For this purpose, a number of various approaches have been used to engineer different pathways for improving the bioethanol production with simultaneous fermentation of pentose and hexoses sugars in the yeasts. These approaches include metabolic and flux analysis, modeling and expression analysis, followed by targeted deletions or the overexpression of key genes. In this review, we highlight and discuss the current status of yeasts genetic engineering for enhancing bioethanol production, and the conditions that influence bioethanol production.

  9. Lignin-enriched Fermentation Residues from Bioethanol Production of Fast-growing Poplar and Forage Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current challenges in developing a cost-effective bioethanol industry include the production of not only high-volume, low cost biofuels but also high-value products with minimal downstream waste. The up-grading of side-stream lignins from bioethanol production plants to novel high-value products will improve the profitability of the bioethanol industry; to do that, a precise understanding of lignin is required. In the present study, lignin-enriched fermentation residues from bioethanol production (steam explosion pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of fast-growing poplar and forage sorghum were characterized. In addition to the purity and composition, lignin structure (syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio, inter-unit linkages was also analyzed with spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Bioethanol processing and feedstock origins seemed to be the main factors determining the purity, composition, and structure of lignins. Residual lignins from poplar and forage sorghum contained significant amounts of sugar and protein impurities. Poplar lignin showed a very high S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxybenzoate. A lower S/G ratio together with H lignin units and p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate was observed for forage sorghum lignin. The main inter-unit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4´ aryl ether followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans.

  10. Solid-state fermentation from dried sweet sorghum stalk for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Omidi, A. [Univ. of Isfahan, Biology Dept., Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Due to depletion of global crude oil, countries are interested to alternate fuel energy resources. Presently bioethanol as a source of energy has been a subject of great interest for the industrialized countries. Therefore, there is need for efficient bioethanol production with low cost raw material and production process. Among energy crops, sweet sorghum is the best candidate for bioethanol production. It has been identified as having higher drought tolerance, lower input cost and higher biomass yield than other energy crops. In addition it has wide adoptability and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Moreover due to the shortage of water in dry and hot countries there is a need to reduce water requirement for bioethanol production and solid state fermentation could be the best process for making bioethanol in these countries. The purpose of this study is to achieve the highest ethanol production with lowest amount of water in solid state fermentation using sweet sorghum stalk. In this study the sweet sorghum particles were used for solid state fermentation. Fermentation medium were: sweet sorghum particles with nutrient media, active yeast powder and different moisture contents. The fermentation medium was incubated for 2-3 days at 30 deg C temperature. The results showed sweet sorghum particles (15% w/w) fermented in medium containing 0.5% yeast inoculums, 73.5% moisture content and 3 days incubation period produced the highest amount of ethanol (13% w/w sorghum)

  11. Energy and Environmental Performance of Bioethanol from Different Lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the wish to reduce the dependence on oil are the incentives for the development of alternative energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic biomass together with cellulosic processing technology provides opportunities to produce fuel ethanol with less competition with food and nature. Many studies on energy analysis and life cycle assessment of second-generation bioethanol have been conducted. However, due to the different methodology used and different system boundary definition, it is difficult to compare their results. To permit a direct comparison of fuel ethanol from different lignocelluloses in terms of energy use and environmental impact, seven studies conducted in our group were summarized in this paper, where the same technologies were used to convert biomass to ethanol, the same system boundaries were defined, and the same allocation procedures were followed. A complete set of environmental impacts ranging from global warming potential to toxicity aspects is used. The results provide an overview on the energy efficiency and environmental performance of using fuel ethanol derived from different feedstocks in comparison with gasoline.

  12. Integrated bioconversion of syngas into bioethanol and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa-Costa, Borja; Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Fernández-Romasanta, María; Kennes, Christian; Veiga, María C

    2017-09-01

    Syngas bioconversion is a promising method for bioethanol production, but some VFA remains at the end of fermentation. A two-stage process was set-up, including syngas fermentation as first stage under strict anaerobic conditions using C. autoethanogenum as inoculum, with syngas (CO/CO 2 /H 2 /N 2 , 30/10/20/40) as gaseous substrate. The second stage consisted in various fed-batch assays using a highly enriched PHA accumulating biomass as inoculum, where the potential for biopolymer production from the remaining acetic acid at the end of the syngas fermentation was evaluated. All of the acetic acid was consumed and accumulated as biopolymer, while ethanol and 2,3-butanediol remained basically unused. It can be concluded that a high C/N ratio in the effluent from the syngas fermentation stage was responsible for non-consumption of alcohols. A maximum PHA content of 24% was reached at the end of the assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioethanol from lignocelluloses: Status and perspectives in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Karp, Susan Grace; Buckeridge, Marcos; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana; Gottschalk, Leda Maria Fortes; Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Araújo, Juliana de Amorim; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2010-07-01

    The National Alcohol Program--PróAlcool, created by the government of Brazil in 1975 resulted less dependency on fossil fuels. The addition of 25% ethanol to gasoline reduced the import of 550 million barrels oil and also reduced the emission CO(2) by 110 million tons. Today, 44% of the Brazilian energy matrix is renewable and 13.5% is derived from sugarcane. Brazil has a land area of 851 million hectares, of which 54% are preserved, including the Amazon forest (350 million hectares). From the land available for agriculture (340 million hectares), only 0.9% is occupied by sugarcane as energy crop, showing a great expansion potential. Studies have shown that in the coming years, ethanol yield per hectare of sugarcane, which presently is 6000 L/ha, could reach 10,000 L/ha, if 50% of the produced bagasse would be converted to ethanol. This article describes the efforts of different Brazilian institutions and research groups on second generation bioethanol production, especially from sugarcane bagasse. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  15. Improvement of competitivity of bio-ethanol in fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksanen, J.

    1998-01-01

    According to an estimate of Work Efficiency Association, grain production costs can be reduced by 0.3 - 0.17 FIM/kg by replacing hot air drying of grain by a wet preservation method. As the grain is used as raw material of bioethanol, a cost saving of 0.08 - 0.16 FIM/kg is achievable in the costs at factory, although the dry matter and carbohydrate losses and the effect of the preservation method are considered. Compared to cold air drying, a saving of 0.05 FIM/kg can be achieved in the most favourable alternative. However, the wet-preserved grain has technical and economical effects on the production process of ethanol, and especially the fermentation process should be as good as that of dry grain. Air-tightly stored barley seems to suit well for fermentation, as well as crushed and preserved barley (AIVII solution). On the other hand, the weak capacity of fermentation may prevent the use of grain preserved with propion acid. The total costs of the integrating wet preservation and ethanol process were not determined in 1993. (orig.)

  16. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, Sandra; Núñez-López, Lizeth; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca E.; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize) or proposed species (large grass families). The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass. PMID:28951875

  17. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  18. Bioethanol Production from Empty Fruit Bunch using Direct Fermentation by an Actinomycete Streptosporangium roseum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Him, N. R.; Huda, T.

    2018-05-01

    Study on the production of bioethanol using palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been performed using actinomycete Streptosporangium roseum. Positive result of bioethanol production was recorded using Iodoform test followed by confirmation with GC-FID using a polar capillary column (PEG-type, 10m x 0.53, with autosampler) and n-propanol as internal standard. The first and second round distillation has produced azeotrope (85-15% ethanol-water) and the third round has concentrated the ethanol to 96.1%. Therefore, the process was accomplished by using molecular sieves that selectively absorbed the final excess water. Direct fermentation using Streptosporangium roseum has shown to be a very potential way to catalyst for the synthesis of bioethanol from EFB.

  19. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic material (LCM can be employed as feedstock for biorefineries, a concept related to industries designed to process biomass for producing chemicals, fuels and/or electrical power. According to this philosophy, LCM can be fractionated and the resulting fractions employed for specific applications. Bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction of LCM involves: hydrolysis of polysaccharides and fermentation of the monomers into bioethanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis is catalyzed by cellulolytic enzymes and fermentation is carried out by bacteria, yeasts or fungi. The main objective of this article is to review different process integration technologies for bioethanol production from LCM. This paper include: separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF methods. Furthermore, the fermentation process and a comparative data of cellulases, hemicellulases and ethanol producing-microorganisms were presented.

  20. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials (LCM are produced in large quantities and without clear application and their use as raw material for bioethanol production shows economic and ecologic benefits. LCM are composed mainly of three polymers: cellulose made up of glucose units, hemicellulose made up of several sugars (as xylose or arabinose, and lignin made up of phenylpropane units, interconnected in a strong structure. Pretreatment is an important step for bioethanol production from LCM, causing the solubilisation of hemicellulosic fraction (leading to the recovery of hemicellulose-derived saccharides in order to obtain a solid phase enriched in cellulose and more susceptible to enzymatic attack. This study provides a comparative data regarding the chemical composition of various LCM used for bioethanol production, as well as different pretreatment technologies for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of LCM.

  1. Stabilization of cereal markets by flexible use of cereals for bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, G.

    2010-05-01

    This report addresses the question if it is possible to stabilize the grain market and the grain price by means of variation in the deployment of grain for producing bio-ethanol in the Eu-27. The time horizon of this study is 2020, taking into account the blending obligation for biofuels of minimal 10% in the Eu-27. A basic scenarios and several alternative scenarios are developed by means of an economic calculation model. In the alternative scenarios more or less grain is used for own production of bio-ethanol in the Eu-27. The variation depends on the volume of the grain production compared to the basic scenario. The effect of the additional own production of bio-ethanol on the grain price is subsequently addressed. [nl

  2. Thermophilic amylase from Thermus sp. isolation and its potential application for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Fatoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited reserves of fossil energy stimulate researchers to explore for a new alternative energy, such as bioethanol.A thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot-springs and its characteristic and potential applicationfor bioethanol production was determined. The obtained amylase was studied to determine its optimum temperature, pH,enzymatic reaction time, and substrate concentration. Tapioca waste was used as the substrate to find the potential of theamylase for degrading starch into glucose, and then the process was continued by fermentation to produce bioethanol. Theamylase producer bacterium was proposed as genus Thermus sp. The crude amylase that was obtained has the optimumtemperature of 60°C and optimum pH of 8.0, optimum substrate concentration at 10% (w/w and optimum enzymatic reactiontime of 45 minutes. These enzymes convert the starches of waste tapioca at optimum conditions, with the result of 2.9%ethanol produced from raw materials.

  3. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.H.W.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Boersma, A.R.; Bisschops, I.; Pels, J.R.; Jong, de E.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Reith, H.

    2008-01-01

    The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of

  4. Sugar beet for bioethanol production: An approach based on environmental agricultural outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Pérez-Hernández, Pedro P.; Martín-Lozano, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The EU imports both bioethanol and the raw material needed to produce it. Thirty percent of bioethanol is produced from sugar beets in the EU. However, sugar beet cultivated area and yields have fallen due to the 2006 sugar regime reform. Given the potential uncertainty about the future for sugar beet farmers, biofuels may represent an alternative market. This paper analyses potential contribution to the efficiency, in terms of environmental output, of the sugar beet crop both when production is oriented toward bioethanol and regarding the use of input. An empirical application is performed in Spain by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results show that 4% of farms have full technical efficiency, while the rest have an average efficiency of 55.9%. The figures show that inputs can be reduced over 40%, and also show the low average level of input-use efficiency. In addition, it cannot be said that there is a relationship between efficiency and farm scale. The consideration of aspects such as the environmental advantages of using sugar beet production for bioethanol can open new lines of action to support this crop in the EU. In addition, boosting sugar beet production may reduce potential dependency on importation. - Highlights: ► Analysing environmental outputs from agricultural input use and production orientation to bioethanol. ► DEA is applied to model farms’ efficiency in GHG emission and nitrous oxides emissions. ► A very low level of efficiency is found in sugar beet farms. ► Efficiency increase should be supported to reduce fertilizers and pesticides. ► Environmental advantages of addressing sugar beet to bioethanol open new lines to support crops

  5. Pictorial Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  6. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H-2/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)added, respectively....... Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus...

  7. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2015-01-01

    of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor......The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Katrine; Wenzel, Henrik

    of alternative uses. Since natural gas and coal will be used as fuels for heat and power production at least within this time frame, the lost alternatives include substitution of natural gas or coal in the heat and power sector. In a case study, we investigate the environmental feasibility of using advanced...... show that for the case of this advanced bioethanol technology, in terms of reducing greenhouse emissions and fossil fuel dependency, more is lost than gained when prioritizing biomass or land for bioethanol. Technology pathways involving heat and power production and/or biogas, natural gas...

  9. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], nitrous oxide [N 2 O], and methane [CH 4 ]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO x ], sulfur oxide [SO x ], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM 10 ]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most

  10. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  11. Isolation and characterization of novel 1,3-propanediol-producing Lactobacillus panis PM1 from bioethanol thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nurul H; Kang, Tae Sun; Grahame, Douglas A S; Haakensen, Monique C; Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Reaney, Martin J; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) is an attractive option to increase the economic efficiency of the biofuel industry. A bacterial strain that produced 1,3-PDO in the presence of glycerol was isolated from thin stillage, the fermentation residue of bioethanol production. This 1,3-PDO-producing organism was identified as Lactobacillus panis through biochemical characteristics and by 16S rRNA sequencing. Characterization of the L. panis strain hereafter designated as PM1 revealed it was an aerotolerant acidophilic anaerobe able to grow over a wide range of temperatures; tolerant to high concentrations of sodium chloride, ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid; and resistant to many common antibiotics. L. panis PM1 could utilize glucose, lactose, galactose, maltose, xylose, and arabinose, but could not grow on sucrose or fructose. Production of 1,3-PDO by L. panis PM1 occurred only when glucose was available as the carbon source in the absence of oxygen. These metabolic characteristics strongly suggested NADH recycling for glucose metabolism is achieved through 1,3-PDO production by this strain. These characteristics classified L. panis PM1 within the group III heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, which includes the well-characterized 1,3-PDO-producing strain, Lactobacillus reuteri. Metabolite production profiles showed that L. panis PM1 produced considerable amounts of succinic acid (~11-12 mM) from normal MRS medium, which distinguishes this strain from L. reuteri strains.

  12. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future.

  13. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  14. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  15. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  16. Aromatase inhibitors in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Jan M; Hero, Matti; Nunez, Susan B

    2011-10-25

    Aromatase, an enzyme located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the conversion of androgens to estrogens in many tissues. The clinical features of patients with defects in CYP19A1, the gene encoding aromatase, have revealed a major role for this enzyme in epiphyseal plate closure, which has promoted interest in the use of inhibitors of aromatase to improve adult height. The availability of the selective aromatase inhibitors letrozole and anastrozole--currently approved as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer--have stimulated off-label use of aromatase inhibitors in pediatrics for the following conditions: hyperestrogenism, such as aromatase excess syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome and functional follicular ovarian cysts; hyperandrogenism, for example, testotoxicosis (also known as familial male-limited precocious puberty) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia; pubertal gynecomastia; and short stature and/or pubertal delay in boys. Current data suggest that aromatase inhibitors are probably effective in the treatment of patients with aromatase excess syndrome or testotoxicosis, partially effective in Peutz-Jeghers and McCune-Albright syndrome, but probably ineffective in gynecomastia. Insufficient data are available in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia or functional ovarian cysts. Although aromatase inhibitors appear effective in increasing adult height of boys with short stature and/or pubertal delay, safety concerns, including vertebral deformities, a decrease in serum HDL cholesterol levels and increase of erythrocytosis, are reasons for caution.

  17. Design and Modelling of Sustainable Bioethanol Supply Chain by Minimizing the Total Ecological Footprint in Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    manners in bioethanol systems, this study developed a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain by minimizing the total ecological footprint under some prerequisite constraints including satisfying the goal of the stakeholders', the limitation of resources and energy, the capacity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain. Taking into consideration of the possibility of multiple-feedstock, multiple transportation modes, multiple alternative technologies, multiple transport patterns and multiple waste disposal...

  18. Production of 2nd generation Bioethanol from Lucerne - Optimization of Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has many qualities associated with sustainable agriculture such as nitrogen fixation and high biomass yield. Therefore, there is interest in whether lucerne is a suitable biomass substrate for bioethanol production, and if hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT) of lucerne impro...

  19. Energy and environmental assessments of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Malaysia’s biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy efficiency and renewability, as well to estimate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction in CO2 equivalent. Bioethanol production process from cassava includes cassava farming, ethanol production, and transportation in which the primary energy consumption was considered. The Net Energy Balance (NEB and Net Energy Ratio (NER of 25.68 MJ/L and 3.98, respectively, indicated that bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia was energy efficient. From the environmental perspective, the GHG balance results revealed that the production and distribution of 1 L of Cassava Fuel Ethanol (CFE could reduce GHG emissions by 73.2%. Although found promising in the present study, Sri Kanji 1 cassava as bioethanol feedstock should be further investigated by constructing an actual ethanol plant to obtain real life data.

  20. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  1. Second-generation bioethanol from industrial wood waste of South American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Vallejos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a global interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy. The present review evaluates the significance of South-American wood industrial wastes for bioethanol production. Four countries have been chosen for this review, i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, based on their current or potential forestry industry. It should be noted that although Brazil has a global bioethanol market share of 25%, its production is mainly first-generation bioethanol from sugarcane. The situation in the other countries is even worse, in spite of the fact that they have regulatory frameworks in place already allowing the substitution of a percentage of gasoline by ethanol. Pines and eucalyptus are the usually forested plants in these countries, and their industrial wastes, as chips and sawdust, could serve as promising raw materials to produce second-generation bioethanol in the context of a forest biorefinery. The process to convert woody biomass involves three stages: pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation. The operational conditions of the pretreatment method used are generally defined according to the physical and chemical characteristics of the raw materials and subsequently determine the characteristics of the treated substrates. This article also reviews and discusses the available pretreatment technologies for eucalyptus and pines applicable to South-American industrial wood wastes, their enzymatic hydrolysis yields, and the feasibility of implementing such processes in the mentioned countries in the frame of a biorefinery.

  2. LIFE CYCLE BASED STUDIES ON BIOETHANOL FUEL FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    A literature search was conducted and revealed 45 publications (1996-2005) that compare bio-ethanol systems to conventional fuel on a life-cycle basis, or using life cycle assessment. Feedstocks, such as sugar beets, wheat, potato, sugar cane, and corn, have been investigated in...

  3. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Velazquez-Marti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioethanol based on direct measurements of Brix grades, instead of the concentration of alcohol, during the process of cane juice bio-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This avoids the application of expensive sensors that increase the investment costs. Fermentation experiments with three concentrations of yeast and two temperatures were carried out in a laboratory reactor. In each case Brix grades, amount of ethanol and alcoholic degree were measured. A mathematical model to predict the quality and production of bioethanol was developed from Brix grade measurements, obtaining an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.97. The model was validated in a pilot plant.

  4. Energy Management Strategy for a Bioethanol Isolated Hybrid System: Simulations and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gabriel Rullo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources have significant advantages both from the environmental and the economic point of view. Additionally, renewable energy sources can contribute significantly to the development of isolated areas that currently have no connection to the electricity supply network. In order to make efficient use of these energy sources, it is necessary to develop appropriate energy management strategies. This work presents an energy management strategy for an isolated hybrid renewable energy system with hydrogen production from bioethanol reforming. The system is based on wind-solar energy, batteries and a bioethanol reformer, which produces hydrogen to feed a fuel cell system. Bioethanol can contribute to the development of isolated areas with surplus agricultural production, which can be used to produce bioethanol. The energy management strategy takes the form of a state machine and tries to maximize autonomy time while minimizing recharging time. The proposed rule-based strategy has been validated both by simulation and experimentally in a scale laboratory station. Both tests have shown the viability of the proposed strategy complying with the specifications imposed and a good agreement between experimental and simulation results.

  5. Life cycle environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sugarcane molasses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Saeid Shahvarooghi; Asoodar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology. Inventory data for production of the inputs were taken from Ecoinvent, BUWAL 250, and IDMAT 2001 databases. The results revealed that in sugarcane cultivation process, electricity and trash burning were the most important contributors to all impact categories except OLD and TE. In industrial phase, natural gas had the highest contribution to the most impact categories. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for production of 1000 L molasses-based bioethanol was 1322.78 kg CO 2  eq. By comparing total GHG emissions from 1000 L bioethanol to gasoline, the net avoided GHG emissions came out at 503.17 kg CO 2  eq. According to results, it is clear that with increasing irrigation efficiency and improving performance of heating systems in industrial phase, environmental burdens would be significantly reduced.

  6. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan B. Kristensen; G. Thygesen Lisbeth; Claus Felby; Henning Jorgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw...

  7. Dynamics and control of a heat pump assisted extractive dividing-wall column for bioethanol dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patraşcu, Iulian; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    Recently, a novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation process taking place in a dividing-wall column was proposed for bioethanol dehydration. This integrated design combines three distillation columns into a single unit that allows over 40% energy savings and low specific energy requirements

  8. Potential contribution of bioethanol fuel to the transport sector of Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z.

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an Autonomous Province in Serbia and it is an energy-deficient country. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payments situation. The country has become increasingly more dependent on fossil fuels and its energy security hangs on the fragile supply of imported oil that is subject to disruptions and price volatility. The transport sector has a 26% share in the total commercial energy consumption in Vojvodina. About 0.62 million tons of gasoline were consumed by this sector in 2008. Gasoline consumption in the transport sector is also a major source of environmental degradation especially in urban areas. Consequently, Vojvodina needs to develop indigenous, environment-friendly energy resources, such as bioethanol, to meet its transport sector's energy needs. Vojvodina produces about 3 million tons of sugar beet every year. There is a vast potential for bioethanol production from molasses of sugar beet in the country. Bioethanol can be used in transport sector after blending with gasoline, in order to minimize gasoline consumption and associated economical and environmental impacts. This paper presents the assessment of the potential contribution of bioethanol in the transport sector of Vojvodina. It is concluded that 20% of annual gasoline consumption in transport sector could be met from ethanol by the year 2026. (author)

  9. Acha ( Digitaria exilis ) Malt as a Source of Enzyme for Bio-Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... exilis ) Malt as a Source of Enzyme for Bio-Ethanol Production from Starchy Materials. ... Incubating a mixture of raw starch and acha malt at 50oC for 30 minutes ... has great potential application in brewery and ethanol production industries.

  10. Bioethanol production by inherent enzymes from rye and wheat with addition of organic farming cheese whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Christensen, Anne Deen; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    . Throughout our studies, wheat and rye grain was used as raw material in bioethanol production with the purpose of producing in situ enzymes (during germination) for the hydrolysis of starch in the grains and compared with commercial amylase enzyme preparations. Whey permeate was incorporated into the grain...

  11. Integration of chlorogenic acid recovery and bioethanol production from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Cenian, Katarzyna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an abundant by-product of the coffee industry with a complex composition that makes them a promising feedstock for a biorefinery. The objective of this study was to evaluate SCG as a substrate for combined chlorogenic acid and bioethanol production after dilute acid...

  12. Production of bioethanol from papaya and pineapple wastes using marine associated microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaprakashvel, M.; Akila, S.; Venkatramani, M.; Vinothini, S.; Bhagat, J.; Hussain, A. J.

    and methane are advantageous. In this study, an attempt was made to produce bio-ethanol by marine fungi in fermentation process with the use of fruit wastes (papaya and pine apple) as substrates. A total of 19 marine fungi were isolated from various marine...

  13. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  14. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  15. Production of bio-ethanol from corncobs using Aspergillus niger and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is the most abundant cereal grown in Ghana and is accompanied by enormous amount of agrowastes of which corncobs form 30%. This agrowaste which is currently under utilized was used to produce bio-ethanol. Aspergillus niger isolated from soil sampled from Ejura farms was used to hydrolyze the corncobs into ...

  16. A Model-Based Methodology for Simultaneous Design and Control of a Bioethanol Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan

    2010-01-01

    . The PGC methodology is used to generate more efficient separation designs in terms of energy consumption by targeting the separation task at the largest DF. Both methodologies are highlighted through the application of two case studies, a bioethanol production process and a succinic acid production...

  17. Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic

  18. Evolutionary engineering strategies to enhance tolerance of xylose utilizing recombinant yeast to inhibitors derived from spruce biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppram Rakesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the crucial factors for a sustainable and economical production of lignocellulosic based bioethanol is the availability of a robust fermenting microorganism with high tolerance to inhibitors generated during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic raw materials, since these inhibitors are known to severely hinder growth and fermentation. Results A long-term adaptation in repetitive batch cultures in shake flasks using a cocktail of 12 different inhibitors and a long-term chemostat adaptation using spruce hydrolysate were used as evolutionary engineering strategies to improve the inhibitor tolerance in the metabolically engineered xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TMB3400. The yeast was evolved for a period of 429 and 97 generations in repetitive batch cultures and chemostat cultivation, respectively. During the evolutionary engineering in repetitive batch cultures the maximum specific growth rate increased from 0.18 h-1 to 0.33 h-1 and the time of lag phase was decreased from 48 h to 24 h. In the chemostat adaptation, after 97 generations, the specific conversion rates of HMF and furfural were found to be 3.5 and 4 folds higher respectively, compared to rates after three generations. Two evolved strains (RK60-5, RKU90-3 and one evolved strain (KE1-17 were isolated from evolutionary engineering in repetitive batches and chemostat cultivation, respectively. The strains displayed significantly improved growth performance over TMB3400 when cultivated in spruce hydrolysate under anaerobic conditions, the evolved strains exhibited 25 to 38% increase in specific consumption rate of sugars and 32 to 50% increased specific ethanol productivity compared to TMB3400. The evolved strains RK60-5 and RKU90-3 were unable to consume xylose under anaerobic conditions, whereas, KE1-17 was found to consume xylose at similar rates as TMB3400. Conclusion Using evolutionary engineering strategies in batch and chemostat

  19. Bioethanol production from starchy biomass by direct fermentation using saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilonzo, P.M.; Margaritis, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Yu, J.; Ye, Q. [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Biochemical Engineering Research Inst. and State Key Lab

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using amylolytic yeasts for the direct fermentation of starchy biomass to ethanol was discussed. Although amylolytic yeasts such as Saccharomycopsis, Lipomyces, and Schwaniomyces secrete both {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes that synergistically enhance starch degradation, they are not suitable for industrial bio-ethanol production because of low tolerance for ethanol and slow fermentation rate. For that reason, this study examined the direct ethanol fermentation of soluble starch or dextrin with the amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cells systems. Saccharomyces diastaticus secretes glucoamylase and can therefore assimilate and ferment starch and starch-like biomass. The main focus of the study was on parameters leading to higher ethanol yields from high concentration of dextrin and soluble starch using batch cultures. A natural attachment method was proposed in which polyurethane foam sheets were used as the carrier for amylolytic yeasts immobilization in ethanol fermentations. The support was chosen because it was inexpensive, autoclavable, pliable and could be tailored to suit process requirements regarding net surface charge, shape and size. It was found that Saccharomyces diastaticus was very efficient in terms of fermentation of high initial concentrations of dextrin or soluble starch. Higher concentrations of ethanol were produced. In batch fermentations, the cells fermented high dextrin concentrations more efficiently. In particular, in batch fermentation, more than 92 g-L of ethanol was produced from 240 g-L of dextrin, at conversion efficiency of 90 per cent. The conversion efficiency decreased to 60 per cent but a higher final ethanol concentration of 147 g/L was attained with a medium containing 500 g/L of dextrin. In an immobilized cell bioreactor, Saccharomyces diastaticus produced 83 g/L of ethanol from 240 g/L of dextrin, corresponding to ethanol volumetric productivity of 9.1 g

  20. Domestic bioethanol-fireplaces--a new source of severe burn accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrech, Florian; Kiefer, Jurij; Schmidt, Volker J; Bigdeli, Amir K; Hernekamp, J Frederick; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Radu, Christian Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Bioethanol-fueled fireplaces are popular interior home decoration accessories. Although their safety is promoted frequently, actual presentations of severe burn injuries in our burn intensive care unit (ICU) have focused the authors on safety problems with these devices. In this article we want to explore the mechanisms for these accidents and state our experiences with this increasingly relevant risk for severe burn injuries. The computerized medical records of all burn intensive care patients in our burn unit between 2000 and 2014 were studied. Since 2010, 12 patients with bioethanol associated burn injuries were identified. Their data was compared to the values of all patients, except the ones injured by bioethanol fireplaces that presented themselves to our burn ICU between the years 2010 and 2014. At time of admission the bioethanol patients had a mean ABSI-score of 4.8 (+/- 2.2 standard deviation (SD)). A mean of 17 percent (+/- 9.1 SD) body surface area was burned. Involvement of face and hands was very common. An operative treatment was needed in 8 cases. A median of 20 days of hospitalization (range 3-121) and a median of 4.5 days on the ICU (range 1-64) were necessary. No patient died. In most cases the injuries happened while refilling or while starting the fire, even though safety instructions were followed. In the control group, consisting of 748 patients, the mean ABSI-score was 5.6 (+/- 2.7 SD). A mean of 16.5 percent (+/- 10.1 SD) body surface area was burned. Treatment required a median of 3 days on the burn ICU (range 1-120). Regarding these parameters, the burden of disease was comparable in both groups. Bioethanol-fueled fireplaces for interior home decoration are a potential source for severe burn accidents even by intended use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparism of the Properties and Yield of Bioethanol from Mango and Orange Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Maina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The excessive consumption of fossil fuel particularly in urban areas due to transportation and industrial activities has greatly contributed to generation of high levels of pollution; therefore, a renewable eco-friendly energy source is required. The production of bioethanol from sugar extracted from waste fruit peels as an energy supply is renewable as the non-fossil carbon source used is readily replenished. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of fruit wastes of orange and Mango in order to explore their potential application in bio-ethanol production. Experimental production of Bioethanol from waste fruits of mango and orange was carried out after dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification using saccharomyces cerevisiae for the fermentation process. Three samples of (mango waste fruit, orange waste fruit and mixture of mango and orange waste fruit 100g each was used for the same method of bio-ethanol extraction. A one factor factorial design involving fruit type was used to statistically analyze the fuel properties of the ethanol produced from the fruits waste. Analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that the observed difference were not significant for all the properties except that of the flash point which showed that the flash point of the produced bioethanol differ from that of the standard ethanol, which may be due to percentage of moisture present in the samples used. The highest yield of ethanol from sample A (mango waste was 19.98%, sample B (orange waste produced 19.17% while least yield of ethanol was from sample C (mango and orange waste which produced 17.38%.

  2. Switchgrass-Based Bioethanol Productivity and Potential Environmental Impact from Marginal Lands in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass displays an excellent potential to serve as a non-food bioenergy feedstock for bioethanol production in China due to its high potential yield on marginal lands. However, few studies have been conducted on the spatial distribution of switchgrass-based bioethanol production potential in China. This study created a land surface process model (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate GIS (Geographic Information System-based (GEPIC model coupled with a life cycle analysis (LCA to explore the spatial distribution of potential bioethanol production and present a comprehensive analysis of energy efficiency and environmental impacts throughout its whole life cycle. It provides a new approach to study the bioethanol productivity and potential environmental impact from marginal lands based on the high spatial resolution GIS data, and this applies not only to China, but also to other regions and to other types of energy plant. The results indicate that approximately 59 million ha of marginal land in China are suitable for planting switchgrass, and 22 million tons of ethanol can be produced from this land. Additionally, a potential net energy gain (NEG of 1.75 x 106 million MJ will be achieved if all of the marginal land can be used in China, and Yunnan Province offers the most significant one that accounts for 35% of the total. Finally, this study obtained that the total environmental effect index of switchgrass-based bioethanol is the equivalent of a population of approximately 20,300, and a reduction in the global warming potential (GWP is the most significant environmental impact.

  3. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  4. Samfunds- og selskabsøkonomisk analyse af bioethanol-produktion i Danmark i samproduktion med kraftvarme. Fase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; van Maarschalkerweerd, Christian

    Aims of the project are to carry out combined socio-economic and corporate-economic analyses of concepts for bioethanol production in Denmark. The project is split into two phases and will in total analyze 3 different plant concepts for bioethanol production based on biomass inputs comprising straw...... fuel. Bioethanol co-produced with CHP and biogas (Risø-DTU concept). The biomass inputs to the process are straw, whole crop, biomass residues, domestic waste etc... By-products from the production are re-circled to agriculture as well-declared fertilizer products. These two concepts will be analyzed...... and compared based on the same input biomass materials. The present project information concerns phase I of the total project, and comprises the socio-economic and corporate-economic analysis of bioethanol production co-produced with CHP (IBUS concept). Due to difficulties in achieving data, consistency...

  5. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  7. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Aparicio, S., E-mail: sla@nilu.no; Hak, C.

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde > 150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20–30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. - Highlights: ► Acetaldehyde levels above 150 ppm were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► High acetic acid levels (20–30 ppm) were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► Demonstrated usefulness of PTR-MS to evaluate non-criteria pollutants ► High levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid are estimated in the dispersion plume. ► Climate mitigation measures may have adverse impact on air quality.

  8. Performance and emission analysis of single cylinder SI engine using bioethanol-gasoline blend produced from Salvinia Molesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyank; Protim Das, Partha; Mubarak, M.; Shaija, A.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid depletion of world’s crude oil reserve, rising global energy demand and concerns about greenhouse gases emission have led to the high-level interest in biofuels. The biofuel, bioethanol is found as an alternative fuel for SI engines as it has similar properties those of gasoline. Higher areal productivity with fast growth rate of microalgae and aquatic weeds makes them promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol produced from S.molesta (aquatic weed) using combined pre-treatment and hydrolysis followed by fermentation with yeast was used to make bioethanol-gasoline blend. The quantity of bioethanol produced from S.molesta was 99.12% pure. The physical properties such as density and heating value of bioethanol were 792.2 kg/m3 and 26.12 MJ/kg, respectively. In this work, the effects of bioethanol-gasoline (E5) fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of a spark ignition (SI) engine were investigated. In the experiments, a single-cylinder, four-stroke SI engine was used. The tests were performed using electric dynamometer while running the engine at the speed (3200 rpm), and seven different load (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 kW). The results obtained from the use of bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends were compared to those of gasoline fuel. The test results showed an increase of 0.3% in brake thermal efficiency for E5. From the emission analysis, reduced emissions of 39 ppm unburned hydrocarbon, 1.55% carbon monoxide and 2% smoke opacity, respectively was observed with E5 at full load. An increase in CO2 by 0.17% and NOx by 86.7 ppm was observed for E5 at full load.

  9. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Aparicio, S.; Hak, C.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO 2 , O 3 , acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde > 150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20–30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. - Highlights: ► Acetaldehyde levels above 150 ppm were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► High acetic acid levels (20–30 ppm) were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► Demonstrated usefulness of PTR-MS to evaluate non-criteria pollutants ► High levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid are estimated in the dispersion plume. ► Climate mitigation measures may have adverse impact on air quality

  10. Metabolic engineering of a glycerol-oxidative pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for utilization of bioethanol thin stillage: potential to produce platform chemicals from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Effect of pH fermentation on production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. R.; Natsir, H.; Rohani, H.; Karim, A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sourced from natural products containing carbohydrates through hydrolysis and fermentation process. Jackfruit seeds is one of the feedstock that contain high carbohydrate content but less utilized. The aims of this study to determine the effect of pH hydrolysis in the process of production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis (SHF) method. The hydrolysis process uses H2SO4 as a hydrolyzing agent. The fermentation process used Saccharomyces cereviceae as a fermentor with a variation of pH 2,3 4 and 5 for 70 hours. The results showed that glucose content of 75% and pH 3 was the optimum pH of fermentation with the content of bioethanol 57.94%. The fermentation stage has an important role in increasing the levels of glucose and bioethanol in linear. The content of glucose and bioethanol of jackfruit seeds showed a great potential for development as the feedstock in bioethanol production.

  12. Tax exemption for bio fuels in Germany: is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, J.M.; Klepper, G.; Schmitz, N.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable resources. The paper takes a closer look at bio-ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. It analyzes the underlying basic German, European, and worldwide conditions that provide the setting for the production and promotion of biofuels. It is shown that the production of bio-ethanol in Germany is not competitive and that imports are likely to increase. Using energy and greenhouse-gas balances we then demonstrate that the promotion and a possible increased use of bio-ethanol to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions are economically inefficient and that there are preferred alternative strategies. In addition, scenarios of the future development of the bio-ethanol market are derived from a model that allows for variations in all decisive variables and reflects the entire production and trade chain of bio-ethanol, from the agricultural production of wheat and sugar beet to the consumption of bio-ethanol in the fuel sector. (author)

  13. Tax exemption for bio fuels in Germany: is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, J.M.; Klepper, G. [Kiel Institute for World Economics, Kiel (Germany); Schmitz, N. [Meo Consulting Team, Koeln (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable resources. The paper takes a closer look at bio-ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. It analyzes the underlying basic German, European, and worldwide conditions that provide the setting for the production and promotion of biofuels. It is shown that the production of bio-ethanol in Germany is not competitive and that imports are likely to increase. Using energy and greenhouse-gas balances we then demonstrate that the promotion and a possible increased use of bio-ethanol to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions are economically inefficient and that there are preferred alternative strategies. In addition, scenarios of the future development of the bio-ethanol market are derived from a model that allows for variations in all decisive variables and reflects the entire production and trade chain of bio-ethanol, from the agricultural production of wheat and sugar beet to the consumption of bio-ethanol in the fuel sector. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Elias; Ibrahim, Muhammad H.; Leach, Matthew; Sinclair, Phillip; Campbell, Grant M.; Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2013-01-01

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP 100 ), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y −1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP 100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  16. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  17. Case study: Preliminary assessment of integrated palm biomass biorefinery for bioethanol production utilizing non-food sugars from oil palm frond petiole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Sharifah Soplah Syed; Shirai, Yoshihito; Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin Mohd; Mustapha, Mahfuzah; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fermentable sugars production from oil palm frond by integrated technology concept. • Bioethanol production from oil palm frond sugars in a biorefinery. • Palm oil mills have sufficient excess energy and steam to support biorefinery. • The net energy ratio of bioethanol from oil palm frond petiole is 7.48. - Abstract: In this case study, a preliminary assessment on the bioethanol production from oil palm frond (OPF) petiole sugars within an integrated palm biomass biorefinery was carried out. Based on the case study of 4 neighbouring palm oil mills, approximately 55,600 t/y of fermentable sugars could be obtained from OPF petiole. The integrated biorefinery will be located at one of the 4 mills. The mill has potential excess energy comprising 3.64 GW h/y of electricity and 177,000 t/y of steam which are sufficient to run the biorefinery. With 33.9 million litres/y of bioethanol production, the specific production cost of bioethanol is estimated at $ 0.52/l bioethanol, compared to $ 0.31–0.34/l bioethanol produced from sugarcane and $ 0.49–0.60/l bioethanol from other lignocellulosics. The net energy ratio of 7.48 for bioethanol production from OPF provides a promising alternative for OPF utilization as a non-food sugar feedstock.

  18. Metabolomic analysis reveals key metabolites related to the rapid adaptation of Saccharomyce cerevisiae to multiple inhibitors of furfural, acetic acid, and phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Bing-Zhi; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Zhang, Wei-Wen; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-03-01

    During hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, a broad range of inhibitors are generated, which interfere with yeast growth and bioethanol production. In order to improve the strain tolerance to multiple inhibitors--acetic acid, furfural, and phenol (three representative lignocellulose-derived inhibitors) and uncover the underlying tolerant mechanism, an adaptation experiment was performed in which the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated repeatedly in a medium containing multiple inhibitors. The adaptation occurred quickly, accompanied with distinct increase in growth rate, glucose utilization rate, furfural metabolism rate, and ethanol yield, only after the first transfer. A similar rapid adaptation was also observed for the lab strains of BY4742 and BY4743. The metabolomic analysis was employed to investigate the responses of the industrial S. cereviaise to three inhibitors during the adaptation. The results showed that higher levels of 2-furoic acid, 2, 3-butanediol, intermediates in glycolytic pathway, and amino acids derived from glycolysis, were discovered in the adapted strains, suggesting that enhanced metabolic activity in these pathways may relate to resistance against inhibitors. Additionally, through single-gene knockouts, several genes related to alanine metabolism, GABA shunt, and glycerol metabolism were verified to be crucial for the resistance to multiple inhibitors. This study provides new insights into the tolerance mechanism against multiple inhibitors, and guides for the improvement of tolerant ethanologenic yeast strains for lignocellulose-bioethanol fermentation.

  19. Technology Evaluation of Process Configurations for Second Generation Bioethanol Production using Dynamic Model-based Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a number of different process flowsheets for bioethanol production was performed using dynamic model-based simulations. The evaluation employed diverse operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. Each configuration was evaluated...... against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results has shown the process configuration for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operating...... in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol /kg dry-biomass....

  20. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was 68.4 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bio-ethanol percentage was 7 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice) and 90 %, respectively.

  1. Integrated furfural and first generation bioethanol production: process simulation and techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. L. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Furfural is a base chemical with a wide range of applications and with a great opportunity for market growth in the near term. Derived from biomass, its production may be incorporated to the Brazilian chemical industry using sugarcane bagasse as feedstock. In this context, the integration of a furfural plant to a first generation bioethanol facility, within the biorefinery concept, was simulated considering different scenarios compared to an autonomous bioethanol distillery. The economic analysis of the different scenarios showed that the revenues from furfural commercialization increase the internal rate of return of the project for maximum furfural production (22.0% in comparison to a conventional ethanol distillery (13.5%, despite the decrease in electricity output. Moreover, the economic analysis of the results pointed out the possibility of lowering furfural prices to levels that could lead to its use as a precursor for biofuels.

  2. Recycling of cellulases in a continuous process for production of bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard

    studies, this PhD project investigates enzyme recycling at industrial relevant conditions in the Inbicon process, e.g. high dry matter conditions and process configurations that could be implemented in large scale. The results point towards potential processes for industrial recycling of enzymes......The focus of the work presented in this thesis is recycling of commercial enzymes in a continuous process for production of bioethanol from biomass. To get a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the potential for enzyme recycling, the interactions between enzymes and biomass......, the adsorption and desorption as well as stability and recovery of activity was investigated. More knowledge on these factors have enabled a process adapted for enzyme recycling. The driver being that enzyme consumption remains a major cost when producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Unlike previous...

  3. Cathode Assessment for Maximizing Current Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Utilizing Bioethanol Effluent as Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity production requires effective current generation from waste products via robust cathode reduction. Three cathode types using dissolved oxygen cathodes (DOCs), ferricyanide cathodes (FeCs) and air cathodes (AiCs) were therefore assessed...... to be the most sustainable option since it does not require ferricyanide. The data offer a new add-on option to the straw biorefinery by using bioethanol effluent for microbial electricity production....... using bioethanol effluent, containing 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. In each set-up the anode and cathode had an electrode surface area of 88 cm(2), which was used for calculation of the current density. Electricity generation was evaluated by quantifying current...

  4. Development and perspective of promising energy plants for bioethanol production in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sin-Yie; Lin, Chien-Yih

    2009-01-01

    The global energy crisis and continual soaring prices of fossil fuels force people to seek the new and recycled alternative energy sources hard. Biodiesel oil as well as bioethanol fuel, as two new and clean fuels for environmental protection, have already been approved as substitutes for fuel or fuel additive. Some common bottlenecks for production of biodiesel crops have been found. However, developing bioethanol crops in Taiwan has many benefits. Four most promising alcohol crops in Taiwan, i.e., sweet potato, maize, sugarcane, and sweet sorghum have been discussed. Sweet sorghum can be strongly recommended as a key alcohol crop in Taiwan, because of its short growing period, low water requirement, large amount of biomass and alcohol produced, and greater income obtained from sweet sorghum cultivation. (author)

  5. Process Engineering App lied to the Production of Bioethanol Using Banana Rejection Urabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flórez Alvarado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most countries either financially or in advanced stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of waste and organic waste; these can be treated in different ways, for example by reducing its volume or processing any useful substance using physicochemical transformation processesbananas in bioethanol and analyzing environmental impacts to meet sanitary standards.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for ethanol production from banana and the study and application of process engineering in ethanol production using banana rejection as feedstock in the region of Urabá.Bioethanol is obtained by fermentation and distillation of rejected bananas where the results are reflected in the operational controls and leaf pattern obtained in the standardization process.

  6. Economic-energy-environment analysis of prospective sugarcane bioethanol production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes de Carvalho, Ariovaldo; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Freire, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Hybrid IO-MOLP model is formulated for energy-economic-environmental analysis. • Scenarios for sugarcane cultivation and 1st- and 2nd-generation bioethanol production. • Higher energy use and GHG emissions due to chemicals in 2G processes. • Lower overall employment level in the 1G + 2G scenarios compared to the 1G scenario. • Policies and technological choices should consider direct and indirect effects of 2G. - Abstract: Bioethanol from sugarcane can be produced using first-generation (1G) or second-generation (2G) technologies. 2G technologies can increase the capacity of production per sugarcane mass input and are expected to have a key role in future reductions of environmental impacts of sugarcane bioethanol. A hybrid Input-Output (IO) framework is developed for Brazil coupling the System of National Accounts and the National Energy Balance, which is extended to assess Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Life-cycle based estimates for two sugarcane cultivation systems, two 1G and eight 2G bioethanol production scenarios, are coupled in the IO framework. A multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) model is formulated based on this framework for energy-economic-environmental analysis of the Brazilian economic system and domestic bioethanol supply in prospective scenarios. Twenty-four solutions are computed: four “extreme” solutions resulting from the individual optimization of each objective function (GDP, employment level, total energy consumption and total GHG emissions - 1G scenario), ten compromise solutions minimizing the distance of the feasible region to the ideal solution (1G, 1G-optimized and prospective 1G + 2G scenarios), and ten solutions maximizing the total bioethanol production (1G, 1G-optimized and prospective 1G + 2G scenarios). Higher diesel oil and lubricants consumption in the mechanical harvesting process has counterbalanced the positive effects of more efficient trucks leading to higher energy consumption and GHG

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus biomass for bioethanol production: a bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Amorim Margon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy matrix in the Brazilian and world scenarios has undergone significant changes during the last decades. Due to oscillations in the price of the oil barrel and its derivatives, the study of alternative energies has been intensifying. In this context, the production of second generation bioethanol has been considered as a way to meet this demand. Besides being able to partially solve the dependence of the use of fossil fuels, this technology stands out for utilizing lignocellulosic industries residues, adding value to this material. This article consists of a bibliometric review of this application, giving an overview of the advances made to date. A quantitative analysis of the articles found in the Web of Science database was carried out, followed by a qualitative analysis. Subsequently, the convergences and divergences between the articles were identified. The results demonstrate that some improvements are still needed in the process, however the technique is feasible and advantageous in the production of bioethanol.

  8. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  9. Bioethanol Production From Banana Stem By Using Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmiyati; Mustofa, A.; Jumarmi

    2018-05-01

    The rapid growth and development of industries in the world result in a greater energy needs. Some studies show that ethanol can be used as an alternative energy. However, bioethanol production from food raw materials such as sugar and starch has drawback that cause the food crisis. This aim of this study was to convert banana stem into bioethanol. Banana stem contained of 44.6% cellulose, 36.0% hemicellulose and 19.4% lignin. After banana stems were pretreated with acid (H2SO4) and alkaline (NaOH) at a concentration of 2% w/v at 121 °C for 30 minutes, then subsequently the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were carried out by using mixed cultures of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei and Zymomonas mobilis at various enzymes ratios of (1:1:1), (1:2:1), (1:2:2), (1:1:2) and various pH (4, 5 and 6) with SSF time for 144 hours and temperature of 30°C. The results show that acid pretreatment showed better results than the alkali pretreatment. After acid pretreatment and alkali pretreatment, lignin content of pretreted banana stem reduced to 15.92% and 16.34%, respectively, cellulose increased to 52.11% and 50.6% respectively, hemicellulose reduced to 28.45% and 28.83%, respectively The SSF showed that pH 5 gave the highest bioethanol. The highest concentration of bioethanol (8.51 g/L) was achieved at the SSF process at pH 5 with a ratio Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei and Zymomonas mobilis enzymes of (1:1:2).

  10. Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles (Amorphopallus campanulatus Flour by Fermentation using Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the depletion of fossil oil sources, Indonesia attempts to search new source of bioenergy including bioethanol. One of this sources is Iles-iles tubers (Amorphophallus campanulatus, which is abundantly available in Java Indonesia. The carbohydrate content in Iles-Iles tuber flour was 77% and it can be converted to ethanol by three consecutive steps methods consist of liquefaction-saccharification using α and β-amylase, respectively and then followed by fermentation by using Z. mobilis. The objective of this research was to convert the Iles-iles flour to bioethanol by fermentation process with Z.mobilis. The ethanol production process was studied at various starch concentration 15-30% g/L, Z. mobilis concentration (10-40% and pH fermentation of (4-6. The result showed that the yield of bioethanol (10.33% was the highest at 25% starch concentration and 25% of Z.mobilis concentration. The optimum conditions was found at 4.5, 30°C, 10%, 120 h for pH, temperature, Z. mobilis concentration and fermentation time, respectively  at which  ACT tuber flour produced a maximum ethanol of 10.33 % v/v.Article History: Received November 12nd 2015; Received in revised form January 25th 2016; Accepted January 29th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Kusmiyati , Hadiyanto,H  and Kusumadewi, I (2016. Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles (Amorphopallus campanulatus Flour by Fermentation using Zymomonas mobilis. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 9(1, 9-14 http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.9-14 

  11. Dilute Ionic Liquids Pretreatment of Palm Empty Bunch and Its Impact to Produce Bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Arianie; Utin Dewi Pebriyana; Yudiansyah; Nora Idiawati; Deana Wahyuningrum

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production through ionic liquids pretreatment of palm empty bunch (PEB) was carried out. This research aims to investigate impact of ionic liquids synthetic i.e 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazoliumbromide or [BMIM]bromide toward cellulose’s palm empty bunch and convert its cellulose into bioethanol. Ionic liquid was synthesized  through reflux and microwave assisted synthesis methods. Research investigation showed that microwave assisted synthesis produce [BMIM]bromide 90% faster than reflux ...

  12. Dynamics and control of a heat pump assisted extractive dividing-wall column for bioethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Patraşcu, Iulian; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation process taking place in a dividing-wall column was proposed for bioethanol dehydration. This integrated design combines three distillation columns into a single unit that allows over 40% energy savings and low specific energy requirements of 1.24 kWh/kg ethanol. However, these economic benefits are possible only if this highly integrated system is also controllable to ensure operational availability. This paper is the first to addre...

  13. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium componen...

  14. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has always been the pioneer in the application of bioethanol as a main fuel for automobiles, hence environmental and economic analyses of the Brazilian ethanol industries are of crucial importance. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on gasoline and ethanol as fuels, and with two types of blends of gasoline with bioethanol, all used in a midsize car. The focus is on a main application in Brazil, sugarcane based ethanol. The results of two cases are presented: base case - bioethanol production from sugarcane and electricity generation from bagasse; future case - bioethanol production from both sugarcane and bagasse and electricity generation from wastes. In both cases sugar is co-produced. The life cycles of fuels include gasoline production, agricultural production of sugarcane, ethanol production, sugar and electricity co-production, blending ethanol with gasoline to produce E10 (10% of ethanol) and E85 (85%), and finally the use of gasoline, E10, E85 and pure ethanol. Furthermore, a life cycle costing (LCC) was conducted to give an indication on fuel economy in both cases. The results show that in the base case less GHG is emitted; while the overall evaluation of these fuel options depends on the importance attached to different impacts. The future case is certainly more economically attractive, which has been the driving force for development in the ethanol industry in Brazil. Nevertheless, the outcomes depend very much on the assumed price for crude oil. In LCC a steady-state cost model was used and only the production cost was taken into account. In the real market the prices of fuels are very much dependent on the taxes and subsidies. Technological development can help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  15. Exergetic and Economic Assessment of Distillation Hybrid Configurations for Bioethanol Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman, Bilyaminu; Olawale, Adegboyega Surajudeen; Mohammed, Saidu Waziri

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-economics analysis was used to identify the most economic distillation hybrid configuration to dehydrate bioethanol mash (12 wt%) to fuel grade (99.5 wt%) based on economic objective of minimization of operating cost in this work. Three different hybrids of THIDC with azeotropic and, extractive distillation units were assessed using similar feed and product specifications of 1200 kmol/h (12 % by weight ethanol) and 55 kmol/h (99.5 % by weight ethanol) respectively . The six hybrid conf...

  16. Dynamic impacts of high oil prices on the bioethanol and feedstock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyung Soo; Bae, Jeong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of high international oil prices on the bioethanol and corn markets in the US. Between 2007 and 2008, the prices of major grain crops had increased sharply, reflecting the rise in international oil prices. These dual price shocks had caused substantial harm to the global economy. Employing a structural vector auto-regression model (SVAR), we analyze how increases in international oil prices could impact the prices of and demand for corn, which is used as a major bioethanol feedstock in the US. The results indicate that an increase in the oil price would increase bioethanol demand for corn and corn prices in the short run and that corn prices would stabilize in the long run as corn exports and feedstock demand for corn decline. Consequently, policies supporting biofuels should encourage the use of bioethanol co-products for feed and the development of marginal land to mitigate increases in the feedstock price. - Research highlights: → World economy experienced 'dual shocks', which were caused by skyrocketed oil prices and grain prices between 2007 and 2008. → Sharp increases in ethanol production in response to high oil prices were considered as a major driving force to 'ag-flation' in the United States. → Applying a time series econometric tool, called the 'structural vector auto-regression model', we evaluated relationship between ethanol production and corn prices. → The result shows that ethanol production affects corn prices in the short run, while corn prices are lowered as other corn demands (feed for livestock or export demand) decline in the long run.

  17. Significance of Lignin S/G Ratio in Biomass Recalcitrance of Populus trichocarpa Variants for Bioethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Chang Geun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dumitrache, Alexandru [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muchero, Wellington [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Natzke, Jace [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akinosho, Hannah [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Li, Mi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sykes, Robert W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davison, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tuskan, Gerald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pu, Yunqiao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Lignin S/G ratio has been investigated as an important factor in biomass recalcitrance to bioethanol production. Because of the complexity and variety of biomass, recalcitrance was also reportedly influenced by several other factors, such as total lignin content, degree of cellulose polymerization, etc. In addition, the effect of S/G ratio on biomass conversion is not uniform across plant species. Herein, 11 Populus trichocarpa natural variants grown under the same conditions with similar total lignin content were selected to minimize the effects of other factors. The lignin S/G ratio of the selected P. trichocarpa natural variants showed negative correlations with p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) and β–5 linkage contents, while it had positive ones with β-O-4 linkage, lignin molecular weight, and ethanol production. In conclusion, this study showed the importance of lignin S/G ratio as an independent recalcitrance factor that may aid future energy crop engineering and biomass conversion strategies.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of stillage fractions - estimation of the potential for energy recovery in bioethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, B; Fuchs, W; Meixner, K; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R; Bochmann, G

    2013-01-01

    Stillage processing can require more than one third of the thermal energy demand of a dry-grind bioethanol production plant. Therefore, for every stillage fraction occurring in stillage processing the potential of energy recovery by anaerobic digestion (AD) was estimated. In the case of whole stillage up to 128% of the thermal energy demand in the process can be provided, so even an energetically self-sufficient bioethanol production process is possible. For wet cake the recovery potential of thermal energy is 57%, for thin stillage 41%, for syrup 40% and for the evaporation condensate 2.5%. Specific issues for establishing AD of stillage fractions are evaluated in detail; these are high nitrogen concentrations, digestate treatment and trace element supply. If animal feed is co-produced at the bioethanol plant and digestate fractions are to be reused as process water, a sufficient quality is necessary. Most interesting stillage fractions as substrates for AD are whole stillage, thin stillage and the evaporation condensate. For these fractions process details are presented.

  19. A two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from rice straw bioethanol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Chao-Wei; Chung, Man-Chien

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egebaeck, K.E.; Laurikko, J.; Ryden, C.

    1998-11-01

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm's Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV's and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  1. Technical Feasibility and Comprehensive Sustainability Assessment of Sweet Sorghum for Bioethanol Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Under dual pressures of energy and environmental security, sweet sorghum is becoming one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuel production. In the present study, the technical feasibility of sweet sorghum production was assessed in eight agricultural regions in China using the Sweet Sorghum Production Technique Maturity Model. Three top typical agricultural zones were then selected for further sustainability assessment of sweet sorghum production: Northeast China (NEC, Huang-Huai-Hai Basin (HHHB and Ganxin Region (GX. Assessment results demonstrated that NEC exhibited the best sustainable production of sweet sorghum, with a degree of technical maturity value of 0.8066, followed by HHHB and GX, with corresponding values of 0.7531 and 0.6594, respectively. Prospective economic profitability analysis indicated that bioethanol production from sweet sorghum was not feasible using current technologies in China. More efforts are needed to dramatically improve feedstock mechanization logistics while developing new bioethanol productive technology to reduce the total cost. This study provides insight and information to guide further technological development toward profitable industrialization and large-scale sweet sorghum bioethanol production.

  2. Optimization and analysis of a bioethanol agro-industrial system from sweet sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ying; Hu, Shan-ying; Li, You-run; Chen, Ding-jiang; Zhu, Bing; Smith, Karl M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of non-food crops for bioethanol production represents an important trend for renewable energy in China. In this paper, a bioethanol agro-industrial system with distributed fermentation plants from sweet sorghum is presented. The system consists of the following processes: sweet sorghum cultivation, crude ethanol production, ethanol refining and by-product utilization. The plant capacities of crude ethanol and pure ethanol, in different fractions of useful land, are optimized. Assuming a minimum cost of investment, transport, operation and so on, the optimum capacity of the pure ethanol factory is 50,000 tonnes/year. Moreover, this bioethanol system, which requires ca. 13,300 ha (hectares) of non-cultivated land to supply the raw materials, can provide 26,000 jobs for rural workers. The income from the sale of the crops is approximately 71 million RMB Yuan and the ethanol production income is approximately 94 million RMB Yuan. The potential savings in CO 2 emissions are ca. 423,000 tonnes/year and clear economic, social and environmental benefits can be realized. (author)

  3. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, (Sweden); Laurikko, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Ryden, C. [Tima, (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm`s Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV`s and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  4. Potential bioethanol feedstock availability around nine locations in the Republic of Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, R.; McDonnell, K.; Devlin, G. [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    The Republic of Ireland, like many other countries is trying to diversify energy sources to counteract environmental, political and social concerns. Bioethanol from domestically grown agricultural crops is an indigenously produced alternative fuel that can potentially go towards meeting the goal of diversified energy supply. The Republic of Ireland's distribution of existing soils and agricultural land-uses limit arable crop land to around 10% of total agricultural area. Demand for land to produce arable crops is expected to decrease, which could open the opportunity for bioethanol production. Bioethanol production plants are required to be of a sufficient scale in order to compete economically with other fuel sources, it is important therefore to determine if enough land exists around potential ethanol plant locations to meet the potential demands for feedstock. This study determines, through the use of a developed GIS based model, the potential quantities of feedstock that is available in the hinterlands of nine locations in the Republic of Ireland. The results indicate that three locations can meet all its feedstock demands using indigenously grown sugarbeet, while only one location can meet its demands using a combination of indigenous wheat and straw as the two locally sourced feedstocks. (author)

  5. Viability assessment of regional biomass pre-processing center based bioethanol value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Joseph E.

    Petroleum accounts for 94% of all liquid fuels and 36% of the total of all energy consumed in the United States. Petroleum dependence is problematic because global petroleum reserves are estimated to last only for 40 to 60 years at current consumption rates; global supplies are often located in politically unstable or unfriendly regions; and fossil fuels have negative environmental footprints. Domestic policies have aimed at promoting alternative, renewable liquid fuels, specifically bio-fuels derived from organic matter. Cellulosic bio-ethanol is one promising alternative fuel that has featured prominently in federal bio-fuel mandates under the Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007. However, the cellulosic bio-ethanol industry faces several technical, physical and industrial organization challenges. This dissertation examines the concept of a network of regional biomass pre-treatment centers (RBPC) that form an extended biomass supply chain feeding into a simplified biorefinery as a way to overcome these challenges. The analyses conducted address the structural and transactional issues facing bio-ethanol value chain establishment; the technical and financial feasibility of a stand alone pre-treatment center (RBPC); the impact of distributed pre-treatment on biomass transport costs; a comparative systems cost evaluation of the performance of the RBPC chain versus a fully integrated biorefinery (gIBRh), followed by application of the analytical framework to three case study regions.

  6. Screening of Non- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Tolerance to Formic Acid in Bioethanol Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshoma, Cyprian E; Greetham, Darren; Louis, Edward J; Smart, Katherine A; Phister, Trevor G; Powell, Chris; Du, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid is one of the major inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic materials, the presence of which can significantly hamper the efficiency of converting available sugars into bioethanol. This study investigated the potential for screening formic acid tolerance in non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, which could be used for the development of advanced generation bioethanol processes. Spot plate and phenotypic microarray methods were used to screen the formic acid tolerance of 7 non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. S. kudriavzeii IFO1802 and S. arboricolus 2.3319 displayed a higher formic acid tolerance when compared to other strains in the study. Strain S. arboricolus 2.3319 was selected for further investigation due to its genetic variability among the Saccharomyces species as related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and availability of two sibling strains: S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 in the lab. The tolerance of S. arboricolus strains (2.3317, 2.3318 and 2.3319) to formic acid was further investigated by lab-scale fermentation analysis, and compared with S. cerevisiae NCYC2592. S. arboricolus 2.3319 demonstrated improved formic acid tolerance and a similar bioethanol synthesis capacity to S. cerevisiae NCYC2592, while S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 exhibited an overall inferior performance. Metabolite analysis indicated that S. arboricolus strain 2.3319 accumulated comparatively high concentrations of glycerol and glycogen, which may have contributed to its ability to tolerate high levels of formic acid.

  7. Practicability of Lignocellulosic Waste Composite in Controlling Air Pollution from Leaves Litter through Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrsini, Mahadevan; Teoh, Yi Peng; Ng, Qi Hwa; Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Xian Ooi, Zhong; Siew Shuit, Hoong; Hoo, Peng Yong

    2018-03-01

    Environmental degradation through greenhouse emission have spurred nation’s interest on feedstock-based fuel. Yet, development of this clean biofuel is obstructed by the expensive feedstock which takes up most of the production cost. Therefore, as an alternative, utilization of widely available lignocellulosic residues with relatively no commercial significance has been considered. This present work emphasizes on mango (Mangifera indica) leaves one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste in Malaysia. Through implementation of this biomass for bioethanol production, continuous allowance of air pollution with a deleterious impact to the country’s environment could be reduced. The high concentration of sugar (16-18%w/v) in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose is ultimately the reason behind the selection of these leaves as a substrate for bioethanol production. Hence, in this study, a comparison of biomass composition in Harum Manis, Sunshine and Chokanan mango leaves were conducted to detect the most suitable substrate source to produce biofuel. At the end of the biomass evaluation, Harum Manis mango leaves turned out to be the most competitive bioethanol crop as these leaves reported to be made up of 34.71% cellulose and 44.02% hemicellulose which summed up to give highest fermentable sugar source with a lignin content of 19.45%.

  8. Polyhydroxy glucose functionalized silica for the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2014-07-01

    Although most of the water in a bio-ethanol fermentation broth can be removed by distillation, a small amount of water remains in the bio-ethanol distillate as the water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, glucose-modified silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a facile method and applied to the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate. The factors affecting the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, such as the particle size, initial concentration of water in the samples, adsorption temperature and adsorbent dose, were examined by measuring the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. Of these, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherms showed a good correlation with the experimental data. The Langmuir isotherm showed some deviation from the experimental results, and indicated that adsorption in this case was not a simple monolayer adsorption. The property of the adsorbent was attributed to functionalized silica with many hydroxyl groups on its surface. An examination of the separation factors of water/ethanol revealed the modified silica to have preferential selectivity for water. Compared to activated carbon and silica, glucose-modified silica exhibited higher adsorption capacity for water under the same adsorption conditions. In addition, the glucose-modified silica adsorbent exhibited a relatively constant adsorption capacity for five adsorption/desorption cycles.

  9. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: an efficient and sustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Xiao, Langtao; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-08-26

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500 psi and 100 °C for 20 min (static extraction time: 5 min) is recommended as optimized extraction conditions, achieving 106.8%, 109.3% and 108.0% yield of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol relative to the yield of corresponding constituent obtained by 8h Soxhlet extraction (absolute ethanol as extraction solvent). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation of furans-rich synthetic hydrolysate by digestate-based pyrochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Monlau, F; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Barakat, A

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a sustainable pathway to transform renewable biomasses into both biofuels and advanced carbonaceous materials (i.e. pyrochar) which can be used as adsorbent of furan compounds. In particular, the aim of this study was to: i) evaluate the effect of vibro-ball milling on physical characteristics of pyrochar and its consequent performance on solely detoxification of a synthetic medium, containing furans and soluble sugars; ii) study the simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation, by adding activated pyrochar into fermentation medium. Results demonstrated that, compared to untreated pyrochar, the use of milled pyrochar increased by 52% furfural removal from the synthetic medium. Furfural removal rate was also increased (adsorption kinetic constant increased from 0.015 min -1 up to 0.215 min -1 ), at a pyrochar loading of 40 g L -1 . Although, the simultaneous addition of pyrochar into the fermentation medium did not improve the bioethanol yield of the synthetic medium, it has significantly increased the bioethanol production rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of D-tagatose and bioethanol from onion waste by an intergrating bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-10-20

    The rapid increase of agricultural waste is becoming a burgeoning problem and considerable efforts are being made by numerous researchers to convert it into a high-value resource material. Onion waste is one of the biggest issues in a world of dwindling resource. In this study, the potential of onion juice residue (OJR) for producing valuable rare sugar or bioethanol was evaluated. Purified Paenibacillus polymyxaL-arabinose isomerase (PPAI) has a molecular weight of approximately 53kDa, and exhibits maximal activity at 30°C and pH 7.5 in the presence of 0.8mM Mn 2+ . PPAI can produce 0.99g D-tagatose from 10g OJR. In order to present another application for OJR, we produced 1.56g bioethanol from 10g OJR through a bioconversion and fermentation process. These results indicate that PPAI can be used for producing rare sugars in an industrial setting, and OJR can be converted to D-tagatose and bioethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of energy policy in renewable energy accomplishment: The case of second-generation bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy has been in the limelight ever since the price of crude petroleum oil increases to the unprecedented height of US$96 per barrel recently. This is due to the diminishing oil reserves in the world and political instabilities in some oil-exporting countries. The advantages of renewable energy compared to fossil fuels are enormous in terms of environment and availability. Biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel are currently being produced from agricultural products such as sugarcane and rapeseed oil, respectively. Collectively, these biofuels from food sources are known as first-generation biofuels. Although first-generation biofuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels as the main source of energy supply, its production is surrounded by certain issues like tropical forests' destruction. Instead, second-generation bioethanol, which utilizes non-edible sources such as lignocellulose biomass to produce ethanol, has been shown to be more suitable as the source of renewable energy. However, there are challenges and obstacles such as cost, technology and environmental issues that need to be overcome. Hence, the introduction of energy policy is crucial in promoting and implementing second-generation bioethanol effectively and subsequently become a major source of renewable energy

  13. Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Lozano, L.J.; Godinez, C.; Juan, D.; Perez, A.; Hernandez, F.J. [Technical University of Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, C/Dr. Fleming S/N, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (R = 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90 C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700 rpm for 420 min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30 C, 125 rpm, 200 g/L of sugars and 15 g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95 g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24 h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process. (author)

  14. Purification Simulation With Vapor Permeation and Distillation-Adsorption In Bioethanol Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misri Gozan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High purity of Bioethanol is required in biofuel mixing with gasoline (EXX. In bioethanol production line, the azeotropic property of ethanol-water becomes the barrier for purification process. This study examined two bioethanol separation processes by support of simulation tools, Superpro Designer 9.0 software. Ethanol purity and a low costeconomical process were the major considerations. Purification method of vapor permeation membrane technology was compared with distillation-adsorption method. Data from previous lab experiments and some literatures were used. The results showed that distillation-adsorption method is more economical compared to vapor permeation technology. Payback period of the simulation is 3.9 years and 4.3 years to distillation adsorption and vapor permeation respectively with each IRR value is 20.23% and 17.89%. Initial investment value of vapor permeation is 9.6% higher than distillation method. Significant difference observed in operating costs, since more units involved in vapor permeation require more labors to operate.

  15. Potential bioethanol feedstock availability around nine locations in the Republic of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverell, R.; McDonnell, K.; Devlin, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland, like many other countries is trying to diversify energy sources to counteract environmental, political and social concerns. Bioethanol from domestically grown agricultural crops is an indigenously produced alternative fuel that can potentially go towards meeting the goal of diversified energy supply. The Republic of Ireland's distribution of existing soils and agricultural land-uses limit arable crop land to around 10% of total agricultural area. Demand for land to produce arable crops is expected to decrease, which could open the opportunity for bioethanol production. Bioethanol production plants are required to be of a sufficient scale in order to compete economically with other fuel sources, it is important therefore to determine if enough land exists around potential ethanol plant locations to meet the potential demands for feedstock. This study determines, through the use of a developed GIS based model, the potential quantities of feedstock that is available in the hinterlands of nine locations in the Republic of Ireland. The results indicate that three locations can meet all its feedstock demands using indigenously grown sugarbeet, while only one location can meet its demands using a combination of indigenous wheat and straw as the two locally sourced feedstocks. (author)

  16. Potential Bioethanol Feedstock Availability Around Nine Locations in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Deverell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Ireland, like many other countries is trying to diversify energy sources to counteract environmental, political and social concerns. Bioethanol from domestically grown agricultural crops is an indigenously produced alternative fuel that can potentially go towards meeting the goal of diversified energy supply. The Republic of Ireland’s distribution of existing soils and agricultural land-uses limit arable crop land to around 10% of total agricultural area. Demand for land to produce arable crops is expected to decrease, which could open the opportunity for bioethanol production. Bioethanol production plants are required to be of a sufficient scale in order to compete economically with other fuel sources, it is important therefore to determine if enough land exists around potential ethanol plant locations to meet the potential demands for feedstock. This study determines, through the use of a developed GIS based model, the potential quantities of feedstock that is available in the hinterlands of nine locations in the Republic of Ireland. The results indicate that three locations can meet all its feedstock demands using indigenously grown sugarbeet, while only one location can meet its demands using a combination of indigenous wheat and straw as the two locally sourced feedstocks.

  17. Emerging bio-ethanol projects in Nigeria. Their opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohimain, Elijah I.

    2010-01-01

    Despite being a major petroleum producing and exporting country, Nigeria has for a long time imported refined petroleum products for domestic consumption. The country has recently made an entrance into the bio-energy sector by seeding the market with imported ethanol until enough capability exists for the domestic production of ethanol. The Nigerian Biofuel Policy was released in 2007 calling for the domestic production of bio-ethanol to meet the national demand of 5.14 billion litres/year. Some investors have responded by investing over $3.86 billion for the construction of 19 ethanol bio-refineries, 10,000 units of mini-refineries and feedstock plantations for the production of over 2.66 billion litres of fuel grade ethanol per annum. Also, another 14 new projects are in the offing. Of the 20 pioneer projects, 4 are at the conception phase, 8 are in the planning phase, and 7 are under construction with only 1 operational. The potential benefits of the emerging bio-ethanol projects include investment in the economy, employment, energy security and boost rural infrastructure, while the major challenge is land take (859,561 ha). This is the first time an attempt is been made to document the emerging bio-ethanol projects in Nigeria. (author)

  18. Pretreated of banana pseudo-stem as raw material for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy is needed to solve the energy problem, including bioethanol. Banana pseudo-stem is a lignocellulose material that can used to produce bioethanol. Banana pseudo-stem has 28.83% cellulose and 19.39% lignin. The amount of lignin will reduce by pretreatment process. Variations of pretreatment methods by autoclaving of banana-pseudo stem in a steam, 0.5N, 1N, 1.5N, 2N NaOH solutions for 90 minutes were employed. Then the preteated samples were further enzymatic hydrolysed for 24, 48, 72 hours. The fermentation method of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF was applied using cellulase enzyme and yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 120 hours. The variation of the pretreatment process by increasing of NaOH concentration solutions led to decreased the lignin content while increased in cellulose content. The lowest lignin content was 11.44% and the highest cellulose was 51.66%. The highest sugar content was 29.8 g/L (at pretreatment 2N NaOH solution, 72 hours hydrolysis. The highest bioethanol amount (4.32 g/L was produced from pretreated banana stem using 2N NaOH solution.

  19. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Nazarpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatment were first determined by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction and their best condition obtained with 1 mm particle size and 90 days pretreatment. Further morphological study on rubberwood with 1 mm particle size pretreated by fungus was performed by FT-IR spectra analysis and SEM observation and the result indicated the ability of this fungus for pretreatment. A study on enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in an increased sugar yield of 27.67% as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%. The maximum ethanol concentration and yield were 17.9 g/L and 53% yield, respectively, after 120 hours. The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood pretreated by C. subvermispora can be used as an alternative material for the enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

  20. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation conditions for improved bioethanol production from potato peel residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taher, Imen; Fickers, Patrick; Chniti, Sofien; Hassouna, Mnasser

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was the optimization of the enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues (PPR) for bioethanol production. The process included a pretreatment step followed by an enzyme hydrolysis using crude enzyme system composed of cellulase, amylase and hemicellulase, produced by a mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. Hydrothermal, alkali and acid pretreatments were considered with regards to the enhancement of enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues. The obtained results showed that hydrothermal pretreatment lead to a higher enzyme hydrolysis yield compared to both acid and alkali pretreatments. Enzyme hydrolysis was also optimized for parameters such as temperature, pH, substrate loading and surfactant loading using a response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions, 77 g L -1 of reducing sugars were obtained. Yeast fermentation of the released reducing sugars led to an ethanol titer of 30 g L -1 after supplementation of the culture medium with ammonium sulfate. Moreover, a comparative study between acid and enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues was investigated. Results showed that enzyme hydrolysis offers higher yield of bioethanol production than acid hydrolysis. These results highlight the potential of second generation bioethanol production from potato peel residues treated with onsite produced hydrolytic enzymes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:397-406, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes; Energie a partir de petit-lait : comparaison des filieres biogaz et bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  2. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    : a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy...

  3. Determination of total acidity index in bioethanol by automated potentiometric titration; Determinacao do indice de acidez total em bioetanol por titulacao potenciometrica automatizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Sidney Pereira; Ribeiro, Carla de Matos; Fraga, Isabel Cristina Serta; Goncalves, Mary Ane [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial], E-mail: spsobral@inmetro.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper determines the total acidity index of bioethanol by volumetric titration with potentiometric detection. Also, viewing the optimization of the method, studies are exhibited related to the repeatable, besides the comparison with the colorimetric method with the objective to contribute to the certification of bioethanol reference materials.

  4. Strategy for Adapting Wine Yeasts for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Lankford

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains 71B-1122 and K1-V1116 were used to derive strains that could tolerate and produce higher ethanol yields. Respiratory-deficient mutants resistant to 500 mg/mL lycorine were isolated. Two mutants, 71B-1122 YEBr L3 and K1-V1116 YEBr L4, were shown to achieve about 10% and 18% improvement in their glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency compared to their respective parent strains. The K1-V1116 YEBr L4 in particular can tolerate an ethanol yield of 18.8 ± 0.8% at 3.5 weeks of fermentation and continued to consume most of the sugar until less than 1% glucose was left.

  5. [Syk inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-07-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in the University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is known to be essential for the various physiological functions, especially in hematopoietic lineage cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Recently, novel Syk inhibitors were developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure, and function of Syk, and then describe the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. Furthermore, we will introduce our findings of the adaptor protein 3BP2 (c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2), as a novel target of Syk.

  6. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangli; Ximenes, Eduardo; Nichols, Nancy N; Zhang, Leyu; Ladisch, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Removal of enzyme inhibitors released during lignocellulose pretreatment is essential for economically feasible biofuel production. We tested bio-abatement to mitigate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in corn stover liquors after pretreatment with either dilute acid or liquid hot water at 10% (w/v) solids. Bio-abatement of liquors was followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. To distinguish between inhibitor effects on enzymes and recalcitrance of the substrate, pretreated corn stover solids were removed and replaced with 1% (w/v) Solka Floc. Cellulose conversion in the presence of bio-abated liquors from dilute acid pretreatment was 8.6% (0.1x enzyme) and 16% (1x enzyme) higher than control (non-abated) samples. In the presence of bio-abated liquor from liquid hot water pretreated corn stover, 10% (0.1x enzyme) and 13% (1x enzyme) higher cellulose conversion was obtained compared to control. Bio-abatement yielded improved enzyme hydrolysis in the same range as that obtained using a chemical (overliming) method for mitigating inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Syk inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjo, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-01-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is most highly expressed by haemopoietic cells and known to play crucial roles in the signal transduction through various immunoreceptors of the adaptive immune response. However, recent reports demonstrate that Syk also mediates other biological functions, such as innate immune response, osteoclast maturation, platelet activation and cellular adhesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Because of its critical roles on the cellular functions, the development of Syk inhibitors for clinical use has been desired. Although many candidate compounds were produced, none of them had progressed to clinical trials. However, novel Syk inhibitors were finally developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure and function of Syk, and then the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. In addition, we will introduce our research focused on the functions of Syk on Dectin-1-mediated mast cell activation.

  8. Prioritization of Bioethanol Production Pathways in China based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study objectives are two-fold: (i) combining the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework and the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology for sustainability assessment; (ii) determining the most sustainable scenario for bioethanol production in China according......’s proposed method investigates an illustrative case about three alternative bioethanol production scenarios (wheat-based, corn-based and cassava-based): the prior sequence (based on the sustainability performances) in descending order is cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based. The proposed methodology...... is to test the combination of a MCDM methodology and LCSA for sustainability decision-making by studying three alternative pathways for bioethanol production in China. The proposed method feasibly enables the decision-makers/stakeholders to find the most sustainable scenario to achieve their objectives among...

  9. Possibility of content change in bioethanol gasoline during pre-treatment process for using accelerator mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Yunoki, Shunji; Suzuki, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to determine the bioethanol content of E3 gasoline by applying ASTM D6866 method B. In the pre-treatment process using accelerator mass spectroscopy(AMS), the graphite samples were prepared from E3 gasoline. Three portions of the same graphite sample were measured, and the contents agreed within the measurement error of AMS. The graphite samples prepared from eight portions of the same E3 gasoline sample were measured, but the accuracy was insufficient. There are many kinds of hydrocarbon compounds in the gasoline and their boiling points are different. The content of bioethanol was found to decrease with vaporization when E3 gasoline was placed in open air. A very small amount of E3 gasoline is pre-treated for AMS and the volatile loss cannot be ignored. It seems that the content change of bioethanol was caused by vaporization of E3 gasoline during the pre-treatment process. (author)

  10. Removal of the Fermentation Inhibitor, Furfural, Using Activated Carbon in Cellulosic-Ethanol Production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kuang

    2011-12-21

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation; however, some byproducts from lignocellulosics, such as furfural compounds, are highly inhibitory to the fermentation and can substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. In this study, commercial and polymer-derived activated carbons were utilized to selectively remove the model fermentation inhibitor, furfural, from water solution during bioethanol production. The oxygen functional groups on the carbon surface were found to influence the selectivity of sorbents between inhibitors and sugars during the separation. After inhibitors were selectively removed from the broth, the cell growth and ethanol production efficiency was recovered noticeably in the fermentation. A sorption/desorption cycle was designed, and the sorbents were regenerated in a fixed-bed column system using ethanol-containing standard solution. Dynamic mass balance was obtained after running four or five cycles, and regeneration results were stable even after twenty cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Optimization of hydrogen production with CO_2 capture by autothermal chemical-looping reforming using different bioethanol purities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díez, E.; García-Labiano, F.; De Diego, L.F.; Abad, A.; Gayán, P.; Adánez, J.; Ruíz, J.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Autothermal-CLR and WGS have been considered for H_2 production with CO_2 capture. • Bioethanol was used as renewable fuel. • Mass and heat balances allow process optimization. • The use of diluted bioethanol implies energy saves in the bioethanol production. • The use of diluted bioethanol (52 vol.%) produces 4.62 mol H_2/mol ethanol. - Abstract: Autothermal Chemical-Looping Reforming (a-CLR) is a process which allows hydrogen production avoiding the environmental penalty of CO_2 emission typically produced in other processes. The major advantage of this technology is that the heat needed for syngas production is generated by the process itself. The heat necessary for the endothermic reactions is supplied by a Ni-based oxygen-carrier (OC) circulating between two reactors: the air reactor (AR), where the OC is oxidized by air, and the fuel reactor (FR), where the fuel is converted to syngas. Other important advantage is that this process also allows the production of pure N_2 in the AR outlet stream. A renewable fuel such as bioethanol was chosen in this work due to their increasing worldwide production and the current excess of this fuel presented by different countries. In this work, mass and heat balances were done to determine the auto-thermal conditions that maximize H_2 production, assuming that the product gas was in thermodynamic equilibrium. Three different types of bioethanol has been considered according to their ethanol purity; Dehydrated ethanol (≈100 vol.%), hydrated ethanol (≈96 vol.%), and diluted ethanol (≈52 vol.%). It has been observed that the higher H_2 production (4.62 mol of H_2 per mol of EtOH) has been obtained with the use of diluted ethanol and the surplus energy needed could be compensated by the energy save achieved during the purification of ethanol in the production process.

  12. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  13. Sugarcane bioethanol and the sustainable development; Alcool combustivel derivado da cana-de-acucar e o desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Rodrigo Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The use of the sugarcane bioethanol in Brazil was strongly boosted during the 1970 's and 1980 's, with the advent of the National Alcohol Programme (PROALCOOL). Following this period a decade of uncertainties came up, when the decline in the Program results were noticeable. Nowadays, it seems that new and good perspectives arise, due to the emergent external and internal markets. In this paper the evolution of the sugarcane bioethanol use in Brazil is addressed, stressing the importance and legacy of the PROALCOOL. The future perspectives of the alcohol are also discussed. (author)

  14. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  15. The Production of Bioethanol from Cashew Apple Juice by Batch Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2084 and Vin13

    OpenAIRE

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Rumbold, Karl; Iyuke, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol as a fossil fuel additive to decrease environmental pollution and reduce the stress of the decline in crude oil availability is becoming increasingly popular. This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of bioethanol obtainable from fermenting cashew apple juice by the microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2084 and Vin13. The fermentation conditions were as follows: initial sugar = 100 g/L, pH = 4.50, agitation = 150 rpm, temperatures = 30°C (Y2084) and 20°C (Vin13), oxygen sa...

  16. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  17. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin’e; Lin, Bin-Le; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×10 5 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×10 5 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  18. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  19. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical of Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rise Flour by Distillation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sari

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained experimentally study the composition of bioethanol a maximum of 95% to 96%, the results of experiments and simulations EWI ternary system form the temperature profile, the profile of the composition of liquid and vapor composition profile dimensionless time functions both at the bottom and in the distillate shows the results of the same approach. The simulation results before used reference in experiments performed the validation beforehand, so that the ternary system simulation EWI after validation of reference can be used in experiments.

  1. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF THE PROCESS OF DEHYDRATION OF BIOETHANOL TO ETHYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. S. S. Maia

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of carbon-based waste biomass in the production of plastics can partially meet the growing demand for plastics in the near future. An interest in the production of ethylene from bioethanol has been renewing, motivated mainly by environmental appeal and economics. The main objective of this work is the development of a mathematical model for simulation and optimization of the production of ethylene by the dehydration of ethanol, improving the performance of the process. The phenomenological model proposed is based on mass, momentum and energy balances for the process. The results obtained are satisfactory in comparison with theoretical results and experimental data found in the literature.

  2. Modeling Separation Dynamics in a Multi-Tray Bio-Ethanol Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    the product quality and energy consumption in a typical bio-ethanol distillation column is proposed in this paper. The proposed model is derived based on mass and energy balance principles, with an empirical model of the evaporation dynamics of liquids on column trays. The model parameters are identified......The high energy consumption of popularly used distillation columns has motivated development of energytracking dynamic models with the ultimate objective for potential better energy and quality control of these separation facilities. A dynamic model being able to explicitly describe both...

  3. Evaluation of the parameters effects on the bio-ethanol production process from Ricotta Cheese Whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2010-01-01

    composite design, constituted by 26 runs, has been carried out, and the effects of the parameters have been evaluated. Eventually, once eliminated the negligible effects, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied to optimize the four parameters values in RCW fermentation process. After......The work consists of an experimental analysis to evaluate the effects of the variables temperature (T), pH, agitation rate (K) and initial lactose concentration (L) on the batch fermentation process of Ricotta Cheese Whey (RCW) into bio-ethanol by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A central...

  4. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149 kg of EtOH and 115 kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp....... Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery....

  5. Purifying, concentrating and anhydriding bio-ethanol: Alternative process schemes and innovative separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreri, G.; Lovati, A.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the conventional process scheme for bio-ethanol production, this paper illustrates how the anhydriding section, which incorporates an azeotropic distillation process, can be conveniently substituted with a plate and frame pervaporation process which makes use of optimum heat exchange with the stripping section. This technical feasibility study, which proves the superior energy efficiency of the pervaporation scheme as compared with the conventional scheme, is followed by a cost benefit analysis which evidences the economic benefits also to be had with pervaporation

  6. Bioethanol production from waste bread samples made from mixtures of wheat and buckwheat flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ačanski, Marijana; Pastor, Kristian; Razmovski, Radojka; Vučurović, Vesna; Psodorov, Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper yields of bioethanol from seven samples of bread were compared. Samples of bread were produced and prepared in a laboratory by mixing wheat and buckwheat flour in amounts of 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100%. At first, the analysis of all seven samples of bread was done (dry matter, starch content and pH value of bread sample suspensions). Then the waste bread suspensions were hydrolyzed by applying commercial hydrolytic enzymes, Termamyl® SC and SAN Extra® L. The fermentation proc...

  7. Fermentable sugars and microbial inhibitors formation from two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... under low severity factor and its enzymatic degradability was investigated in this ... The highest glucan conversion and recovery at the optimum conditions were ... reduce microbial inhibitors formation and excessive biomass processing cost.

  8. Development of eco-friendly process for the production of bioethanol from banana peel using inhouse developed cocktail of thermo-alkali-stable depolymerizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Heena; Chauhan, Prakram Singh; General, Thiyam; Sharma, A K

    2018-03-29

    Conversion of agro-industrial wastes to energy is an innovative approach for waste valorization and management which also mitigates environmental pollution. In this view, present study investigated the feasibility of producing bioethanol from banana peels using cocktail of depolymerizing enzyme/s. We isolated Geobacillus stearothermophilus HPA19 from natural resource which produces cocktail of thermo-alkali-stable xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzyme/s using wheat bran within 24 h. The optimal temperature and pH for xylanase, filter paper cellulase and pectinase were 80, 70 and 80 °C, and 9.0, 8.0 and 9.0, respectively. Cocktail enzymes showed stability at high temperature (80 °C) and pH (10.0). Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ promoted the relative activity of xylanase and FPase, whereas Na + , Ca 2+ and K + promoted pectinase activity. Cocktail was assessed in saccharification of banana peel. Reducing sugar obtained (37.06 mg ml -1 ) after one variable at a time (OVAT) method is greatly influenced by enzyme dose. Further, response surface methodology was used to optimize saccharification leading to twofold increase in reducing sugar. Maximum ethanol production (21.1 gl -1 ) was achieved through fermentation giving the efficiency of 76.5% within 30 h. Hence utilization of waste biomass for production of value-added products through biotechnological intervention not only helps to combat environmental pollution but also contributes significantly to the economy.

  9. Reduction of water consumption in bioethanol production from triticale by recycling the stillage liquid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumienna, Małgorzata; Lasik, Małgorzata; Szambelan, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The distillery stillage is a major and arduous byproduct generated during ethanol production in distilleries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the stillage recirculation in the mashing process of triticale for non-byproducts production and reducing the fresh water consumption. The number of recirculation cycles which can be applied without disturbances in the ethanol fermentation process was investigated. Winter triticale BOGO and "Ethanol Red" Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were used in the experiments. The method of non-pressure cooking was used for gelatinizingthe triticale, commercial α-amylase SPEZYME ETHYL and glucoamylase FERMENZYME L-400 were applied for starch liquefaction and saccharification. The process was conducted at 30°C for 72 h, next after distillation the stillage was centrifuged and the liquid fraction was used instead of 75% of process water. Ethanol yield from triticale fermentations during 40 cycles ranged between 82% and 95% of theoretical yield preserving yeast vitality and quantity on the same level. The obtained distillates were characterized with enhanced volatile compounds (fusel oil, esters, aldehydes, methanol) as well as protein and potassium concentrations. The liquid part of stillage was proved that can be reused instead of water in bioethanol production from triticale, without disturbing the fermentation process. This investigated solution of distillery byproducts utilization (liquid phase of stillage) constitutes the way which could significantly decrease the bioethanol production costs by reducing the water consumption, as well as wastewater production.

  10. Combined Biogas and Bioethanol Production: Opportunities and Challenges for Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cesaro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the increasing energy requirements along with the need to face the consequences of climate change have driven the search for renewable energy sources, in order to replace as much as possible the use of fossil fuels. In this context biomass has generated great interest as it can be converted into energy via several routes, including fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The former is the most common option to produce ethanol, which has been recognized as one of the leading candidates to substitute a large fraction of the liquid fuels produced from oil. As the economic competitiveness of bioethanol fermentation processes has to be enhanced in order to promote its wider implementation, the most recent trends are directed towards the use of fermentation by-products within anaerobic digestion. The integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion, in a biorefinery concept, would allow the production of ethanol along with that of biogas, which can be used to produce heat and electricity, thus improving the overall energy balance. This work aims at reviewing the main studies on the combination of both bioethanol and biogas production processes, in order to highlight the strength and weakness of the integrated treatment for industrial application.

  11. Investigation of Bioethanol Productivity from Sargassum sp. (Brown Seaweed) by Pressure Cooker and Steam Cooker Pretreatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu Wah; Kyaw Nyein Aye; Tint Tint Kyaw; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2011-12-01

    Production of biothanol from Sargassum sp. (Brown seaweed) is more suitable than using any other raw materials because it can easily collect on Chaung Tha Beach in Myanmar without any environmental damages. In this regard an attempt for bioethanol production from sargassum sp. by separation hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) with saccharomyces cerevisiae was made. Sargassum sp. was pretreated with steam cooker at 120 C and 1 bar for 30 min and pressure cooker at 65 C for 2 hour. The pretreated sargassum sp. was liquefied with the crude enzyme from Trichoderma sp. at the temperature of 50 C and pH of 4 for the first liquefaction step and 95 C, pH of 5 and enzyme of SPEZYME FERD were employed for the second liquefaction step. OPTIDEX L-400 was used as saccharified enzyme with the temperature of 65 C and pH of 4.5 at saccharification step. The process of fermentation was followed by distillation at 78 C for alcohol extraction. Concentrations of crude ethanol were about 1.8% by using steam cooker and 2% for pressure cooker treatment with enzyme mediated saccharification followed by yeast fermentation. Yields of bioethanol were 23% for pressure cooker treatment and 21% for steam cooker treatment at SHF process.

  12. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  13. Study of Application of Vinasse from Bio-ethanol Production to Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Shinogi, Yoshiyuki

    During bio-ethanol production from sugarcane molasses, large amounts of vinasse, which is strongly acidic with high COD and BOD, is produced as a by-product. Disposal of vinasse is one restrictive problem for sustainable bio-ethanol production. In this study, possible application of vinasse to farmland was investigated. First, the staple characteristics of vinasse were determined. Second, availability of nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium to crops and dynamics in the soil environment were studied in the laboratory, and crop growth experiments were carried out in the field. Farmland application of vinasse as a substitute for one third of the potassium showed no significant damage to the growth of red-radishes and tomatoes. When large amounts of vinasse are applied to farmland as a substitution for the nitrogen in traditional chemical fertilizers, nitrogen-hunger especially immediately after application is expected. In addition, it is necessary to take into consideration the leaching of ions and the dark material in the vinasse for proper timing of application and soil conditions.

  14. Genomic reconstruction to improve bioethanol and ergosterol production of industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Kehui; Di, Yanan; Wang, Pinmei; Zhang, Chunfang; Wu, Xuechang; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2015-02-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is the common yeast used in the fields of bread making, brewing, and bioethanol production. Growth rate, stress tolerance, ethanol titer, and byproducts yields are some of the most important agronomic traits of S. cerevisiae for industrial applications. Here, we developed a novel method of constructing S. cerevisiae strains for co-producing bioethanol and ergosterol. The genome of an industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, was first reconstructed through treatment with an antimitotic drug followed by sporulation and hybridization. A total of 140 mutants were selected for ethanol fermentation testing, and a significant positive correlation between ergosterol content and ethanol production was observed. The highest performing mutant, ZG27, produced 7.9 % more ethanol and 43.2 % more ergosterol than ZTW1 at the end of fermentation. Chromosomal karyotyping and proteome analysis of ZG27 and ZTW1 suggested that this breeding strategy caused large-scale genome structural variations and global gene expression diversities in the mutants. Genetic manipulation further demonstrated that the altered expression activity of some genes (such as ERG1, ERG9, and ERG11) involved in ergosterol synthesis partly explained the trait improvement in ZG27.

  15. Two-steps microwave-assisted treatment on acid hydrolysis of sago pith for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti, T. C.; Yanti, S. D.; Ruriani, E.

    2017-05-01

    Sago is a genus of palm that can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars as substrate for bioethanol. Sago pith is a heterogeneous substrate consists of starch and fiber. Acid hydrolysis by microwave heating radiation can break down starch and fibers together in a very short time, so it is considered to be very efficient process. The use of microwave energy (as power level) and variation of heating time can produce fermentable sugar with certain characteristics. This study included the preparation and analysis of sago pith flour; process of acid hydrolysis (0.3 M and 0.5 M H2SO4) using two steps microwave heating, first with power level 30% (1, 2 and 3 min) and second with power level 70% (3 min); and ethanol production. The conventional treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min) was carried for the comparison. The highest fermentable sugar (105.7 g/l) was resulted from microwave heating with power level 30% for 2 min followed by the power level 70% for 3 min. This hydrolyzate then used as substrate for bioethanol fermentation and partially neutralized (pH 3, 4, 5) by using yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, and the highest ethanol (2.8 g/l) was produced in pH 5.

  16. Enhanced Bioethanol Production from Potato Peel Waste Via Consolidated Bioprocessing with Statistically Optimized Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Tahmina; Miah, Abdul Bathen; Mahmud, Siraje Arif; Mahin, Abdullah-Al-

    2018-04-12

    In this study, an extensive screening was undertaken to isolate some amylolytic microorganisms capable of producing bioethanol from starchy biomass through Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP). A total of 28 amylolytic microorganisms were isolated, from which 5 isolates were selected based on high α-amylase and glucoamylase activities and identified as Candida wangnamkhiaoensis, Hyphopichia pseudoburtonii (2 isolates), Wickerhamia sp., and Streptomyces drozdowiczii based on 26S rDNA and 16S rDNA sequencing. Wickerhamia sp. showed the highest ethanol production (30.4 g/L) with fermentation yield of 0.3 g ethanol/g starch. Then, a low cost starchy waste, potato peel waste (PPW) was used as a carbon source to produce ethanol by Wickerhamia sp. Finally, in order to obtain maximum ethanol production from PPW, a fermentation medium was statistically designed. The effect of various medium ingredients was evaluated initially by Plackett-Burman design (PBD), where malt extracts, tryptone, and KH 2 PO 4 showed significantly positive effect (p value < 0.05). Using Response Surface Modeling (RSM), 40 g/L (dry basis) PPW and 25 g/L malt extract were found optimum and yielded 21.7 g/L ethanol. This study strongly suggests Wickerhamia sp. as a promising candidate for bioethanol production from starchy biomass, in particular, PPW through CBP.

  17. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical screening and selection of sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, S.; Aqil, T.; Tahir, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at the screening of four cultivars of sorghums as a feedstock for bioethanol production. The straw of these varieties were subjected to pretreatment (dilute sulfuric acid) followed by enzyme hydrolysis to evaluate their potential to produce sugars. Four factor full factorial experimental design (2*2*2*4=32) was used to investigate the effects of experimental factors; sorghum varieties (84-Y-01, 85-G-86, Mr. Buster and RARI S-3), acid concentration (1 and 2%), temperature (121 and 140 degree C) and pretreatment time (30 and 60 min). The tested sorghum varieties follow the order 85-G-86 (47 g/100g) > Mr. Buster (44.6 g/100g) > 84-Y-01 (42 g/100g) > RARI S-3 (36 g/100g) for their sugar yield. The factors followed given order of significance; variety > temperature > acid concentration > pretreatment time. Sorghum variety (85-G-86) was selected as an appropriate feedstock for bioethanol production due to its higher sugar yield and lower concentration of by-products and furans. (author)

  19. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two stage bioethanol refining with multi litre stacked microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Gloriod, Olivier; Huguenin, Gérald; Blatter, Maxime; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Ethanol, electricity, hydrogen and methane were produced in a two stage bioethanol refinery setup based on a 10L microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a 33L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC was a triple stack for ethanol and electricity co-generation. The stack configuration produced more ethanol with faster glucose consumption the higher the stack potential. Under electrolytic conditions ethanol productivity outperformed standard conditions and reached 96.3% of the theoretically best case. At lower external loads currents and working potentials oscillated in a self-synchronized manner over all three MFC units in the stack. In the second refining stage, fermentation waste was converted into methane, using the scale up MEC stack. The bioelectric methanisation reached 91% efficiency at room temperature with an applied voltage of 1.5V using nickel cathodes. The two stage bioethanol refining process employing bioelectrochemical reactors produces more energy vectors than is possible with today's ethanol distilleries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  2. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  3. Dilute Ionic Liquids Pretreatment of Palm Empty Bunch and Its Impact to Produce Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Arianie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production through ionic liquids pretreatment of palm empty bunch (PEB was carried out. This research aims to investigate impact of ionic liquids synthetic i.e 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazoliumbromide or [BMIM]bromide toward cellulose’s palm empty bunch and convert its cellulose into bioethanol. Ionic liquid was synthesized  through reflux and microwave assisted synthesis methods. Research investigation showed that microwave assisted synthesis produce [BMIM]bromide 90% faster than reflux method. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. Scanning electron microscope figure out changes morphological surface of palm empty bunch caused by ionic liquid pretreatment. Crystallinity index of PEB milled and cellulose of PEFB after [BMIM]bromide dissolution were identified using comparison of PEB FTIR spectrum. Cellulose without dilute [BMIM]bromide have higher LOI number than cellulose after [BMIM]bromide dissolution. It indicated that a large part of cellulose after dissolution has been changed into amorf. Hydrolysis residue of palm empty bunch hydrolyzed by sulfuric acids 5%, 100 0C for 5 hours and produce 685 ppm of reducing sugar. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation using Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyce cerevisiae  for 5 days produce 0,69% of bioethanol.

  4. Dilute Ionic Liquids Pretreatment of Palm Empty Bunch and Its Impact to Produce Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Arianie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production through ionic liquids pretreatment of palm empty bunch (PEB was carried out. This research aims to investigate impact of ionic liquids synthetic i.e 1-butyl- 3-methyl imidazoliumbromide or [BMIM]bromide toward cellulose’s palm empty bunch and convert its cellulose into bioethanol. Ionic liquid was synthesized through reflux and microwave assisted synthesis methods. Research investigation showed that microwave assisted synthesis produce [BMIM]bromide 90% faster than reflux method. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. Scanning electron microscope figure out changes morphological surface of palm empty bunch caused by ionic liquid pretreatment. Crystallinity index of PEB milled and cellulose of PEFB after [BMIM]bromide dissolution were identified using comparison of PEB FTIR spectrum. Cellulose without dilute [BMIM]bromide have higher LOI number than cellulose after [BMIM]bromide dissolution. It indicated that a large part of cellulose after dissolution has been changed into amorf. Hydrolysis residue of palm empty bunch hydrolyzed by sulfuric acids 5%, 100 0C for 5 hours and produce 685 ppm of reducing sugar. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation using Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyce cerevisiae for 5 days produce 0,69% of bioethanol.

  5. Copper based anodes for bio-ethanol fueled low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondakindi, R.R.; Karan, K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Laboratory studies have been conducted to develop a low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) fueled by bio-ethanol. SOFCs are considered to be a potential source for clean and efficient electricity. The use of bio-ethanol to power the SOFC contributes even further to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The main barrier towards the development of the proposed SOFC is the identification of a suitable anode catalyst that prevents coking during electro-oxidation of ethanol while yielding good electrical performance. Copper was selected as the catalyst for this study. Composite anodes consisting of copper catalysts and gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) electrolytes were prepared using screen printing of GDC and copper oxide on dense GDC electrolytes and by wet impregnation of copper nitrate in porous GDC electrolytes followed by calcination and sintering. The electrical conductivity of the prepared anodes was characterized to determine the percolation threshold. Temperature-programmed reduction and the Brunner Emmett Teller (BET) methods were used to quantify the catalyst dispersion and surface area. Electrochemical performance of the single-cell SOFC with a hydrogen-air system was used to assess the catalytic activities. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was used to probe the electrode kinetics.

  6. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqiong Zheng

    Full Text Available The application of active dry yeast (ADY in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  7. The bioethanol from bagasse with the approach of discontinuous systems and the delay phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albernas Carvajal, Yailet; Gonzalez Cortes, Meilyn; Mesa Garriga, Leyanis; Pedraza Garciga, Julio; Gonzalez Suarez, Erenio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper was analyzed the Bioethanol technology from bagasse considering discontinuous systems' and the delay phenomena. This technology have two stages that are key to succeed in obtaining the fermentable sugars, they are the pretreatment stage and enzymatic hydrolysis for subsequent fermentation. The great obstacle of the two latter stages, is that for best results, need long residence times (and this is where the delay phenomena it appears). For that reason the analysis require a study on how to carry out to ensure that the process global continuous. The enzymatic hydrolysis stage last an average of 24 h, while fermentation stage is accomplishes in 12 h. In this paper, the bioethanol technology was studied taking into account the basic concepts of discontinuous systems. Different technological configurations were studied, obtaining the best configuration: the presaccharification process, according to technical and economics criterions. The process profitability is achieved considering the total process as a bio refinery, which allows the production of high added value by-products such as furfural. (author)

  8. Optimization of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions with amphipathic lignin derivatives for concentrated bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ningning; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoko; Takasuka, Taichi E; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2017-05-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) prepared from the black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar are strong accelerators for bioethanol production under a fed-batch simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. To improve the bioethanol production concentration, conditions such as reaction temperature, stirring program, and A-LDs loadings were optimized in both small scale and large scale fed-batch SSF. The fed-batch SSF in the presence of 3.0g/L A-LDs at 38°C gave the maximum ethanol production and a high enzyme recovery rate. Furthermore, a jar-fermenter equipped with a powerful mechanical stirrer was designed for 1.5L-scale fed-batch SSF to achieve rigorous mixing during high substrate loading. Finally, the 1.5L fed-batch SSF with a substrate loading of 30% (w/v) produced a high ethanol concentration of 87.9g/L in the presence of A-LDs under optimized conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Fenton process combined with coagulation for the treatment of black liquor from bioethanol wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Hanifah, Ummu; Amriani, Feni; Ibadurrahman, Ahmad Faiz; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-11-01

    High amounts of black liquor are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. The black liquor is waste from alkaline pretreatment, it contains high amount of an alkaline solution (NaOH). The black liquor wastewater was highly contaminated with organic materials, and quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. This study aimed to determine ability of Fenton process combined with coagulation to treat black liquor. The addition 5% of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) could decolorized black liquor, degraded lignin, and produced sludge 70.64%, 68.28%, and 2.76 gram, respectively. Decolorization of black liquor was in line with degradation of black liquor because lignin is the main compound in black liquor. SEM images after addition of PAC of 5% indicated fragmentation of structure. Fenton reagent consist of 0.7 M FeSO4+ 3M H2O2 has able to decolorize black liquor, degrade lignin, and produce sludge 51.67% and 25.44%, and 0.44 gram, respectively. It was concluded that black liquor wastewater from bioethanol can be treated by using Fenton process combined with coagulation. However, these methods still need improvement to obtain the higher degradation rate, and coagulation sludge needs further consideration.

  10. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  11. Comparing centralised and decentralised anaerobic digestion of stillage from a large-scale bioethanol plant to animal feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, B; Wirthensohn, T; Konrad, G; Hornbachner, D; Resch, C; Wäger, F; Loderer, C; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of stillage treatment options for large-scale bioethanol plants was based on the data of an existing plant producing approximately 200,000 t/yr of bioethanol and 1,400,000 t/yr of stillage. Animal feed production--the state-of-the-art technology at the plant--was compared to anaerobic digestion. The latter was simulated in two different scenarios: digestion in small-scale biogas plants in the surrounding area versus digestion in a large-scale biogas plant at the bioethanol production site. Emphasis was placed on a holistic simulation balancing chemical parameters and calculating logistic algorithms to compare the efficiency of the stillage treatment solutions. For central anaerobic digestion different digestate handling solutions were considered because of the large amount of digestate. For land application a minimum of 36,000 ha of available agricultural area would be needed and 600,000 m(3) of storage volume. Secondly membrane purification of the digestate was investigated consisting of decanter, microfiltration, and reverse osmosis. As a third option aerobic wastewater treatment of the digestate was discussed. The final outcome was an economic evaluation of the three mentioned stillage treatment options, as a guide to stillage management for operators of large-scale bioethanol plants. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  12. 1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    production comparable to gasoline production in terms of energy loss. Utilisation of biomass in the energy sector is inevitably linked to the utilisation of land. This is a key difference between fossil and bio based energy systems. Thus evaluations of bioethanol production based on energy balances alone...

  13. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from...

  14. Isolation and characterization of marine bacteria from macroalgae Gracilaria salicornia and Gelidium latifolium on agarolitic activity for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaroe, M.; Pratiwi, I.; Sunudin, A.

    2017-05-01

    Gracilaria salicornia and Gelidium latifolium have high content of agar and potential to be use as raw material for bioethanol. In bioethanol production, one of the processes level is enzyme hydrolysis. Various microorganisms, one of which is bacteria, can carry out the enzyme hydrolysis. Bacteria that degrade the cell walls of macroalgae and produce an agarase enzyme called agarolytic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacteria from macroalgae G. salicornia and G. latifolium, which has the highest agarase enzyme activities, and to obtain agarase enzyme characteristic for bioethanol production. There are two isolates bacteria resulted from G. salicornia that are N1 and N3 and there are two isolates from G. latifolium that are BSUC2 and BSUC4. The result of agarase enzyme qualitative test showed that isolates bacteria from G. latifolium were greater than G. salicornia. The highest agarolitic index of bacteria from G. salicornia produced by isolate N3 was 2.32 mm and isolate N3 was 2.27 mm. Bacteria from G. latifolium produced by isolate BSUC4 was 4.28 mm and isolate BSUC2 was 4.18 mm, respectively. Agarase enzyme activities from isolates N1 and N3 were optimum working at pH 7 and temperature 30 °C, while from isolates BSUC4 was optimum at pH 7 and temperature 50 °C. This is indicated that the four bacteria are appropriate to hydrolyze macro alga for bioethanol production.

  15. An integral analysis for second generation bioethanol production via a dynamic model-based simulation approach: stochastic nonlinear optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    of cellulose, co-fermentation of sugars and downstream processes for purification and recovery of most value-added products. The dynamic model involves both the mass and energy balances coupled with constitutive dynamic equations to assess the process yield and energy efficiency of different bioethanol...

  16. An integrated assessment of energy conversion processes by means of thermodynamic, economic and environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonon, S.; Brown, M.T.; Luchi, F.; Mirandola, A.; Stoppato, A.; Ulgiati, S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive method of analysis based on energetic, exergetic, emergetic and economic evaluations is proposed in the paper and the application presented. The method is applied to selected energy conversion processes (hydroelectric and thermoelectric ones and bioethanol production). Results are presented and compared while general considerations about the effectiveness of the different approaches are suggested. Emissions to the environment are also evaluated. Suitable performance indicators developed within the proposed methodological framework are defined and discussed accordingly. The method proposed here is addressed to policy makers, operators and designers working in the field of energy supply and conversion. In the authors' opinion, by jointly applying and comparing all of the methods suggested in the paper, valuable information about plant performance and possible areas of improvement are obtained. This can be helpful in the decision-making process

  17. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  18. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  19. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  20. Kinetic studies of adsorption in the bioethanol dehydration using polyvinyl alcohol, zeolite and activated carbon as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmono, J. A.; Pratiwi, I. M.; Sudibandriyo, M.; Haryono, A.; Saputra, A. H.

    2017-11-01

    Bioethanol is considered as the most promising alternative fuel in the future due to its abundant renewable sources. However, the result of bioethanol production process using fermentation contains 70% v/v, and it still needs simultaneous purification process. One of the most energy-efficient purification methods is adsorption. Specifically, the rate of adsorption is an important factor for evaluating adsorption performance. In this work, we have conducted an adsorption using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), zeolite and activated carbon as promising adsorbents in the bioethanol dehydration. This research aims to prove that PVA, zeolite, activated carbon is suitable to be used as adsorbent in bioethanol dehydration process through kinetics study and water adsorption selectivity performance. According to the results, PVA, zeolite and activated carbon are the potential materials as adsorbents in the bioethanol dehydration process. The kinetics study shows that 30°C temperature gave the optimum adsorption kinetics rate for PVA, zeolite, and activated carbon adsorbents which were 0.4911 min-1; 0.5 min-1; and 1.1272 min-1 respectively. In addition, it also shows that the activated carbon performed as a more potential adsorbent due to its higher pore volume and specific surface area properties. Based on the Arrhenius equation, the PVA works in the chemisorption mechanism, meanwhile zeolite and activated carbon work in the physisorption system as shown in the value of the activation energy which are 51.43 kJ/mole; 8.16 kJ/mole; and 20.30 kJ/mole. Whereas the water to ethanol selectivity study, we discover that zeolite is an impressive adsorbent compared to the others due to the molecular sieving characteristic of the material.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study on spray behaviors of modified bio-ethanol fuel employing direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremani Amirreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key solutions to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines is direct injection of bio-fuels. A new modified bio-ethanol is produced to be substituted by fossil fuels in gasoline direct injection engines. The key advantages of modified bio-ethanol fuel as an alternative fuel are higher octane number and oxygen content, a long-chain hydro-carbon fuel, and lower emissions compared to fossil fuels. In the present study spray properties of a modified bio-ethanol and its atomization behaviors have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Based on atomization physics of droplets dimensional analysis has been performed to develop a new non-dimensional number namely atomization index. This number determines the atomization level of the spray. Applying quasi-steady jet theory, air entrainment and fuel-air mixing studies have been performed. The spray atomization behaviors such as atomization index number, Ohnesorge number, and Sauter mean diameter have been investigated employing atomization model. The influences of injection and ambient conditions on spray properties of different blends of modified bio-ethanol and gasoline fuels have been investigated performing high-speed visualization technique. Results indicate that decreasing the difference of injection and ambient pressures increases spray cone angle and projected area, and decreases spray tip penetration length. As expected, increasing injection pressure improves atomization behaviors of the spray. Increasing percentage of modified bio-ethanol in the blend, increases spray tip penetration and decreases the projected area as well.

  2. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  3. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  4. Introduction: perspectives of bioethanol at the market of liquid fuels for light vehicles; Introducao: perspectivas do bioetanol no mercado de combustiveis liquidos para veiculos leves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    A significant expansion of the bioethanol production in Brazil could be a national developing project. As a matter of fact, aiming to reduce the dependence upon the fossil fuels, various countries have been incremented the use of bioethanol in their energetic matrix, not only to add directly to the gasoline but also to the fabrication of carburan. Many countries programs are specially highlighted, which have fixed goals of participation of biofuels in their matrixes to terms less than 20 years. In this book, the necessary conditions will be examined in order the Brazil to attend to sugar cane bioethanol world demand for replacing approximately 10% of the gasoline global consumption in the year 2025, which could correspond to a production of 205 billions of bioethanol liters per year, requiring an additional area of 24 Mha for the sugar cane cultivation.

  5. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lili; Zhang, Xiliang; Xu, Jie; Ou, Xunmin; Chang, Shiyan; Wu, Maorong

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2 nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price...

  6. Application of bioethanol derived lignin for improving physico-mechanical properties of thermoset biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Dilpreet S; Wang, Xinnan; Sitz, Evan; Loll, Tyler; Bhattacharjee, Sujal

    2016-08-01

    Lignin is the most abundant of renewable polymers next to cellulose with a global annual production of 70million tons, largely produced from pulping and second generation biofuel industries. Low value of industrial lignin makes it an attractive biomaterial for wide range of applications. The study investigated the application of wheat straw and corn stover based lignin derived from ethanol production for use in thermoset biocomposites. The biocomposite matrix constituted a two component low viscosity Araldite(®)LY 8601/Aradur(®) 8602 epoxy resin system and the lignin content varied from 0 to 25% by weight fraction. The analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of the biocomposites show bioethanol derived lignin can improve selective properties such as impact strength, and thermal stability without compromising the modulus and strength attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioethanol production from mannitol by a newly isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. JMP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Kim, Young Mi; Rhee, Hong Soon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-05-01

    In this study a new bacterium capable of growing on brown seaweed Laminaria japonica, Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was isolated from the gut of turban shell, Batillus cornutus. In anaerobic condition, it produced high yields of ethanol (1.15 mol-EtOH mol-mannitol(-1)) as well as organic acids from mannitol, the major carbohydrate component of L. japonica. Based on carbon distribution and metabolic flux analysis, it was revealed that mannitol was more favorable than glucose for ethanol production due to their different redox states. This indicates that L. japonica is one of the promising feedstock for bioethanol production. Additionally, the mannitol dehydrogenation pathway in Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was examined and verified. Finally, an attempt was made to explore the possibility of controlling ethanol production by altering the redox potential via addition of external NADH in mannitol fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a novel pretreatment approach for bioethanol production from reed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilgook; Lee, Ilgyu; Jeon, Seok Hwan; Hwang, Taewoon; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was employed as a physical means to improve alkaline pretreatment of reed. The HC-assisted alkaline pretreatment was undertaken to evaluate the influence of NaOH concentration (1-5%), solid-to-liquid ratio (5-15%), and reaction time (20-60 min) on glucose yield. The optimal condition was found to be 3.0% NaOH at solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio of 11.8% for 41.1 min, which resulted in the maximum glucose yield of 326.5 g/kg biomass. Furthermore, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to assess the ethanol production. An ethanol concentration of 25.9 g/L and ethanol yield of 90% were achieved using batch SSF. These results clearly demonstrated HC system can be indeed a promising pretreatment tool for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dairy Manure as a Potential Feedstock for Cost-Effective Cellulosic Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic digestibility of undigested dairy manure to preliminarily assess its potential use as an inexpensive feedstock for cellulosic bioethanol production. The sulfite pretreatment was carried out in a factorial analysis using 163 to 197 °C for 3 to 37 min with 0.8% to 4.2% sulfuric acid combined with 2.6% to 9.4% sodium sulfite. These treatments were compared with other standard pretreatments of dilute acid, and hot and cold alkali pretreatments. This comparative study showed that the sulfite pretreatment, through its combined effects of hemicellulose and lignin removal and lignin sulfonation, is more effective than the diluted acid and alkali pretreatments to improve the enzymatic digestibility of dairy manure.

  10. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Su Bae; Shin, You Jung; Yi, Ju Hui [Chonnam National University, Bio-Energy Research Institute, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. Research scope includes 1) screening of various microorganisms from decayed biomass in order to search for more efficient lignocellulose degrading microorganism, 2) identification and verification of new cell wall degrading cellulase for application cellulose bioconversion process, and 3) identification and characterization of novel genes involved in cellulose degradation. To find good microorganism candidates for lignocellulose degrading, 75 decayed samples from different areas were assayed in triplicate and analyzed. For cloning new cell wall degrading enzymes, we selected microorganisms because it have very good lignocellulose degradation ability. From that microorganisms, we have apparently cloned a new cellulase genes (10 genes). We are applying the new cloned cellulase genes to characterize in lignocellulsoe degradation that are most important to cellulosic biofuels production

  11. Ensiling – Wet-storage method for lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2011-01-01

    , and consequently by lowing pH, inhibiting other microbes to degrade the polysaccharides. Following silage treatment, enzymatic convertibility tests showed that 51.5%, 36.5%, and 41.9% of the cellulose was converted by cellulytic enzymes in ensiled maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively. In addition, tests......Ensiling of humid biomass samples wrapped in plastic bales has been investigated as a wet-storage for bioethanol production from three lignocellulosic biomass samples i.e. maize, rye, and clover grass. During the silage process, lactic acid bacteria fermented free sugars to lactic acid.......5% (by S. cerevisiae); the yields significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment: 77.7%, 72.8%, 79.5% (by K. marxianus) and 72.0%, 80.7%, 75.7% (by S. cerevisiae) of the theoretical based on the C6 sugar contents in maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively....

  12. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C). Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS) yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars) with higher rates, while...... the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass) was significantly affected by the acid concentration used...

  13. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria

    of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered...... on the sugar composition of the rapeseed straw. This was 50 % and 14 % higher than the yield obtained with the bacteria or the yeast alone, respectively. When T. pentosaceus was immobilized in rapeseed straw, an improvement of 11 % in ethanol production was observed in batch mode. In continuous mode......, it was shown that hydraulic retention time (HRT) affected ethanol yield, and a dramatic shift from ethanol to acetate and lactate production occurred at an HRT of 6 h. The maximum ethanol yield and concentration, 1.50 mol mol-1 consumed sugars and 12.4 g l-1, were obtained with an HRT of 12 h. The latter...

  14. BEST Project: bioethanol for sustainable transportation; Projeto BEST: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J.R.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G.; Apolinario, S.M.; Melo, E.H.; Elmadjian, P.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa

    2008-07-01

    The BEST Project BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  15. Boosting biogas yield of anaerobic digesters by utilizing concentrated molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Shiplu [Department of Renewable Energy, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Agder, Grimstad-4879 (Norway); Moeller, Henrik Bjarne [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Research center Foulum, Blichers Alle, Post Box 50, Tjele-8830 (Denmark)

    2013-07-01

    Concentrated molasses (C5 molasses) from 2nd generation bioethanol plant has been investigated for enhancing productivity of manure based digesters. A batch study at mesophilic condition (35+- 1 deg C) showed the maximum methane yield from molasses as 286 LCH4/kgVS which was approximately 63% of the calculated theoretical yield. In addition to the batch study, co-digestion of molasses with cattle manure in a semi-continuously stirred reactor at thermophilic temperature (50+- 1 deg C) was also performed with a stepwise increase in molasses concentration. The results from this experiment revealed the maximum average biogas yield of 1.89 L/L/day when 23% VSmolasses was co-digested with cattle manure. However, digesters fed with more than 32% VSmolasses and with short adaptation period resulted in VFA accumulation and reduced methane productivity indicating that when using molasses as biogas booster this level should not be exceeded.

  16. Technological trends, global market, and challenges of bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I; Dragone, Giuliano; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Silva, João Paulo A; Carneiro, Lívia M; Roberto, Inês C; Vicente, António; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José A

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol use as a fuel additive or directly as a fuel source has grown in popularity due to governmental regulations and in some cases economic incentives based on environmental concerns as well as a desire to reduce oil dependency. As a consequence, several countries are interested in developing their internal market for use of this biofuel. Currently, almost all bio-ethanol is produced from grain or sugarcane. However, as this kind of feedstock is essentially food, other efficient and economically viable technologies for ethanol production have been evaluated. This article reviews some current and promising technologies for ethanol production considering aspects related to the raw materials, processes, and engineered strains development. The main producer and consumer nations and future perspectives for the ethanol market are also presented. Finally, technological trends to expand this market are discussed focusing on promising strategies like the use of microalgae and continuous systems with immobilized cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Su Bae; Shin, You Jung; Yi, Ju Hui

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. Research scope includes 1) screening of various microorganisms from decayed biomass in order to search for more efficient lignocellulose degrading microorganism, 2) identification and verification of new cell wall degrading cellulase for application cellulose bioconversion process, and 3) identification and characterization of novel genes involved in cellulose degradation. To find good microorganism candidates for lignocellulose degrading, 75 decayed samples from different areas were assayed in triplicate and analyzed. For cloning new cell wall degrading enzymes, we selected microorganisms because it have very good lignocellulose degradation ability. From that microorganisms, we have apparently cloned a new cellulase genes (10 genes). We are applying the new cloned cellulase genes to characterize in lignocellulsoe degradation that are most important to cellulosic biofuels production

  18. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic...... cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used...... hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that p...

  19. Optimal synthesis and design of extractive distillation systems for bioethanol separation: From simple to complex columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, M.; Rong, B. G.; Tola, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol has been considered as a green fuel and a valid alternative to reduce the dependence on fossil distillates. The development of an optimal separation process is considered as a key element in the design of an efficient process able to be cost effective and competitive. Despite many....... The subspace of simple distillation configurations was generated considering the possibility to employ partial or total condensers to transfer the non-product mixtures between the columns, moreover different numbers of columns are considered. Once the most promising sequences are obtained, the complex columns...... considering the total condenser and reboiler duty as energy index. The capital costs and the solvent consumption are also taken into account in the final selection. Among all the complex configurations considered the two-column sequence can reduce the capital cost above 10% compared to the best simple column...

  20. Price determination for hydrogen produced from bio-ethanol in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorini, V.A.; Pasquevich, D.; Laborde, M.

    2010-01-01

    A massive penetration for hydrogen as a fuel vector requires a price reduction against fossil fuels (up to lower or at less equal to current prices). That is why it is important to calculate the current prices, so that we can determinate the gap between them and work in reducing them. In order to follow properly prices evolution it is necessary been able to compare data generated by Universities, Laboratories and Industries. So that, DOE creates in 2003 a tool (H2A) to determine prices for hydrogen, with some assumptions and pre defined values, to facilitate transparency and consistency of data. In this work we will use the H2A tool to calculate de price of hydrogen produced in a bio-ethanol semi-industrial Plant in Argentina, and we will compare it with the prices of USA studies. (author)

  1. Amphipathic lignin derivatives to accelerate simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of unbleached softwood pulp for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ningning; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2014-12-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) were already demonstrated to improve enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose. Based on this knowledge, two kinds of A-LDs prepared from black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar were applied to a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for unbleached soda pulp of Japanese cedar to produce bioethanol. Both lignin derivatives slightly accelerated yeast fermentation of glucose but not inhibited it. In addition, ethanol yields based on the theoretical maximum ethanol production in the fed-batch SSF process was increased from 49% without A-LDs to 64% in the presence of A-LDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuous recycling of enzymes during production of lignocellulosic bioethanol in demonstration scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard; Lindedam, Jane; Jeppesen, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of enzymes in production of lignocellulosic bioethanol has been tried for more than 30 years. So far, the successes have been few and the experiments have been carried out at conditions far from those in an industrially feasible process. Here we have tested continuous enzyme recycling a...... broth also opens up the possibility of lowering the dry matter content in hydrolysis and fermentation while still maintaining high ethanol concentrations....... at demonstration scale using industrial process conditions (high dry matter content and low enzyme dosage) for a period of eight days. The experiment was performed at the Inbicon demonstration plant (Kalundborg, Denmark) capable of converting four tonnes of wheat straw per hour. 20% of the fermentation broth...... was recycled to the hydrolysis reactor while enzyme dosage was reduced by 5%. The results demonstrate that recycling enzymes by this method can reduce overall enzyme consumption and may also increase the ethanol concentrations in the fermentation broth. Our results further show that recycling fermentation...

  3. Analysis of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bioethanol production in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    and solar resources in Mali 5) Screening of feasible applications of wind and solar energy in Mali: Assessment using the wind and solar maps for Mali The project is being carried out by a group of university departments, research institutions and consultants led by the UNEP Risø Centre (URC......The present project is covered in five main reports: 1) Analyses of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bio-ethanol production in Mali 2) Agricultural residues for energy production in Mali 3) Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw 4) Estimation of wind......) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and conducted in cooperation with Direction Nationale de l’Energie (DNE) and Centre National de l’Energie Solaire et des Energies Renouvelables (CNESOLER) in Mali. The subcontracted institutions comprise Geographic Resource Analysis & Science A/S (GRAS), Department...

  4. BEST Project: bioethanol for sustainable transportation; Projeto BEST: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J R; Velazquez, S M.S.G.; Apolinario, S M; Melo, E H; Elmadjian, P H [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa

    2008-07-01

    The BEST Project BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  5. Thermotolerant yeasts capable of producing bioethanol: isolation from natural fermented sources, identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azam Talukder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the demands of biofuels have increased, because of their significant role in reducing various pollutants created by fossil fuels. Here, we have collected 25 samples containing various thermotolerant microorganisms from the nine natural fermented sources of Bangladesh, such as Boiled potato (Bp, Decomposed foods (Df, Municipal liquid waste (Mlw, Municipal solid waste (Msw, Sugarcane juice (Sc, Pantavat (Pv, Sugar molasses (Sm, Tari (Tari and Watermelon juice (Wm for bioethanol production. Among them, 18 isolates are capable of producing bioethanol. Cultural, morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic analyses were carried out under various physiological conditions. Ethanol fermentation was checked by different carbon sources, temperatures and pH. All of the isolates could grow well in the medium containing Dextrose and Arabinose and only two strains Pv-1 and Bp-2 could ferment Xylose as a sole carbon source. At 42 °C, the highest ethanol concentration 6.58% (v/v was obtained by a strain Wm-1 isolated from Watermelon juice. At 37 °C, maximal ethanol concentrations of 6.74% (v/v, 6.50% (v/v and 6.22% (v/v were obtained by the strains Bp-2, Wm-l and Pv-1, respectively. Among the various pH tested, the highest ethanol concentration 6.6% (v/v was obtained at pH 4.5 by a strain named Tari-2. Finally, yeast 26S rDNA sequencing information identified the strains Sc-2 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pv-2, Tari-2 and Df-1 as Pichia kudriavzevii, Mlw-l and Bp-2 as Candida tropicalis, Pv-1 as Pichia guilliermondii and Df-2 as Candida rugosa.

  6. Public's willingness to pay a premium for bioethanol in Korea: A contingent valuation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seul-Ye; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol (BE), a renewable energy, is well-known to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions compared with conventional gasoline. Thus, the Korean government is considering the introduction of a BE mandate in which the legal blend is 5% BE and 95% gasoline (E5) until 2020 in order to expand BE use. We should examine the public acceptability of the introduction, which incurs a rise in the fuel price. This study attempts to assess the public's willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for introducing the E5 program in Korea. To this end, a contingent valuation (CV) survey of 1000 randomly selected consumers was conducted in 2014 across the nation. We used a one-and-one-half-bound dichotomous choice question in the CV survey and applied the spike model to handle the WTP data with zeros. The mean WTP, a premium for the E5 per liter, is estimated to be KRW 290 (USD 0.27), which is statistically meaningful at the 1% level. This value amounts to 15.6% of the gasoline retail price in 2014 (KRW 1856 or USD 1.70) and can be interpreted as the external benefit of BE. We can conclude that gasoline consumers in Korea are ready to pay a significant premium for the E5. - Highlights: • Bioethanol (BE) can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. • Korea will introduce a BE mandate of 5% BE and 95% gasoline (E5) until 2020. • We assess the public’s willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for the introduction. • The mean additional WTP for E5 is estimated to be KRW 290 (USD 0.26) per liter. • This value amounts to 15.6% of the gasoline retail price (KRW 1856 or USD 1.70).

  7. Evaluation of Alkali-Pretreated Soybean Straw for Lignocellulosic Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean straw is a renewable resource in agricultural residues that can be used for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. To enhance enzymatic digestibility and fermentability, the biomass was prepared with an alkali-thermal pretreatment (sodium hydroxide, 121°C, 60 min. The delignification yield was 34.1~53%, in proportion to the amount of sodium hydroxide, from 0.5 to 3.0 M. The lignin and hemicellulose contents of the pretreated biomass were reduced by the pretreatment process, whereas the proportion of cellulose was increased. Under optimal condition, the pretreated biomass consisted of 74.0±0.1% cellulose, 10.3±0.1% hemicellulose, and 10.1±0.6% lignin. During enzymatic saccharification using Cellic® CTec2 cellulase, 10% (w/v of pretreated soybean straw was hydrolyzed completely and converted to 67.3±2.1 g/L glucose and 9.4±0.5 g/L xylose with a 90.9% yield efficiency. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A produced 30.5±1.2 g/L ethanol in 0.5 L fermented medium containing 10% (w/v pretreated biomass after 72 h. The ethanol productivity was 0.305 g ethanol/g dry biomass and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose after fermentation, with a low concentration of organic acid metabolites. Also, 82% of fermentable sugar was used by the yeast for ethanol fermentation. These results show that the combination of alkaline pretreatment and biomass hydrolysate is useful for enhancing bioethanol productivity using delignified soybean straw.

  8. 2nd generation lignocellulosic bioethanol: is torrefaction a possible approach to biomass pretreatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaramonti, David; Rizzo, Andrea Maria; Prussi, Matteo [University of Florence, CREAR - Research Centre for Renewable Energy and RE-CORD, Florence (Italy); Tedeschi, Silvana; Zimbardi, Francesco; Braccio, Giacobbe; Viola, Egidio [ENEA - Laboratory of Technology and Equipment for Bioenergy and Solar Thermal, Rotondella (Italy); Pardelli, Paolo Taddei [Spike Renewables s.r.l., Florence (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    Biomass pretreatement is a key and energy-consuming step for lignocellulosic ethanol production; it is largely responsible for the energy efficiency and economic sustainability of the process. A new approach to biomass pretreatment for the lignocellulosic bioethanol chain could be mild torrefaction. Among other effects, biomass torrefaction improves the grindability of fibrous materials, thus reducing energy demand for grinding the feedstock before hydrolysis, and opens the biomass structure, making this more accessible to enzymes for hydrolysis. The aim of the preliminary experiments carried out was to achieve a first understanding of the possibility to combine torrefaction and hydrolysis for lignocellulosic bioethanol processes, and to evaluate it in terms of sugar and ethanol yields. In addition, the possibility of hydrolyzing the torrefied biomass has not yet been proven. Biomass from olive pruning has been torrefied at different conditions, namely 180-280 C for 60-120 min, grinded and then used as substrate in hydrolysis experiments. The bioconversion has been carried out at flask scale using a mixture of cellulosolytic, hemicellulosolitic, {beta}-glucosidase enzymes, and a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experiments demonstrated that torrefied biomass can be enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented into ethanol, with yields comparable with grinded untreated biomass and saving electrical energy. The comparison between the bioconversion yields achieved using only raw grinded biomass or torrefied and grinded biomass highlighted that: (1) mild torrefaction conditions limit sugar degradation to 5-10%; and (2) torrefied biomass does not lead to enzymatic and fermentation inhibition. Energy consumption for ethanol production has been preliminary estimated, and three different pretreatment steps, i.e., raw biomass grinding, biomass-torrefaction grinding, and steam explosion were compared. Based on preliminary results, steam explosion still has a

  9. Lean hydrous and anhydrous bioethanol combustion in spark ignition engine at idle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuepeng, Sathaporn; Srisuwan, Sudecha; Tongroon, Manida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Anhydrous ethanol burns fastest in uncalibrated engine at equal equivalence ratio. • The leaner hydrous ethanol combustion tends to elevate the COV in imep. • Hydrous ethanol consumption was 10% greater than anhydrous ethanol at ϕ = 0.67 limit. • Optimizing alternative fuel engine at idle for stability and emission is suggested. - Abstract: The applications of anhydrous bioethanol to substitute or replace gasoline fuel have shown to attain benefits in terms of engine thermal efficiency, power output and exhaust emissions from spark ignition engines. A hydrous bioethanol has also been gained more attention due to its energy and cost effectiveness. The main aim of this work is to minimize fuel quantity injected to the intake ports of a four-cylinder engine under idle condition. The engine running with hydrous ethanol undergoes within lean-burn condition as its combustion stability is analyzed using an engine indicating system. Coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure is an indicator for combustion stability with hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission monitoring as a supplement. Anhydrous ethanol burns faster than hydrous ethanol and gasoline in the uncalibrated engine at the same fuel-to-air equivalence ratio under idle condition. The leaner hydrous ethanol combustion tends to elevate the coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure. The experimental results have found that the engine consumes greater hydrous ethanol by 10% on mass basis compared with those of anhydrous ethanol at the lean limit of fuel-to-air equivalence ratio of 0.67. The results of exhaust gas analysis were compared with those predicted by chemical equilibrium analysis of the fuel-air combustion; the resemble trends were found. Calibrating the alternative fueled engine for fuel injection quantity should be accomplished at idle with combustion stability and emissions optimization.

  10. Permeation of gasoline, diesel, bioethanol (E85), and biodiesel (B20) fuels through six glove materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A

    2010-07-01

    Biofuels and conventional fuels differ in terms of their evaporation rates, permeation rates, and exhaust emissions, which can alter exposures of workers, especially those in the fuel refining and distribution industries. This study investigated the permeation of biofuels (bioethanol 85%, biodiesel 20%) and conventional petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel) through gloves used in occupational settings (neoprene, nitrile, and Viton) and laboratories (latex, nitrile, and vinyl), as well as a standard reference material (neoprene sheet). Permeation rates and breakthrough times were measured using the American Society for Testing and Materials F739-99 protocol, and fuel and permeant compositions were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, we estimated exposures for three occupational scenarios and recommend chemical protective clothing suitable for use with motor fuels. Permeation rates and breakthrough times depended on the fuel-glove combination. Gasoline had the highest permeation rate among the four fuels. Bioethanol (85%) had breakthrough times that were two to three times longer than gasoline through neoprene, nitrile Sol-Vex, and the standard reference materials. Breakthrough times for biodiesel (20%) were slightly shorter than for diesel for the latex, vinyl, nitrile examination, and the standard neoprene materials. The composition of permeants differed from neat fuels, e.g., permeants were significantly enriched in the lighter aromatics including benzene. Viton was the best choice among the tested materials for the four fuels tested. Among the scenarios, fuel truck drivers had the highest uptake via inhalation based on the personal measurements available in the literature, and gasoline station attendants had highest uptake via dermal exposure if gloves were not worn. Appropriate selection and use of gloves can protect workers from dermal exposures; however, current recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and

  11. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  12. Analysis of the Competitive Potential of Bioethanol in Colombia: An approach from Michael Porter's 5 Competitive Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Velasquez, Alejandro; Montoya R, Ivan Alonso; Montoya Restrepo, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The search for alternative energy production and consumption require a look into the industry of biofuels such as bioethanol as an alternative energy to overcome the disadvantages generated by the traditional methods of production and consumption, especially in the political, environmental and social issues and generate competitive advantages compared to other primary energy sources. In the present document, and from the Michael Porter five (5) Forces model is detailed an evaluation of the bioethanol industry as an alternative fuel and is described how attractive or competitive may become the industry today. To achieve this purpose, an evaluation of the competitive forces was proposed to a group of experts, using a Likert scale. Thus, it was evaluated the potential usefulness of the proposal.

  13. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  14. Synthesis and simulation of efficient divided wall column sequences for bioethanol recovery and purification from an actual lignocellulosic fermentation broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Actual lignocellulosic fermentation broth has intrinsic multiphase and multicomponent nature and calls for complex separation systems in both bioethanol recovery and purification [Torres-Ortega, C. E.; Rong, B.-G. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2016, 55, 210]. In this work, we present the synthesis...... of column sections as novel synthesis approaches to formulate hybrid units and divided wall columns. Rigorous simulation in Aspen Plus V8.0 was used to simulate the intensified separation systems. The new intensified alternatives achieved relevant savings, ranging from 17 to 23% in TAC (total annual costs......), and ranging from 18 to 28% in TEC (total energy consumption). Moreover, reduction of the number of separation units varied from the original eight units down to three units. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis varying the bioethanol concentration in the fermentation broth between the reference case...

  15. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  16. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  17. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  18. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, L.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the

  20. An integrated approach for biodiesel and bioethanol production from Scenedesmus bijugatus cultivated in a vertical tubular photobioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salam, Zainal; Tiwari, O.N.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Mohammed, Sudheer; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Alga Scenedesmus bijugatus was explored for biodiesel and bioethanol production. • Tubular photobioreactor was designed and produced 0.26 g L −1 d −1 of dry biomass. • Sequential stages of transesterification produced 0.21 g biodiesel yield/g dry biomass. • The lipid extracted residues of S. bijugatus produced 0.158 g bioethanol/g dry biomass. - Abstract: Algae are considered promising renewable feedstocks for the production of alternative fuels. In this study, an indigenous strain of Scenedesmus bijugatus found commonly in the fresh water bodies was isolated and evaluated for biofuels production. The alga was successfully mass cultivated in the custom made vertical tubular photobioreactor (250 L capacity) at semi-continuous mode. During the cultivation period, the volumetric biomass and lipid productivity were assessed. The alga S. bijugatus produced 0.26 g L −1 d −1 of dry biomass and 63 mg L −1 d −1 of lipids, respectively. Algal biomass was harvested by a combined harvesting process involving coagulation and flocculation using Iron (III) sulfate and an organic polymer which resulted in 98% harvesting efficiency. Lipid extraction using hexane:diethyl ether (1:2 ratio) resulted in maximum extraction of lipids. This study also examined sequential stages of esterification and transesterification to convert lipids to biodiesel. The maximum biodiesel yield of 0.21 g/g of dry biomass was obtained through the acid base catalytic process. The biodiesel fuel properties were tested and observed that most of the properties complying with ASTM D6751 specifications. The lipid extracted residual biomass recorded a yield of 0.158 g of bioethanol per g. This study confirmed the potential of lipid extracted biomass for the production of bioethanol to improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biorefinery