WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioengineering

  1. Bioengineered nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Many varieties of new, complex diseases are constantly being discovered, which leaves scientists with little choice but to embrace innovative methods for controlling the invasion of life-threatening problems. The use of nanotechnology has given scientists an opportunity to create nanomaterials that could help medical professionals in diagnosing and treating problems quickly and effectively. Bioengineered Nanomaterials presents in-depth information on bioengineered nanomaterials currently being developed in leading research laboratories around the world. In particular, the book focuses on nanom

  2. Bioengineered heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Megan S; Whitelock, John M

    2014-01-01

    Heparin is a widely used drug for the control of blood coagulation. The majority of heparin that is produced commercially is derived from animal sources, is poly-disperse in nature and therefore ill-defined in structure. This makes regulation of heparin challenging with respect to identifying its absolute structural identity, purity, and efficacy. This raises the question as to whether there might be alternative methods of producing commercial grade heparin. The commentary highlights ways that we might manufacture heparin using bioengineering approaches to yield a successful therapeutic replacement for animal-derived heparin in the future. PMID:24902029

  3. Bioengineered collagens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John AM; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Dumsday, Geoff J

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian collagen has been widely used as a biomedical material. Nevertheless, there are still concerns about the variability between preparations, particularly with the possibility that the products may transmit animal-based diseases. Many groups have examined the possible application of bioengineered mammalian collagens. However, translating laboratory studies into large-scale manufacturing has often proved difficult, although certain yeast and plant systems seem effective. Production of full-length mammalian collagens, with the required secondary modification to give proline hydroxylation, has proved difficult in E. coli. However, recently, a new group of collagens, which have the characteristic triple helical structure of collagen, has been identified in bacteria. These proteins are stable without the need for hydroxyproline and are able to be produced and purified from E. coli in high yield. Initial studies indicate that they would be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24717980

  4. Bioengineering a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

  5. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rege, Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Filling a critical gap in the current literature, this new resource presents practical, step-by-step methods to help you synthesize, characterize, biofunctionalize and apply the nanomaterial that is most suitable for handling a given nanoscale bioengineering problem. Written and presented by leading scientists and engineers in their respective fields, the authors offer a clear and detailed understanding of how to carry out nanoparticle functionalization with biomolecules (including enzymes), nanoparticle analysis and characterization, in vitro evaluation of nanoparticles using different cell l

  6. Bioengineering fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, Tin-kan

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights the basic concepts and equations for bioengineering flow processes. Physical concepts and meanings are emphasized while rigorous derivations are simplified, making it easier for self learning on some biological and medical flow processes. The well known Bernoulli equation in hydraulics is extended for pulsating flows, peristaltic flows and cardiac pumping. The dimensional analysis, model law and dimensionless equations can be related to computational models and experimental observations. The velocity vector imaging stored in echocardiograms can be used to analyze the pumping characteristics of the ventricular contraction. New topics included oxygen transport in membrane oxygenator and micro mixing of blood flow in capillary channels.

  7. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    the wild-type cultivar. These exciting results may provide a potential clean technological approach to starch modification by in-planta bioengineering and avoid environmental hazards resulting from post-harvest treatments by chemical modifications. The third study was to investigate the effects...... involved in this process, has enabled the genetic modification f crops in a rational manner to produce novel designer starches with improved functionality. The hypothesis of the present study is that the hyper-phosphorylation of cereal endosperm starch makes it easily accessible and degradable...... by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects...

  8. A Course in Cellular Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    Gives an overview of a course in chemical engineering entitled "Cellular Bioengineering," dealing with how chemical engineering principles can be applied to molecular cell biology. Topics used are listed and some key references are discussed. Listed are 85 references. (YP)

  9. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  10. Integrative Bioengineering Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddington, David; Magin,L,Richard; Hetling, John; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-09

    Microfabrication enables many exciting experimental possibilities for medicine and biology that are not attainable through traditional methods. However, in order for microfabricated devices to have an impact they must not only provide a robust solution to a current unmet need, but also be simple enough to seamlessly integrate into standard protocols. Broad dissemination of bioMEMS has been stymied by the common aim of replacing established and well accepted protocols with equally or more complex devices, methods, or materials. The marriage of a complex, difficult to fabricate bioMEMS device with a highly variable biological system is rarely successful. Instead, the design philosophy of my lab aims to leverage a beneficial microscale phenomena (e.g. fast diffusion at the microscale) within a bioMEMS device and adapt to established methods (e.g. multiwell plate cell culture) and demonstrate a new paradigm for the field (adapt instead of replace). In order for the field of bioMEMS to mature beyond novel proof-of-concept demonstrations, researchers must focus on developing systems leveraging these phenomena and integrating into standard labs, which have largely been ignored. Towards this aim, the Integrative Bioengineering Institute has been established.

  11. The future of starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch...... processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots...... concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However, in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved....

  12. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S; M. M. Moisenovich; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cy...

  13. Immune responses to bioengineered organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando, Jordi; Charron, Dominique; Baptista, Pedro M.; Uygun, Basak E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Organ donation in the United States registered 9079 deceased organ donors in 2015. This high percentage of donations allowed organ transplantation in 29 851 recipients. Despite increasing numbers of transplants performed in comparison with previous years, the numbers of patients that are in need for a transplant increase every year at a higher rate. This reveals that the discrepancy between the demand and availability of organs remains fundamental problem in organ transplantation. Recent findings Development of bioengineered organs represents a promising approach to increase the pool of organs for transplantation. The technology involves obtaining complex three-dimensional scaffolds that support cellular activity and functional remodeling though tissue recellularization protocols using progenitor cells. This innovative approach integrates cross-thematic approaches from specific areas of transplant immunology, tissue engineering and stem cell biology, to potentially manufacture an unlimited source of donor organs for transplantation. Summary Although bioengineered organs are thought to escape immune recognition, the potential immune reactivity toward each of its components has not been studied in detail. Here, we summarize the host immune response toward different progenitor cells and discuss the potential implications of using nonself biological scaffolds to develop bioengineered organs. PMID:27926545

  14. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  15. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  16. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  17. Bioengineering of the model lantibiotic nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Des; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The lantibiotics are a class of bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) that contain several unusual amino acids resulting from enzyme-mediated post-translational modifications. They exhibit high specific activity against Gram-positive targets, including many antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and consequently have been investigated with a view to their application as antimicrobials in both the food and medical arenas. Importantly, the gene-encoded nature of lantibiotics makes them more amenable to bioengineering strategies to further enhance their antimicrobial and physicochemical properties. However, although the bioengineering of lantibiotics has been underway for over 2 decades, significant progress has only been reported in recent years. This review charts recent developments with regard to the implementation of bioengineering strategies to enhance the functional characteristics of the prototypical and most studied lantibiotic nisin.

  18. The Status of Fluid Mechanics in Bioengineering Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gerald E.; Hyman, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the status of fluid mechanics courses in bioengineering curricula. A survey of institutions offering bioengineering degrees indicates that over half do not require fluid mechanics courses. Suggests increasing number of mechanics courses to increase the quality of bioengineering students and to prepare students for graduate work and more…

  19. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  20. Soil Bioengineering Application and Practices in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  1. Soil bioengineering application and practices in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  2. Liver bioengineering: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Christopher; Soker, Tom; Baptista, Pedro; Ross, Christina L; Soker, Shay; Farooq, Umar; Stratta, Robert J; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2012-12-21

    The present review aims to illustrate the strategies that are being implemented to regenerate or bioengineer livers for clinical purposes. There are two general pathways to liver bioengineering and regeneration. The first consists of creating a supporting scaffold, either synthetically or by decellularization of human or animal organs, and seeding cells on the scaffold, where they will mature either in bioreactors or in vivo. This strategy seems to offer the quickest route to clinical translation, as demonstrated by the development of liver organoids from rodent livers which were repopulated with organ specific cells of animal and/or human origin. Liver bioengineering has potential for transplantation and for toxicity testing during preclinical drug development. The second possibility is to induce liver regeneration of dead or resected tissue by manipulating cell pathways. In fact, it is well known that the liver has peculiar regenerative potential which allows hepatocyte hyperplasia after amputation of liver volume. Infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, which aids in liver regeneration, into patients was shown to be safe and to improve their clinical condition, but the specific cells responsible for liver regeneration have not yet been determined and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. A complete understanding of the cell pathways and dynamics and of the functioning of liver stem cell niche is necessary for the clinical translation of regenerative medicine strategies. As well, it will be crucial to elucidate the mechanisms through which cells interact with the extracellular matrix, and how this latter supports and drives cell fate.

  3. 78 FR 3903 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and, Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room...

  4. 76 FR 572 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering,...

  5. Liver bioengineering: Current status and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Booth; Tom Soker; Pedro Baptista; Christina L Ross; Shay Soker; Umar Farooq; Robert J Stratta

    2012-01-01

    The present review aims to illustrate the strategies that are being implemented to regenerate or bioengineer livers for clinical purposes.There are two general pathways to liver bioengineering and regeneration.The first consists of creating a supporting scaffold,either synthetically or by decellularization of human or animal organs,and seeding cells on the scaffold,where they will mature either in bioreactors or in vivo.This strategy seems to offer the quickest route to clinical translation,as demonstrated by the development of liver organoids from rodent livers which were repopulated with organ specific cells of animal and/or human origin.Liver bioengineering has potential for transplantation and for toxicity testing during preclinical drug development.The second possibility is to induce liver regeneration of dead or resected tissue by manipulating cell pathways.In fact,it is well known that the liver has peculiar regenerative potential which allows hepatocyte hyperplasia after amputation of liver volume.Infusion of autologous bone marrow cells,which aids in liver regeneration,into patients was shown to be safe and to improve their clinical condition,but the specific cells responsible for liver regeneration have not yet been determined and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown.A complete understanding of the cell pathways and dynamics and of the functioning of liver stem cell niche is necessary for the clinical translation of regenerative medicine strategies.As well,it will be crucial to elucidate the mechanisms through which cells interact with the extracellular matrix,and how this latter supports and drives cell fate.

  6. Bioengineering RNA silencing across the life kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernandez, R; Lopez-Gomollon, S; Lopez-Martinez, A F; Nicolas, F E

    2011-08-01

    RNA silencing negatively regulates gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, guided by small RNA molecules. It modulates core regulatory pathways across the eukaryotes, such as developmental processes or stress responses. The widespread existence of this phenomenon and the key pathways regulated have led to the development of a new technology based on the modification of gene expression, which has been applied successfully in different areas such as medicine or agriculture. Here we review the most important patents related to RNA silencing across the life kingdoms, including biotechnological applications into medicine, crop science and bioengineering.

  7. Enamel Regeneration in Making a Bioengineered Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruoshi; Zhou, Yachuan; Zhang, Binpeng; Shen, Jiefei; Gao, Bo; Xu, Xin; Ye, Ling; Zheng, Liwei; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    Overall enamel is the hard tissue overlying teeth that is vulnerable to caries, congenital defects, and damage due to trauma. Not only is enamel incapable of self-repair in most species, but it is also subject to attrition. Besides the use of artificial materials to restore enamel, enamel regeneration is a promising approach to repair enamel damage. In order to comprehend the progression and challenges in tissue-engineered enamel, this article elaborates alternative stem cells potential for enamel secretion and expounds fined strategies for enamel regeneration in bioengineered teeth. Consequently, more and more cell types have been induced to differentiate into ameloblasts and to secrete enamel, and an increasing number of reports have emerged to provide various potential approaches to induce cells to secrete enamel based on recombination experiments, artificial bioactive nano-materials, or gene manipulation. Accordingly, it is expected to further project more optimal conditions for enamel formation in bioengineering based on a more thorough knowledge of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, by which the procedures of enamel regeneration are able to be practically recapitulated and widely spread for the potential clinical value of enamel repair.

  8. 7th WACBE World Congress on Bioengineering 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Chwee

    2015-01-01

    This volume publishes the proceedings of the WACBE World Congress on Bioengineering 2015 (WACBE 2015), which was be held in Singapore, from 6 to 8 July 2015. The World Association for Chinese Biomedical Engineers (WACBE) organizes this World Congress biannually. Our past congresses have brought together many biomedical engineers from over the world to share their experiences and views on the future development of biomedical engineering. The 7th WACBE World Congress on Bioengineering 2015 in Singapore continued to offer such a networking platform for all biomedical engineers. Hosted by the Biomedical Engineering Society (Singapore) and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, the congress covered all related areas in bioengineering.

  9. Welcome to Bioengineering: A New Open-Access Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Guiseppi-Elie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is my great pleasure to welcome you to a new open access journal, Bioengineering, which represents a scope that fits squarely with the core expertise and growing ambitions and interests of bioengineers globally. Of particular interest are the transdisciplinary and translational research represented by the activities within centers and institutes where the biological sciences and engineering disciplines cohabit seamlessly for a focus on solutions to global challenges in human, veterinary and ecological health, bioenergy, bioprocess and sustainability. Bioengineering emphasizes the publication of novel and high quality peer reviewed articles via an open access platform. The scope includes: [...

  10. Bioengineered collagens: emerging directions for biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John A M; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Dumsday, Geoff J

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian collagen has been widely used as a biomedical material. Nevertheless, there are still concerns about the variability between preparations, particularly with the possibility that the products may transmit animal-based diseases. Many groups have examined the possible application of bioengineered mammalian collagens. However, translating laboratory studies into large-scale manufacturing has often proved difficult, although certain yeast and plant systems seem effective. Production of full-length mammalian collagens, with the required secondary modification to give proline hydroxylation, has proved difficult in E. coli. However, recently, a new group of collagens, which have the characteristic triple helical structure of collagen, has been identified in bacteria. These proteins are stable without the need for hydroxyproline and are able to be produced and purified from E. coli in high yield. Initial studies indicate that they would be suitable for biomedical applications.

  11. Evaluating PHA productivity of bioengineered Rhodosprillum rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanan Jin

    Full Text Available This study explored the potential of using Rhodosprillum rubrum as the biological vehicle to convert chemically simple carbon precursors to a value-added bio-based product, the biopolymer PHA. R. rubrum strains were bioengineered to overexpress individually or in various combinations, six PHA biosynthetic genes (phaC1, phaA, phaB, phaC2, phaC3, and phaJ, and the resulting nine over-expressing strains were evaluated to assess the effect on PHA content, and the effect on growth. These experiments were designed to genetically evaluate: 1 the role of each apparently redundant PHA polymerase in determining PHA productivity; 2 identify the key gene(s within the pha biosynthetic operon that determines PHA productivity; and 3 the role of phaJ to support PHA productivity. The result of overexpressing each PHA polymerase-encoding gene indicates that phaC1 and phaC2 are significant contributors to PHA productivity, whereas phaC3 has little effect. Similarly, over-expressing individually or in combination the three PHA biosynthesis genes located in the pha operon indicates that phaB is the key determinant of PHA productivity. Finally, analogous experiments indicate that phaJ does not contribute significantly to PHA productivity. These bioengineering strains achieved PHA productivity of up to 30% of dry biomass, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the non-engineered control strain, indicating the feasibility of using this approach to produce value added bio-based products.

  12. Bioengineering Human Myocardium on Native Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Jacques P.; Charest, Jonathan M; Mills, Robert W; Jank, Bernhard J.; Moser, Philipp T.; Gilpin, Sarah E.; Gershlak, Joshua R.; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Milan, David J.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ott, Harald C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale More than 25 million individuals suffer from heart failure worldwide, with nearly 4,000 patients currently awaiting heart transplantation in the United States. Donor organ shortage and allograft rejection remain major limitations with only about 2,500 hearts transplanted each year. As a theoretical alternative to allotransplantation, patient-derived bioartificial myocardium could provide functional support and ultimately impact the treatment of heart failure. Objective The objective of this study is to translate previous work to human scale and clinically relevant cells, for the bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results To provide a clinically relevant tissue scaffold, we translated perfusion-decellularization to human scale and obtained biocompatible human acellular cardiac scaffolds with preserved extracellular matrix composition, architecture, and perfusable coronary vasculature. We then repopulated this native human cardiac matrix with cardiac myocytes derived from non-transgenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and generated tissues of increasing three-dimensional complexity. We maintained such cardiac tissue constructs in culture for 120 days to demonstrate definitive sarcomeric structure, cell and matrix deformation, contractile force, and electrical conduction. To show that functional myocardial tissue of human scale can be built on this platform, we then partially recellularized human whole heart scaffolds with human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes. Under biomimetic culture, the seeded constructs developed force-generating human myocardial tissue, showed electrical conductivity, left ventricular pressure development, and metabolic function. Conclusions Native cardiac extracellular matrix scaffolds maintain matrix components and structure to support the seeding and engraftment of human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes, and enable

  13. Tracheobronchial bio-engineering: biotechnology fulfilling unmet medical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walles, Thorsten

    2011-04-30

    The development of substitutes for the human trachea or its bronchial tree represents a niche application in the rapidly advancing scientific field of Regenerative Medicine. Despite a comparatively small research foundation in the field of tracheo-bronchial bioengineering, four different approaches have already been translated into clinical settings and applied in patients. This can be attributed to the lack of established treatment options for a small group of patients with extensive major airway disease. In this review, the clinical background and tissue-specific basics of tracheo-bronchial bioengineering will be evaluated. Focusing on the clinical applications of bioengineered tracheal tissues, a "top-down" or "bedside-to-bench" analysis is performed in order to guide future basic and clinical research activities for airway bioengineering.

  14. Strategies to evaluate the safety of bioengineered foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    A number of genetically modified (GM) crops bioengineered to express agronomic traits including herbicide resistance and insect tolerance have been commercialized. Safety studies conducted for the whole grains and food and feed fractions obtained from GM crops (i.e., bioengineered foods) bear similarities to and distinctive differences from those applied to substances intentionally added to foods (e.g., food ingredients). Similarities are apparent in common animal models, route of exposure, duration, and response variables typically assessed in toxicology studies. However, because of differences in the nutritional and physical properties of food ingredients and bioengineered foods and in the fundamental goals of the overall safety assessment strategies for these different classes of substances, there are recognizable differences in the individual components of the safety assessment process. The fundamental strategic difference is that the process for food ingredients is structured toward quantitative risk assessment whereas that for bioengineered foods is structured for the purpose of qualitative risk assessment. The strategy for safety assessment of bioengineered foods focuses on evaluating the safety of the transgenic proteins used to impart the desired trait or traits and to demonstrate compositional similarity between the grains of GM and non-GM comparator crops using analytical chemistry and, in some cases, feeding studies. Despite these differences, the similarities in the design of safety studies conducted with bioengineered foods should be recognized by toxicologists. The current paper reviews the basic principles of safety assessment for bioengineered foods and compares them with the testing strategies applied to typical food ingredients. From this comparison it can be seen that the strategies used to assess the safety of bioengineered foods are at least as robust as that used to assess the safety of typical food ingredients.

  15. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  16. Bioengineering in the oral cavity: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalfamo L

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available L Catalfamo,1 E Belli,2 C Nava,1 E Mici,1 A Calvo,1 B D'Alessandro,1 FS De Ponte1 1Unit of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Messina, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Policlinico G Martino, Messina, Italy; 2Unit of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Rome Sapienza, Azienda Ospedaliera Sant Andrea, Rome, Italy Background: To date, there are no studies reported in the literature on the possible use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, or synthetic hyaluronic acid medications in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper is to report the use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, and synthetic hyaluronic acid medications to improve wound healing in the oral cavity by stimulating granulomatous tissue. Methods: From 2007 to 2011, 80 patients (median age 67 years suffering from oral mucosal lesions participated in this double-blind study. The patients were divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 patients. One group received conventional medications, while the other group of patients were treated with the advanced medications. Results: Advanced medications allowed re-epithelialization of the wound margin in 2–20 days, whereas patients receiving conventional medication showed a median healing duration of 45 days. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that treating oral mucosal wounds with advanced medication has an advantage with regard to wound healing time, allowing patients to have a rapid, functional, and esthetic recovery. Keywords: bioengineering, oral cavity, mucosal recovery

  17. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  18. 76 FR 370 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: Manana Sukhareva, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  19. Bioengineering of the Enterobacter aerogenes strain for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Lv, Feng-Xiang; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2011-09-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes is one of the most widely-studied model strains for fermentative hydrogen production. To improve the hydrogen yield of E. aerogenes, the bioengineering on a biomolecular level and metabolic network level is of importance. In this review, the fermentative technology of E. aerogenes for hydrogen production will be first briefly summarized. And then the bioengineering of E. aerogenes for the improvement of hydrogen yield will be thoroughly reviewed, including the anaerobic metabolic networks for hydrogen evolution in E. aerogenes, metabolic engineering for improving hydrogen production in E. aerogenes and mixed culture of E. aerogenes with other hydrogen-producing bacteria to enhance the overall yield in anaerobic cultivation. Finally, a perspective on E. aerogenes as a hydrogen producer including systems bioengineering approach for improving the hydrogen yield and application of the engineered E. aerogenes in mixed culture will be presented.

  20. Career development in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering: a student's roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has progressed since the late 1950s and is still evolving in leading academic institutions worldwide. Today, Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is acclaimed as one of the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the catalyst for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. This paper provides a set of strategies and recommendations to be pursued by individuals aiming at planning and developing careers in this field. The paper targets the international student contemplating bioengineering/biomedical engineering as a career, with an underlying emphasis on the student within developing and transitional countries where career guidance is found deficient. The paper also provides a comprehensive definition of the field and an enumeration of its subdivisions.

  1. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING TO BIOENGINEERED CROPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops bioengineered to contain toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are subject to regulatory scrutiny by USEPA under the FIFRA legislation. The agency has declared these crops to be "in the public good" based on the reduced use of pesticides required for management of...

  2. Enabling microscale and nanoscale approaches for bioengineered cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincent; Raman, Ritu; Cvetkovic, Caroline; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-03-26

    In this issue of ACS Nano, Shin et al. present their finding that the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) results in improved functionality of bioengineered cardiac tissue. These CNT-GelMA hybrid materials demonstrate cardiac tissue with enhanced electrophysiological performance; improved mechanical integrity; better cell adhesion, viability, uniformity, and organization; increased beating rate and lowered excitation threshold; and protective effects against cardio-inhibitory and cardio-toxic drugs. In this Perspective, we outline recent progress in cardiac tissue engineering and prospects for future development. Bioengineered cardiac tissues can be used to build "heart-on-a-chip" devices for drug safety and efficacy testing, fabricate bioactuators for biointegrated robotics and reverse-engineered life forms, treat abnormal cardiac rhythms, and perhaps one day cure heart disease with tissue and organ transplants.

  3. Assessment of 'dry skin': current bioengineering methods and test designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Wigger-Alberti, W; Elsner, P

    2001-01-01

    Dry skin is a frequent problem in dermatology and a sign of dysfunction of the epidermis, especially of the stratum corneum as the morphological equivalent of the skin barrier. It may occur as an individual disposition or as the leading symptom of atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis. Besides the visual examination of the skin, various bioengineering methods have been developed to assess the different pathological and adaptive changes in the skin. In addition to the assessment of skin humidity, barrier function and desquamation, the quantification of skin surface topography and the mechanical properties of skin are suitable methods to characterize a dry skin condition. For clinical assessment of moisturizing products and emollients the parameters of investigation have to be defined and integrated in an adapted study design depending on the composition and content of the active agent in the test product. Newly developed cosmetic products have to be investigated for safety and efficacy. Modern bioengineering methods are suitable to fulfill these challenges.

  4. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well. PMID:25482234

  5. 78 FR 107 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  6. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, March 14, 2011, 6 p.m. to March 16, 2011, 12...

  7. Should bioengineering graduates seek employment in the defense industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arthur T

    2014-01-01

    They say that the difference between a mechanical engineer and a civil engineer is that the mechanical engineer develops weapons whereas a civil engineer designs targets. The implication is that some engineers are involved with building peaceful infrastructure whereas others contribute to destruction. This brings to mind the question: what is the proper role for engineers in the creation of weapons and defenses against them? In particular, should engineers specializing in biology or medicine be involved in the defense industry? After all, bioengineers are supposed to be builders or healers rather than warriors or destroyers.

  8. Grand challenges in bioengineered nanorobotics for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Scott C; Wang, Yongzhong; Xi, Ning; Fukuda, Toshio; Tarn, Tzyhjong; Hamel, William R; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-03-01

    One of the grand challenges currently facing engineering, life sciences, and medicine is the development of fully functional nanorobots capable of sensing, decision making, and actuation. These nanorobots may aid in cancer therapy, site-specific drug delivery, circulating diagnostics, advanced surgery, and tissue repair. In this paper, we will discuss, from a bioinspired perspective, the challenges currently facing nanorobotics, including core design, propulsion and power generation, sensing, actuation, control, decision making, and system integration. Using strategies inspired from microorganisms, we will discuss a potential bioengineered nanorobot for cancer therapy.

  9. Practical whole-tooth restoration utilizing autologous bioengineered tooth germ transplantation in a postnatal canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Mitsuaki; Oshima, Masamitsu; Ogawa, Miho; Sonoyama, Wataru; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Oida, Yasutaka; Shinkawa, Shigehiko; Nakajima, Ryu; Mine, Atsushi; Hayano, Satoru; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Kasugai, Shohei; Yamaguchi, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Kuboki, Takuo

    2017-01-01

    Whole-organ regeneration has great potential for the replacement of dysfunctional organs through the reconstruction of a fully functional bioengineered organ using three-dimensional cell manipulation in vitro. Recently, many basic studies of whole-tooth replacement using three-dimensional cell manipulation have been conducted in a mouse model. Further evidence of the practical application to human medicine is required to demonstrate tooth restoration by reconstructing bioengineered tooth germ using a postnatal large-animal model. Herein, we demonstrate functional tooth restoration through the autologous transplantation of bioengineered tooth germ in a postnatal canine model. The bioengineered tooth, which was reconstructed using permanent tooth germ cells, erupted into the jawbone after autologous transplantation and achieved physiological function equivalent to that of a natural tooth. This study represents a substantial advancement in whole-organ replacement therapy through the transplantation of bioengineered organ germ as a practical model for future clinical regenerative medicine. PMID:28300208

  10. EDITORIAL: Bioengineering nanotechnology: towards the clinic Bioengineering nanotechnology: towards the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weian; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Ferrari, Mauro; Serda, Rita

    2011-12-01

    special issue highlights some of the most recent advances in the exciting field of bioengineering nanotechnology. The themes covered in this issue include nanoparticle systems for tracking transplanted stem cells using a variety of imaging modalities, synthesis of smart nanomaterials for drug delivery and targeting specific intracellular organalles, elucidating how physical cues provided by nano- or micro-fabricated scaffolds impact cell phenotype, novel nanocomposite materials for biosensing, biomimetic assembly of nanostructures for studying molecular interactions, and high content analysis for assessing nanotoxicity. We believe next-generation nanomaterials that are currently under development will transform our understanding of biological mechanisms, and revolutionize clinical practice through ushering in new diagnostics and therapeutic paradigms. As nanotechnology becomes increasingly accessible to research laboratories, significant advances leading to paradigm shifts in basic biology and medicine will require connecting the right technology to the right problem and ensuring that the most pertinent criteria are correctly identified and addressed. References [1] Peer D et al Nat. Nanotechnol. 2 751-60 [2] Wang A Z, Langer R S and Farokhzad O C 2011 Annu. Rev. Med. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-040210-162544 [3] Farokhzad O C and Langer R 2006 Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58 1456-9 [4] Zhao W and Karp J M 2009 Nat. Mater. 8 453-4 [5] Ferreira L, Karp J M, Nobre L and Langer R 2008 Cell Stem Cell 3 136-46 [6] Zhao W and Karp J M 2009 ChemBioChem 10 2308-10 [7] Zhao W et al 2011 Nat. Nanotechnol. 6 524-31 [8] Stephan M T, Moon J J, Um S H, Bershteyn A and Irvine D J 2010 Nat. Med. 16 1035-41 [9] Sarkar D, Ankrum J A, Teo G S, Carman C V and Karp J M 2011 Biomaterials 32 3053-61

  11. Optical fiber based imaging of bioengineered tissue construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoznik, Etai; Niu, Guoguang; Lu, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Yong; Soker, Shay

    2016-04-01

    Imaging cells and tissues through opaque and turbid media is challenging and presents a major barrier for monitoring maturation and remodeling of bioengineered tissues. The fiber optics based imaging system described here offers a new approach for fluorescent cell imaging. A micro imaging channel is embedded in a Polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun scaffold designed for cell seeding, which allows us to use an optical fiber to locally deliver excitation laser close to the fluorescent cells. The emission is detected by an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) detector and image reconstruction of multiple excitation points is achieved with a working distance of several centimeters. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of system parameters on image reconstruction outcomes. Initial studies using fluorescent beads indicated that scaffold thickness had a small effect on image quality, whereas scaffold composition (collagen content), fluorophore spectra, and the reconstruction window size had a large effect. The results also suggest that a far-red fluorescent emission is preferential when using collagenous scaffolds with a thickness of up to 500 μm. Using these optimized parameters, we were able to image fluorescently labeled cells on a scaffold with a resolution of 15-20 μm, and have also measured muscle progenitor cell differentiation and scaffold surface coverage with endothelial cells. In the future, this imaging platform can be applied to other bioengineered tissues for non-invasive monitoring both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved.

  13. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Floren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications.

  14. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Michael; Migliaresi, Claudio; Motta, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF) is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications. PMID:27649251

  15. Bioengineering approaches to guide stem cell-based organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolche; Ranga, Adrian; Lutolf, Matthias P

    2014-05-01

    During organogenesis, various molecular and physical signals are orchestrated in space and time to sculpt multiple cell types into functional tissues and organs. The complex and dynamic nature of the process has hindered studies aimed at delineating morphogenetic mechanisms in vivo, particularly in mammals. Recent demonstrations of stem cell-driven tissue assembly in culture offer a powerful new tool for modeling and dissecting organogenesis. However, despite the highly organotypic nature of stem cell-derived tissues, substantial differences set them apart from their in vivo counterparts, probably owing to the altered microenvironment in which they reside and the lack of mesenchymal influences. Advances in the biomaterials and microtechnology fields have, for example, afforded a high degree of spatiotemporal control over the cellular microenvironment, making it possible to interrogate the effects of individual microenvironmental components in a modular fashion and rapidly identify organ-specific synthetic culture models. Hence, bioengineering approaches promise to bridge the gap between stem cell-driven tissue formation in culture and morphogenesis in vivo, offering mechanistic insight into organogenesis and unveiling powerful new models for drug discovery, as well as strategies for tissue regeneration in the clinic. We draw on several examples of stem cell-derived organoids to illustrate how bioengineering can contribute to tissue formation ex vivo. We also discuss the challenges that lie ahead and potential ways to overcome them.

  16. Plant diterpene synthases: exploring modularity and metabolic diversity for bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Plants produce thousands of diterpenoid natural products; some of which are of significant industrial value as biobased pharmaceuticals (taxol), fragrances (sclareol), food additives (steviosides), and commodity chemicals (diterpene resin acids). In nature, diterpene synthase (diTPS) enzymes are essential for generating diverse diterpene hydrocarbon scaffolds. While some diTPSs also form oxygenated compounds, more commonly, oxygenation is achieved by cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenases. Recent genome-, transcriptome-, and metabolome-guided gene discovery and enzyme characterization identified novel diTPS functions that form the core of complex modular pathway systems. Insights into diterpene metabolism may translate into the development of new bioengineered microbial and plant-based production systems.

  17. Dynamic, nondestructive imaging of a bioengineered vascular graft endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce M Whited

    Full Text Available Bioengineering of vascular grafts holds great potential to address the shortcomings associated with autologous and conventional synthetic vascular grafts used for small diameter grafting procedures. Lumen endothelialization of bioengineered vascular grafts is essential to provide an antithrombogenic graft surface to ensure long-term patency after implantation. Conventional methods used to assess endothelialization in vitro typically involve periodic harvesting of the graft for histological sectioning and staining of the lumen. Endpoint testing methods such as these are effective but do not provide real-time information of endothelial cells in their intact microenvironment, rather only a single time point measurement of endothelium development. Therefore, nondestructive methods are needed to provide dynamic information of graft endothelialization and endothelium maturation in vitro. To address this need, we have developed a nondestructive fiber optic based (FOB imaging method that is capable of dynamic assessment of graft endothelialization without disturbing the graft housed in a bioreactor. In this study we demonstrate the capability of the FOB imaging method to quantify electrospun vascular graft endothelialization, EC detachment, and apoptosis in a nondestructive manner. The electrospun scaffold fiber diameter of the graft lumen was systematically varied and the FOB imaging system was used to noninvasively quantify the affect of topography on graft endothelialization over a 7-day period. Additionally, results demonstrated that the FOB imaging method had a greater imaging penetration depth than that of two-photon microscopy. This imaging method is a powerful tool to optimize vascular grafts and bioreactor conditions in vitro, and can be further adapted to monitor endothelium maturation and response to fluid flow bioreactor preconditioning.

  18. Formative Assessment and Professional Training: Reflections from a Mathematics course in Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, C.; Milesi, S.; Lapyckyj, I.; Ravera, E.; Escher, L.; Miyara, A.; Pita, G.; Añino, M.

    2016-04-01

    Bioengineering is currently considered an interdisciplinary professional field which provides solutions to different problems arising in the area of health care. Its strategic importance is widely acknowledged since its developments and proposals could help diminish the level of technological dependence in the sector. The fast pace of innovation in the area of biomedical technology gives rise to permanent reflection on the learning goals and teaching strategies proposed by educators in the different training stages of a bioengineer. In this context, learning assessment appears as a controversial issue which needs to be debated and rethought. This paper describes the reflections of teachers of a Mathematics course within a Bioengineering program around the question, What approach to assessment favors the student’s participation, autonomy and training as a future bioengineer? The investigation was carried out in the framework of a Participatory Research Action project and helped us to redesign assessment activities from a different perspective.

  19. Project Alexander the Great: a study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is considered amongst the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the primer for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has evolved since late 1950s and is undergoing advancement in leading academic institutions worldwide. This paper delineates an original study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and bears the name 'Project Alexander the Great'. The initial step of the project was to survey all 10448 universities, recognized by the International Association of Universities, spread among the 193 member states of the United Nations within the six continents. The project aims at identifying, disseminating, and networking, through the world-wide-web, those institutions of higher learning that provide bioengineering/biomedical engineering education. The significance of this project is multifold: i) the inception of a web-based 'world-map' in bioengineering/biomedical engineering education for the potential international student desiring to pursue a career in this field; ii) the global networking of bioengineering/biomedical engineering academic/research programs; iii) the promotion of first-class bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and the catalysis of global proliferation of this field; iv) the erection of bridges among educational institutions, industry, and professional societies or organizations involved in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering; and v) the catalysis in the establishment of framework agreements for cooperation among the identified institutions offering curricula in this field. This paper presents the results obtained from Africa and North America. The whole project is due to be completed by 2009.

  20. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    OpenAIRE

    PETRONE, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-01-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua.


    ...

  1. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    OpenAIRE

    PETRONE, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-01-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics ...

  2. PREFACE: XVII Congress of Bioengineering and VI Clinical Engineering Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Darío

    2011-09-01

    SABI 2009 was the XVII Biennial Congress of the Argentinean Bioengineering Society (SABI - www.sabi.org.ar), celebrated along with the VI Clinical Engineering Conference. It took place in Rosario, the second city of Argentina, located on the west bank of the Paraná, one of the world's most important rivers. This city, with its 150 year history and one million inhabitants, is characterized by a strong enterprising spirit. It is the agroindustrial leader of Argentina, with cereal ports recognized to be among the most active in the world, and its cereal stock exchange competes with Chicago's in international cereal pricing. Demographically Rosario presents a European profile, and there are seven national and private higher level universities in the area. SABI 2009 was the first time the Congress was celebrated in Rosario. Usually the Congress is organized by the Bioengineering Society in cooperation with a university with an undergraduate program, which Rosario lacks. To meet the needs of this exceptional case, a young local institution was asked to coordinate the Congress, the Rosario Technological Center (www.polotecnologico.net). This organization gathers together around 100 companies that produce technology, with a large number focused on IT, but those focused on biotechnology also stand out. The Center is also integrated with relevant public and government bodies. Traditionally, bioengineering has been related to human health applications, with less emphasis on applications significant to agrotechnology, an area in which Rosario is growing as an economic force. In order to address this oversight, the Congress formulated its main goals for integrating and synergizing bioengineering and biotechnology, particularly bioengineering and agrotechnology. This initiative has produced promising results. The importance of the Congress was reflected in the high number of participants - including researchers, professionals and students - from abroad, with participants from

  3. Life cycle performances of log wood applied for soil bioengineering constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalny, Gerda; Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays there is a high demand on engineering solutions considering not only technical aspects but also ecological and aesthetic values. Soil bioengineering is a construction technique that uses biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions. Soil bioengineering solutions are based on the application of living plants and other auxiliary materials including among others log wood. This kind of construction material supports the soil bioengineering system as long as the plants as living construction material overtake the stability function. Therefore it is important to know about the durability and the degradation process of the wooden logs to retain the integral performance of a soil bio engineering system. These aspects will be considered within the framework of the interdisciplinary research project „ELWIRA Plants, wood, steel and concrete - life cycle performances as construction materials". Therefore field investigations on soil bioengineering construction material, specifically European Larch wood logs, of different soil bioengineering structures at the river Wien have been conducted. The drilling resistance as a parameter for particular material characteristics of selected logs was measured and analysed. The drilling resistance was measured with a Rinntech Resistograph instrument at different positions of the wooden logs, all surrounded with three different backfills: Fully surrounded with air, with earth contact on one side and near the water surface in wet-dry conditions. The age of the used logs ranges from one year old up to 20 year old. Results show progress of the drilling resistance throughout the whole cross section as an indicator to assess soil bioengineering construction material. Logs surrounded by air showed a higher drilling resistance than logs with earth contact and the ones exposed to wet-dry conditions. Hence the functional capability of wooden logs were analysed and discussed in terms of different levels of degradation

  4. Development of bioengineering system for stem cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Shah, R.; Shah, C.

    2016-08-01

    From last decades, intensive research in the field of stem cells proliferation had been promoted due to the unique property of stem cells to self-renew themselves into multiples and has potential to replicate into an organ or tissues and so it's highly demanding though challenging. Bioreactor, a mechanical device, works as a womb for stem cell proliferation by providing nutritious environment for the proper growth of stem cells. Various factors affecting stem cells growth are the bioreactor mechanism, feeding of continuous nutrients, healthy environment, etc., but it always remains a challenge for controlling biological parameters. The present paper unveils the design of mechanical device commonly known as bioreactor in tissues engineering and biotech field, use for proliferation of stem cells and imparts the proper growing condition for stem cells. This high functional bioreactor provides automation mixing of cell culture and stem cells. This design operates in conjunction with mechanism of reciprocating motion. Compare to commercial bioreactors, this proposed design is more convenient, easy to operate and less maintenance is required as bioreactor culture bag is made of polyethylene which is single use purpose. Development of this bioengineering system will be beneficial for better growth and expansion of stem cell

  5. The role of coccolithophore calcification in bioengineering their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darren R.; Wheeler, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Coccolithophorids are enigmatic plankton that produce calcium carbonate coccoliths, which over geological time have buried atmospheric CO2 into limestone, changing both the atmosphere and geology of the Earth. However, the role of coccoliths for the proliferation of these organisms remains unclear; suggestions include roles in anti-predation, enhanced photosynthesis and sun-screening. Here we test the hypothesis that calcification stabilizes the pH of the seawater proximate to the organisms, providing a level of acidification countering the detrimental basification that occurs during net photosynthesis. Such bioengineering provides a more stable pH environment for growth and fits the empirical evidence for changes in rates of calcification under different environmental conditions. Under this scenario, simulations suggest that the optimal production ratio of inorganic to organic particulate C (PIC : POCprod) will be lower (by approx. 20%) with ocean acidification and that overproduction of coccoliths in a future acidified ocean, where pH buffering is weaker, presents a risk to calcifying cells. PMID:27358373

  6. Bioengineering case studies sustainable stream bank and slope stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Wendi; McCullah, John

    2014-01-01

    This unique volume describes and evaluates 30 projects from across the United States where bio-stabilization was employed to address a detrimental naturally occurring process or byproduct of the built environment. Bio-stabilization (or soil bioengineering) refers to the use of plant materials, primarily live cuttings, arranged in the ground in different arrays to reinforce soils and protect upland slopes and/or stream banks against surficial erosion and shallow slope failures. Examples included in the collection represent different regions of the country and their specific conditions and challenges. Each project is illustrated with a number of distinctive photographs to support the reader's understanding and showcase the wide scope of projects and techniques presented. This book also: ·         Presents a range of well-documented case studies on key techniques and best practices for bio-stabilization projects ·         Emphasizes evaluation and comparison of different techniques and challeng...

  7. Application of AMOR in craniofacial rabbit bone bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marcelo; Choi, Jeong-Ho; Nguyen, Anthony; Chee, Young Deok; Kook, Joong-Ki; You, Hyung-Keun; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous molecular and cellular mediators modulate tissue repair and regeneration. We have recently described antibody mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR) as a novel strategy for bioengineering bone in rat calvarial defect. This entails application of anti-BMP-2 antibodies capable of in vivo capturing of endogenous osteogenic BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7). The present study sought to investigate the feasibility of AMOR in other animal models. To that end, we examined the efficacy of a panel of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal Ab immobilized on absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) to mediate bone regeneration within rabbit calvarial critical size defects. After 6 weeks, de novo bone formation was demonstrated by micro-CT imaging, histology, and histomorphometric analysis. Only certain anti-BMP-2 mAb clones mediated significant in vivo bone regeneration, suggesting that the epitopes with which anti-BMP-2 mAbs react are critical to AMOR. Increased localization of BMP-2 protein and expression of osteocalcin were observed within defects, suggesting accumulation of endogenous BMP-2 and/or increased de novo expression of BMP-2 protein within sites undergoing bone repair by AMOR. Considering the ultimate objective of translation of this therapeutic strategy in humans, preclinical studies will be necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of AMOR in progressively larger animal models.

  8. Bioengineered models of solid human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano-Kruik, Alessandro; Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Summary The lack of controllable in vitro models that can recapitulate the features of solid tumors such as Ewing’s sarcoma limits our understanding of the tumor initiation and progression and impedes the development of new therapies. Cancer research still relies of the use of simple cell culture, tumor spheroids, and small animals. Tissue-engineered tumor models are now being grown in vitro to mimic the actual tumors in patients. Recently, we have established a new protocol for bioengineering the Ewing’s sarcoma, by infusing tumor cell aggregates into the human bone engineered from the patient’s mesenchymal stem cells. The bone niche allows crosstalk between the tumor cells, osteoblasts and supporting cells of the bone, extracellular matrix and the tissue microenvironment. The bioreactor platform used in these experiments also allows the implementation of physiologically relevant mechanical signals. Here, we describe a method to build an in vitro model of Ewing’s sarcoma that mimics the key properties of the native tumor and provides the tissue context and physical regulatory signals. PMID:27115504

  9. A bioengineered nisin derivative to control biofilms of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Des; Gaudin, Noémie; Lyons, Francy; O'Connor, Paula M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and the shortage of novel antimicrobials are among the biggest challenges facing society. One of the major factors contributing to resistance is the use of frontline clinical antibiotics in veterinary practice. In order to properly manage dwindling antibiotic resources, we must identify antimicrobials that are specifically targeted to veterinary applications. Nisin is a member of the lantibiotic family of antimicrobial peptides that exhibit potent antibacterial activity against many gram-positive bacteria, including human and animal pathogens such as Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Listeria, and Clostridium. Although not currently used in human medicine, nisin is already employed commercially as an anti-mastitis product in the veterinary field. Recently we have used bioengineering strategies to enhance the activity of nisin against several high profile targets, including multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and also against staphylococci and streptococci associated with bovine mastitis. However, newly emerging pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pose a significant threat in terms of veterinary health and as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance determinants. In this study we created a nisin derivative with enhanced antimicrobial activity against S. pseudintermedius. In addition, the novel nisin derivative exhibits an enhanced ability to impair biofilm formation and to reduce the density of established biofilms. The activities of this peptide represent a significant improvement over that of the wild-type nisin peptide and merit further investigation with a view to their use to treat S. pseudintermedius infections.

  10. Electroanalysis of amino acid substitutions in bioengineered acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somji, Mehdi; Dounin, Vladimir; Muench, Susanne B; Schulze, Holger; Bachmann, Till T; Kerman, Kagan

    2012-12-01

    This study reports the electrochemical profiling of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase (AChE) wild-type and mutant proteins. An irreversible oxidation signal of electro-active tyrosine (Y), tryptophan (W) and cysteine (C) residues in five mutant proteins along with the wild-type AChE were detected using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Significant differences were observed in the W303L, T65Y and M301W substituted proteins showing a 25-35% higher peak current intensity compared to the Y349Y and F345Y mutants. It was predicted that AChE substituted with electrochemically active residues would produce the greatest signals and this trend was observed in the T65Y, M301W and Y349L mutants. However, conformational changes in the proteins structure as a result of the substitutions appeared to be most influential on peak current intensities. This was demonstrated by the W303L and F345Y mutant enzymes. The current intensity of W303L was greatest despite the removal of its electro-active W residue whereas the F345Y mutant had the lowest peak value despite the addition of an electro-active Y residue. The preliminary results of this study demonstrate that SWV provides a promising tool to probe the presence of electro-active amino acid residues on the surface of a protein produced through bioengineering.

  11. Functional tooth regeneration using a bioengineered tooth unit as a mature organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Mizuno, Mitsumasa; Imamura, Aya; Ogawa, Miho; Yasukawa, Masato; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Morita, Ritsuko; Ikeda, Etsuko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Kasugai, Shohei; Saito, Masahiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Donor organ transplantation is currently an essential therapeutic approach to the replacement of a dysfunctional organ as a result of disease, injury or aging in vivo. Recent progress in the area of regenerative therapy has the potential to lead to bioengineered mature organ replacement in the future. In this proof of concept study, we here report a further development in this regard in which a bioengineered tooth unit comprising mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, was successfully transplanted into a properly-sized bony hole in the alveolar bone through bone integration by recipient bone remodeling in a murine transplantation model system. The bioengineered tooth unit restored enough the alveolar bone in a vertical direction into an extensive bone defect of murine lower jaw. Engrafted bioengineered tooth displayed physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function for bone remodeling and responsiveness to noxious stimulations. This study thus represents a substantial advance and demonstrates the real potential for bioengineered mature organ replacement as a next generation regenerative therapy.

  12. Bioengineering of Dental Tissues: Bibliometric Analysis 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Zamorano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been a noticeable increase in experimental use and therapies based on stem cells over recent years. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about this progress in the dental field, which makes it difficult to trace development and design policies. The purpose of this study, as a first approach to the subject, is to determine a bibliometric profile for the investigation related to bioengineering of dental tissue at a worldwide scale, based on the MEDLINE database, for the period 2000-2011. Methodology: A bibliometric study was carried out. Every article indexed in the MEDLINE database and associated with the terms “stem cells” and “tooth regeneration” for the period 2000-2011 was included. The analyzed variables were publishing date, country of origin, language and publication type (original or review, journal, author, associated university and tissue source (human or animal. Results: For the entire period included in the study, 257 articles were found. Of these, 149 corresponded to original Works published in English; 5 in other languages; 92 comprised literature reviews in English, 9 in other languages and 2 publications were included in the “others” category. The countries with the highest research productivity were the United States (24.51%, Japan (20.62% and China (17.90%, while Brazil (3.9% was the only Latin-American country found in the list. Animal tissues were used in 59.09% of them. The most productive authors were Ueda M (17 and Jin Y (11, whereas Fourth Military University (13, University of Tokyo (12 and Capital Medical University (10 had the largest number of publications. Conclusion: The United States, Japan and China concentrate about two thirds of the production. Latin-America was represented only by Brazil.

  13. A bioengineered nisin derivative to control biofilms of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Field

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance and the shortage of novel antimicrobials are among the biggest challenges facing society. One of the major factors contributing to resistance is the use of frontline clinical antibiotics in veterinary practice. In order to properly manage dwindling antibiotic resources, we must identify antimicrobials that are specifically targeted to veterinary applications. Nisin is a member of the lantibiotic family of antimicrobial peptides that exhibit potent antibacterial activity against many gram-positive bacteria, including human and animal pathogens such as Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Listeria, and Clostridium. Although not currently used in human medicine, nisin is already employed commercially as an anti-mastitis product in the veterinary field. Recently we have used bioengineering strategies to enhance the activity of nisin against several high profile targets, including multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE and also against staphylococci and streptococci associated with bovine mastitis. However, newly emerging pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP pose a significant threat in terms of veterinary health and as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance determinants. In this study we created a nisin derivative with enhanced antimicrobial activity against S. pseudintermedius. In addition, the novel nisin derivative exhibits an enhanced ability to impair biofilm formation and to reduce the density of established biofilms. The activities of this peptide represent a significant improvement over that of the wild-type nisin peptide and merit further investigation with a view to their use to treat S. pseudintermedius infections.

  14. An Effective Numerical Method and Its Utilization to Solution of Fractional Models Used in Bioengineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fractional-order linear and nonlinear models used in bioengineering applications and an effective method for their numerical solution. The proposed method is based on the power series expansion of a generating function. Numerical solution is in the form of the difference equation, which can be simply applied in the Matlab/Simulink to simulate the dynamics of system. Several illustrative examples are presented, which can be widely used in bioengineering as well as in the other disciplines, where the fractional calculus is often used.

  15. Bio-Engineering High Performance Microbial Strains for MEOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangdong Fang; Qinghong Wang; Patrick Shuler

    2007-12-30

    The main objectives of this three-year research project are: (1) to employ the latest advances in genetics and bioengineering, especially Directed Protein Evolution technology, to improve the effectiveness of the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process. (2) to improve the surfactant activity and the thermal stability of bio-surfactant systems for MEOR; and (3) to develop improved laboratory methods and tools that screen quickly candidate bio-systems for EOR. Biosurfactants have been receiving increasing attention as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) agents because of their unique properties (i.e., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, and higher biodegradability) compared to their synthetic chemical counterparts. Rhamnolipid as a potent natural biosurfactant has a wide range of potential applications, including EOR and bioremediation. During the three-year of the project period, we have successfully cloned the genes involved in the rhamnolipid bio-synthesis. And by using the Transposon containing Rhamnosyltransferase gene rhlAB, we engineered the new mutant strains P. aeruginosa PEER02 and E. coli TnERAB so they can produce rhamnolipid biosurfactans. We were able to produce rhamnolipds in both P. aeroginosa PAO1-RhlA- strain and P. fluorescens ATCC15453 strain, with the increase of 55 to 175 fold in rhamnolipid production comparing with wild type bacteria strain. We have also completed the first round direct evolution studies using Error-prone PCR technique and have constructed the library of RhlAB-containing Transposon to express mutant gene in heterologous hosts. Several methods, such as colorimetric agar plate assay, colorimetric spectrophotometer assay, bioactive assay and oil spreading assay have been established to detect and screen rhamnolipid production. Our engineered P. aeruginosa PEER02 strain can produce rhamnolipids with different carbon sources as substrate. Interfacial tension analysis (IFT) showed that different rhamnolipids from different

  16. 78 FR 76843 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) Announcement of Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) DEBUT Challenge is open to teams of undergraduate students working on... working in teams, identifying unmet clinical needs, and designing, building and debugging solutions for... students who are studying in the United States on a visa are eligible to be part of the competing...

  17. Simulation of a Congress at the Chair of Biology II in Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, A. V.; Reznichenco, V.; López, N.; Hernández, R.; Bajinay, S.

    2007-11-01

    This work has been developed in the Chair of Biology II, the curricular contents of which correspond to Human Anatomy. This subject is taught in the second semester of the second year of studies in Bioengineering. Our main objective is that the students attending the course may integrate the syllabus contents of Anatomy with those of other subjects in the career. Ever since 1998 we have organized a congress named Congreso Intracátedra de Biología II (Intra Chair Congress on Biology II). This is the last assignment in the semester and is compulsory for regular students of the subject. It consists in simulating a scientific congress with international characteristics. The guidelines for the congress are made known to the students at the beginning of the semester. In groups of up to three members, the students must undertake a work that relates aspects of Anatomy with Bioengineering. Students are expected to investigate on diagnostic and/or therapeutic technology in order to write a paper that must be accepted in advance of the event. The presentation of the work must be made through PowerPoint. The originality of the research work done and the wide range of topics selected are surprising. Problems are tackled from the standpoints both of the various medical fields and of bioengineering despite the fact that they are just students of the second year in Bioengineering.

  18. Bioengineering in front of a river dike: Wave attenuation by vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude, de R.; Augustijn, D.C.M.; Wijnberg, K.M.; Dekker, F.; Vries, de M.B.; Suzuki, T.; Christodoulou, George C.; Stamou, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    Bioengineering is a novel way to reduce the application or dimensions of hard constructions. In the Dutch Noordwaard polder a vegetation field is proposed in front of a planned dike to damp waves such that the desired dike height can be reduced. To investigate the impact of vegetation on waves, the

  19. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial stem cells on bioengineered matrices for corneal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Alexandra; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Ratnayake, Anjula; Petrovski, Goran; Uusitalo, Hannu; Skottman, Heli; Rafat, Mehrdad

    2016-05-01

    Corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs), a type of tissue-specific stem cells located in the limbal palisades of Vogt at the corneo-scleral junction. Acute trauma or inflammatory disorders of the ocular surface can destroy these stem cells, leading to limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) - a painful and vision-threatening condition. Treating these disorders is often challenging and complex, especially in bilateral cases with extensive damage. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide new opportunities for corneal reconstruction using cell-based therapy. Here, we investigated the use of hPSC-derived LESC-like cells on bioengineered collagen matrices in serum-free conditions, aiming for clinical applications to reconstruct the corneal epithelium and partially replace the damaged stroma. Differentiation of hPSCs towards LESC-like cells was directed using small-molecule induction followed by maturation in corneal epithelium culture medium. After four to five weeks of culture, differentiated cells were seeded onto bioengineered matrices fabricated as transparent membranes of uniform thickness, using medical-grade porcine collagen type I and a hybrid cross-linking technology. The bioengineered matrices were fully transparent, with high water content and swelling capacity, and parallel lamellar microstructure. Cell proliferation of hPSC-LESCs was significantly higher on bioengineered matrices than on collagen-coated control wells after two weeks of culture, and LESC markers p63 and cytokeratin 15, along with proliferation marker Ki67 were expressed even after 30 days in culture. Overall, hPSC-LESCs retained their capacity to self-renew and proliferate, but were also able to terminally differentiate upon stimulation, as suggested by protein expression of cytokeratins 3 and 12. We propose the use of bioengineered collagen matrices as carriers for the clinically-relevant hPSC-derived LESC-like cells, as a novel tissue engineering approach for

  20. FGF-9 accelerates epithelial invagination for ectodermal organogenesis in real time bioengineered organ manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Yun-Yuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial invagination is important for initiation of ectodermal organogenesis. Although many factors regulate ectodermal organogenesis, there is not any report about their functions in real-time study. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS, a non-invasive, real-time surveillance system, had been used to detect changes in organ cell layer thickness through quantitative monitoring of the impedance of a cell-to-microelectrode interface over time. It was shown to be a good method for identifying significant real-time changes of cells. The purpose of this study is to establish a combined bioengineered organ-ECIS model for investigating the real time effects of fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF-9 on epithelial invagination in bioengineered ectodermal organs. We dissected epithelial and mesenchymal cells from stage E14.5 murine molar tooth germs and identified the real-time effects of FGF-9 on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions using this combined bioengineered organ-ECIS model. Results Measurement of bioengineered ectodermal organ thickness showed that Fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF-9 accelerates epithelial invagination in reaggregated mesenchymal cell layer within 3 days. Gene expression analysis revealed that FGF-9 stimulates and sustains early Ameloblastin and Amelogenin expression during odontogenesis. Conclusions This is the first real-time study to show that, FGF-9 plays an important role in epithelial invagination and initiates ectodermal organogenesis. Based on these findings, we suggest FGF-9 can be applied for further study in ectodermal organ regeneration, and we also proposed that the ‘FGF-BMP balancing system’ is important for manipulating the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs. The combined bioengineered organ-ECIS model is a promising method for ectodermal organ engineering and regeneration research.

  1. Conceptional Considerations to Energy Balance and Global Warming Potential of Soil Bioengineering Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Thannen, Magdalena; Paratscha, Roman; Smutny, Roman; Lampalzer, Thomas; Strauss, Alfred; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays there is a high demand on engineering solutions considering not only technical aspects but also ecological and aesthetic values. In this context soil bioengineering techniques are often used as standalone solutions or in combination with conventional engineering structures. It is a construction technique that uses biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions. In general it pursues the same objectives as conventional civil engineering structures. Currently the used assessment methods for soil bioengineering structures are referencing technically, ecologically and socio-economically. In a modern engineering approach additionally, environmental impacts and potential added values should be considered. The research project E-Protect aims at developing Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models for this special field of alpine protective constructions. Both, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and the Global Warming Potential (GWP) should be considered in an Environmental LCA over the whole life cycle of an engineering structure. The life cycle itself can be divided into three phases: the construction phase, the use phase and the end of life phase. The paper represents a concept to apply an Environmental LCA model for soil bioengineering structures. Beside the construction phase of these structures particular attention will be given to the use phase. It is not only important in terms of engineering effects but also plays an important role for positive carbon footprint due to the growing plants of soil bioengineering structures in contrast to conventional structures. Innovative Environmental LCA models will be applied to soil bioengineering structures which provide a new transparency for the responsible planners and stakeholders, by pointing out the total consumption of resources in all construction phases and components.

  2. Bioengineered probiotics as a new hope for health and diseases: an overview of potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Vinod; Singh, Birbal; Mal, Gorakh; Nagpal, Ravinder; Hemalatha, Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the use of microorganisms as therapeutics for over a century, the scientific and clinical admiration of their potential is a recent phenomenon. Genome sequencing and genetic engineering has enabled researchers to develop novel strategies, such as bioengineered probiotics or pharmabiotics, which may become a therapeutic strategy. Bioengineered probiotics with multiple immunogenic or antagonistic properties could be a viable option to improve human health. The bacteria are tailored to deliver drugs, therapeutic proteins or gene therapy vectors with precision and a higher degree of site specificity than conventional drug administration regimes. This article provides an overview of methodological concepts, thereby encouraging research and interest in this topic, with the ultimate goal of using designer probiotics as therapeutics in clinical practice.

  3. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Model for Soil Bioengineering Measures on Infrastructure Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil bioengineering techniques can be a helpful instrument for civil engineers taking into account not only technical but also ecological, socio-economic and sustainability aspects. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models can serve as supplementary evaluation methods to economic analyses, taking into account the resource demand and environmental burdens of engineering structures. The presented LCA model includes the functional grade of structures in addition to environmental aspects. When using vegetation as living construction material, several factors have to be considered. There is the provision of ecosystem services of plants, such as the stabilization of the slope through its root-system, CO2 sequestration through biomass production et cetera. However, it must be noted that vegetation can cause security issues on infrastructure facilities and entail costs through the necessity of maintenance works. For this reason, it is necessary to already define the target systems during the planning phase of a soil bioengineering structure. In this way, necessary measures can be adapted in all life cycles of a structure. The objective of the presented LCA model is to serve as a basis for the definition of target systems. In the designed LCA model the soil bioengineering structures are divided into four life phases; construction phase, operational phase, end of life phase and subsequent use phase. A main objective of the LCA model is the understanding of the "Cumulative Energy Demand" (CED) and "Global Warming Potential" (GWP) of soil bioengineering structures during all life cycle phases. Additionally, the biomass production and the CO2 sequestration potential of the used plants are regarded as well as the functional integrity of the soil bioengineering system. In the life phase of soil bioengineering structures, a major part of the energy input is required during the construction phase. This is mainly due to the cumulative energy demand of the inert materials

  4. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  5. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  6. Restoration of active gully systems following the implementation of bioengineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Pablo; Vanacker, Veerle; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Intensive land use in the central parts of the Andean basin has led to widespread land degradation. The formation of badlands dates back from the 1950s and 1960s. Several studies indicate that human activities have accelerated mountain erosion rates by up to 100 times. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of bio-engineering works aiming to stabilize degraded catchments. Five micro-catchments (0.2 up to 5 ha) have been selected within a 3 km2 area in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). The five micro-catchments differ in vegetation cover and implementation of bio-engineering works. The experimental design consisted of three micro-catchments: (1) DI with conservation works, (2) DF with reforestation by Eucalyptus sp and (3) DT with no conservation works. Two micro-catchments have been monitored in an agricultural area: with (AI) and without (AT) bio-engineering works in the active gullies. Small checkdams were constructed in the gully floors of two of the micro-catchments in the badland area (DI) and the agricultural area (AI). The checkdams are made of wood and tires. Water flow has been measured in every micro-catchment, while sediment traps were constructed to monitor sediment transport. Results show that bio-engineering techniques are effective to stabilize active gullies. Deposition of sediments in manmade dams is strongly dependent on previous rainfall events, as well as gully channel slope, and its vegetation cover. From the experimental data, an I30 max threshold value was determined. Above this threshold value, all micro-catchments are actively contributing sediment to the main river system. The checkdams built with wood and tires have an efficiency of 70%, and were shown to be very effective to stabilize active gullies in bad lands through significant reduction (about 62%) of the amount of sediment exported from the micro-catchments. Key words: degraded soils, erosion, sediment, restoration, reforestation

  7. Efficient purification protocol for bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with N-terminus Histag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Allophycocyanin plays a key role for the photon energy transfer from the phycobilisome to reaction center chlorophylls with high efficiency in cyanobacteria. Previously, the high soluble self-assembled bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with N-terminus polyhistidine from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 had been successfully recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli strain. The standard protocol with immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography with chelating transition metal ion (Ni2+ was used to purify the recombinant protein. Extensive optimization works were performed to obtain the desired protocol for high efficiency, low disassociation, simplicity and fitting for large-scale purification. In this study, a 33 full factorial response surface methodology was employed to optimize the varied factors such as pH of potassium phosphate (X1, NaCl concentration (X2, and imidazole concentration (X3. A maximum trimerization ratio (Y1 of approximate A650 nm/A620 nm at 1.024 was obtained at these optimum parameters. Further examinations, with absorbance spectra, fluorescence spectra and SDS-PAGE, confirmed the presence of bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with highly trimeric form. All these results demonstrate that optimized protocol is efficient in purification of bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with Histag.

  8. Development of microbial cell factories for bio-refinery through synthetic bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Akihiko; Ishii, Jun; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Matsuda, Fumio

    2013-01-20

    Synthetic bioengineering is a strategy for developing useful microbial strains with innovative biological functions. Novel functions are designed and synthesized in host microbes with the aid of advanced technologies for computer simulations of cellular processes and the system-wide manipulation of host genomes. Here, we review the current status and future prospects of synthetic bioengineering in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bio-refinery processes to produce various commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Previous studies to improve assimilation of xylose and production of glutathione and butanol suggest a fixed pattern of problems that need to be solved, and as a crucial step, we now need to identify promising targets for further engineering of yeast metabolism. Metabolic simulation, transcriptomics, and metabolomics are useful emerging technologies for achieving this goal, making it possible to optimize metabolic pathways. Furthermore, novel genes responsible for target production can be found by analyzing large-scale data. Fine-tuning of enzyme activities is essential in the latter stage of strain development, but it requires detailed modeling of yeast metabolic functions. Recombinant technologies and genetic engineering are crucial for implementing metabolic designs into microbes. In addition to conventional gene manipulation techniques, advanced methods, such as multicistronic expression systems, marker-recycle gene deletion, protein engineering, cell surface display, genome editing, and synthesis of very long DNA fragments, will facilitate advances in synthetic bioengineering.

  9. Update on Renal Replacement Therapy: Implantable Artificial Devices and Bioengineered Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Chiara; Latancia, Marcela T; Otterbein, Leo E; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are now joining forces in the areas of organ transplantation and bioengineering to solve continued challenges for patients with end-stage renal disease. The waiting lists for those needing a transplant continue to exceed demand. Dialysis, while effective, brings different challenges, including quality of life and susceptibility to infection. Unfortunately, the majority of research outputs are far from delivering satisfactory solutions. Current efforts are focused on providing a self-standing device able to recapitulate kidney function. In this review, we focus on two remarkable innovations that may offer significant clinical impact in the field of renal replacement therapy: the implantable artificial renal assist device (RAD) and the transplantable bioengineered kidney. The artificial RAD strategy utilizes micromachining techniques to fabricate a biohybrid system able to mimic renal morphology and function. The current trend in kidney bioengineering exploits the structure of the native organ to produce a kidney that is ready to be transplanted. Although these two systems stem from different technological approaches, they are both designed to be implantable, long lasting, and free standing to allow patients with kidney failure to be autonomous. However, for both of them, there are relevant issues that must be addressed before translation into clinical use and these are discussed in this review.

  10. A Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensor for Odorant Detection Using Single Bioengineered Olfactory Sensory Neurons as Sensing Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Tian, Yulan; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), a silicon-based surface potential detector, is combined with bioengineered olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) for odorant detection. A LAPS chip is used as a transducer to monitor cell membrane potential changes. In addition, a focused movable laser with a diameter comparable to cell sizes is employed to select the desirable single cell for measurement under a microscope. Bioengineered OSNs are coupled to the LAPS surface and employed as sensing elements, which are prepared by the expression of an olfactory receptor of C. elegans, ODR-10, on the plasma membrane of rat primary OSNs via transient transfection. The responses of bioengineered OSNs to diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, and acetic acid are monitored by extracellular recording using the LAPS chip. Features of the recorded extracellular potential firings are analyzed in frequency and time domains. We have shown that bioengineered OSNs can generate specific response signals upon the stimulation of diacetyl, which is the natural ligand of ODR-10. Moreover, different concentrations of diacetyl can elicit different temporal firing patterns in bioengineered OSNs, which permits the concentration detection of specific odorant molecules in solution.

  11. Assessing the transport and fate of bioengineered microorganisms in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    We review the methods currently available for quantifying the transport and fate of microbes in atmospheric and aqueous media and assess their adequacy for purposes of risk assessment. We review the literature on transport and fate of microorganisms, including studies of: (1) pathways of migration, (2) the survival of microorganisms during transport and fate. In addition, we review the transport and fate models that have been used in environmental risk assessments for radionuclides and toxic chemicals and evaluate their applicability to the problem of assessing environmental risks of bioengineered microorganisms.

  12. EFFICIENCY OF SIMPLE SUPER PHOSPHATE IN THE VETIVER GRASS DEVELOPMENT SUBJECTED TO SOIL BIOENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    RENISSON NEPONUCENO DE ARAÚJO FILHO; FRANCISCO SANDRO RODRIGUES HOLANDA; IGHOR DIAQUINO MATIAS SANTANA; TIAGO DE OLIVEIRA SANTOS; DÁRIO COSTA PRIMO

    2015-01-01

    The development of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) has been evaluated under differ-ent levels of phosphorus on slopes of the right-side bank of the San Francisco River, in the municipality of Am-paro do São Francisco, SE. Techniques of soil bioengineering were used, characterized by the combination of vegetated riprap with stakes, seedlings of vetiver grass and sediment retainers. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five doses (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 g pit-1 of simple s...

  13. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  14. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua.



    In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one.



    Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection.



    In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress if it's used the EPP dollar exchange

  15. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua.

    In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one.

    Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection.

    In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress

  16. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  17. Mimicking Exercise in Three-Dimensional Bioengineered Skeletal Muscle to Investigate Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Physiological Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Andreas M; Turner, Daniel C; Martin, Neil R W; Sharples, Adam P

    2017-02-03

    Bioengineering of skeletal muscle in-vitro in order to produce highly aligned myofibres in relevant three dimensional (3D) matrices have allowed scientists to model the in-vivo skeletal muscle niche. This review discusses essential experimental considerations for developing bioengineered muscle in order to investigate exercise mimicking stimuli. We identify current knowledge in the use of electrical stimulation and co-culture with motor neurons to enhance skeletal muscle maturation and contractile function in bioengineered systems in-vitro. Importantly, we provide a current opinion on the use of acute and chronic exercise mimicking stimuli (electrical stimulation and mechanical overload) and the subsequent mechanisms underlying physiological adaptation in 3D bioengineered muscle. We also identify that future studies using the latest bioreactor technology, providing simultaneous electrical and mechanical loading and flow perfusion in-vitro, may provide the basis for advancing knowledge in the future. We also envisage, that more studies using genetic, pharmacological and hormonal modifications applied in human 3D bioengineered skeletal muscle may allow for an enhanced discovery of the in-depth mechanisms underlying the response to exercise in relevant human testing systems. Finally, 3D bioengineered skeletal muscle may provide an opportunity to be used as a pre-clinical in-vitro test-bed to investigate the mechanisms underlying catabolic disease, whilst modelling disease itself via the use of cells derived from human patients without exposing animals or humans (in phase I trials) to the side effects of potential therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioengineered vascular graft with autologous stem cells: first use in the clinic. Interview with Michael Olausson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Michael Olausson talks to Regenerative Medicine about the pioneering clinical use of a bioengineered vascular graft to treat a 9-year-old girl with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction and the future potential of bioengineered vessels. Michael Olausson has been Professor of Transplantation Surgery at Gothenburg University (Gothenburg, Sweden) since 2000, and was Chairman of the Sahlgrenska Transplant Institute at Sahlgrenska University Hospital (Gothenburg, Sweden) between 1994 and June 2011. His scientific interests include transplant immunology and experimental and clinical transplantation studies. He has published over 240 original articles, reviews and book chapters in the field of transplantation. He has been invited as a speaker at several national and international meetings all over the world. He has pioneered several innovative surgical procedures in the Nordic countries, Europe and the rest of the world. Last year, he performed the first operation in the world using a stem cell-derived vein and recently he performed the two first mother-to-daughter live donor uterus transplantations in the world, together with a team from Gothenburg. In the past, he has been President of The Swedish Transplantation Society, and board member and Vice President of the European Liver and Intestinal Transplantation Association. In 2008 he received the Carl-Gustav Groth Scandinavian Transplant Prize.

  19. Bioengineered baculoviruses as new class of therapeutics using micro and nanotechnologies: principles, prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arghya; Hasan, Anwarul; Rodes, Laetitia; Sangaralingam, Mugundhine; Prakash, Satya

    2014-05-01

    Designing a safe and efficient gene delivery system is required for success of gene therapy trials. Although a wide variety of viral, non-viral and polymeric nanoparticle based careers have been widely studied, the current gene delivery vehicles are limited by their suboptimal, non-specific therapeutic efficacy and acute immunological reactions, leading to unwanted side effects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in insect-cell-originated baculoviruses as gene delivery vehicles for diverse biomedical applications. Specifically, the emergence of diverse types of surface functionalized and bioengineered baculoviruses is posed to edge over currently available gene delivery vehicles. This is primarily because baculoviruses are comparatively non-pathogenic and non-toxic as they cannot replicate in mammalian cells and do not invoke any cytopathic effect. Moreover, emerging advanced studies in this direction have demonstrated that hybridizing the baculovirus surface with different kinds of bioactive therapeutic molecules, cell-specific targeting moieties, protective polymeric grafts and nanomaterials can significantly improve the preclinical efficacy of baculoviruses. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the recent advancements in the field of bioengineering and biotherapeutics to engineer baculovirus hybrids for tailored gene therapy, and articulates in detail the potential and challenges of these strategies for clinical realization. In addition, the article illustrates the rapid evolvement of microfluidic devices as a high throughput platform for optimizing baculovirus production and treatment conditions.

  20. The method of purifying bioengineered spider silk determines the silk sphere properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Katarzyna; Felcyn, Edyta; Kozak, Maciej; Szybowicz, Miroslaw; Buchwald, Tomasz; Pietralik, Zuzanna; Jesionowski, Teofil; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Dams-Kozlowska, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Bioengineered spider silks are a biomaterial with great potential for applications in biomedicine. They are biocompatible,biodegradable and can self-assemble into films, hydrogels, scaffolds, fibers, capsules and spheres. A novel, tag-free, bioengineered spider silk named MS2(9x) was constructed. It is a 9-mer of the consensus motif derived from MaSp2–the spidroin of Nephila clavipes dragline silk. Thermal and acidic extraction methods were used to purify MS2(9x). Both purification protocols gave a similar quantity and quality of soluble silk; however, they differed in the secondary structure and zeta potential value. Spheres made of these purified variants differed with regard to critical features such as particle size, morphology, zeta potential and drug loading. Independent of the purification method, neither variant of the MS2(9x) spheres was cytotoxic, which confirmed that both methods can be used for biomedical applications. However, this study highlights the impact that the applied purification method has on the further biomaterial properties. PMID:27312998

  1. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-02-18

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation.

  2. A single cell bioengineering approach to elucidate mechanisms of adult stem cell self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Penney M; Corbel, Stephane; Doyonnas, Regis; Havenstrite, Karen; Magnusson, Klas E G; Blau, Helen M

    2012-04-01

    The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged and aging tissues. Adult stem cells, present in tissues such as skeletal muscle, comprise a reservoir of cells with a remarkable capacity to proliferate and repair tissue damage. Muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, reside in a quiescent state in an anatomically distinct compartment, or niche, ensheathed between the membrane of the myofiber and the basal lamina. Recently, procedures for isolating satellite cells were developed and experiments testing their function upon transplantation into muscles revealed an extraordinary potential to contribute to muscle fibers and access and replenish the satellite cell compartment. However, these properties are rapidly lost once satellite cells are plated in culture. Accordingly, elucidating the role of extrinsic factors in controlling muscle stem cell fate, in particular self-renewal, is critical. Through careful design of bioengineered culture platforms, analysis of specific proteins presented to stem cells is possible. Critical to the success of the approach is single cell analysis, as more rapidly proliferating progenitors may mask the behavior of stem cells that proliferate slowly. Bioengineering approaches provide a potent means of gaining insight into the role of extrinsic factors in the stem cell microenvironment on stem cell function and the mechanisms that control their diverse fates. Ultimately, the multidisciplinary approach presented here will lead to novel therapeutic strategies for degenerative diseases.

  3. Bioengineering bacteriophages to enhance the sensitivity of phage amplification-based paper fluidic detection of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaine, S D; Law, K; Ho, S; Kinchla, A J; Sela, D A; Nugen, S R

    2016-08-15

    Bacteriophage (phage) amplification is an attractive method for the detection of bacteria due to a narrow phage-host specificity, short amplification times, and the phages' ability to differentiate between viable and non-viable bacterial cells. The next step in phage-based bacteria detection is leveraging bioengineered phages to create low-cost, rapid, and easy-to-use detection platforms such as lateral flow assays. Our work establishes the proof-of-concept for the use of bioengineered T7 phage strains to increase the sensitivity of phage amplification-based lateral flow assays. We have demonstrated a greater than 10-fold increase in sensitivity using a phage-based protein reporter, maltose-binding protein, over the detection of replicated T7 phage viron itself, and a greater then 100-fold increase in sensitivity using a phage-based enzymatic reporter, alkaline phosphatase. This increase in sensitivity enabled us to detect 10(3)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli in broth after 7h, and by adding a filter concentration step, the ability to detect a regulatory relevant E. coli concentration of 100CFU/100mL in inoculated river water after 9h, where the current standard requires days for results. The combination of the paper fluidic format with phage-based detection provides a platform for the development of novel diagnostics that are sensitive, rapid, and easy to use.

  4. Profile of prospective bioengineering students at National University of San Juan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, N [School of Engineering. National University of San Juan. Av. San MartIn 1109 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Puzzella, A [School of Philosophy, Humanities and Arts. National University of San Juan. I de la Roza 230 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Zabala, A [School of Engineering. National University of San Juan. Av. San MartIn 1109 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Demartini, H [School of Engineering. National University of San Juan. Av. San MartIn 1109 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Alborch, A [School of Philosophy, Humanities and Arts. National University of San Juan. I de la Roza 230 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Cabrera, L [' Col. Central Universitario Dr. M. Moreno' Secondary School. National University of San Juan. I de la Roza 230 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The low percentage of students (43 % of applicants) that passed the entrance exams for the bioengineering career at the National University of San Juan in 2007, plus the historical situation of desertion in first year (about 50%), motivated the application of a diagnostic test to prospective students of this career. The aim of this test was to obtain information about the competences acquired by students to solve problems in different contexts using basic mathematical tools, reading comprehension skills to understand texts, graphs and tables. Although this test was sat by the entire population of applicants of the current school year, only the results belonging to bioengineering students are the ones presented for the purpose of this work. However, students of other disciplines of the school of engineering also have similar problems. From the analysis of the answers to the different items, it can be observed that there are serious difficulties in the development of basic capacities to successfully take the courses of this career.

  5. Profile of prospective bioengineering students at National University of San Juan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, N.; Puzzella, A.; Zabala, A.; Demartini, H.; Alborch, A.; Cabrera, L.

    2007-11-01

    The low percentage of students (43 % of applicants) that passed the entrance exams for the bioengineering career at the National University of San Juan in 2007, plus the historical situation of desertion in first year (about 50%), motivated the application of a diagnostic test to prospective students of this career. The aim of this test was to obtain information about the competences acquired by students to solve problems in different contexts using basic mathematical tools, reading comprehension skills to understand texts, graphs and tables. Although this test was sat by the entire population of applicants of the current school year, only the results belonging to bioengineering students are the ones presented for the purpose of this work. However, students of other disciplines of the school of engineering also have similar problems. From the analysis of the answers to the different items, it can be observed that there are serious difficulties in the development of basic capacities to successfully take the courses of this career.

  6. Strategies to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for human hair follicle bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Manabu; Veraitch, Ophelia

    2013-05-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration depend on intensive but well-orchestrated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal components. Accordingly, the enhancement of this crosstalk represents a promising approach to achieve successful bioengineering of human hair follicles. The present article summarizes the techniques, both currently available and potentially feasible, to promote epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) necessary for human hair follicle regeneration. The strategies include the preparation of epithelial components with high receptivity to trichogenic dermal signals and/or mesenchymal cell populations with potent hair inductive capacity. In this regard, bulge epithelial stem cells, keratinocytes predisposed to hair follicle fate or keratinocyte precursor cells with plasticity may provide favorable epithelial cell populations. Dermal papilla cells sustaining intrinsic hair inductive capacity, putative dermal papilla precursor cells in the dermal sheath/neonatal dermis or trichogenic dermal cells derived from undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates as hair inductive dermal cells. The most established protocol for in vivo hair follicle reconstitution is co-grafting of epithelial and mesenchymal components into immunodeficient mice. In theory, combination of individually optimized cellular components of respective lineages should elicit most intensive EMIs to form hair follicles. Still, EMIs can be further ameliorated by the modulation of non-cell autonomous conditions, including cell compartmentalization to replicate the positional relationship in vivo and humanization of host environment by preparing human stromal bed. These approaches may not always synergistically intensify EMIs, however, step-by-step investigation probing optimal combinations should maximally enhance EMIs to achieve successful human hair follicle bioengineering.

  7. Comparison of the effect of cryopreservation protocols on the histology of bioengineered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, D; Nieto-Aguilar, R; Garzón, I; Roda, O; Campos, A; Alaminos, M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of five different cryopreservation protocols on the histology of bioengineered tissues. Although several artificial tissues have been developed to the date by tissue engineering, classical histological analysis methods and techniques must be optimized for these new tissues with special properties. The results of this study showed that the use of volatile solutions (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glacial acetic acid and acetone) was not able to prevent the formation of large ice crystals that, in turn, can alter the structure of the artificial tissues. However, preincubation of the tissues in different concentrations of a carbon hydrate (glucose, maltose or trehalose) resulted in a better preservation of the tissue structure. We conclude that the best protocol that allows for an efficient analysis of the bioengineered tissues with very few artifacts is preincubation of the tissues in 0.300M or 0.400M trehalose for 30 or 120 min prior to OCT (optimal cutting temperature) embedding and cryosectioning. For all those reasons, we recommend the use of a cryoprotective agent before OCT embedding of human artificial tissues.

  8. Usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa model for preventing palate bone alterations in rabbits with a mucoperiostial defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Valadés-Gámez, Ricardo; Garzón, Ingrid; Liceras-Liceras, Esther; España-López, Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martin-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María-Ángeles; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria-Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel; Fernández-Valadés, Ricardo

    2016-02-19

    The use of mucoperiostial flaps during cleft palate surgery is associated with altered palatal bone growth and development. We analyzed the potential usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa in an in vivo model of cleft palate. First, a 4 mm palate defect was created in one side of the palate oral mucosa of 3 week-old New Zealand rabbits, and a complete autologous bioengineered oral mucosa (BOM) or acellular fibrin-agarose scaffold (AS) was implanted. No material was implanted in the negative controls (NC), and positive controls were not subjected to palatal defect (PC). Animals were allowed to grow for 6 months and the results were analyzed morphologically (palate mucosa and bone size) and histologically. Results show that palatal mucosa and bone growth and development were significantly altered in NC and AS animals, whereas BOM animals had similar results to PC and the bioengineered oral mucosa was properly integrated in the host palate. The amount and compaction of collagen fibers was similar between BOM and PC, and both groups of animals had comparable contents of proteoglycans and glycoproteins at the palate bone. No differences were found for decorin, osteocalcin and BMP2. The use of bioengineered oral mucosa substitutes is able to improve palate growth and maturation by preventing the alterations found in animals with denuded palate bone. These results support the potential clinical usefulness of BOM substitutes for the treatment of patients with cleft palate and other conditions in which palate mucosa grafts are necessary with consequent bone denudation.

  9. New methods to study the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix in natural and bioengineered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Jürgen; Huster, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) comprises a gel of numerous biopolymers that occurs in a multitude of biological tissues. The ECM provides the basic support and mechanical strength of skeletal tissue and is responsible for shape retention. At the same time, the ECM is responsible for the viscoelastic properties and the elasticity of soft tissues. As expected, there are several important diseases that affect and degenerate the ECM with severe consequences for its properties. Bioengineering is a promising approach to support the regenerative capacity of the body. Unfortunately, the biomechanical properties of bioengineered ECM often only poorly meet the standards of their native counterparts. Many bioengineered tissues are characterized by an increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG) but decreased collagen content. This leads to an enhanced water content that strongly alters the viscoelastic and thus the biomechanical properties. Therefore, compositional analysis is important to estimate the tissue quality. We will show that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and soft-ionization mass spectrometry (MS) represent useful techniques for ECM research both in natural and bioengineered tissues. Both methods are strongly complimentary: while MS techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) are excellent and very sensitive analytical tools to determine the collagen and the GAG contents of tissues, NMR spectroscopy provides insight into the molecular architecture of the ECM, its dynamics and other important parameters such as the water content of the tissue as well as the diffusion of molecules within the ECM.

  10. Students' Strengths and Weaknesses in Evaluating Technical Arguments as Revealed through Implementing Calibrated Peer Review™ in a Bioengineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Tracy; Saterbak, Ann

    2009-01-01

    In engineering fields, students are expected to construct technical arguments that demonstrate a discipline's expected use of logic, evidence, and conventions. Many undergraduate bioengineering students struggle to enact the appropriate argument structures when they produce technical posters. To address this problem we implemented Calibrated Peer…

  11. Bioengineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, G W

    1991-01-01

    Although bioengineering is not formally taught in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, undergraduate and postgraduate projects in this area are very popular among the students. Meetings of the research staff and students working in this area and in tribology in general are organized once a week where the research progress is reported and problems encountered are discussed. Very good collaboration has been established with the Royal Perth Hospital and the Departments of Anatomy and Pathology, University of Western Australia. The Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, has been most helpful over the years in meeting financial needs. The Department has also received over the years some support from the West Australian Arthritic Research Foundation.

  12. Nanofibers implant functionalized by neural growth factor as a strategy to innervate a bioengineered tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eap, Sandy; Bécavin, Thibault; Keller, Laetitia; Kökten, Tunay; Fioretti, Florence; Weickert, Jean-Luc; Deveaux, Etienne; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    Current strategies for jaw reconstruction require multiple procedures, to repair the bone defect, to offer sufficient support, and to place the tooth implant. The entire procedure can be painful and time-consuming, and the desired functional repair can be achieved only when both steps are successful. The ability to engineer combined tooth and bone constructs, which would grow in a coordinated fashion with the surrounding tissues, could potentially improve the clinical outcomes and also reduce patient suffering. A unique nanofibrous and active implant for bone-tooth unit regeneration and also the innervation of this bioengineered tooth are demonstrated. A nanofibrous polycaprolactone membrane is functionalized with neural growth factor, along with dental germ, and tooth innervation follows. Such innervation allows complete functionality and tissue homeostasis of the tooth, such as dentinal sensitivity, odontoblast function, masticatory forces, and blood flow.

  13. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dependent angiogenesis revealed by a bioengineered macrolide inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirando, Adam C; Fang, Pengfei; Williams, Tamara F; Baldor, Linda C; Howe, Alan K; Ebert, Alicia M; Wilkinson, Barrie; Lounsbury, Karen M; Guo, Min; Francklyn, Christopher S

    2015-08-14

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze an early step in protein synthesis, but also regulate diverse physiological processes in animal cells. These include angiogenesis, and human threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS) represents a potent pro-angiogenic AARS. Angiogenesis stimulation can be blocked by the macrolide antibiotic borrelidin (BN), which exhibits a broad spectrum toxicity that has discouraged deeper investigation. Recently, a less toxic variant (BC194) was identified that potently inhibits angiogenesis. Employing biochemical, cell biological, and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the toxicity of BN and its derivatives is linked to its competition with the threonine substrate at the molecular level, which stimulates amino acid starvation and apoptosis. By separating toxicity from the inhibition of angiogenesis, a direct role for TARS in vascular development in the zebrafish could be demonstrated. Bioengineered natural products are thus useful tools in unmasking the cryptic functions of conventional enzymes in the regulation of complex processes in higher metazoans.

  14. Bioengineering aspects of inorganic carbon supply to mass algal cultures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.

    1980-06-01

    The work included in this report is part of an ongoing study (currently funded by the Solar Energy Research Institute - Subcontract No. XR-9-8144-1) on the inorganic carbon requirements of microalgae under mass culture conditions and covers the period June 1, 1978 through May 31, 1979. It is divided into two parts appended herein. The first part is a literature review on the inorganic carbon chemical system in relation to algal growth requirements, and the second part deals with the kinetics of inorganic carbon-limited growth of two freshwater chlorophytes including the effect of carbon limitation on cellular chemical composition. Additional experiment research covered under this contract was reported in the Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conferences, pp. 25-32, Bioengineering aspects of inorganic carbon supply to mass algal cultures. Report No. SERI/TP-33-285.

  15. Maturation of embryonic tissues in a lymph node: a new approach for bioengineering complex organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Lagasse, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Given our recent finding that the lymph node (LN) can serve as an in vivo factory to generate complex structures like liver, pancreas, and thymus, we investigated whether LN could also support early development and maturation from several mid-embryonic (E14.5/15.5) mouse tissues including brain, thymus, lung, stomach, and intestine. Here we observed brain maturation in LN by showing the emergence of astrocytes with well-developed branching processes. Thymus maturation in LN was monitored by changes in host immune cells. Finally, newly terminally differentiated mucus-producing cells were identified in ectopic tissues generated by transplantation of lung, stomach and intestine in LN. Thus, we speculate the LN offers a unique approach to study the intrinsic and extrinsic differentiation potential of cells and tissues during early development, and provides a new site for bioengineering complex body parts.

  16. Future cereal starch bioengineering: Cereal ancestors encounter gene technology and designer enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods and biomedical...... additives. New approaches for starch bioengineering are needed. In this review we discuss cereal starch from a combined universal bioresource point of view. The combination of new biotechniques and clean tech methods can be implemented to replace e.g. chemical modification. The recently released cereal...... genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now paves the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome data from cereal...

  17. Validity and reliability of an instrument for assessing case analyses in bioengineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Ilya M; Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Ashley, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Assessment in ethics education faces a challenge. From the perspectives of teachers, students, and third-party evaluators like the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the National Institutes of Health, assessment of student performance is essential. Because of the complexity of ethical case analysis, however, it is difficult to formulate assessment criteria, and to recognize when students fulfill them. Improvement in students' moral reasoning skills can serve as the focus of assessment. In previous work, Rosa Lynn Pinkus and Claire Gloeckner developed a novel instrument for assessing moral reasoning skills in bioengineering ethics. In this paper, we compare that approach to existing assessment techniques, and evaluate its validity and reliability. We find that it is sensitive to knowledge gain and that independent coders agree on how to apply it.

  18. Organ engineering--combining stem cells, biomaterials, and bioreactors to produce bioengineered organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean Vincent; Atala, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Often the only treatment available for patients suffering from diseased and injured organs is whole organ transplant. However, there is a severe shortage of donor organs for transplantation. The goal of organ engineering is to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. Recent progress in stem cell biology, biomaterials, and processes such as organ decellularization and electrospinning has resulted in the generation of bioengineered blood vessels, heart valves, livers, kidneys, bladders, and airways. Future advances that may have a significant impact for the field include safe methods to reprogram a patient's own cells to directly differentiate into functional replacement cell types. The subsequent combination of these cells with natural, synthetic and/or decellularized organ materials to generate functional tissue substitutes is a real possibility. This essay reviews the current progress, developments, and challenges facing researchers in their goal to create replacement tissues and organs for patients.

  19. Enhancing the natural folate level in wine using bioengineering and stabilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yazheng; Walkey, Christopher J; Green, Timothy J; van Vuuren, Hennie J J; Kitts, David D

    2016-03-01

    Folate deficiency is linked to many diseases, some of which may have higher probability in individuals with alcohol-induced alterations in one-carbon metabolism. Our study shows that folate content in commercial wine is not related to white or red varieties, but associated with the yeast that is used to produce the wine. The stability of folate in these wines, once opened for consumption, did not correlate with total phenolic or sulfite content. In addition, we employed yeast bioengineering to fortify wine with folate. We confirmed by overexpression that FOL2 was the key gene encoding the rate-limiting step of folate biosynthesis in wine yeast. In this study, we also show that overexpression of other folate biosynthesis genes, including ABZ1, ABZ2, DFR1, FOL1 and FOL3, had no effect on folate levels in wine. Ensuring stability of the increased natural folate in all wines was achieved by the addition of ascorbate.

  20. Biomedical device design discovery team approach to teaching physiology to undergraduate bioengineering students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudd, T A; Wasser, J S

    1999-12-01

    Teaching effectiveness is enhanced by generating student enthusiasm, by using active learning techniques, and by convincing students of the value of acquiring knowledge in the area of study. We have employed a technique to teach physiology to bioengineering students that couples students' enthusiasm for their chosen field, bioengineering, with an active learning process in which students are asked to design a biomedical device to enhance, replace, or create a new cellular or organ system function. Each assignment is designed with specific constraints that serve to direct students' attention to specific areas of study and that require students to create original designs. Preventing students from using existing designs spurred student invention and enthusiasm for the projects. Students were divided into groups or "design discovery teams" as might be done in a biomedical device industry setting. Students then researched the physiological issues that would need to be addressed to produce an acceptable design. Groups met with faculty to brainstorm and to obtain approval for their general design concepts before proceeding. Students then presented their designs to the instructors in a structured, written outline form and to the class as a 10-minute oral presentation. Grades were based on the outline, oral presentation, and peer evaluations (group members anonymously rated contributions of other members of their team). We believe that this approach succeeded in generating enthusiasm for learning physiology by allowing the students to think creatively in their chosen field of study and that it has resulted in students developing a more thorough understanding of difficult physiological concepts than would have been achieved with a traditional didactic lecture approach.

  1. Comparison of factor VIII transgenes bioengineered for improved expression in gene therapy of hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooriss, Kerry L; Denning, Gabriela; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Javazon, Elisabeth H; McCarty, David A; Spencer, H Trent; Doering, Christopher B

    2009-05-01

    Successful gene therapy of hemophilia A depends on the sustained expression of therapeutic levels of factor VIII (fVIII). Because of mRNA instability, interactions with resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, and the requirement for carbohydrate-facilitated transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, fVIII is expressed at much lower levels from mammalian cells than other proteins of similar size and complexity. A number of bioengineered forms of B domain-deleted (BDD) human fVIII have been generated and shown to have enhanced expression. Previously, we demonstrated that recombinant BDD porcine fVIII exhibits high-level expression due to specific sequence elements that increase biosynthesis via enhanced posttranslational transit through the secretory pathway. In the current study, high-expression recombinant fVIII constructs were compared directly in order to determine the relative expression of the various bioengineered fVIII transgenes. The data demonstrate that BDD porcine fVIII expression is superior to that of any of the human fVIII variant constructs tested. Mean fVIII expression of 18 units/10(6) cells/24 hr was observed from HEK-293 cells expressing a single copy of the porcine fVIII transgene, which was 36- to 225-fold greater than that of any human fVIII transgene tested. Furthermore, greater than 10-fold higher expression was observed in human cells transduced with BDD porcine fVIII versus BDD human fVIII-encoding lentiviral vectors, even at low proviral copy numbers, supporting its use over other human fVIII variants in future hemophilia A gene therapy clinical trials.

  2. 8th Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and 7th Clinical Engineering Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, Gustavo Javier; Ballarin, Virginia L.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2011, the Eighteenth Edition of the Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and Seventh Clinical Engineering Meeting were held in Mar del Plata, Argetina. The Mar del Plata SABI Regional and the School of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata invited All bioengineers, engineers, physicists, mathematicians, biologists, physicians and health professionals working in the field of Bioengineering to participate in this event. The overall objectives of the Conference were: To provide discussion of scientific research results in Bioengineering and Clinical Engineering. To promote technological development experiences. To strengthen the institutional and scientific communication links in the area of Bioengineering, mainly between Universities of Latin America. To encourage students, teachers, researchers and professionals to establish exchanges of experiences and knowledge. To provide biomedical engineering technology solutions to the society and contributing ideas for low cost care. Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SABI 2011 Chair Dra Virginia L Ballarin Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Co-Chair Dra Teresita R Cuadrado Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Local Comittee Dr Gustavo Abraham Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Josefina Ballarre Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dr Eduardo Blotta Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Agustina Bouchet Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Marcel Brun Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Silvia Ceré Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Mariela Azul Gonzalez Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Lucia Isabel Passoni Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Juan Ignacio Pastore Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Adriana Scandurra Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE

  3. Development of a Bioengineered Skin-Humanized Mouse Model for Psoriasis : Dissecting Epidermal-Lymphocyte Interacting Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Aspizua, Sara; García, Marta; Murillas, Rodolfo; Retamosa, Luisa; Illera, Nuria; Duarte, Blanca; Holguín, Almudena; Puig, Susana; Hernández, Maria Isabel; Meana, Alvaro; Jorcano, Jose Luis; Larcher, Fernando; Carretero, Marta; del Río, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, whole skin xenotransplantation models that mimic different aspects of psoriasis have become available. However, these models are strongly constrained by the lack of skin donor availability and homogeneity. We present in this study a bioengineering-based skin-humanized mouse model for psoriasis, either in an autologous version using samples derived from psoriatic patients or, more importantly, in an allogeneic context, starting from skin biopsies and blood samples from...

  4. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  5. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Habka

    Full Text Available During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1 the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2 the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new

  6. Restoration of badlands through applying bio-engineering techniques in active gully systems: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, P.; Vanacker, V.; Alvarado, D.; Govers, G.

    2012-04-01

    A better insight in the processes controlling sediment generation, transport and deposition in badlands is necessary to enhance restoration of degraded soils through eco-engineering techniques. In this study, we evaluate the effect of different bio-engineering measures on soil and slope stability. Five micro-catchments (of 0.2 to 5 ha) were selected within a 3 km2 area in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). The micro-catchments differ only by land cover and degree of implementation of soil and water conservation measures. Bio-engineering techniques were used to construct dikes made of fascines of wooden sticks and earth-filled tires in active gully beds, where they are most efficient to reduce water and sediment transport. The experimental design consists of three micro-catchments within highly degraded lands: (DI) micro-catchment with bio-engineering measures concentrated in the active gully beds, (DF) with reforestation of Eucalyptus trees, and (DT) reference situation without any conservation measures. Two micro-catchments were monitored in agricultural lands with (AI) and without (AT) bio-engineering measures in the active gully beds. All catchments were equipped with San Dimas flumes to measure water flow, and sediment traps to monitor sediment export. In the (active) gully beds, various parameters related to gully stability (soil water content, bed elevation, vegetation cover, sedimentation/erosion) were monitored at weekly intervals. First results show that bio-engineering techniques are efficient to stabilize active gully beds through a reduction of the rapid concentration of excess rainfall and the sediment production and transfer. Fascines made of wooden sticks are far more efficient than earth-filled tires. Sediment deposition behind dikes is strongly dependent on precedent rainfall events, and the slope and vegetation cover of the gully floor. The sediment deposited facilitates colonization of the gully floor by native

  7. Torn ACL: A New Bioengineered Substitute Brought from the Laboratory to the Knee Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Goulet

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries occur at an annual rate of 120 000 in the USA, and many need reconstructive surgery. We report successful results at 1–13 months following implantation of bioengineered ACL (bACL in goats. A bACL has been developed using autologous ACL cells, a collagen matrix and bone plugs. The extremities of the bACL were fully integrated into the femur and tibia of the host. Vascularisation of the grafts was extensive 1 month post-surgery and improved with time. At 6 months post-grafting, histological and ultrastructural observations demonstrated a highly organised ligamentous structure, rich in type I collagen fibres and fibroblasts. At the implants' insertion sites, characteristic fibrocartilage was observed having well aligned chondrocytes and collagen fibrils. After a year, mechanical rupture of the grafts demonstrated a major gain in strength. Eventual applications of this new technology in humans include multiple uses in orthopaedic, dental and reconstructive surgeries.

  8. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of three-dimensional shell habitats in coastal Louisiana presents a valuable and potentially self-sustaining approach to providing shoreline protection and critical nekton habitat and may contribute to water quality maintenance. The use of what has been called “living shorelines” is particularly promising because in addition to the hypothesized shoreline protection services, it is predicted that, if built and located in viable sites, these living shorelines may ultimately contribute to water quality maintenance through filtration of bivalves and may enhance nekton habitat. This approach, however, has not been tested extensively in different shallow water estuarine settings; understanding under what conditions a living shoreline must have to support a sustainable oyster population, and where these reefs may provide valuable shoreline protection, is key to ensuring that this approach provides an effective tool for coastal restoration. This project gathered preliminary data on the sustainability and shoreline stabilization of three large bioengineered fringing reefs located in Grand Isle, Lake Eloi, and Lake Fortuna, Louisiana. We collected preconstruction and postconstruction physiochemical and biological data by using a before-after-control-impact approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these living shoreline structures on reducing marsh erosion, enabling reef sustainability, and providing other ecosystem benefits. Although this project was originally designed to compare reef performance and impacts across three different locations over 2 years, delays in construction because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in reefs being built from 12 to 18 months later than anticipated. As a result, monitoring postconstruction was severely limited. One reef, Grand Isle, was completed in March 2011 and monitored up to 18 months postcreation, whereas Lake Eloi and Lake Fortuna reefs were not completed until January 2012, and only 8 months of

  9. Microalgal bioengineering for sustainable energy development: Recent transgenesis and metabolic engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-03-01

    Exploring the efficiency of algae to produce remarkable products can be directly benefitted by studying its mechanism at systems level. Recent advents in biotechnology like flux balance analysis (FBA), genomics and in silico proteomics minimize the wet lab exertion. It is understood that FBA predicts the metabolic products, metabolic pathways and alternative pathway to maximize the desired product, and these are key components for microalgae bio-engineering. This review encompasses recent transgenesis techniques and metabolic engineering strategies applied to different microalgae for improving different traits. Further it also throws light on RNAi and riboswitch engineering based methods which may be advantageous for high throughput microalgal research. A valid and optimally designed microalga can be developed where every engineering strategies meet each other successfully and will definitely fulfill the market needs. It is also to be noted that Omics (viz. genetic and metabolic manipulation with bioinformatics) should be integrated to develop a strain which could prove to be a futuristic solution for sustainable development for energy.

  10. Study of bioengineered zebra fish olfactory receptor 131-2: receptor purification and secondary structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kwong-Joo; Zhang, Shuguang; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2010-11-25

    How fishes are able to detect trace molecules in large bodies of water is not understood. It is plausible that they use olfactory receptors to detect water-soluble compounds. How the zebra fish Danio Rerio, an organism with only 98 functional olfactory receptors, is able to selectively detect and recognize numerous compounds in water remains a puzzling phenomenon. We are interested in studying the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of olfaction in fish. Here, we report on the study of a bioengineered zebra fish olfactory receptor OR131-2, affinity-purified from a HEK293S tetracycline-inducible system. This receptor was expressed and translocated to the cell plasma membrane as revealed by confocal microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the purified zebra fish receptor folded into an α-helical structure, as observed for other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Our study shows that it is possible to produce viable quantities of the zebra fish olfactory receptor. This will not only enable detailed structural and functional analyses, but also aid in the design of biosensor devices in order to detect water-soluble metabolites or its intermediates, which are associated with human health.

  11. Study of bioengineered zebra fish olfactory receptor 131-2: receptor purification and secondary structure analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong-Joo Leck

    Full Text Available How fishes are able to detect trace molecules in large bodies of water is not understood. It is plausible that they use olfactory receptors to detect water-soluble compounds. How the zebra fish Danio Rerio, an organism with only 98 functional olfactory receptors, is able to selectively detect and recognize numerous compounds in water remains a puzzling phenomenon. We are interested in studying the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of olfaction in fish. Here, we report on the study of a bioengineered zebra fish olfactory receptor OR131-2, affinity-purified from a HEK293S tetracycline-inducible system. This receptor was expressed and translocated to the cell plasma membrane as revealed by confocal microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the purified zebra fish receptor folded into an α-helical structure, as observed for other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. Our study shows that it is possible to produce viable quantities of the zebra fish olfactory receptor. This will not only enable detailed structural and functional analyses, but also aid in the design of biosensor devices in order to detect water-soluble metabolites or its intermediates, which are associated with human health.

  12. Bioengineering of carbon fixation, biofuels, and biochemicals in cyanobacteria and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; de Porcellinis, Alice Jara; Jacobsen, Jacob H; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2012-11-30

    Development of sustainable energy is a pivotal step towards solutions for today's global challenges, including mitigating the progression of climate change and reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels derived from agricultural crops have already been commercialized. However the impacts on environmental sustainability and food supply have raised ethical questions about the current practices. Cyanobacteria have attracted interest as an alternative means for sustainable energy productions. Being aquatic photoautotrophs they can be cultivated in non-arable lands and do not compete for land for food production. Their rich genetic resources offer means to engineer metabolic pathways for synthesis of valuable bio-based products. Currently the major obstacle in industrial-scale exploitation of cyanobacteria as the economically sustainable production hosts is low yields. Much effort has been made to improve the carbon fixation and manipulating the carbon allocation in cyanobacteria and their evolutionary photosynthetic relatives, algae and plants. This review aims at providing an overview of the recent progress in the bioengineering of carbon fixation and allocation in cyanobacteria; wherever relevant, the progress made in plants and algae is also discussed as an inspiration for future application in cyanobacteria.

  13. Mentoring by design: integrating medical professional competencies into bioengineering and medical physics graduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kendra V; Peek, Kathryn E; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2014-12-01

    Many students in bioengineering and medical physics doctoral programs plan careers in translational research. However, while such students generally have strong quantitative abilities, they often lack experience with the culture, communication norms, and practice of bedside medicine. This may limit students' ability to function as members of multidisciplinary translational research teams. To improve students' preparation for careers in cancer translational research, we developed and implemented a mentoring program that is integrated with students' doctoral studies and aims to promote competencies in communication, biomedical ethics, teamwork, altruism, multiculturalism, and accountability. Throughout the program, patient-centered approaches and professional competencies are presented as foundational to optimal clinical care and integral to translational research. Mentoring is conducted by senior biomedical faculty and administrators and includes didactic teaching, online learning, laboratory mini-courses, clinical practicums, and multidisciplinary patient planning conferences (year 1); student development and facilitation of problem-based patient cases (year 2); and individualized mentoring based on research problems and progress toward degree completion (years 3-5). Each phase includes formative and summative evaluations. Nineteen students entered the program from 2009 through 2011. On periodic anonymous surveys, the most recent in September 2013, students indicated that the program substantially improved their knowledge of cancer biology, cancer medicine, and academic medicine; that the mentors were knowledgeable, good teachers, and dedicated to students; and that the program motivated them to become well-rounded scientists and scholars. We believe this program can be modified and disseminated to other graduate research and professional health care programs.

  14. Dental Pulp Stem Cells as a multifaceted tool for bioengineering and the regeneration of craniomaxillofacial tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitane eAurrekoetxea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells, or DPSC, are neural crest-derived cells with an outstanding capacity to differentiate along multiple cell lineages of interest for cell therapy. In particular, highly efficient osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of DPSC can be achieved using simple in vitro protocols, making these cells a very attractive and promising tool for the future treatment of dental and periodontal diseases. Among craniomaxillofacial organs, the tooth and salivary gland are two such cases in which complete regeneration by tissue engineering using DPSC appears to be possible, as research over the last decade has made substantial progress in experimental models of partial or total regeneration of both organs, by cell recombination technology. Moreover, DPSC seem to be a particularly good choice for the regeneration of nerve tissues, including injured or transected cranial nerves. In this context, the oral cavity appears to be an excellent testing ground for new regenerative therapies using DPSC. However, many issues and challenges need yet to be addressed before these cells can be employed in clinical therapy. In this review, we point out some important aspects on the biology of DPSC with regard to their use for the reconstruction of different craniomaxillofacial tissues and organs, with special emphasis on cranial bones, nerves, teeth, and salivary glands. We suggest new ideas and strategies to fully exploit the capacities of DPSC for bioengineering of the aforementioned tissues.

  15. Photosynthetic biomass and H2 production by green algae: from bioengineering to bioreactor scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankamer, Ben; Lehr, Florian; Rupprecht, Jens; Mussgnug, Jan H; Posten, Clemens; Kruse, Olaf

    2007-09-01

    The development of clean borderless fuels is of vital importance to human and environmental health and global prosperity. Currently, fuels make up approximately 67% of the global energy market (total market = 15 TW year(-1)) (Hoffert et al. 1998). In contrast, global electricity demand accounts for only 33% (Hoffert et al. 1998). Yet, despite the importance of fuels, almost all CO(2) free energy production systems under development are designed to drive electricity generation (e.g. clean-coal technology, nuclear, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, wave and hydroelectric). In contrast, and indeed almost uniquely, biofuels also target the much larger fuel market and so in the future will play an increasingly important role in maintaining energy security (Lal 2005). Currently, the main biofuels that are at varying stages of development include bio-ethanol, liquid carbohydrates [e.g. biodiesel or biomass to liquid (BTL) products], biomethane and bio-H(2). This review is focused on placing bio-H(2) production processes into the context of the current biofuels market and summarizing advances made both at the level of bioengineering and bioreactor design.

  16. Teaching statics of fluids in bioengineering: a multidisciplinary proposal based on competences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alborch, A [School of Philosophy, Humanities and Arts. National University of San Juan. I de la Roza 230 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Puzzella, A [School of Philosophy, Humanities and Arts. National University of San Juan. I de la Roza 230 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Lopez, N [School of Engineering. National University of San Juan. Av. San MartIn 1109 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Cabrera, L [' Col. Central Universitario Dr. M. Moreno' Secondary School. National University of San Juan. I de la Roza 230 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Zabala, A [School of Engineering. National University of San Juan. Av. San MartIn 1109 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina); Demartini, H [School of Engineering. National University of San Juan. Av. San MartIn 1109 (Oeste). CP 5400. San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The aim of this work is to share the findings of an educational experience undertaken by first-year university students of bioengineering, oriented towards the model of Competence-based Education. Different aspects on integrative education pursued in the subject goals are explicitly focused here by designing a strategy within a contextualized and multidisciplinary approach that combines knowledge from Physics, Chemistry and Biology. The topic chosen for the work is Static of Fluids, because it allows relating pressure to its biological effects on human beings. After evaluating a pre-test, new interrelated strategies are implemented. Due to the motivation audiovisuals generate in adolescents, we start showing an argumentative film entitled 'The Big Blue', and continue with different individual and/or group activities, finishing with a post-test to assess the development of the competences proposed. Results are encouraging as regards the level of specific competences acquired and, complementarily, basic and professional competences in general. Besides, the experience met expectations as regards student motivation, interest and commitment to learning, which ensured the path taken by the academicians by means of implementing innovative strategies.

  17. Bioengineered nisin A derivatives with enhanced activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Field

    Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G, with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

  18. Scorpion Toxins Specific for Potassium (K+ Channels: A Historical Overview of Peptide Bioengineering

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    Zachary L. Bergeron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion toxins have been central to the investigation and understanding of the physiological role of potassium (K+ channels and their expansive function in membrane biophysics. As highly specific probes, toxins have revealed a great deal about channel structure and the correlation between mutations, altered regulation and a number of human pathologies. Radio- and fluorescently-labeled toxin isoforms have contributed to localization studies of channel subtypes in expressing cells, and have been further used in competitive displacement assays for the identification of additional novel ligands for use in research and medicine. Chimeric toxins have been designed from multiple peptide scaffolds to probe channel isoform specificity, while advanced epitope chimerization has aided in the development of novel molecular therapeutics. Peptide backbone cyclization has been utilized to enhance therapeutic efficiency by augmenting serum stability and toxin half-life in vivo as a number of K+-channel isoforms have been identified with essential roles in disease states ranging from HIV, T-cell mediated autoimmune disease and hypertension to various cardiac arrhythmias and Malaria. Bioengineered scorpion toxins have been monumental to the evolution of channel science, and are now serving as templates for the development of invaluable experimental molecular therapeutics.

  19. Production of a bioengineered G-protein coupled receptor of human formyl peptide receptor 3.

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    Xiaoqiang Wang

    Full Text Available G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs participate in a wide range of vital regulations of our physiological actions. They are also of pharmaceutical importance and have become many therapeutic targets for a number of disorders and diseases. Purified GPCR-based approaches including structural study and novel biophysical and biochemical function analyses are increasingly being used in GPCR-directed drug discovery. Before these approaches become routine, however, several hurdles need to be overcome; they include overexpression, solubilization, and purification of large quantities of functional and stable receptors on a regular basis. Here we report milligram production of a human formyl peptide receptor 3 (FPR3. FPR3 comprises a functionally distinct GPCR subfamily that is involved in leukocyte chemotaxis and activation. The bioengineered FPR3 was overexpressed in stable tetracycline-inducible mammalian cell lines (HEK293S. After a systematic detergent screening, fos-choline-14 (FC-14 was selected for subsequent solubilization and purification processes. A two-step purification method, immunoaffinity using anti-rho-tag monoclonal antibody 1D4 and gel filtration, was used to purify the receptors to near homogeneity. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that expressed FPR3 was predominantly displayed on cellular membrane. Secondary structural analysis using circular dichroism showed that the purified FPR3 receptor was correctly folded with >50% α-helix, which is similar to other known GPCR secondary structures. Our method can readily produce milligram quantities of human FPR3, which would facilitate in developing human FPR as therapeutic drug targets.

  20. Scaling, dry skin and gender. A bioengineering study of dry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, G B; Serup, J

    1992-01-01

    Dry skin and scaling was studied in a group of 72 healthy volunteers by using subjective self-assessment and by clinical assessment by a dermatologist, as well as application of noninvasive bioengineering techniques to measure scaling and epidermal hydration. The study revealed that 67% of the volunteers had subjective complaints, while only 5.6% had definite clinical signs of dry skin at the time of examination. Subjective complaints were more common in women than in men (p clinical nor objective measurements showed any sex difference, which suggests that other factors may play a role in the way men and women perceive dry skin. Subjective and clinical scores were correlated (p skin scaling on D-squame tapes correlated with densitometry of the tapes (p clinical and objective methods can identify dry skin. However, the study showed that in healthy persons a number of irrational factors play a role in the use of moisturizers, and while these factors cannot be measured, they must be taken into account. Healthy, but dry skin is a vaguely defined clinical entity, which may explain the generally poor correlation between the two methods. This underlines the need for several methods to be used simultaneously in order to elicit complementary information.

  1. Development of a Cyclic Strain Bioreactor for Mechanical Enhancement and Assessment of Bioengineered Myocardial Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Betsy H; Cashion, Avery T; Dennis, Robert G; Birla, Ravi K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop enabling bioreactor technologies using a novel voice coil actuator system for investigating the effects of periodic strain on cardiac patches fabricated with rat cardiomyocytes. The bioengineered muscle constructs used in this study were formed by culturing rat neonatal primary cardiac cells on a fibrin gel. The physical design of the bioreactor was initially conceived using Solidworks to test clearances and perform structural strain analysis. Once the software design phase was completed the bioreactor was assembled using a combination of commercially available, custom machined, and 3-D printed parts. We utilized the bioreactor to evaluate the effect of a 4-h stretch protocol on the contractile properties of the tissue after which immunohistological assessment of the tissue was also performed. An increase in contractile force was observed after the strain protocol of 10% stretch at 1 Hz, with no significant increase observed in the control group. Additionally, an increase in cardiac myofibril alignment, connexin 43 expression, and collagen type I distribution were noted. In this study we demonstrated the effectiveness of a new bioreactor design to improve contractility of engineered cardiac muscle tissue.

  2. EFFICIENCY OF SIMPLE SUPER PHOSPHATE IN THE VETIVER GRASS DEVELOPMENT SUBJECTED TO SOIL BIOENGINEERING

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    RENISSON NEPONUCENO DE ARAÚJO FILHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. has been evaluated under differ-ent levels of phosphorus on slopes of the right-side bank of the San Francisco River, in the municipality of Am-paro do São Francisco, SE. Techniques of soil bioengineering were used, characterized by the combination of vegetated riprap with stakes, seedlings of vetiver grass and sediment retainers. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five doses (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 g pit-1 of simple superphosphate and five replicates. The growth of vetiver seedlings were observed in periods of 30, 60, 90, e 180 days, carrying out the following pa-rameters: number of roots, external root surface, root density, root length, root length density, root and shoot dry weight, root and shoot fresh weight, and shoot length, at each evaluation period. The phosphorus doses and periods of morphological development interacted in all variables of plant biomass mentioned above. Higher superphosphate doses than 9.0 g pit-1 did not offer advantages in terms of cost-benefit for the production of vetiver seedings.

  3. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D; Lee, Chang H; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2014-02-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration.

  4. Life-size experimentation of bioengineering for sedimentation control in eroded marly gullies (Francon catchment, Draix, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.; Mathys, N.; Puëch, C.; Jardin, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    On marly eroded terrains of the French Southern Alps, many researches are undertaken in order to better understand the role of vegetation and bioengineering works on erosion and sedimentation control. These researches in particular made it possible to develop tools of ecological engineering bound for the practitioners in order to conceive operations for mitigation of damage related to soil erosion. In particular they are methods of diagnosis and strategies for action with bioengineering techniques. These tools must make it possible to guide the choice of the gullies to be rehabilitated and that of the types of works of vegetalisation to be used, in particular via the establishment and the use of a gully typology. Before passing to phases of real use of these tools through expertise, as this is today considered on the scale of the large catchment area of the Durance in France (4000 km²), it appeared convenient to carry out a life-size test of application of these tools. This test was carried out on the marly catchment of Francon (73 ha), which belongs to the experimental complex of Draix (04), labellized Observatoire of Research in Environment (ORE) and of which the objectives are to improve knowledge on the formation of floods and bedload transport in small mountainous marly catchments. On this basin, 30 gullies, representing a total surface area of approximately 20 ha, were thus identified like "ecologically suitable for rehabilitation", i.e. on which it appeared possible and convenient to install bioengineering works. This test thus made it possible to check the relevance of the tools proposed to apply an action with bioengineering. An ecological operation of rehabilitation of this basin, carried out jointly with the French ‘Office National des Forêts (ONF)', was then carried out in April 2008 in accordance with the test results. It consisted of the construction of 672 bioengineering works, namely of "brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood

  5. Surface modification of electrospun PLGA scaffold with collagen for bioengineered skin substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, A.R., E-mail: sadeghi_av@ymail.com [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nokhasteh, S. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Molavi, A.M. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Materials Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorsand-Ghayeni, M. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi-Meshkin, H. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research Department, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdizadeh, A. [Nanotechnology Institute, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    In skin tissue engineering, surface feature of the scaffolds plays an important role in cell adhesion and proliferation. In this study, non-woven fibrous substrate based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (75/25) were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of NaOH (0.05 N, 0.1 N, 0.3 N) to increase carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the fiber surfaces. These functional groups were activated by EDC/NHS to create chemical bonding with collagen. To improve bioactivity, the activated substrates were coated with a collagen solution (2 mg/ml) and cross-linking was carried out using the EDC/NHS in MES buffer. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated by contact angle measurements, porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tensile and degradation tests as well as in vitro cell attachment and cytotoxicity assays. Cell culture results of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and keratinocytes cell line (HaCat) revealed that the cells could attach to the scaffold. Further investigation with MTT assay showed that the cell proliferation of HaCat significantly increases with collagen coating. It seems that sufficient stability of collagen on the surface due to proper chemical bonding and cross-linking has increased the bioactivity of surface remarkably which can be promising for bioengineered skin applications. - Highlights: • Surface activation was carried out by hydrolysis of PLGA fibers. • To improve bioactivity, the activated samples were coated with a collagen solution. • Functional groups were activated by EDC/NHS to create chemical bonding with collagen. • Cross-linking of collagen was carried out using EDC/NHS in MES buffer. • The coated samples exhibited better adhesion and proliferation of epidermal cells.

  6. Bioengineered periosteal progenitor cell sheets to enhance tendon-bone healing in a bone tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tendon-bone tunnel healing is crucial for long term success in anterior cruciate liga­ment (ACL reconstruction. The periosteum contains osteochondral progenitor cells that can differenti­ate into osteoblasts and chondroblasts during tendon-bone healing. We developed a scaf­fold-free method using polymerized fibrin-coated dishes to make functional periosteal progenitor cell (PPC sheets. Bioengineered PPC sheets for enhancing tendon-bone healing were evaluated in an extra-articular bone tunnel model in rabbit. Methods: PPC derived from rabbit tibia periosteum, cultivated on polymerized fi­brin-coated dishes and harvested as PPC sheet. A confocal microscopy assay was used to evaluate the morphology of PPC sheets. PPC sheets as a periosteum to wrap around hamstring tendon grafts were pulled into a 3-mm diameter bone tunnel of tibia, and compared with a tendon graft without PPC sheets treatment. Rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biochemical as­say and histological assay to demonstrate the enhancement of PPC sheets in tendon-bone healing. Results: PPC spread deposit on fibrin on the dish surface with continuous monolayer PPC was ob­served. Histological staining revealed that PPC sheets enhance collagen and glycosaminoglycans deposi­tion with fibrocartilage formation in the tendon-bone junction at 4 weeks. Collagen fiber with fibrocartilage formation at tendon-bone junction was also found at 8 weeks. Matured fibrocartilage and dense collagen fiber were formed at the tendon-bone interface at 8 weeks by Masson trichrome and Safranin-O staining Conclusions: Periosteal progenitor cell monolayer maintains the differentiated capacity and osteochon­dral potential in order to promote fibrocartilage formation in tendon-bone junction. Bioengi­neered PPC sheets can offer a new feasible therapeutic strategy of a novel approach to en­hance tendon-bone junction healing.

  7. Molecular and bioengineering strategies to improve alginate and polydydroxyalkanoate production by Azotobacter vinelandii

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    Espín Guadalupe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several aspects of alginate and PHB synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii at a molecular level have been elucidated in articles published during the last ten years. It is now clear that alginate and PHB synthesis are under a very complex genetic control. Genetic modification of A. vinelandii has produced a number of very interesting mutants which have particular traits for alginate production. One of these mutants has been shown to produce the alginate with the highest mean molecular mass so far reported. Recent work has also shed light on the factors determining molecular mass distribution; the most important of these being identified as; dissolved oxygen tension and specific growth rate. The use of specific mutants has been very useful for the correct analysis and interpretation of the factors affecting polymerization. Recent scale-up/down work on alginate production has shown that oxygen limitation is crucial for producing alginate of high molecular mass, a condition which is optimized in shake flasks and which can now be reproduced in stirred fermenters. It is clear that the phenotypes of mutants grown on plates are not necessarily reproducible when the strains are tested in lab or bench scale fermenters. In the case of PHB, A. vinelandii has shown itself able to produce relatively large amounts of this polymer of high molecular weight on cheap substrates, even allowing for simple extraction processes. The development of fermentation strategies has also shown promising results in terms of improving productivity. The understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of PHB synthesis, and of its metabolic relationships, has increased considerably, making way for new potential strategies for the further improvement of PHB production. Overall, the use of a multidisciplinary approach, integrating molecular and bioengineering aspects is a necessity for optimizing alginate and PHB production in A. vinelandii.

  8. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan; Rattan, Satish

    2012-09-15

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The basal tone in the reconstructs and its changes were recorded following 0 Ca(2+), KCl, bethanechol, isoproterenol, protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and Rho kinase (ROCK) and PKC inhibitors Y-27632 and Gö-6850, respectively. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence (IF), and immunocytochemical (IC) analyses were also performed. The reconstructs developed spontaneous tone (0.68 ± 0.26 mN). Bethanechol (a muscarinic agonist) and K(+) depolarization produced contraction, whereas isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and Y-27632 produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the tone. Maximal decrease in basal tone with Y-27632 and Gö-6850 (each 10(-5) M) was 80.45 ± 3.29 and 17.76 ± 3.50%, respectively. WB data with the IAS constructs' SMCs revealed higher levels of RhoA/ROCK, protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor or inhibitory phosphoprotein for myosin phosphatase (CPI-17), phospho-CPI-17, MYPT1, and 20-kDa myosin light chain vs. rectal smooth muscle. WB, IF, and IC studies of original SMCs and redispersed from the reconstructs for the relative distribution of different signal transduction proteins confirmed the feasibility of reconstruction of IAS with functional properties similar to intact IAS and demonstrated the development of myogenic tone with critical dependence on RhoA/ROCK. We conclude that it is feasible to bioengineer IAS constructs using human IAS SMCs that behave like intact IAS.

  9. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Helena, E-mail: mariahelena.santos@gmail.com [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Silva, Rafael M.; Dumont, Vitor C. [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Neves, Juliana S. [Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Mansur, Herman S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte/MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D. [Department of Health Science, Ezequiel Dias Foundation-FUNED, Belo Horizonte/MG 30510-010 (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purify

  10. Living part on soil bioengineering structures in Appennino Tosco-emiliano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    From analisys headed up in soil bioengineered areas in different parts of Tuscany, the suitest root systems in slope stabilization turn out to be those spreading from seed-born plants, while adventitious roots from cuttings are often absent in the part more distant from the neck, and in some cases are insufficient to grant life support just in case of minor stress conditions. Genus Alnus shows it's adaptation capability to restore initial restoration steps and to create renovation prerequisites for other species through ammending litter production and symbiosis for nitrogen fixation with Frankia genus bacteria; other similar symbiosis (with Rhizobium and fungi) are carried out by Robinia pseudacacia. Soil fecundity increase is confirmed by the following entrance of more demanding species, as Ostrya carpinifolia and Acer pseudoplatanus at the tree level, Urtica dioica and Rubus Ulmifolius (nitrophilouses) at grass level. In the project phase it ought to imagine a well-structured implant, including rooted plants, cuttings and posibly a seed mix of colonising species aiming to form a germplasm on the structure itself in order to sprout whenever the local conditions allow it. Verifying that many after developed species came from ornithocore dissemination (Ficus carica, Pinus spp., Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra), lead to toughts about bedding out bird-attracting species on structures in order to realise a faster (and maybe more complex) succession development. This higher velocity could grant in a shorter period the production of a root mass spread in a more disomogeneous and complex pattern than that deriving from cuttings disposed in the traditional way; such a variability could allow a better interaction with other biological factors in the soil (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, ...) that are important for the plant nutrient cicle (Ohsowski et al., 2012) and then the constituion of an articulate, long-term system.

  11. Phenotypic characterization of prostate cancer LNCaP cells cultured within a bioengineered microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirly Sieh

    Full Text Available Biophysical and biochemical properties of the microenvironment regulate cellular responses such as growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and migration in normal and cancer cells. Since two-dimensional (2D cultures lack the essential characteristics of the native cellular microenvironment, three-dimensional (3D cultures have been developed to better mimic the natural extracellular matrix. To date, 3D culture systems have relied mostly on collagen and Matrigel™ hydrogels, allowing only limited control over matrix stiffness, proteolytic degradability, and ligand density. In contrast, bioengineered hydrogels allow us to independently tune and systematically investigate the influence of these parameters on cell growth and differentiation. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG hydrogels, functionalized with the Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD motifs, common cell-binding motifs in extracellular matrix proteins, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP cleavage sites, were characterized regarding their stiffness, diffusive properties, and ability to support growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We found that the mechanical properties modulated the growth kinetics of LNCaP cells in the PEG hydrogel. At culture periods of 28 days, LNCaP cells underwent morphogenic changes, forming tumor-like structures in 3D culture, with hypoxic and apoptotic cores. We further compared protein and gene expression levels between 3D and 2D cultures upon stimulation with the synthetic androgen R1881. Interestingly, the kinetics of R1881 stimulated androgen receptor (AR nuclear translocation differed between 2D and 3D cultures when observed by immunofluorescent staining. Furthermore, microarray studies revealed that changes in expression levels of androgen responsive genes upon R1881 treatment differed greatly between 2D and 3D cultures. Taken together, culturing LNCaP cells in the tunable PEG hydrogels reveals differences in the cellular responses to

  12. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Patricia; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Keri, Ruth A.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest to date. There is no cure or treatment for this deadly disease; therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostics to accurately detect Ebola. Current RT-PCR assays lack sensitive and reliable positive controls. To address this critical need, we devised a bio-inspired positive control for use in RT-PCR diagnostics: we encapsulated scrambled Ebola RNA sequences inside of tobacco mosaic virus to create a biomimicry that is non-infectious, but stable, and could therefore serve as a positive control in Ebola diagnostic assays. Here, we report the bioengineering and validation of this probe.

  13. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  14. Development of a three-dimensional physiological model of the internal anal sphincter bioengineered in vitro from isolated smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Louise; Baar, Keith; Dennis, Robert G; Bitar, Khalil N

    2005-08-01

    Fecal incontinence affects people of all ages and social backgrounds and can have devastating psychological and economic consequences. This disorder is largely attributed to decreased mechanical efficiency of the internal anal sphincter (IAS), yet little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of sphincteric smooth muscle at the cellular level. The object of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) physiological model of the IAS bioengineered in vitro from isolated smooth muscle cells. Smooth muscle cells isolated from the IAS of rabbits were seeded in culture on top of a loose fibrin gel, where they migrated and self-assembled in circumferential alignment. As the cells proliferated, the fibrin gel contracted around a 5-mm-diameter SYLGARD mold, resulting in a 3-D cylindrical ring of sphincteric tissue. We found that 1) the bioengineered IAS rings generated a spontaneous basal tone, 2) stimulation with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) caused a sustained decrease in the basal tone (relaxation) that was calcium-independent, 3) upon stimulation with ACh, bioengineered IAS rings showed a calcium- and concentration-dependent peak contraction at 30 s that was sustained for 4 min, 4) addition of 8-Br-cAMP induced rapid relaxation of ACh-induced contraction and force generation of IAS rings, and 5) bioengineered sphincter rings show striking functional differences when compared with bioengineered rings made from isolated colonic smooth muscle cells. This is the first report of a 3-D in vitro model of a gastrointestinal smooth muscle IAS. Bioengineered IAS rings demonstrate physiological functionality and may be used in the elucidation of the mechanisms causing sphincter malfunction.

  15. Bioengineering of the Plant Culture of Capsicum frutescens with Vanillin Synthase Gene for the Production of Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Marcus Jenn Yang; Lycett, Grantley W; Khoo, Teng-Jin; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2017-01-01

    Production of vanillin by bioengineering has gained popularity due to consumer demand toward vanillin produced by biological systems. Natural vanillin from vanilla beans is very expensive to produce compared to its synthetic counterpart. Current bioengineering works mainly involve microbial biotechnology. Therefore, alternative means to the current approaches are constantly being explored. This work describes the use of vanillin synthase (VpVAN), to bioconvert ferulic acid to vanillin in a plant system. The VpVAN enzyme had been shown to directly convert ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. As the ferulic acid precursor and vanillin were found to be the intermediates in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway of Capsicum species, this work serves as a proof-of-concept for vanillin production using Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens or hot chili pepper). The cells of C. frutescens were genetically transformed with a codon optimized VpVAN gene via biolistics. Transformed explants were selected and regenerated into callus. Successful integration of the gene cassette into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the phenolic compounds detected in the callus tissues. The vanillin content of transformed calli was 0.057% compared to 0.0003% in untransformed calli.

  16. Ex vivo non-invasive assessment of cell viability and proliferation in bio-engineered whole organ constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xi; Tapias, Luis F; Jank, Bernhard J; Mathisen, Douglas J; Lanuti, Michael; Ott, Harald C

    2015-06-01

    Decellularized organ scaffolds allow whole organ regeneration and study of cell behavior in three-dimensional culture conditions. Cell viability within the bio-engineered organ constructs is an essential parameter reflecting the performance of participating cells during long-term ex vivo culture, and is a prerequisite for further functional performance. Resazurin-based redox metabolic assays have been used to monitor cell viability in both two- and three-dimensional cell cultures. Here we developed a method for monitoring cell viability and proliferation in bio-engineered organ constructs using a resazurin perfusion assay. This method allows non-invasive, repetitive and rapid estimation of viable cell numbers during long-term ex vivo culture. As a proof-of-principle, we assessed the performance of two different endothelial sources and the impact of different perfusion programs on endothelial viability after re-endothelialization of decellularized lung scaffolds. The resazurin-based perfusion assay revealed changes in endothelial viability and proliferation during long-term ex vivo culture, which was consistent with histological assessment at different time points. Finally, we showed that this method could be used for assessment of proliferation and cytotoxicity after pharmacological treatment on a three-dimensional non-small cell lung cancer culture model.

  17. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carciofi Massimiliano

    2012-09-01

    compared with developing endosperm. Conclusions In this study we have developed an easy and rapid in planta model system for starch bioengineering in cereals. We suggest that this method can be used as a time-efficient model system for fast screening of candidate genes for the generation of modified starch or new types of carbohydrate polymers.

  18. A bio-engineered soft-bottom environment: The impact of Lanice conchilega on the benthic species-specific densities and community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaut, M.; Guilini, K.; Van Hoey, V.H.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of the tube-building, habitat structuring polychaete Lanice conchilega on the macrobenthic community and sediment characteristics of its habitat. To investigate which factors make species occur in a well-known bio-engineered habitat, macrofaunal and sedimentological d

  19. Bioengineering targeted nanodrugs for hematologic malignancies: An innovation in pediatric oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vinu

    Chemotherapy for pediatric cancers employs combinations of highly toxic drugs. This has achieved 5-year survival rates exceeding 90% in children treated for leukemia -- the most prominent form of pediatric cancer. However, delayed onset of harmful side effects in more than 60% of survivors result in death or low quality of life post therapy. This is primarily due to the non-specific effect of drugs on healthy dividing cells in a growing child. Nanomedicine has advanced tremendously to improve adult cancer therapy, but as yet has had minimal impact in pediatric oncology. There is a pressing need for innovative therapeutic strategies that can reduce life-threatening side effects caused by conventional chemotherapy in the clinic. Targeting chemotherapeutic agents specifically to leukemia cells may alleviate treatment-related toxicity in children. The research objective of this dissertation is to bioengineer and advance preclinically a novel nanotherapeutic approach that can specifically target and deliver drugs into leukemic cells. Dexamethasone (Dex) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs in treating pediatric leukemia. For the first part in this study, we encapsulated Dex in polymeric NPs and validated its anti-leukemic potential in vitro and in vivo. NPs with an average diameter of 110 nm were assembled from an amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly-caprolactone (PCL) bearing pendant cyclic ketals (ECT2). The blank NPs were nontoxic to cultured cells in vitro and to mice in vivo. Encapsulation of Dex into the NPs (Dex-NP) did not compromise the bioactivity of the drug. Dex-NPs induced glucocorticoid phosphorylation and showed cytotoxicity similar to free drug when treated with leukemic cells. Studies using NPs labeled with fluorescent dyes revealed leukemic cell surface binding and internalization. In vivo biodistribution studies showed NP accumulation in the liver and spleen with subsequent clearance of particles with

  20. Stem cells, cell therapies, and bioengineering in lung biology and diseases. Comprehensive review of the recent literature 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    A conference, "Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Lung Diseases," was held July 25 to 28, 2011 at the University of Vermont to review the current understanding of the role of stem and progenitor cells in lung repair after injury and to review the current status of cell therapy and ex vivo bioengineering approaches for lung diseases. These are rapidly expanding areas of study that provide further insight into and challenge traditional views of mechanisms of lung repair after injury and pathogenesis of several lung diseases. The goals of the conference were to summarize the current state of the field, to discuss and debate current controversies, and to identify future research directions and opportunities for basic and translational research in cell-based therapies for lung diseases. The goal of this article, which accompanies the formal conference report, is to provide a comprehensive review of the published literature in lung regenerative medicine from the last conference report through December 2012.

  1. Mussel farming as a large-scale bioengineering tool: a numerical modelling case study in Rødsand lagoon, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Pernille Louise; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lumborg, Ulrik

    on literature reviews. The model simulations showed that gale-force wind conditions generated a larger sediment transport to Rødsand lagoon than fair weather conditions, and thus typically generated a higher SSC within the lagoon. The SSC within Rødsand lagoon was reduced by 18% with the implementation....... The effects of the mussel farm on the sediment dynamics were persistent during both fair- and gale-force wind conditions. This suggests that the implementation of a mussel farm has the potential to reduce the sediment transport to Rødsand lagoon and thereby reduce the turbidity caused by suspended sediments....... Apart from bioengineering purposes, the mussel module extension can be utilized to improve and develop sediment transport models where known natural patches of mussels are present. Acknowledgements This study is part of the research project “SEDILINK – Flow circulation and sediment dynamics...

  2. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  3. Molecular Mass Characterization of Glycosaminoglycans with Different Degrees of Sulfation in Bioengineered Heparin Process by Size Exclusion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    Different degrees of glycosaminoglycan sulfation result in their different charge densities. The charge density differences impact their migration behavior in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography, two of the most common methods for determining relative molecular masses of polysaccharides. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using commercially available heparin oligosaccharides as calibrants for measuring the relative molecular masses of intermediates in a bioengineered heparin process that have different levels of sulfation. A size exclusion chromatography method was established that eliminates this charge density effect and allows the determination of relative molecular mass using a single calibration curve with heparin oligosaccharides calibrants. This is accomplished by overcoming the electrostatic interaction between the glycosaminoglycans and size exclusion chromatography stationary phase using high ionic strength mobile phase.

  4. A tribute to Dr Willem J. Kolff: innovative inventor, physician, scientist, bioengineer, mentor, and significant contributor to modern cardiovascular surgical and anesthetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Theodore H

    2013-06-01

    Dr Willem J. Kolff was surely one of the greatest inventors/physicians/scientists/bioengineers of the last few hundred years. He was knighted (Commander of the Order of Oranje-Nassau) in 1970 by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. In 1990, Life magazine published a list of its own 100 most important figures of the 20th century. Kolff stood in 99th place as the Father of Artificial Organs. Dr Kolff forged a path of innovative thinking and creativity that has had a huge impact on the quality of human life. His contributions to the development of the artificial kidney and dialysis, the heart-lung machine, the membrane oxygenator, potassium arrest of the heart, the AH, mechanical cardiac assistance, and other artificial organs, and his support and mentoring of hundreds to thousands of anesthesiologists, surgeons, and bioengineers throughout the world, have had a significant impact on anesthesiology and the medical community.

  5. A Bioengineered Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Platform Integrated with Microfluidics To Address Antimicrobial Resistance in Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Magdalena K.; Tezera, Liku B.; Zmijan, Robert; Drobniewski, Francis; Zhang, Xunli; Jayasinghe, Suwan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial resistance presents one of the most significant threats to human health, with the emergence of totally drug-resistant organisms. We have combined bioengineering, genetically modified bacteria, longitudinal readouts, and fluidics to develop a transformative platform to address the drug development bottleneck, utilizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the model organism. We generated microspheres incorporating virulent reporter bacilli, primary human cells, and an extracellular matrix by using bioelectrospray methodology. Granulomas form within the three-dimensional matrix, and mycobacterial stress genes are upregulated. Pyrazinamide, a vital first-line antibiotic for treating human tuberculosis, kills M. tuberculosis in a three-dimensional culture but not in a standard two-dimensional culture or Middlebrook 7H9 broth, demonstrating that antibiotic sensitivity within microspheres reflects conditions in patients. We then performed pharmacokinetic modeling by combining the microsphere system with a microfluidic plate and demonstrated that we can model the effect of dynamic antibiotic concentrations on mycobacterial killing. The microsphere system is highly tractable, permitting variation of cell content, the extracellular matrix, sphere size, the infectious dose, and the surrounding medium with the potential to address a wide array of human infections and the threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:28174307

  6. Bioengineering of Improved Biomaterials Coatings for Extracorporeal Circulation Requires Extended Observation of Blood-Biomaterial Interaction under Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris N. J. Stevens

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB systems is often hampered by thrombus formation and infection. Part of these problems relates to imperfect hemocompatibility of the CPB circuitry. The engineering of biomaterial surfaces with genuine long-term hemocompatibility is essentially virgin territory in biomaterials science. For example, most experiments with the well-known Chandler loop model, for evaluation of blood-biomaterial interactions under flow, have been described for a maximum duration of 2 hours only. This study reports a systematic evaluation of two commercial CPB tubings, each with a hemocompatible coating, and one uncoated control. The experiments comprised (i testing over 5 hours under flow, with human whole blood from 4 different donors; (ii measurement of essential blood parameters of hemocompatibility; (iii analysis of the luminal surfaces by scanning electron microscopy and thrombin generation time measurements. The dataset indicated differences in hemocompatibility of the tubings. Furthermore, it appeared that discrimination between biomaterial coatings can be made only after several hours of blood-biomaterial contact. Platelet counting, myeloperoxidase quantification, and scanning electron microscopy proved to be the most useful methods. These findings are believed to be relevant with respect to the bioengineering of extracorporeal devices that should function in contact with blood for extended time.

  7. Bioinformatic analysis of the distribution of inorganic carbon transporters and prospective targets for bioengineering to increase Ci uptake by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudana, Sandeep B; Zarzycki, Jan; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) which has enabled them to inhabit diverse environments encompassing a range of inorganic carbon (Ci: [Formula: see text] and CO2) concentrations. Several uptake systems facilitate inorganic carbon accumulation in the cell, which can in turn be fixed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Here we survey the distribution of genes encoding known Ci uptake systems in cyanobacterial genomes and, using a pfam- and gene context-based approach, identify in the marine (alpha) cyanobacteria a heretofore unrecognized number of putative counterparts to the well-known Ci transporters of beta cyanobacteria. In addition, our analysis shows that there is a huge repertoire of transport systems in cyanobacteria of unknown function, many with homology to characterized Ci transporters. These can be viewed as prospective targets for conversion into ancillary Ci transporters through bioengineering. Increasing intracellular Ci concentration coupled with efforts to increase carbon fixation will be beneficial for the downstream conversion of fixed carbon into value-added products including biofuels. In addition to CCM transporter homologs, we also survey the occurrence of rhodopsin homologs in cyanobacteria, including bacteriorhodopsin, a class of retinal-binding, light-activated proton pumps. Because they are light driven and because of the apparent ease of altering their ion selectivity, we use this as an example of re-purposing an endogenous transporter for the augmentation of Ci uptake by cyanobacteria and potentially chloroplasts.

  8. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  9. A Bioengineered Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Platform Integrated with Microfluidics To Address Antimicrobial Resistance in Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Magdalena K; Tezera, Liku B; Zmijan, Robert; Drobniewski, Francis; Zhang, Xunli; Jayasinghe, Suwan; Elkington, Paul

    2017-02-07

    Antimicrobial resistance presents one of the most significant threats to human health, with the emergence of totally drug-resistant organisms. We have combined bioengineering, genetically modified bacteria, longitudinal readouts, and fluidics to develop a transformative platform to address the drug development bottleneck, utilizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the model organism. We generated microspheres incorporating virulent reporter bacilli, primary human cells, and an extracellular matrix by using bioelectrospray methodology. Granulomas form within the three-dimensional matrix, and mycobacterial stress genes are upregulated. Pyrazinamide, a vital first-line antibiotic for treating human tuberculosis, kills M. tuberculosis in a three-dimensional culture but not in a standard two-dimensional culture or Middlebrook 7H9 broth, demonstrating that antibiotic sensitivity within microspheres reflects conditions in patients. We then performed pharmacokinetic modeling by combining the microsphere system with a microfluidic plate and demonstrated that we can model the effect of dynamic antibiotic concentrations on mycobacterial killing. The microsphere system is highly tractable, permitting variation of cell content, the extracellular matrix, sphere size, the infectious dose, and the surrounding medium with the potential to address a wide array of human infections and the threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  10. A Bioengineered Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Platform Integrated with Microfluidics To Address Antimicrobial Resistance in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena K. Bielecka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance presents one of the most significant threats to human health, with the emergence of totally drug-resistant organisms. We have combined bioengineering, genetically modified bacteria, longitudinal readouts, and fluidics to develop a transformative platform to address the drug development bottleneck, utilizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the model organism. We generated microspheres incorporating virulent reporter bacilli, primary human cells, and an extracellular matrix by using bioelectrospray methodology. Granulomas form within the three-dimensional matrix, and mycobacterial stress genes are upregulated. Pyrazinamide, a vital first-line antibiotic for treating human tuberculosis, kills M. tuberculosis in a three-dimensional culture but not in a standard two-dimensional culture or Middlebrook 7H9 broth, demonstrating that antibiotic sensitivity within microspheres reflects conditions in patients. We then performed pharmacokinetic modeling by combining the microsphere system with a microfluidic plate and demonstrated that we can model the effect of dynamic antibiotic concentrations on mycobacterial killing. The microsphere system is highly tractable, permitting variation of cell content, the extracellular matrix, sphere size, the infectious dose, and the surrounding medium with the potential to address a wide array of human infections and the threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Molecular bioengineering of biomaterials in the 1990s and beyond: a growing liaison of polymers with molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A S

    1992-02-01

    An important trend in biomaterials research and development is the synthesis of polymers that combine capabilities of biologic recognition (biomimetic) with special physicochemical properties of the synthetic polymer system. Another important trend in such "molecular bioengineering" is to develop, perhaps via computer-aided molecular design, new artificial biomimetic systems by exact placement of functional groups on rigid polymer backbones, cross-linked structures, or macromolecular assemblies. In this way, biocatalytic functioning or biorecognition similar to enzymes and antibodies can be achieved without the inherent instability often encountered with the native biomolecules or assemblies. Perhaps the most exciting trend in biomaterials research and development is the availability of new biomolecules, e.g., via protein engineering and of hardy cells with specific biofunctions and bioresponses that can be tailored to specific medical or biotechnological needs. The wide variety of ways that such biomolecules and cells can be combined with polymeric biomaterials provides tremendously exciting opportunities for the biomaterials scientists and engineers. In addition to these synthetic approaches, new and exciting analytical tools, such as the scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope, are permitting study on a molecular scale of individual and small clusters of proteins and other biomolecular assemblies on surfaces. Cell attachments and spreading may also be visualized at various depths within the cell using the confocal laser microscope. Such analytical techniques can lead to important new knowledge about biologic interactions with biomaterials and, therefore, to development of even more biocompatible implants and devices. This paper overviews the present state of polymeric biomaterials and highlights the important and exciting opportunities generated by the liaison of these materials with molecular biology.

  12. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  13. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaraman, Arul

    2009-01-01

    This volume provides a detailed look at the two main aspects of systems biology: the design of sophisticated experimental methods and the development of complex models to analyze the data. Focusing on methods that are being used to solve current problems in biomedical science and engineering, this comprehensive, richly illustrated resource shows you how to design of state-of-the art methods for analyzing biological systems, implement experimental approaches for investigating cellular behavior in health and disease, use algorithms and modeling techniques for quantitatively describing biomedical

  14. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nahmias, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Offering a practical look into the field, this volume presents the science behind microscale device design and the engineering of its fabrication. Supported with dozens of full-color illustrations, this book offers you clear, step-by-step methods for the cell capture from whole blood, high-throughput study of transcriptional dynamics in living cells, temporal control of cell-cell interaction, nanoscale measurements of cellular forces, immobilizing living c. elegans, optical and electrical on-chip cell sorting and human-on-chip modeling of drug metabolism.

  15. Bioengineering Lungs for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Ren, Xi; Ott, Harald C

    2016-05-01

    Whole lung extracellular matrix scaffolds can be created by perfusion of cadaveric organs with decellularizing detergents, providing a platform for organ regeneration. Lung epithelial engineering must address both the proximal airway cells that function to metabolize toxins and aid mucociliary clearance and the distal pneumocytes that facilitate gas exchange. Engineered pulmonary vasculature must support in vivo blood perfusion with low resistance and intact barrier function and be antithrombotic. Repopulating the native lung matrix with sufficient cell numbers in appropriate anatomic locations is required to enable organ function.

  16. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targe

  17. Radiation bioengineering; Bioinzynieria radiacyjna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, J.M. [Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Inst. Techniki Radiacynej

    1997-10-01

    Radiation processing for modification of different properties of materials being designed for medical use have been described. Especially the polymers as very often used for medical equipment production have been modified by radiation. The different medical applications of biomaterials based on radiation modified polymers have been presented. 13 refs.

  18. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2009-01-01

    This unique volume presents leading-edge microfluidics methods used to handle, manipulate, and analyze cells, particles, and biological components (e.g., proteins and DNA) for microdiagnostics. The authors offer clear and detailed guidance on microfabrication techniques utilized to create microfluidic devices and on-chip flow control and mixing Microsystems, protein and DNA handling devices for electrophoretic and isoelectric separations in microchromatography columns, microfluidic manipulations of droplets via electrowetting and particles via dielectrophoresis for separations and chemical rea

  19. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-02-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering to optoelectronics and biosensors. In this review we will give a brief reminder of RF chemistry, its optical, photosensitizing properties, RF transporter systems and its role in pathologies. We will point a special attention on the recent findings concerning RF applications in nanotechnologies such as RF functionalized nanoparticles, polymers, biomolecules, carbon nanotubes, hydrogels and implants for tissue engineering.

  20. An Italian Education: IEEE Pulse talks with Riccardo Pietrabissa, president of Italy's National Bioengineering Group, about Italian progress and challenges in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrabissa, Riccardo; Reynolds, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    From Leonardo da Vinci's designs for ball bearings to the incredible engineering wizardry behind the Ferrari, the inventive, inquisitive, and ingenious spirit of the engineer has always lived--and thrived--in Italy. From education to research to product development, Italy has always been regarded as an engineering leader. But does this apply to biomedical engineering (BME)? Despite many successes, questions loom, as they do at engineering schools worldwide. Concerns such as whether BME programs are providing students with enough focused, practical, hands-on training remain at the forefront, as does the question of whether graduates will be able to find jobs in industry after university studies are over. Here, IEEE Pulse explores these topics with Riccardo Pietrabissa, president of the Gruppo Nazionale di Bioingegneria (National Bioengineering Group) and a full professor in the Department of Chemistry, Materials, and Chemical Engineering at Politecnico di Milano.

  1. The Proximal Medial Sural Nerve Biopsy Model: A Standardised and Reproducible Baseline Clinical Model for the Translational Evaluation of Bioengineered Nerve Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozkurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous nerve transplantation (ANT is the clinical gold standard for the reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects. A large number of bioengineered nerve guides have been tested under laboratory conditions as an alternative to the ANT. The step from experimental studies to the implementation of the device in the clinical setting is often substantial and the outcome is unpredictable. This is mainly linked to the heterogeneity of clinical peripheral nerve injuries, which is very different from standardized animal studies. In search of a reproducible human model for the implantation of bioengineered nerve guides, we propose the reconstruction of sural nerve defects after routine nerve biopsy as a first or baseline study. Our concept uses the medial sural nerve of patients undergoing diagnostic nerve biopsy (≥2 cm. The biopsy-induced nerve gap was immediately reconstructed by implantation of the novel microstructured nerve guide, Neuromaix, as part of an ongoing first-in-human study. Here we present (i a detailed list of inclusion and exclusion criteria, (ii a detailed description of the surgical procedure, and (iii a follow-up concept with multimodal sensory evaluation techniques. The proximal medial sural nerve biopsy model can serve as a preliminarynature of the injuries or baseline nerve lesion model. In a subsequent step, newly developed nerve guides could be tested in more unpredictable and challenging clinical peripheral nerve lesions (e.g., following trauma which have reduced comparability due to the different nature of the injuries (e.g., site of injury and length of nerve gap.

  2. Is there redundancy in bioengineering for molluscan assemblages on the rocky shores of central Chile? ¿Existe redundancia en la bioingeniería de los ensambles de moluscos de las costas rocosas de Chile central?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRENDAN P KELAHER

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioengineers modify habitats via their own physical structures and substantially increase local diversity in marine ecosystems. On rocky shores, there are large overlaps in the composition of communities associated with bioengineers that form complex mat-like habitats. We investigated the potential for redundancy in habitat provision by these types of habitats by comparing diverse molluscan assemblages associated with Perumytilus purpuratus mussel beds and algal turfs of Corallina officinalis var. chilenis, Gelidium chilense and Gastroclonium cylindricum. At three times between September 2003 and January 2004, we sampled the molluscan assemblages associated with each bioengineer at similar tidal heights on two rocky shores on the coast of central Chile. Of the 31 molluscan species identified, 30 were found in Corallina and 19-22 were identified from the other habitats. The pool of species found associated with each bioengineer overlapped greatly, demonstrating the potential for redundancy in habitat provision and little habitat-specificity. However, multivariate and univariate analyses showed all bioengineers except Gastroclonium contained a unique molluscan assemblage for at least one time of sampling because of variation in frequency of occurrence, richness and total abundance. Recent studies have highlighted many anthropogenic and natural processes that directly influence the diversity and composition of bioengineering species on rocky shores. We demonstrate that the loss of any particular bioengineer would not substantially alter the overall pool of molluscan species on the rocky shores of Chile. The loss of any bioengineer except Gastroclonium would, however, result in decreased local biodiversity because the molluscan assemblages in Perumytilus, Corallina and Gelidium, each contained a significantly different community structure for at least one time of samplingEn los ecosistemas marinos los organismos bioingenieros modifican habitats a

  3. 以科研促进生物工程专业实践教学模式的构建与实践%Promoting construction and practice of practice teaching mode for bioengineering speciality based on scientific research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琇; 王薇; 任贤; 乌日娜; 邓洁

    2011-01-01

    探讨在生物工程专业实践教学中,将科研项目的研究进展、研究思路以及研究方法与内容分别融入到课堂教学、实验教学、生产实习、毕业论文等教学活动中,构建以科研促进实践教学质量提高的模式.学生不仅了解了当前生物工程的研究热点和发展趋势,也训练了自己的科研思维能力,明显提高了自身的实践动手能力和创新意识.%This paper discusses that scientific research projects including research progress,study ideal, research methodology and content are introduced into the practice teaching of bioengineering, that is to say, class teaching,experiment practice, productive practice and thesis are combined with scientific research projects to enhance the undergraduates' ability, which would construct new mode to improve practice teaching of bioengineering speciality based on scientific research. It indicates that the undergraduates not only have a good knowledge of the current focuses and the trends of bioengineering, but also learn the scientific mode of thinking. The practice ability and innovation consciousness of the undergraduates are heightened.

  4. Bioengineered 3D brain tumor model to elucidate the effects of matrix stiffness on glioblastoma cell behavior using PEG-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christine; Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor with a median survival of 12-15 months, and the mechanisms underlying GBM tumor progression remain largely elusive. Given the importance of tumor niche signaling in driving GBM progression, there is a strong need to develop in vitro models to facilitate analysis of brain tumor cell-niche interactions in a physiologically relevant and controllable manner. Here we report the development of a bioengineered 3D brain tumor model to help elucidate the effects of matrix stiffness on GBM cell fate using poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels with brain-mimicking biochemical and mechanical properties. We have chosen PEG given its bioinert nature and tunable physical property, and the resulting hydrogels allow tunable matrix stiffness without changing the biochemical contents. To facilitate cell proliferation and migration, CRGDS and a MMP-cleavable peptide were chemically incorporated. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was also incorporated to mimic the concentration in the brain extracellular matrix. Using U87 cells as a model GBM cell line, we demonstrate that such biomimetic hydrogels support U87 cell growth, spreading, and migration in 3D over the course of 3 weeks in culture. Gene expression analyses showed U87 cells actively deposited extracellular matrix and continued to upregulate matrix remodeling genes. To examine the effects of matrix stiffness on GBM cell fate in 3D, we encapsulated U87 cells in soft (1 kPa) or stiff (26 kPa) hydrogels, which respectively mimics the matrix stiffness of normal brain or GBM tumor tissues. Our results suggest that changes in matrix stiffness induce differential GBM cell proliferation, morphology, and migration modes in 3D. Increasing matrix stiffness led to delayed U87 cell proliferation inside hydrogels, but cells formed denser spheroids with extended cell protrusions. Cells cultured in stiff hydrogels also showed upregulation of HA synthase 1 and matrix

  5. Bioengineered Chinese hamster ovary cells with Golgi-targeted 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 biosynthesize heparan sulfate with an antithrombin-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Payel; Li, Guoyun; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Xue; Baik, Jong Youn; Gemmill, Trent R; Sharfstein, Susan T; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-12-27

    HS3st1 (heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform-1) is a critical enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the antithrombin III (AT)-binding site in the biopharmaceutical drug heparin. Heparin is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan that shares a common biosynthetic pathway with heparan sulfate (HS). Although only granulated cells, such as mast cells, biosynthesize heparin, all animal cells are capable of biosynthesizing HS. As part of an effort to bioengineer CHO cells to produce heparin, we previously showed that the introduction of both HS3st1 and NDST2 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase isoform-2) afforded HS with a very low level of anticoagulant activity. This study demonstrated that untargeted HS3st1 is broadly distributed throughout CHO cells and forms no detectable AT-binding sites, whereas Golgi-targeted HS3st1 localizes in the Golgi and results in the formation of a single type of AT-binding site and high anti-factor Xa activity (137 ± 36 units/mg). Moreover, stable overexpression of HS3st1 also results in up-regulation of 2-O-, 6-O-, and N-sulfo group-containing disaccharides, further emphasizing a previously unknown concerted interplay between the HS biosynthetic enzymes and suggesting the need to control the expression level of all of the biosynthetic enzymes to produce heparin in CHO cells.

  6. 生物工程专业综合改革的思考%Thought of Comprehensive Reformation of Bioengineering Specialty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 袁志辉; 余响华; 刘小文; 李尊华

    2012-01-01

    湖南科技学院生物工程专业是国家级特色专业建设点,2012年又被确定为教育部普通高校"十二五"专业综合改革试点项目。如何进行综合改革,作者通过认真学习高教"三十条",反复思考,准备从修订教学方案、创新人才培养模式、加强师资队伍建设、强化实践育人环节、科学进行管理等五个方面进行改革,全面提高教育教学质量。%Bioengineering specialty of Hunan University of Science and Engineering was National Characteristic Construction Specialty and was selected as pilot project of Specialty Comprehensive Reformation of higher education institution Twelfth Five-Year Guideline by Ministry of Education.Under the leadership of Thirty Opinions of improving university pedagogic quality by Education Ministry,the reforming of five segments such as the revision of teaching plan,the reforming of talent training mode,the construction of teaching resource,the strengthening of practice teaching and the scientific of teaching management would be launched to improve the pedagogic quality.

  7. Mycorrhizal inoculation as a tool for sustainable bio-engineering measures in steep alpine environments? - Results of a three year field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Lüscher, Peter; Graf, Frank; Gärtner, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Global warming is anticipated to result in an increase of heavy precipitation events. In vegetation-free, steep Alpine areas intense rain fall events have distinct influences on erosional processes on slopes. These processes and (shallow) mass movements are directly linked with torrential rain falls, and for this lead to high erosion rates in those regions, resulting in an increased natural and socio-economic damage potential. For restoring and managing erosion-prone sites, bioengineering measures as a tool for hazard prevention gain more importance. Due to the rough environmental conditions, and hence, reduced germination capability and sprout vigour, it is difficult to establish a dense cover of pioneer vegetation. Thus, the question is what can be done to give planted saplings within bioengineering projects maximum support, to develop their above- and belowground structures to promote slope stabilization. Green-house and laboratory experiments have shown that mycorrhizal inoculum has a positive impact on plant development and soil structure, e.g. the formation of (stable) aggregates within several months. Based on these promising results, we intended to apply mycorrhizal inoculation in a field-experiment. In May 2010, we established experimental plots at an erosion-prone talus slope (inclination: ~40 - 45 °; elevation 1220 - 1360 m a.s.l.), located in the Eastern Swiss Alps. The slope, consisting of moraine and denudation-derived substrate, shows high geomorphic activity (e.g. debris flows, rill erosion). Two slope areas, 10m wide and 32m long, were stabilized with 1200 plants each. Additionally, mycorrhiza inoculum (INOQ Forst, 40 ml/plant) was added to one of the two areas. Within the stabilized areas, a mixture of eight saplings was planted per running meter in 15 rows. The assortment included four saplings of green alder and two of purple willow, as well as one tree (maple, birch, ash) and shrub species (e.g. guelder rose, honeysuckle). Finally, both areas

  8. Reversal of diabetes in mice with a bioengineered islet implant incorporating a type I collagen hydrogel and sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Robert B; Preisinger, Anton; Gooden, Michel D; D'Amico, Leonard A; Yue, Betty B; Bollyky, Paul L; Kuhr, Christian S; Hefty, Thomas R; Nepom, Gerald T; Gebe, John A

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a bioengineered implant (BI) to evaluate strategies to promote graft survival and function in models of islet transplantation in mice. The BI, sized for implantation within a fold of intestinal mesentery, consists of a disk-shaped, polyvinyl alcohol sponge infused with a type I collagen hydrogel that contains dispersed donor islets. To promote islet vascularization, the BI incorporates a spherical alginate hydrogel for sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). BIs that contained 450-500 islets from syngeneic (C57Bl/6) donors and 20 ng of VEGF reversed streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in 100% of mice (8/8), whereas BIs that contained an equivalent number of islets, but which lacked VEGF, reversed STZ-induced diabetes in only 62.5% of mice (5/8). Between these "+VEGF" and "-VEGF" groups, the time to achieve normoglycemia (8-18 days after implantation) did not differ statistically; however, transitory, postoperative hypoglycemia was markedly reduced in the +VEGF group relative to the -VEGF group. Notably, none of the mice that achieved normoglycemia in these two groups required exogenous insulin therapy once the BIs began to fully regulate levels of blood glucose. Moreover, the transplanted mice responded to glucose challenge in a near-normal manner, as compared to the responses of healthy, nondiabetic (control) mice that had not received STZ. In future studies, the BIs described here will serve as platforms to evaluate the capability of immunomodulatory compounds, delivered locally within the BI, to prevent or reverse diabetes in the setting of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes.

  9. High cell density cultivation of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing a 6-O-sulfotransferase for the production of bioengineered heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Suflita, M.; Fiaschetti, C.M.; Li, G.; Li, L.; Zhang, F.; Dordick, J.S.; Linhardt, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims One of six heparin biosynthetic enzymes, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble fusion protein, requires large-scale preparation for use in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin, an important anticoagulant drug. Methods and Results The 6-O-sulfotransferase isoform-3 (6-OST-3) can be conveniently prepared at mg/L levels in the laboratory by culturing E. coli on Luria–Bertani medium in shake flasks and inducing with isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside at an optical density of 0·6–0·8. The production of larger amounts of 6-OST-3 required fed-batch cultivation of E. coli in a stirred tank fermenter on medium containing an inexpensive carbon source, such as glucose or glycerol. The cultivation of E. coli on various carbon sources under different feeding schedules and induction strategies was examined. Conditions were established giving yields (5–20 mg g-cell-dry weight−1) of active 6-OST-3 with excellent productivity (2–5 mg l−1 h−1). Conclusions The production of 6-OST-3 in a fed-batch fermentation on an inexpensive carbon source has been demonstrated. Significance and Impact of the Study The ability to scale-up the production of heparin biosynthetic enzymes, such as 6-OST-3, is critical for scaling-up the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin. The success of this project may someday lead to a commercially viable bioengineered heparin to replace the animal-sourced anticoagulant product currently on the market. PMID:25362996

  10. Monitoring of a landslide stabilized with bioengineering techniques in 1997, northern Tuscany. Vegetation development analysis and state of preservation of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Alessandro; Giambastiani, Yamuna; Guastini, Enrico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In 1996 a large landslide occurred in the chestnut grove nearby Pomezzana, a small town situated in the mountains of northern Tuscany, Italy. No damages were registered to population nor infrastructures, but the residual risks deriving from the effects of the event needed to be solved by means of a stabilization of the ground and reforestation. The choice has been found among bioengineering techniques, which perfectly fit in the ecosystem, landscape and the economic budgets of mountain engineering. A complex project has been implemented, using several different typologies of wooden structures, combined with rooted plants, wooden cuttings and grass seeding on the slopes. The most of the stabilization effect was assigned to the cribwalls, construct using local chestnut wood. Works ended in 1997. In 2013, 16 years later, a monitoring on the vegetation development and the state of preservation of the wood in cribwalls has been conducted. On vegetation, it has been surveyed the composition of species, diameter and height. Moreover, by means of a GPS device, the position of every plant has been registered and transcribed on GIS softwares for elaboration. The conservation of wood in cribwalls has been checked using a Resistograph, drilling each structure in three areas (at the two ends and roughly in the middle) and testing every order. The root systems of two plants have been excavated to calculate the RAR value for different depths, in order to quantify the contribution of roots in land stabilization. The soil has been also analyzed to determine structure, texture and geotechnical properties. Combining these data with the topographic survey conducted by the designers of the work, it has been possible to calculate the Safety Factor for landslide triggering using the model Slip4ex. The results show a good preservation rate of wooden structures, combined with a high contribution of roots in stabilization. The registered tree species (mainly Alnus glutinosa) were almost all

  11. Teaching Reform and Practice of Genetics Experiment for Undergraduates in Bioengineering Major%生物工程专业本科生遗传学实验教学的改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建州; 王小立; 王坦; 庞发虎

    2016-01-01

    The Genetics Experiment is a compulsory specialized basic course for undergraduates in bioengineering major. In this paper, the current situation and existing problems in teaching of Genetics Experiment were analyzed, and the corresponding reform measures were proposed. The practice of the teaching reform could be helpful for enhancing teaching efficiency and the quality of Genetics Experiment, improving learning initiative and innovation of undergraduates, cultivate applied talents with high quality, and could provide experiences for teaching reform of Genetics Experiment for undergraduates in bioengineering major.%遗传学实验课程是生物工程专业本科生必修的专业基础课。分析了遗传学实验课程教学的现状和主要问题,并针对这些问题提出了相应的改革措施和方法,以提高遗传学实验课程的教学效果和教学质量,有效地提高学生的学习主动性和创新性,培养高质量的应用性人才,为生物工程专业本科生的遗传学实验课程教学改革提供经验。

  12. Starch bioengineering in Brachypodium distachyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Svensson, Jan Tommy; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon was recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals (Opanowicz et al., 2008). We aim to establish Brachypodium as a model for cereal starch metabolism. Grain starch from two lines: Bd21 and Bd21-3 are being characterized. Microscopic, chemical and structural data...... including amylopectin chain length distribution, phosphate content and amylose content provided further evidence for the close relationship to temperate cereals even though starch content and starch granule size were considerably lower than that for barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bioinformatics analyses...... identified starch biosynthesis genes including seven soluble starch synthases (SS), three granule bound starch syntheses (GBSS), four starch branching enzymes (SBE), two glucan- and one phosphoglucan- water dikinases (GWD, PWD). Phylogenetic analysis based on the SS genes provided evidence for a close...

  13. Bioengineering lantibiotics for therapeutic success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des eField

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of highly modified antimicrobial peptides have been described. While many such peptides are non-ribosomally synthesized, ribosomally synthesised equivalents are being discovered with increased frequency. Of the latter group, the lantibiotics continue to attract most attention. In the present review, we discuss the implementation of in vivo and in vitro engineering systems to alter, and even enhance, the antimicrobial activity, antibacterial spectrum and physico-chemical properties, including heat stability, solubility, diffusion and protease resistance, of these compounds. Additionally, we discuss the potential applications of these lantibiotics for use as therapeutics.

  14. Skin Bioengineering: Noninvasive Transdermal Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    five subjects alyte concentration. The method was tested with diabetes . 53 first in phantoms and in animals ,144 and then Occlusion spectroscopy has the... Animal models have pointed creased serum levels of nutrients (free fatty out, in particular, the impact of motion artifacts acids, chylomicrons) need...and progression of diabetic 23. Smart WH, Subramanian K, Orloff E, inventors: Sil- nephropathy . JAMA 2003;290:2159-2167. icon microprobe with integrated

  15. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  16. An Inquiry into Graduation Thesis Quality Evaluation System for Bioengineering Majors in Independent Colleges%独立学院生物工程专业毕业论文质量评价体系的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    To construct a graduation thesis quality evaluation sys-tem for bioengineering majors suitable for talent cultivation goals, can help us scientifically evaluate graduation thesis, form a recy-cling feedback system and comprehensively improve the quality of graduation thesis.%  针对独立学院生物工程专业,构建一套系统完善、科学高效且符合人才培养目标的本科毕业论文质量评价体系,可以对毕业论文的质量进行科学评价,并形成系统化的循环反馈机制,从整体上提高毕业论文的质量。

  17. 护岸金丝柳根系分布特征和力学特性分析%Distribution and tensile mechanical properties of Salix × aureo-pendula root ;system in soil bioengineering revetment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯力; 高甲荣; 马岚; 刘国华; 王兵; 易扬; 王舒; 张腾飞

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of different soil bioengineering measures on the distribution and tensile mechanical properties of root system, we investigated root biomass distribution and conducted tensile tests on Salix × aureo-pendula roots from four types of soil bioengineering revetment, i. e. , rooted cutting, live staking, fascines and brush mattress in the experimental base located at Liuli River in Huairou District, Beijing. All the revetments have been finished for five years. All tested roots were divided into different diameter classes and soil layers for biomass measure and tensile mechanical analysis. The results showed that:root system concentrated in 0--40 cm soil layer and root system had the highest density in 0--20 cm soil layer in revetments with brush mattress and fascines. There was the highest biomass of roots with diameter less than 1 mm in brush mattress measure, accounting for 31. 3%of total biomass, followed by that with fascines measure (19. 2%) . The root tensile force increased with the increasing root diameter in a power function pattern among all bioengineering measures. In 0--20 cm layer, the average tensile force had a significant difference, ranking from high to low as rooted cutting>live staking>fascines>brush mattress, while the average ultimate elongation among different measures followed the order of brush mattress> fascines >live staking > rooted cutting. According to our results, the four soil bioengineering measures can be divided into two types: brush mattress and fascines are suitable to be applied to the area near water surface to alleviate loss of topsoil; rooted cutting and live staking can be established on bank slope to increase the slope stabilization of deeper soil layer.%了解不同土壤生物工程措施下根系分布特征与抗拉特性对土壤生物工程措施的合理配置意义重大。以竣工5年的北京市怀柔区土壤生物工程试验区4种不同种植方式(埋根

  18. Bioengineering in organ transplantation: targeting the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumitsu, K; Yagi, H; Soto-Gutierrez, A

    2011-01-01

    About 27,000 deaths are registered annually in the United States due to liver disease. At this time, the only definitive treatment of hepatic failure is orthotopic transplantation. However, there is a critical shortage of organs with the total waiting list for all organs currently at 100,000 requests. The number is increasing by 5% every year. Given that only organs in pristine condition are transplantable and that the hidden demand for organs as an anti-aging solution will be many times the current figures, orthotopic transplantation will always remain a limited pool. The increasing donor organ shortage requires consideration of alternative emerging technologies. Regenerative medicine may offer novel strategies to treat patients with end-stage organ failure. The ultimate aim of cell transplantation, tissue engineering, and stem cells is to regenerate tissues and organs. With the development of whole organ decellularization methods, the equation of organ shortage may dramatically change in the near future. Decellularized organs provide the ideal transplantable scaffold with all the necessary microstructure and extracellular cues for cell attachment, differentiation, vascularization, and function. New techniques to re-engineer organs may have major implications for the fields of drug discovery, regeneration biology, and ultimately organ transplantation. In this review we have provided an overview of complementary approaches to study and enhance the success of organ repopulation strategies creating new grafts/organs for transplantation.

  19. Center for Advanced Bioengineering for Soldier Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    dental group is currently working on a BioMASK that could use the superhydrophobic coating technology. They are also working on reducing biofilm from...healthy muscle in the recipient rat. We also hypothesize that by using this decellularized material as a scaffold, implantation of the material with MSCs... implantation models. Task 5. Apply for IRB/HRPO approval for use of human ear and nose cartilage cells. Task 6. Perform rat xyphoid defect study for

  20. Current Bioengineering Methods for Whole Kidney Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yamanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney regeneration is likely to provide an inexhaustible source of tissues and organs for immunosuppression-free transplantation. It is currently garnering considerable attention and might replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, anatomical complications make kidney regeneration difficult. Here, we review recent advances in the field of kidney regeneration, including (i the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells into kidney cells; (ii blastocyst decomplementation; (iii use of a decellularized cadaveric scaffold; (iv embryonic organ transplantation; and (v use of a nephrogenic niche for growing xenoembryos for de novo kidney regeneration from stem cells. All these approaches represent potentially promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Although many obstacles to kidney regeneration remain, we hope that innovative strategies and reliable research will ultimately allow the restoration of renal function in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

  1. Tumor bioengineering using a transglutaminase crosslinked hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Y Fang

    Full Text Available Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Corneal reconstruction by stem cells and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjamaa O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olli ArjamaaDepartment of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Almost 300 million people are visually impaired worldwide due to various eye diseases such as cataracts, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal diseases. Notably, ten million people are blind because of severe ocular surface diseases and the majority of cases occur in developing countries. Blinding ocular surface diseases have, however, become treatable by grafting of surface layers, or by full-thickness transplantation of the cornea. As the demand for human corneal tissue for surface reconstruction and transplantation far exceeds the supply, methods are being developed to supplement tissue donation. Xenotransplantation of the cornea or cells from genetically modified pigs may become one of the solutions. Transplantation of limbal stem cells within tissue biopsies, to restore the transparency of the cornea is another remarkable method, which has shown its potential in several clinical studies. The combination of stem cell technology and engineering of biocompatible tissue equivalent, still at preclinical stage, has shown us how synthetic corneal tissue is able to guide cultured corneal stromal stem cells of human origin, to become native-like stroma, the most important layer of the cornea. These findings give hope for a large-quantity production of biomaterial for corneal reconstruction. As such, clinical ophthalmologists should become more familiar with the methods of laboratory science.Keywords: eye, grafting, keratoplasty, xenotransplantation, cell reservoir, biocompatible tissue equivalent

  3. Bioengineering cellulose-hemicellulose networks in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obembe, O.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell walls are important in the industrial application of the cellulose (natural) fibres. We strive to modify these interactions (i) by interfering with cellulose biosynthesis and (ii) by direct interference of the

  4. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Creating Biomedical Technologies to Improve Health En Español | Site Map | ... 2016 VIEW MORE NEWS AND HIGHLIGHTS Design by Biomedical Undergraduate Teams Challenge RSS LISTSERV YOUTUBE FACEBOOK TWITTER ...

  5. Center for Advanced Bioengineering for Soldier Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    lyophilization of stem cell embryoid body (EB) extracellular matrices (ECM). Task 7. Modify EB-ECM with fibrin ‘knobs’ for targeted delivery/retention within... embryoid body (EB) extracellular matrices (ECM). Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs; D3 cell line) were initially expanded on a feeder layer of mouse...Figure 15. Growth factor gene expression comparison between ESGRO- and +serum-cultured embryoid bodies during differentiation time. Sample size

  6. 9th Annual UC Systemwide Bioengineering Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    create embryoid bodies (EB), aggregates of embryonic stem cells, is the hanging drop method. This laborious approach • involves pipetting an arbitrary...pre-defined numbers of cells into microfabricated wells, •control the size of the wells, maintain the cells for embryoid body development, subject the

  7. 氨基酸聚合物/硫酸钙生物工程骨的生物相容性研究%Study on biocompatibility of poly (amino acid)/calcium sulfate composite as bioengineering bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏保; 蒋电明; 严永刚; 赵增辉; 李军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the biocompatibility of poly ( amino acid)/calcium sulfate ( PAA/CaSO4 ) composite as bioengineering bone. Methods The PAA in the composite consists of 6-aminohexanoic acid, glycine, alanine, phenylalanine, proline, lysine, and hydroxyproline. Physiological saline lixivium of the composite was used in acute toxicity test, hemolysis test, micronucleus test, intradermal irritation test, pyrogen test, and cytotoxicity test to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Results The activity of mice was normal in the acute toxicity test. No animal died and no toxicity symptom or adverse effect was shown within 7 d. The average daily weight increases showed no statistically significant difference ( P > 0.05 ) between the experimental and control groups after 7 d. The hemolysis rate of the lixivium was 2.01%, which was lower than the national standard ( < 5% ). The micronucleus rates showed no statistically significant difference (P >0. 05 ) between three experimental groups and the negative control group ( each group' s micronucleus rate was between 0.4 and 0.6), and potential mutagenicity was not observed in the micronucleus test. The maximum increase of body temperature in the experimental group was 0.4 ℃, and the total body temperature increase of the three experimental animals was 1.1 ℃, which met the national standard ( < 1.4 C ). Intradermal irritation test results showed no obvious erythema, edema, or skin necrosis in the experimental and negative control groups, with a primary irritation index of 0.01 -0.02, indicating very slight irritation. In the cytotoxicity test,the relative growth rates of two experimental groups and the negative control group were all above 90%, and the toxicity of PAA/CaS04 composite lixivium was graded 0 or 1, indicating no cytotoxicity. Conclusion PAA/CaSO4 composite has good biocompatibility.%目的 评价氨基酸聚合物[poly(amino acid),PAA]/硫酸钙(calcium sulfate,CaSO4)生物工

  8. Fundamentals and Bioengineering of Enzymatic Fuel Cells. Part 1. Bioengineering of Enzymes as Electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    single -chain antibody with a stimulus-responsive elastin-like peptide linker: A potential reporter of peptide linker conformation . Protein Science...the basis of X-ray structures. Science 262:1718-21 46. Ikura M, Ames JB. 2006. Genetic polymorphism and protein conformational plasticity in the... conformational change. Soft Matter 5:2399—406 51. Oshea EK, Klemm JD. Kim PS, Alber T. 1991. X-Ray structure of the Gcn4 leucine zipper, a 2- stranded

  9. Exploration and application of “semi-self-help” teaching model in series of courses of bioengineering major%生物工程类课程“半自助式”教学模式的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘占英; 周文学; 张冬艳; 李永丽; 黄惠娟; 李利军; 张建斌

    2013-01-01

    In the paper,“semi-self-help” teaching model was put forward.Proposition background,basic meaning,and the idea of the teaching model were introduced.Concrete implementing scheme and evaluation form were suggested.An example of applying in biotechnology was explained.Four steps were put forward to state the application of “semi-self-help”teaching model in biotechnology.That is,how to introduce the system's content of the course by arranging engineering practice papers,how to organize the learning of basic knowledge,how to apply basic knowledge in specific production,and how to design the technology process of specific bioengineering products.The effect of “semi-self-help” teaching model was evaluated.The paper provides a new teaching model to improve students' engineering practice ability.%介绍“半自助式”教学模式提出的背景、涵义和研究理念,明晰该模式的实施方案和考核评分体系.以《生物工艺学》课程的教学组织为典型案例,分四个阶段介绍如何通过实践题目的布置引出课程内容体系,如何安排基础知识学习,如何将基础知识应用于具体生物工程产品生产以及如何做生产工艺的工厂设计,分析成效,以期为生物工程类课程教学提供一种新型教学模式,提高学生工程实践能力.

  10. Effect of recombinant human B-type natriuretic peptide on renal hemodynamics in a bioengineering model of acute myocardial infarction with heart failure%B型钠尿肽对心力衰竭生物工程模型肾血流动力学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊欣娜; 张晶; 蔡丽丽; 杨桂凤; 傅向华

    2014-01-01

      结果与结论:造模成功后与基线比较,肾动脉管径无变化,肾动脉平均峰值速率明显下降,肾动脉血流量显著降低,肾动脉血管阻力明显升高,跨肾灌注压明显降低。给予重组人B型钠尿肽0.010μg/(kg•min)后可见肾动脉扩张,并随剂量增加,肾动脉直径继续增加。肾动脉平均峰值速率增高,但较基线差异无显著性意义,此后,随剂量增加,肾动脉平均峰值速率逐渐下降。给药后肾动脉血管阻力逐渐下降,呈剂量依赖性。跨肾灌注压随着药物剂量的升高进行性下降,至0.030μg/(kg•min)泵入时显著低于对照组。给予重组人B型钠尿肽后肾动脉血流量逐渐升高,最高点出现在0.020μg/(kg•min)。结果可见急性心肌梗死伴心力衰竭模型应用重组人B型钠尿肽可增加肾灌注,0.020μg/(kg•min)效果最强。%BACKGROUND:The reduction of renal circulation and perfusion, the decline of renal blood flow, wil al cause renal injury. The heart failure concomitant with renal injury can significantly increase the mortality. But there are arguments about the effect of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) on the renal function of patients with heart failure, and little evidence is known about the effect of BNP on the renal hemodynamics. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects of different dosages of recombinant human BNP on renal perfusion in bioengineering models of acute myocardial infarction with heart failure. METHODS:Bioengineering model of York pigs of acute myocardial infarction with heart failure was established with the method of occluding anterior descending branch with bal oon and injecting microthrombus. The models were randomized into recombinant human BNP group and control group (n=6). Clinical dose of recombinant human BNP (bolus of 1.5μg/kg fol owed by a continuous infusion of 0.01μg/(kg.min) for 60 minutes, and then a continuous infusion of 0.02 and 0.03μg/(kg.min) for 60

  11. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch...... processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots......, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel...

  12. Collagen bioengineered systems: in situ advanced optical spatiotemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu Jer; Lang, Xuye; Granelli, Joseph; Turgman, Cassandra C.; Gigante, Jackie; Lyubovitsky, Julia G.

    2014-05-01

    The architecture of collagen is important in maintenance and regeneration of higher vertebrates' tissues. We had been studying the changes to this architecture with in situ multi-photon optical microscopy that combines nonlinear optical phenomena of second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) signals from collagen hydrogels prepared from different collagen solid content, polymerized at different temperatures, with different ions as well as modified with reducing sugars. We incubated 2 g/l collagen hydrogels with 0.1 M fructose at 37 °C and after about 20 days observed a significant induction of in situ fluorescence. The twophoton fluorescence emission was centered at about 460 nm for 730 nm excitation wavelength and shifted to 480 nm when we changed the excitation wavelength to 790 nm. The one-photon fluorescence emission was centered at about 416 nm when excitation was 330 nm. It red shifted and split into two peaks centered at about 430 nm and 460 nm for 370 nm excitation; 460 nm peak became predominant for 385 nm excitation and further shifted to 470 nm for 390 nm excitation. SHG and TPF imaging showed restructuring of hydrogels upon this modification. We will discuss these findings within the context of our ongoing dermal wound repair research.

  13. The properties of bioengineered chondrocyte sheets for cartilage regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota Naoshi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the clinical results of autologous chondrocyte implantation for articular cartilage defects have recently improved as a result of advanced techniques based on tissue engineering procedures, problems with cell handling and scaffold imperfections remain to be solved. A new cell-sheet technique has been developed, and is potentially able to overcome these obstacles. Chondrocyte sheets applicable to cartilage regeneration can be prepared with this cell-sheet technique using temperature-responsive culture dishes. However, for clinical application, it is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of the cells in these sheets and to identify their similarities to naive cartilage. Results The expression of SOX 9, collagen type 2, 27, integrin α10, and fibronectin genes in triple-layered chondrocyte sheets was significantly increased in comparison to those in conventional monolayer culture and in a single chondrocyte sheet, implying a nature similar to ordinary cartilage. In addition, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that collagen type II, fibronectin, and integrin α10 were present in the triple-layered chondrocyte sheets. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that these chondrocyte sheets with a consistent cartilaginous phenotype and adhesive properties may lead to a new strategy for cartilage regeneration.

  14. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  15. Glycan bioengineering in immunogen design for tumor T antigen immunotargeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sendra, Victor G; Zlocowski, Natacha; Ditamo, Yanina;

    2009-01-01

    MM2 energy function showed that pentalysine (Lys5) linker and benzyl (Bzl) residue enhance TFD rigidity of the glycosidic bond. Antibodies raised against BzlalphaTFD-Lys5 immunogen recognize tumor T antigen. Competitive assays confirm that TFD-related structures are the main glycan epitope...

  16. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel;

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  17. Bioengineering of the lantibitoic nisin to create new antimicrobial functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of pathogens to traditional antibiotics enforces people to search for new antimicrobial agents. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides. They can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, by binding to lipid II and forming por

  18. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross-Aviv, Talia [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: taliag@bgu.ac.il; DiCarlo, Bryan B. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: bdicarlo@rice.edu; French, Margaret M. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: mmfrench@rice.edu; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: athanasiou@rice.edu; Vago, Razi [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: rvago@bgu.ac.il

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications.

  19. Laser bioengineering of glass-titanium implants surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusquiños, F.; Arias-González, F.; Penide, J.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pascual, M. J.; Durán, A.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Osseointegration is the mean challenge when surgical treatments fight against load-bearing bone diseases. Absolute bone replacement by a synthetic implant has to be completed not only from the mechanics point of view, but also from a biological approach. Suitable strength, resilience and stress distribution of titanium alloy implants are spoiled by the lack of optimal biological characteristics. The inert quality of extra low interstitial titanium alloy, which make it the most attractive metallic alloy for biomedical applications, oppose to an ideal surface with bone cell affinity, and capable to stimulate bone attachment bone growth. Diverse laser treatments have been proven as effective tools to modify surface properties, such as wettability in contact to physiological fluids, or osteoblast guided and slightly enhanced attachment. The laser surface cladding can go beyond by providing titanium alloy surfaces with osteoconduction and osteoinduction properties. In this research work, the laser radiation is used to produce bioactive glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates. Specific silicate bioactive glass compositions has been investigated to achieve suitable surface tension and viscosity temperature behavior during processing, and to provide with the required release of bone growth gene up regulation agents in the course of resorption mediated by physiological fluids. The produced coatings and interfaces, the surface osteoconduction properties, and the chemical species release in simulated physiological fluid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  20. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing ...

  1. Integrating Bioengineered F1 Motors into Nano-Structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    Cindy Berrie, Fei Gao. Insertion of a Rigid Structural Element into the Regulatory Domain of the Chloroplast F1-ATPase Gamma Subunit for Rotational...Studies., 15th International Photosynthesis Congress. 2010/08/22 01:00:00, . : , 12/27/2011 3.00 . The Mutation E242K in the chloroplast ATP synthase... chloroplast F1-ATPase gamma subunit for rotational studies. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Photosynthesis, 2011, pp.123-126. 2. Colvert

  2. Fabrication and characterization of bio-engineered cardiac pseudo tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Tao; Boland, Thomas [Department of Bioengineering, 420 Rhodes Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Baicu, Catalin; Aho, Michael; Zile, Michael, E-mail: tboland@clemson.ed [Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    We report on fabricating functional three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using an inkjet based bio-prototyping method. With the use of modified inkjet printers, contractile cardiac hybrids that exhibit the forms of the 3D rectangular sheet and even the 'half heart' (with two connected ventricles) have been fabricated by arranging alternate layers of biocompatible alginate hydrogels and mammalian cardiac cells according to pre-designed 3D patterns. In this study, primary feline adult and H1 cardiomyocytes were used as model cardiac cells. Alginate hydrogels with controlled micro-shell structures were built by spraying cross-linkers in micro-drops onto un-gelled alginic acid. The cells remained viable in constructs as thick as 1 cm due to the programmed porosity. Microscopic and macroscopic contractile functions of these cardiomyocyte constructs were observed in vitro. These results suggest that the inkjet bio-prototyping method could be used for hierarchical design of functional cardiac pseudo tissues, balanced with porosity for mass transport and structural support.

  3. Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskon Ibarretxe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

  4. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...

  5. Bioengineered lysozyme in combination therapies for Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Karl E; Bement, Jenna L; Teneback, Charlotte C; Scanlon, Thomas C; Wargo, Matthew J; Leclair, Laurie W

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing urgency in the battle against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, and this public health crisis has created a desperate need for novel antimicrobial agents. Recombinant human lysozyme represents one interesting candidate for treating pulmonary infections, but the wild type enzyme is subject to electrostatic mediated inhibition by anionic biopolymers that accumulate in the infected lung. We have redesigned lysozyme’s electrostatic potential field, creating a genetically engineered variant that is less susceptible to polyanion inhibition, yet retains potent bactericidal activity. A recent publication demonstrated that the engineered enzyme outperforms wild type lysozyme in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Here, we expand upon our initial studies and consider dual therapies that combine lysozymes with an antimicrobial peptide. Consistent with our earlier results, the charge modified lysozyme combination outperformed its wild type counterpart, yielding more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in bacterial burden following treatment with a single dose. PMID:24637705

  6. Hierarchical structure of biological systems: A bioengineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and function...

  7. Clinical effect of bioengineered cornea and in vivo confocal microscopy observation after human lamellar keraplasty%生物角膜用于人角膜板层移植术后的临床疗效及激光扫描共焦显微镜动态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素娟; 张月琴; 李金; 余晓菲; 窦新岩; 王丽娅

    2016-01-01

    Background Xenotransplantation is arousing more attention of researchers because of the lack of corneal donors.Biological corneal scaffolds constructed by porcine corneal acellular stroma appears to have an acceptable biocompatibility.However,its clinical effects and the histomorphological features in the corneal tissue of receipts' are still unclear.Objective This study was to evaluate the viability of bioengineered corneas as a new material of human lamellar keratoplasty and observe the in viva biological features after human keratoplasty under the laser confocal microscope.Methods A prospective serial cases observational study was carried out.Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with infectious keratitis were enrolled in Henan Eye Hospital from February to August 2014 under the approval of Ethic Committee of Henan Eye Hospital and informed consent of each patient, including 4 eyes of fungal keratitis,1 eye of bacterial keratitis, 9 eyes of mixed infectious keratitis and 1 eye of leucoma.Corneal lamellar transplantation was performed on the eyes with the bioengineered corneas as grafts and the follow-up time was one year.The survival of grafts was assessed and scored, and the indices including corneal transparency,neovascularization, graft lysis or inflammatory recurrence and visual acuity (logMAR) were evaluated.The morphology and density of corneal epithelial cells and endothelial cells, corneal stroma and subepithelial neural fibers were examined by laser confocal microscope 3,6,9 and 12 months after surgery.Results Postoperative inflammatory response was seen 3 days and disappeared 7 days after surgery.The grafts were clear 1 month after surgery, and no corneal dissolution was found during the follow-up duration.Glaucoma occurred in 1 eye at 6 months and graft rejection occurred in another eye 12 months after surgery.The logMAR, corneal transparency scores and corneal neovascularization scores improved after surgery in comparison with before surgery,with a significant

  8. A System for Discovering Bioengineered Threats by Knowledge Base Driven Mining of Toxin Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    been laid on the similarity of Thermolysin and Neprilysin which are known zinc binding proteases. The latter set, although a couple 23 of studies...sequence of Endoglucanase since it is an important protein that binds to cellulose, as well as having a multidomain enzymatic characteristic. A sequence...developed. Our approach is based on identifying Sortal anaphors to extract proximal toxin names. We also extract protein- 28 protein interactions

  9. The future of starch bioengineering:GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup; Domenico eSagnelli; Andreas eBlennow

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar r...

  10. Dissection of the host-pathogen interaction in human tuberculosis using a bioengineered 3-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezera, Liku B; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Chancellor, Andrew; Reichmann, Michaela T; Shammari, Basim Al; Brace, Patience; Batty, Alex; Tocheva, Annie; Jogai, Sanjay; Marshall, Ben G; Tebruegge, Marc; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Mansour, Salah; Elkington, Paul T

    2017-01-01

    Cell biology differs between traditional cell culture and 3-dimensional (3-D) systems, and is modulated by the extracellular matrix. Experimentation in 3-D presents challenges, especially with virulent pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills more humans than any other infection and is characterised by a spatially organised immune response and extracellular matrix remodelling. We developed a 3-D system incorporating virulent mycobacteria, primary human blood mononuclear cells and collagen–alginate matrix to dissect the host-pathogen interaction. Infection in 3-D led to greater cellular survival and permitted longitudinal analysis over 21 days. Key features of human tuberculosis develop, and extracellular matrix integrity favours the host over the pathogen. We optimised multiparameter readouts to study emerging therapeutic interventions: cytokine supplementation, host-directed therapy and immunoaugmentation. Each intervention modulates the host-pathogen interaction, but has both beneficial and harmful effects. This methodology has wide applicability to investigate infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases and develop novel drug regimes and vaccination approaches. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21283.001 PMID:28063256

  11. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M

    2012-01-01

    . In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce......Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties...

  12. US Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory Annual Progress Report for FY 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    NHC12, and NC11 13I. SCIENTIFIC AND TECNOLOGICAL AREAS’ * 008300 Inorganic Chemistry; 007800 Hygiene and Sanitation TM START DuE ESTINAYSO... pushed through a SEP PAK C18 cartridge with a glass * Luer-tip syringe. The absorbed agent will be eluted from the SEP PAK C18 * cartridge with I mL of

  13. Bioengineering of injectable encapsulated aggregates of pluripotent stem cells for therapy of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuting; Xu, Zhaobin; Wang, Hai; Reese, Benjamin E.; Gushchina, Liubov V.; Jiang, Meng; Agarwal, Pranay; Xu, Jiangsheng; Zhang, Mingjun; Shen, Rulong; Liu, Zhenguo; Weisleder, Noah; He, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    It is difficult to achieve minimally invasive injectable cell delivery while maintaining high cell retention and animal survival for in vivo stem cell therapy of myocardial infarction. Here we show that pluripotent stem cell aggregates pre-differentiated into the early cardiac lineage and encapsulated in a biocompatible and biodegradable micromatrix, are suitable for injectable delivery. This method significantly improves the survival of the injected cells by more than six-fold compared with the conventional practice of injecting single cells, and effectively prevents teratoma formation. Moreover, this method significantly enhances cardiac function and survival of animals after myocardial infarction, as a result of a localized immunosuppression effect of the micromatrix and the in situ cardiac regeneration by the injected cells.

  14. Bioengineered Silicon Diatoms: Adding Photonic Features to a Nanostructured Semiconductive Material for Biomolecular Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Ilaria; Terracciano, Monica; Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Dardano, Principia; Martucci, Nicola M.; Lamberti, Annalisa; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Native diatoms made of amorphous silica are first converted into silicon structures via magnesiothermic process, preserving the original shape: electron force microscopy analysis performed on silicon-converted diatoms demonstrates their semiconductor behavior. Wet surface chemical treatments are then performed in order to enhance the photoluminescence emission from the resulting silicon diatoms and, at the same time, to allow the immobilization of biological probes, namely proteins and antibodies, via silanization. We demonstrate that light emission from semiconductive silicon diatoms can be used for antibody-antigen recognition, endorsing this material as optoelectronic transducer.

  15. Periodontal Bioengineering: A Discourse in Surface Topographies, Progenitor Cells and Molecular Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangaria, Smit J.

    2011-12-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are a population of cells capable of providing replacement cells for a given differentiated cell type. We have applied progenitor cell-based technologies to generate novel tissue-engineered implants that use biomimetic strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Mesenchymal periodontal tissues such as cementum, alveolar bone (AB), and periodontal ligament (PDL) are neural crest-derived entities that emerge from the dental follicle (DF) at the onset of tooth root formation. Using a systems biology approach we have identified key differences between these periodontal progenitors on the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, in addition to differences in cellular morphologies. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Secondly, we have tested the influence of natural extracellular hydroxyapatite matrices on periodontal progenitor differentiation. Dimension and structure of extracellular matrix surfaces have powerful influences on cell shape, adhesion, and gene expression. Here we show that natural tooth root topographies induce integrin-mediated extracellular matrix signaling cascades in tandem with cell elongation and polarization to generate physiological periodontium-like tissues. In this study we replanted surface topography instructed periodontal ligament progenitors (PDLPs) into rat alveolar bone sockets for 8 and 16 weeks, resulting in complete attachment of tooth roots to the surrounding alveolar bone with a periodontal ligament fiber apparatus closely matching physiological controls along the entire root surface. Displacement studies and biochemical analyses confirmed that progenitor-based engineered periodontal tissues were similar to control teeth and uniquely derived from pre-implantation green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled progenitors. Together, these studies illustrate the capacity of natural extracellular surface topographies to instruct PDLPs to fully regenerate complex cellular and structural morphologies of tissues once lost to disease. We suggest that our strategy could be used for the replantation of teeth lost due to trauma or as a novel approach for tooth replacement using tooth-shaped replicas.

  16. Tooth regeneration: implications for the use of bioengineered organs in first-wave organ replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Taka; Ide, Yoshiaki

    2007-08-01

    Experiments with animal models have shown that the tooth crown structure can be regenerated using tissue engineering techniques that combine tooth bud cells and biodegradable materials, or by using embryonic tissue and adult stem cells. Moreover, tooth roots and periodontal tissues have been reconstructed by grafting dental stem cells, which leads to the recovery of tooth function, suggesting that tooth regeneration will become possible in humans in the near future. The present article reviews current research on tooth regeneration, discusses a model of tooth replacement that could be used clinically, and proposes a new tooth regeneration approach that overcomes the difficulties associated with the tooth replacement model. Tooth regeneration is an important stepping stone in the establishment of engineered organ transplantation, which is one of the ultimate goals of regenerative therapies.

  17. The bioengineering of changing lifestyle and wearable technology: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Roy W; Swink, Phil J; Vorel, Alyssa J; Shepard, Cynthia S; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Waite, Gabi N

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a major health concern at the national and global level. According to the CDC, 86% of US health dollars go toward the treatment of chronic diseases. Many chronic diseases are manageable or preventable if individuals make appropriate lifestyle choices. Wearable technology – both consumer and medical – provides a unique opportunity to track lifestyle choices, such as increasing physical activity. It is estimated the market for consumer wearables will grow from $9.2 billion in 2014 to $30 billion by 2018. With such a potential market growth, it is important to understand the potential benefits and limitations of wearable technology to impact chronic disease management and prevention.

  18. Paving the Way for Lignin Valorisation : Recent Advances in Bioengineering, Biorefining and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, Roberto; Jastrzebski, Robin; Clough, Matthew T; Ralph, John; Kennema, Marco; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-01-01

    Lignin is an abundant biopolymer with a high carbon content and high aromaticity. Despite its potential as a raw material for the fuel and chemical industries, lignin remains the most poorly utilised of the lignocellulosic biopolymers. Effective valorisation of lignin requires careful fine-tuning of

  19. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON 4333 BROOKLYN AVE NESEATTLE WA 98195...be tuned and tested with the purpose of delivery a gel to the injured brain that becomes responsive to the injury environment. This work resulted in a...when experiments are performed in Houston. Dr. Horner’s new contact information is: Philip J. Horner, PhD Scientific Director, Center for

  20. Synergistic actions of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in vascularizing bioengineered tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K Moioli

    Full Text Available Poor angiogenesis is a major road block for tissue repair. The regeneration of virtually all tissues is limited by angiogenesis, given the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products is limited to a few hundred micrometers. We postulated that co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells improves angiogenesis of tissue repair and hence the outcome of regeneration. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by using bone as a model whose regeneration is impaired unless it is vascularized. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs were isolated from each of three healthy human bone marrow samples and reconstituted in a porous scaffold. MSCs were seeded in micropores of 3D calcium phosphate (CP scaffolds, followed by infusion of gel-suspended CD34(+ hematopoietic cells. Co-transplantation of CD34(+ HSCs and CD34(- MSCs in microporous CP scaffolds subcutaneously in the dorsum of immunocompromised mice yielded vascularized tissue. The average vascular number of co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSC scaffolds was substantially greater than MSC transplantation alone. Human osteocalcin was expressed in the micropores of CP scaffolds and was significantly increased upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Human nuclear staining revealed the engraftment of transplanted human cells in vascular endothelium upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Based on additional in vitro results of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, we adsorbed VEGF with co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSCs in the microporous CP scaffolds in vivo, and discovered that vascular number and diameter further increased, likely owing to the promotion of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by VEGF. Together, co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells may improve the regeneration of vascular dependent tissues such as bone, adipose, muscle and dermal grafts, and may have implications in the regeneration of internal organs.

  1. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of human smooth muscle cells in bioengineered tissue scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackmann, Christian; Esguerra, Maricris; Olausson, Daniel; Delbro, Dick; Krettek, Alexandra; Gatenholm, Paul; Enejder, Annika

    2011-02-01

    The integration of living, human smooth muscle cells in biosynthesized cellulose scaffolds was monitored by nonlinear microscopy toward contractile artificial blood vessels. Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was applied for studies of the cell interaction with the biopolymer network. CARS microscopy probing CH2-groups at 2845 cm-1 permitted three-dimensional imaging of the cells with high contrast for lipid-rich intracellular structures. SHG microscopy visualized the fibers of the cellulose scaffold, together with a small signal obtained from the cytoplasmic myosin of the muscle cells. From the overlay images we conclude a close interaction between cells and cellulose fibers. We followed the cell migration into the three-dimensional structure, illustrating that while the cells submerge into the scaffold they extrude filopodia on top of the surface. A comparison between compact and porous scaffolds reveals a migration depth of <10 μm for the former, whereas the porous type shows cells further submerged into the cellulose. Thus, the scaffold architecture determines the degree of cell integration. We conclude that the unique ability of nonlinear microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional composition of living, soft matter makes it an ideal instrument within tissue engineering.

  2. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  3. US Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory Annual Progress Report for FY 84. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    Field Assessment of Laboratory- 123 Derived Test Protocols and Water Quality Criterion Modifications with Pentachlorophenol and Ammonia 042 (83PP3813...Classification (odfU) Chemical Warfare Agents; (U) Chemical Synthesis ; (TT) Elemental Analyses- (U) Reference Reagentso (U) Nerve Agents; (U) RAM V 23 TECHNICAL...procedures will be evaluated. Synthesis of the above described substances will then be performed. 25. (U) 8310 - 8409. Contract- synthesis of some of the

  4. Ependymal Proliferation: A Conduit for Tricking the Central Nervous System into Bioengineering Itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Amin A; Mohamed, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Ependymal Cells are a type of Glial Cell lining the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. Their primary function is to secrete and circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neural stem cells (NSC) exist within the ependymal lining that are capable of neurogenesis. Historically it was thought that neurogenesis only occurred prenatally and that adult ependymal cells are incapable of regeneration. It is now known that primary neurogenic areas within the Central Nervous System (CNS) are located within the lateral ventricle and hippocampus. Recent studies have demonstrated that ependymal cells lining the central cord canal possess dormant neural stem cells capable of differentiation following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Recent research has focused on strategies to modulate cellular proliferation and differentiation in the spinal cord. In SCI these cells have the propensity to migrate to the site of damage and differentiate into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Ependymal cells are also capable of migrating into the hypothalamus and undergo proliferation. Neurological insult such as SCI leads the oxidative stress response, inflammation and subsequent activation of ependymal cells into astrocytes that are the body’s way to regenerate and heal. The presence or absence of astrocytes, neuronal growth factors, non-neuronal growth factors, microtubule and microtubule activating proteins are factors which promote cell survival and terminal differentiation of neurons.

  5. Bioengineered sequential growth factor delivery stimulates brain tissue regeneration after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfei; Cooke, Michael J; Sachewsky, Nadia; Morshead, Cindi M; Shoichet, Molly S

    2013-11-28

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability with no effective regenerative treatment. One promising strategy for achieving tissue repair involves the stimulation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells through sequential delivery of epidermal growth factor (EGF) followed by erythropoietin (EPO). Yet currently available delivery strategies such as intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion cause significant tissue damage. We designed a novel delivery system that circumvents the blood brain barrier and directly releases growth factors to the brain. Sequential release of the two growth factors is a key in eliciting tissue repair. To control release, we encapsulate pegylated EGF (EGF-PEG) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and EPO in biphasic microparticles comprised of a PLGA core and a poly(sebacic acid) coating. EGF-PEG and EPO polymeric particles are dispersed in a hyaluronan methylcellulose (HAMC) hydrogel which spatially confines the particles and attenuates the inflammatory response of brain tissue. Our composite-mediated, sequential delivery of EGF-PEG and EPO leads to tissue repair in a mouse stroke model and minimizes damage compared to ICV infusion.

  6. Growth factors adsorbed on polyglycolic acid mesh augment growth of bioengineered intestinal neomucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkersdorfer, Beatrix; Kao, Kenneth K; Agopian, Vatche G; Dunn, James C; Wu, Ben M; Stelzner, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    Production of tissue engineered small intestine (TESI) has been limited by the relatively large amount of native tissue required to generate neomucosa. The influence of growth factors and three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices on TESI has been studied both in vitro and in vivo, and positive growth effects on tissue mass and differentiation were noted. The present study investigates the impact of single doses of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), or holo-transferrin adsorbed onto a polyglycolic (PGA) mesh scaffold using a rat small-intestinal organoid transplant model. In Experiment I, intestinal organoids were seeded onto PGA mesh discs, suspended in either Matrigel (n=8) or a vehicle control (n=8), and implanted into syngenic recipients. In Experiment II, GLP-2 (n=8), HGF (n=8), or transferrin (n=8) were adsorbed onto PGA mesh discs. Intestinal organoids were then suspended in Matrigel and seeded onto each growth factor-loaded PGA disc or onto control discs without growth factors (n=12). In addition, organoids were suspended in vehicle and seeded onto control discs (n=12). All discs were implanted into syngenic recipients. After 4 wk, histologic analysis of the samples revealed significantly greater neomucosal surface area (3.62±0.33 mm(2)versus 0.92±0.11 mm(2), Pvehicle controls. The addition of holo-transferrin to the scaffolds further augmented neomucosal surface area (9.11±0.66 mm(2)versus 3.01±0.22 mm(2), P<0.01), whereas that of GLP-2 stimulated the formation of increased numbers of cysts (8.88±0.46 versus 4.18±0.25, P<0.01). These data suggest that Matrigel and growth factors adsorbed to polymer scaffolds can be used to manipulate the morphology of TESI.

  7. U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    program. In FY86 a systematic study to determine the reliability and validity of tests using sentinel mosquito cages as a bloassay tool was Initiated...During FY86, this Laboratory continued the program In Integrated pest management-mosquitoes by a systematic study to develop methods for mosquito...Entomological Society Association Indian Science Congress -’ American Public Health Association Lepidoptera Research Foundation American Register of

  8. Towards the development of a bioengineered uterus: comparison of different protocols for rat uterus decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, M; El-Akouri, R R; Sihlbom, C; Olsson, B M; Lengqvist, J; Bäckdahl, H; Johansson, B R; Olausson, M; Sumitran-Holgersson, S; Brännström, M

    2014-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) may be the only possible curative treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility, which affects 1 in every 500 females of fertile age. We recently presented the 6-month results from the first clinical UTx trial, describing nine live-donor procedures. This routine involves complicated surgery and requires potentially harmful immune suppression to prevent rejection. However, tissue engineering applications using biomaterials and stem cells may replace the need for a live donor, and could prevent the required immunosuppressive treatment. To investigate the basic aspects of this, we developed a novel whole-uterus scaffold design for uterus tissue engineering experiments in the rat. Decellularization was achieved by perfusion of detergents and ionic solutions. The remaining matrix and its biochemical and mechanical properties were quantitatively compared from using three different protocols. The constructs were further compared with native uterus tissue composition. Perfusion with Triton X-100/dimethyl sulfoxide/H2O led to a compact, weaker scaffold that showed evidence of a compromised matrix organization. Sodium deoxycholate/dH2O perfusion gave rise to a porous scaffold that structurally and mechanically resembled native uterus better. An innovative combination of two proteomic analyses revealed higher fibronectin and versican content in these porous scaffolds, which may explain the improved scaffold organization. Together with other important protocol-dependent differences, our results can contribute to the development of improved decellularization protocols for assorted organs. Furthermore, our study shows the first available data on decellularized whole uterus, and creates new opportunities for numerous in vitro and in vivo whole-uterus tissue engineering applications.

  9. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jagmohan; Rattan, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The bas...

  10. Bioengineering approach to study the role of cell migration during zebrafish heart regneration

    OpenAIRE

    Tekeli, Işil

    2016-01-01

    [eng] Zebrafish heart regeneration remains one of the most interesting phenomena of the 21st century. Considering the extremely high rate of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases in the developed countries, 1 out of every 3 people, understanding natural cardiac regeneration would address a worldwide challenge. Even though many aspects of zebrafish heart regeneration have been elucidated, there are still many open questions to be answered. Among these, the work presented here focuses on unders...

  11. Bioengineering approach to study the role of cell migration during zebrafish heart regneration

    OpenAIRE

    Tekeli, Işil

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish heart regeneration remains one of the most interesting phenomena of the 21st century. Considering the extremely high rate of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases in the developed countries, 1 out of every 3 people, understanding natural cardiac regeneration would address a worldwide challenge. Even though many aspects of zebrafish heart regeneration have been elucidated, there are still many open questions to be answered. Among these, the work presented here focuses on understandin...

  12. 77 FR 74675 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Center, 7400 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review... Inn, 3001 Cameron Blvd., Durham, NC 27705. Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific...

  13. 76 FR 69748 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892,(Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review...: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imagin and... Avenue, Chicago, IL. Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute...

  14. Bioengineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, F. Robert [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-30

    In this study, the Principal Investigator, F.R. Tabita has teemed up with J. C. Liao from UCLA. This project's main goal is to manipulate regulatory networks in phototrophic bacteria to affect and maximize the production of large amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions where wild-type organisms are constrained by inherent regulatory mechanisms from allowing this to occur. Unrestrained production of hydrogen has been achieved and this will allow for the potential utilization of waste materials as a feed stock to support hydrogen production. By further understanding the means by which regulatory networks interact, this study will seek to maximize the ability of currently available “unrestrained” organisms to produce hydrogen. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Moreover, due to their great metabolic versatility, such organisms highly regulate these processes in the cell and since virtually all such capabilities are dispensable, excellent experimental systems to study aspects of molecular control and biochemistry/physiology are available.

  15. Cereal bioengineering: amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    . This construct was inherited as a single locus with a 3:1 segregation, which makes the method useful for breeding as compared to combing alleles of the three different SBE genes segregating independently. Transgenic grains were wrinkled. This is a phenocopy of Mendel’s wrinkled peas, which were also based...

  16. A bioengineered drug-Eluting scaffold accelerated cutaneous wound healing In diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Ding, Guoshan; Shi, Xiaoming; Guo, Wenyuan; Ni, Zhijia; Fu, Hong; Fu, Zhiren

    2016-09-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients can greatly hinder the wound healing process. In this study we investigated if the engagement of F4/80(+) murine macrophages could accelerate the cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. To facilitate the engagement of macrophages, we engineered a drug-eluting electrospun scaffold with a payload of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). MCP-1 could be readily released from the scaffold within 3 days. The electrospun scaffold showed no cytotoxic effects on human keratinocytes in vitro. Full-thickness excisional cutaneous wound was created in diabetic mice. The wound fully recovered within 10 days in mice treated with the drug-eluting scaffold. In contrast, the wound took 14 days to fully recover in control groups. The use of drug-eluting scaffold also improved the re-epithelialization. Furthermore, we observed a larger population of F4/80(+) macrophages in the wound bed of mice treated with drug-eluting scaffolds on day 3. This marked increase of macrophages in the wound bed could have contributed to the accelerated wound healing. Our study shed new light on an immuno-engineering solution for wound healing management in diabetic patients.

  17. The significance of different diacylgycerol synthesis pathways on plant oil composition and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip David Bates

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA composition of triacylglycerol (TAG. Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG, the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: 1 De novo DAG synthesis, and 2 conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g. desaturation, hydroxylation, etc., such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions.

  18. Bioengineered 3D Glial Cell Culture Systems and Applications for Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P Marc D; Kavanagh, Edel; Allenby, Gary; Vassey, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are key features in a range of chronic central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as acute conditions like stroke and traumatic brain injury, for which there remains significant unmet clinical need. It is now well recognized that current cell culture methodologies are limited in their ability to recapitulate the cellular environment that is present in vivo, and there is a growing body of evidence to show that three-dimensional (3D) culture systems represent a more physiologically accurate model than traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Given the complexity of the environment from which cells originate, and their various cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, it is important to develop models that can be controlled and reproducible for drug discovery. 3D cell models have now been developed for almost all CNS cell types, including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocyte cells. This review will highlight a number of current and emerging techniques for the culture of astrocytes and microglia, glial cell types with a critical role in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions. We describe recent advances in glial cell culture using electrospun polymers and hydrogel macromolecules, and highlight how these novel culture environments influence astrocyte and microglial phenotypes in vitro, as compared to traditional 2D systems. These models will be explored to illuminate current trends in the techniques used to create 3D environments for application in research and drug discovery focused on astrocytes and microglial cells.

  19. US Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory Annual Progress Report for FY 84. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    F.M. Wellings, D. Bernard, J.S. Glass, C.J. Hurst, D.A. Brashear, C.A. Sorber, R.E. Moore, C. Ritter, P.H. Gibbs and S.R. Farrah. " Round Robin ...purchases of special purpose items created a one-time surge in expenditures with the FY85 program moderating to a normal growth pattern. High priority ...These are not cited in any particular priority ; however, collectively, they demonstrate an official attitude toward the long range and away from the

  20. Bibliography of Research Reports and Publications Issued by the Biodynamics and Bioengineering Division, 1944-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Report 65-133, (AD 670161) L-62 R.E. Van Patten, R. Gaudio, "Application of the Ranque Hilsch Vortex Tube to Air Crew Cooling Problems", June 1968...Patten, R. Gaudio, " Vortex Tube as a Thermal Protective Device", Aerospace Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 3, March 1969 Section L- Page 158 Miscellaneous L-68 G.C...at Hill Air Force Base" WADC Technical Note 56-58, August 1956, (AD 110645) B-29 K.W. Goff, D.M.A. Mercer, "Probe Tube Microphone for Use in High

  1. Bioengineered Magnetoferritin Nanoprobes for Single-Dose Nuclear-Magnetic Resonance Tumor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhao; Liang, Minmin; Li, Xiao; Fan, Kelong; Xiao, Jie; Li, Yanli; Shi, Hongcheng; Wang, Fei; Choi, Hak Soo; Cheng, Dengfeng; Yan, Xiyun

    2016-04-26

    Despite all the advances in multimodal imaging, it remains a significant challenge to acquire both magnetic resonance and nuclear imaging in a single dose because of the enormous difference in sensitivity. Indeed, nuclear imaging is almost 10(6)-fold more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); thus, repeated injections are generally required to obtain sufficient MR signals after nuclear imaging. Here, we show that strategically engineered magnetoferritin nanoprobes can image tumors with high sensitivity and specificity using SPECT and MRI in living mice after a single intravenous injection. The magnetoferritin nanoprobes composed of (125)I radionuclide-conjugated human H-ferritin iron nanocages ((125)I-M-HFn) internalize robustly into cancer cells via a novel tumor-specific HFn-TfR1 pathway. In particular, the endocytic recycling characteristic of TfR1 transporters solves the nuclear signal blocking issue caused by the high dose nanoprobes injected for MRI, thus enabling simultaneous functional and morphological tumor imaging without reliance on multi-injections.

  2. A System for Discovering Bioengineered Threats by Knowledge Base Driven Mining of Toxin Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    squerice for which you can hoO a homolog, (or) uploadi a fie of sequence(s): Choose D ta bIoFED No. of tere tigsj_ E.....U.Cut-off l Figure 4: Homology...Wireframe, Sticks etc. There are also options to rotate the toxin structure, change colors, and more. 3.4. Update interface The update interface lets the

  3. Strategies for bioengineered scaffolds that support adipose stem cells in regenerative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Tracy N; Luna, Gabriel; Fisher, Steven K; Clegg, Dennis O

    2016-09-01

    Regenerative medicine possesses the potential to ameliorate damage to tissue that results from a vast range of conditions, including traumatic injury, tumor resection and inherited tissue defects. Adult stem cells, while more limited in their potential than pluripotent stem cells, are still capable of differentiating into numerous lineages and provide feasible allogeneic and autologous treatment options for many conditions. Adipose stem cells are one of the most abundant types of stem cell in the adult human. Here, we review recent advances in the development of synthetic scaffolding systems used in concert with adipose stem cells and assess their potential use for clinical applications.

  4. Surface bioengineering of diatomite based nanovectors for efficient intracellular uptake and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Monica; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Correia, Alexandra; Rea, Ilaria; Lamberti, Annalisa; de Stefano, Luca; Santos, Hélder A.

    2015-11-01

    Diatomite is a natural porous silica material of sedimentary origin. Due to its peculiar properties, it can be considered as a valid surrogate of synthetic porous silica for nano-based drug delivery. In this work, we exploit the potential of diatomite nanoparticles (DNPs) for drug delivery with the aim of developing a successful dual-biofunctionalization method by polyethylene glycol (PEG) coverage and cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) bioconjugation, to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of the particles, to enhance the intracellular uptake in cancer cells, and to increase the biocompatibility of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT) modified-DNPs. DNPs-APT-PEG-CPP showed hemocompatibility for up to 200 μg mL-1 after 48 h of incubation with erythrocytes, with a hemolysis value of only 1.3%. The cytotoxicity of the modified-DNPs with a concentration up to 200 μg mL-1 and incubation with MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 24 h, demonstrated that PEGylation and CPP-bioconjugation can strongly reduce the cytotoxicity of DNPs-APT. The cellular uptake of the modified-DNPs was also evaluated using the above mentioned cancer cell lines, showing that the CPP-bioconjugation can considerably increase the DNP cellular uptake. Moreover, the dual surface modification of DNPs improved both the loading of a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug, sorafenib, with a loading degree up to 22 wt%, and also enhanced the drug release profiles in aqueous solutions. Overall, this work demonstrates that the biofunctionalization of DNPs is a promising platform for drug delivery applications in cancer therapy as a result of its enhanced stability, biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and drug release profiles.Diatomite is a natural porous silica material of sedimentary origin. Due to its peculiar properties, it can be considered as a valid surrogate of synthetic porous silica for nano-based drug delivery. In this work, we exploit the potential of diatomite nanoparticles (DNPs) for drug delivery with the aim of developing a successful dual-biofunctionalization method by polyethylene glycol (PEG) coverage and cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) bioconjugation, to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of the particles, to enhance the intracellular uptake in cancer cells, and to increase the biocompatibility of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT) modified-DNPs. DNPs-APT-PEG-CPP showed hemocompatibility for up to 200 μg mL-1 after 48 h of incubation with erythrocytes, with a hemolysis value of only 1.3%. The cytotoxicity of the modified-DNPs with a concentration up to 200 μg mL-1 and incubation with MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 24 h, demonstrated that PEGylation and CPP-bioconjugation can strongly reduce the cytotoxicity of DNPs-APT. The cellular uptake of the modified-DNPs was also evaluated using the above mentioned cancer cell lines, showing that the CPP-bioconjugation can considerably increase the DNP cellular uptake. Moreover, the dual surface modification of DNPs improved both the loading of a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug, sorafenib, with a loading degree up to 22 wt%, and also enhanced the drug release profiles in aqueous solutions. Overall, this work demonstrates that the biofunctionalization of DNPs is a promising platform for drug delivery applications in cancer therapy as a result of its enhanced stability, biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and drug release profiles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05173h

  5. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA) project: a novel bioengineering goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Baldoli, Ilaria; Bellanti, Lisa; Gentile, Marzia; Cecchi, Francesca; Sigali, Emilio; Tognarelli, Selene; Ghirri, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuttano, Armando; Boldrini, Antonio; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1) a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2) the prototyping phase; and (3) the on-field system validation. PMID:23966804

  6. Introducing a new bioengineered bug: Methylobacterium extorquens tuned as a microbial bioplastic factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Philipp; Vermette, Patrick; Groleau, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on and use of methanol as chemical feedstock and as alternative fuel has gained momentum during the past years. Consequently, microorganism and product design based on ''methylotrophism'' is in vogue as reflected by increasing research and development activities in methanol-related areas. A recent example of microorganism and product development is the use of recombinant Methylobacterium extorquens ATCC 55366 strains in the production of second generation biopolyesters. Feeding n-alkenoic acids in addition to methanol yielded functionalized polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and uncovered how M. extorquens copes with fatty acids. While some parts of the degradation pathway remain unclear, possible metabolic routes are suggested that may explain the significant loss of double bonds prior to polymerization of PHA precursors and occurrence of odd-numbered monomers derived from even-numbered n-alkenoic acids. In addition, microbial discoloration upon fatty acid feeding is discussed and future directions for further genetic modification of M. extorquens are provided. 

  7. The effects of mycoplasma contamination upon the ability to form bioengineered 3D kidney cysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M DesRochers

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures is a pervasive, often undiagnosed and ignored problem in many laboratories that can result in reduced cell proliferation and changes in gene expression. Unless contamination is specifically suspected, it is often undetected in two dimensional (2D cultures and the resulting effects of mycoplasma contamination are rarely appreciated and can lead to incorrect conclusions. Three dimensional (3D tissue cultures are increasingly utilized to explore tissue development and phenotype. However, 3D cultures are more complex than 2D cell cultures and require a more controlled cellular environment in order to generate structures necessary to mimic in vivo responses and are often maintained for longer time periods. Changes to the microenvironment are assumed to have a more extreme effect upon the success of 3D tissue cultures than 2D cell cultures, but the effects of mycoplasma have not been studied. To test this hypothesis, we grew 2D cell cultures and 3D tissues from pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 that were contaminated with mycoplasma and the same stock of cells after mycoplasma removal. We did not observe an effect of mycoplasma contamination on proliferation in 2D monolayer cell culture. However, cyst formation in 3D tissues was altered, with effects upon the number, size and structure of cysts formed. These data serve to reinforce the necessity of testing cell stocks for mycoplasma contamination.

  8. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity.

  9. Concise review: tailoring bioengineered scaffolds for stem cell applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Steffen; Otte, Ellen A; Hezaveh, Hadi; Cooper-White, Justin J

    2015-02-01

    The potential for the clinical application of stem cells in tissue regeneration is clearly significant. However, this potential has remained largely unrealized owing to the persistent challenges in reproducibly, with tight quality criteria, and expanding and controlling the fate of stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Tissue engineering approaches that rely on reformatting traditional Food and Drug Administration-approved biomedical polymers from fixation devices to porous scaffolds have been shown to lack the complexity required for in vitro stem cell culture models or translation to in vivo applications with high efficacy. This realization has spurred the development of advanced mimetic biomaterials and scaffolds to increasingly enhance our ability to control the cellular microenvironment and, consequently, stem cell fate. New insights into the biology of stem cells are expected to eventuate from these advances in material science, in particular, from synthetic hydrogels that display physicochemical properties reminiscent of the natural cell microenvironment and that can be engineered to display or encode essential biological cues. Merging these advanced biomaterials with high-throughput methods to systematically, and in an unbiased manner, probe the role of scaffold biophysical and biochemical elements on stem cell fate will permit the identification of novel key stem cell behavioral effectors, allow improved in vitro replication of requisite in vivo niche functions, and, ultimately, have a profound impact on our understanding of stem cell biology and unlock their clinical potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Constructal approach to bio-engineering: the ocular anterior chamber temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Dolcino, Daniela; Astori, Maria Rosa; Massa, Eugenio; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the pressure inside the eyes anterior chamber, namedintraocular pressure (IOP), in relation to the biomechanical properties of corneas. The approach used was based on the constructal law, recently introduced in vision analysis. Results were expressed as the relation between the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber and the biomechanical properties of the cornea. The IOP, the elastic properties of the cornea, and the related refractive properties of the eye were demonstrated to be dependent on the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber. These results could lead to new perspectives for experimental analysis of the IOP in relation to the properties of the cornea.

  11. Bioengineering Evaluation of Retrofitted Oxygen Supplementation in Surface Water Project ; Final Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.D.

    2000-06-01

    The Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Project was designed to answer one major question concerning the decreasing salmon runs in the Columbia Basin: Can available technology be used to increase runs of chinook salmon in the Columbia basin in existing hatcheries. It was recognized that the restoration of salmon runs would require both hatchery supplementation and protection of wild salmon habitat. The large financial outlay required for construction of new hatcheries makes this choice undesirable. If the production of existing hatcheries could be augmented by the use of increased densities with oxygen supplementation, this would be the preferred procedure. Willamette Hatchery was chosen for conducting the experimental releases of chinook salmon reared at high densities with oxygen supplementation for several reasons: (1) It was located far upstream, simulating the long migration distances required for Columbia River salmon; (2) Salmon were not required to navigate through a series of dams, which might make the returns less interpretable; (3) Willamette Hatchery had excellent returns, nearly 2% survival, in the years previous to the experiment; (4) Willamette Hatchery had a history of low disease incidence; (5) Willamette Hatchery had a manager and crew interested in the experiment. In 1999, the last of the adult salmon from the experiment returned to the hatchery. From analyses of these returns, a number of conclusions were reached: (1) Numbers of fish surviving to adulthood increased with increased rearing densities and oxygen supplementation; (2) Percent yield, a measure of the efficiency of rearing, decreased with increased rearing density; (3) Baffled raceways were very poor for raising spring chinook salmon; (4) Oxygen supplementation seemed to increase production, even in the lower densities; (5) The most cost-effective method of rearing spring chinook salmon was rearing at high densities with oxygen supplementation.

  12. Effects of Three Anesthetic Regimens on Bioengineering Methods Conducted on Ventral Abdominal Skin of Weanling Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Inc. of Prospect, OH. The SPF swine were proven free of pseudorabies, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome , transmissible gastroenteritis...testing began for each animal. Thereafter, electric clippers were used to gently remove regrowth, as needed. Following induction of anesthesia, animals

  13. Bioengineered silk scaffolds in 3D tissue modeling with focus on mammary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghdouri-White, Yas; Bowlin, Gary L; Lemmon, Christopher A; Dréau, Didier

    2016-02-01

    In vitro generation of three-dimensional (3D) biological tissues and organ-like structures is a promising strategy to study and closely model complex aspects of the molecular, cellular, and physiological interactions of tissue. In particular, in vitro 3D tissue modeling holds promises to further our understanding of breast development. Indeed, biologically relevant 3D structures that combine mammary cells and engineered matrices have improved our knowledge of mammary tissue growth, organization, and differentiation. Several polymeric biomaterials have been used as scaffolds to engineer 3D mammary tissues. Among those, silk fibroin-based biomaterials have many biologically relevant properties and have been successfully used in multiple medical applications. Here, we review the recent advances in engineered scaffolds with an emphasis on breast-like tissue generation and the benefits of modified silk-based scaffolds.

  14. Mechanistic and structural basis of bioengineered bovine Cathelicidin-5 with optimized therapeutic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Bikash R.; Maruyama, Kenta; Edula, Jyotheeswara R.; Tougan, Takahiro; Lin, Yuxi; Lee, Young-Ho; Horii, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2017-03-01

    Peptide-drug discovery using host-defense peptides becomes promising against antibiotic-resistant pathogens and cancer cells. Here, we customized the therapeutic activity of bovine cathelicidin-5 targeting to bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells. The membrane dependent conformational adaptability and plasticity of cathelicidin-5 is revealed by biophysical analysis and atomistic simulations over 200 μs in thymocytes, leukemia, and E. coli cell-membranes. Our understanding of energy-dependent cathelicidin-5 intrusion in heterogeneous membranes aided in designing novel loss/gain-of-function analogues. In vitro findings identified leucine-zipper to phenylalanine substitution in cathelicidin-5 (1–18) significantly enhance the antimicrobial and anticancer activity with trivial hemolytic activity. Targeted mutants of cathelicidin-5 at kink region and N-terminal truncation revealed loss-of-function. We ensured the existence of a bimodal mechanism of peptide action (membranolytic and non-membranolytic) in vitro. The melanoma mouse model in vivo study further supports the in vitro findings. This is the first structural report on cathelicidin-5 and our findings revealed potent therapeutic application of designed cathelicidin-5 analogues.

  15. Perfusion-Decellularization of Porcine Lung and Trachea for Respiratory Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Alexander; Patil, Nikhil Prakash; Sabashnikov, Anton; Korkmaz, Sevil; Li, Shiliang; Soos, Pal; Ishtok, Roland; Chaimow, Nicole; Pätzold, Ines; Czerny, Natalie; Schmack, Bastian; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Karck, Matthias; Szabo, Gabor

    2015-12-01

    Decellularization of native organs may provide an acellular tissue platform for organ regeneration. However, decellularization involves a trade-off between removal of immunogenic cellular elements and preservation of biomechanical integrity. We sought to develop a bioartificial scaffold for respiratory tissue engineering by decellularization of porcine lungs and trachea while preserving organ architecture and vasculature. Lung-trachea preparations from 25 German Landrace pigs were perfused in a modified Langendorff circuit and decellularized by an SDC (sodium deoxycholate)-based perfusion protocol. Decellularization was evaluated by histology and fluorescence microscopy, and residual DNA quantified spectrophotometrically and compared with controls. Airway compliance was evaluated by endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to simulate physiological breathing-induced stretch. Structural integrity was evaluated by bronchoscopy and biomechanical stress/strain analysis by measuring passive tensile strength, all compared with controls. Decellularized lungs and trachea lacked intracellular components but retained specific collagen fibers and elastin. Quantitative DNA analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of DNA compared with controls (32.8 ± 12.4 μg DNA/mg tissue vs. 179.7 ± 35.8 μg DNA/mg tissue, P < 0.05). Lungs and trachea decellularized by our perfusion protocol demonstrated increased airway compliance but preserved biomechanical integrity as compared with native tissue. Whole porcine lungs-tracheae can be successfully decellularized to create an acellular scaffold that preserves extracellular matrix and retains structral integrity and three-dimensional architecture to provide a bioartifical platform for respiratory tissue engineering.

  16. American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering-Military Collaboration: Bioengineering Challenges of Brain Trauma Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    modalities that you can do this, and I want to start out here with the topography that is an example that my colleague, Professor Franceschini at Tufts...papilledema and things like that. So there are some nice interesting things, but you have to have corneal contact. So what are the limitations of this...technology? Well, you have to have corneal contact, and that introduces some danger, especially in semiconscious patients who may be moving or having

  17. Bioengineering Study of Basic Physical Measurements Related to Susceptibility to Cervical Hyperextension-Hyperflexion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    tenderness, ligamental damage, muscle spasm, occipital headaches, retropharyngeal hematoma, dysphagia , and cervical spine fracture. Other injuries...Collision." JSAE Bull., pp. 150-166, 1971. Gadd, C.W., A.M. Nahum and C.C. Culver, "A Study of Responses and Tolerances of the Neck." Proposed Paper...Analysis of Daisy Track Human Tolerance Tests. Final Report. HSRI Report No. BI0-M-71-1, DOT FH-11-6962, 1971. McKenzie, J.A., and J.F. Williams, "The

  18. Feasibility for Application of Soil Bioengineering Techniques to Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    essentially act as an attached- growth bioreactor under a first order plug flow kinetics model ( Eckenfelder , 1966), dependence of removal efficiency on...34standard" design equation for this type of system, and is typical of attached-growth theory ( Eckenfelder , 1966). C ex CfKA-+1DA’ jcK m’ ° (1) CO Q...subsequent model developmen., by Martel (1982) and Smith and Schroeder (1985), closely resemble the Eckenfelder model and focus on the effect of travel

  19. Bioengineering of bacteria to assemble custom-made polyester affinity resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Iain D; Du, Jinping; Burr, Natalie; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2015-01-01

    Proof of concept for the in vivo bacterial production of a polyester resin displaying various customizable affinity protein binding domains is provided. This was achieved by engineering various protein binding domains into a bacterial polyester-synthesizing enzyme. Affinity binding domains based on various structural folds and derived from molecular libraries were used to demonstrate the potential of this technique. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins), engineered OB-fold domains (OBodies), and VHH domains from camelid antibodies (nanobodies) were employed. The respective resins were produced in a single bacterial fermentation step, and a simple purification protocol was developed. Purified resins were suitable for most lab-scale affinity chromatography purposes. All of the affinity domains tested produced polyester beads with specific affinity for the target protein. The binding capacity of these affinity resins ranged from 90 to 600 nmol of protein per wet gram of polyester affinity resin, enabling purification of a recombinant protein target from a complex bacterial cell lysate up to a purity level of 96% in one step. The polyester resin was efficiently produced by conventional lab-scale shake flask fermentation, resulting in bacteria accumulating up to 55% of their cellular dry weight as polyester. A further proof of concept demonstrating the practicality of this technique was obtained through the intracellular coproduction of a specific affinity resin and its target. This enables in vivo binding and purification of the coproduced "target protein." Overall, this study provides evidence for the use of molecular engineering of polyester synthases toward the microbial production of specific bioseparation resins implementing previously selected binding domains.

  20. US Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory Annual Progress Report FY1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE TEST TICKET EN,’YME INHI8ITION WILL BE DETERMINED. P, IGRE ’. fUL L107 -O9 DURING FY8I SEP PAK C SUB 18 CARTRIDGES WERE SHOWN TO...AND CULEX IQU 7 NOjlAC ri’ r. 1 . - A A,, -. PERIMENIAL HOST IN UHICH TO r’pI-MINE: Oj MLS L 17 El-F r ,:-Q’_ ’ I- IS ST,3RAG[ PROjPEPTIES AND ITS...MICROBIAL CONTROL POTENTIAL OF A HELICOS*ORIDIUM SP. FOR AEDES AEGYPTI AND CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS AND OBSERVATIONS ON THE VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF A NEW

  1. Bioengineering Aspects of Inorganic Carbon Supply to Mass Algal Cultures: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J. C.

    1981-04-01

    Regardless of the application, the basic biotechnology of large-scale outdoor cultures involves many common features, particularly in the requirement for adequate nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to ensure that light is the sole limiting yield determinant. Whereas the required quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus are fairly simple, to estimate, those for inorganic carbon are far more complex.

  2. An Interactive Teaching System for Bond Graph Modeling and Simulation in Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monica; Popescu, Dorin; Selisteanu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to implement a teaching system useful in modeling and simulation of biotechnological processes. The interactive system is based on applications developed using 20-sim modeling and simulation software environment. A procedure for the simulation of bioprocesses modeled by bond graphs is proposed and simulators…

  3. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA project: a novel bioengineering goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaramuzzo RT

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosa T Scaramuzzo,1,2 Massimiliano Ciantelli,1 Ilaria Baldoli,3 Lisa Bellanti,3 Marzia Gentile,1 Francesca Cecchi,3 Emilio Sigali,1 Selene Tognarelli,3 Paolo Ghirri,1–4 Stefano Mazzoleni,3 Arianna Menciassi,3 Armando Cuttano,1 Antonio Boldrini,1–4 Cecilia Laschi,3 Paolo Dario3 1Centro di Formazione e Simulazione Neonatale "NINA," UO Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy; 2Istituto di Scienze della Vita, 3The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy; 4Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1 a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2 the prototyping phase; and (3 the on-field system validation. Keywords: simulation, lung, newborn, continuous medical education, respiratory system

  4. Bionics and Biocybernetics Bibliography, Biodynamics and Bioengineering Division 1959-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    W.S. McCulloch , W.H. Pitts , "A Theory of Passive Ion Flux Through Axon Membranes", Nature, Vol. 202, pp 1138-1139, 1964 4-. M-67 W.S. McCulloch ...December 1960 M-9 W.S. McCulloch , "Symbolic Representation of the Neuron as an Unreliable Function", Principles of Self Organization, Pergamon Press...Vol. 55, pp 505-515, 1962 M-18 W.S. McCulloch , M.A. Arbib, J.D. Cowan, "Neurological Models and Integrative Processes", Self-Organizing Systems

  5. A novel autonomous, bioinspired swimming robot developed by neuroscientists and bioengineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, C; Orofino, S; Manfredi, L; Mintchev, S; Marrazza, S; Assaf, T; Capantini, L; Sinibaldi, E; Grillner, S; Wallén, P; Dario, P

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a new biorobotic platform inspired by the lamprey. Design, fabrication and implemented control are all based on biomechanical and neuroscientific findings on this eel-like fish. The lamprey model has been extensively studied and characterized in recent years because it possesses all basic functions and control mechanisms of higher vertebrates, while at the same time having fewer neurons and simplified neural structures. The untethered robot has a flexible body driven by compliant actuators with proprioceptive feedback. It also has binocular vision for vision-based navigation. The platform has been successfully and extensively experimentally tested in aquatic environments, has high energy efficiency and is ready to be used as investigation tool for high level motor tasks.

  6. Application of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Routine in Optimizing Food and Bioengineering Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; McCulloch, Richard

    2016-11-09

    Optimization is a crucial step in the analysis of experimental results. Deterministic methods only converge on local optimums and require exponentially more time as dimensionality increases. Stochastic algorithms are capable of efficiently searching the domain space; however convergence is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the novelty of the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which combines both stochastic and deterministic routines for improved optimization results. The new hybrid genetic algorithm developed is applied to the Ackley benchmark function as well as case studies in food, biofuel, and biotechnology processes. For each case study, the hybrid genetic algorithm found a better optimum candidate than reported by the sources. In the case of food processing, the hybrid genetic algorithm improved the anthocyanin yield by 6.44%. Optimization of bio-oil production using HGA resulted in a 5.06% higher yield. In the enzyme production process, HGA predicted a 0.39% higher xylanase yield. Hybridization of the genetic algorithm with a deterministic algorithm resulted in an improved optimum compared to statistical methods.

  7. A Bioengineered Gene Therapy System with Potential to Heal War Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    intact and functional copy of the gene to the tissue of NBS c100l ’OF interest. Gene transfer techniques have included particle-medi- w"e’u" Plumd Piruid...Luciferase Activity Single vs. Double EP 6.OOE+06 In5.OOE±06 0 0 C. C 4.OOE+06 5D Ei W+P+EP C~x 3.OOE±06 InM O .OOE+06 Grup "Lin et al. - 25 Figure 5

  8. VEGF internalization is not required for VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in bioengineered surfaces with covalently linked VEGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sean M.; Shergill, Bhupinder; Barry, Zachary T.; Manousiouthakis, Eleana; Chen, Tom T.; Botvinick, Elliot; Platt, Manu O.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Segura, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to activate proliferation, migration, and survival pathways in endothelial cells through phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). VEGF has been incorporated into biomaterials through encapsulation, electrostatic sequestration, and covalent attachment, but the effect of these immobilization strategies on VEGF signaling has not been thoroughly investigated. Further, although growth factor internalization along with the receptor generally occurs in a physiological setting, whether this internalization is needed for receptor phosphorylation is not entirely clear. Here we show that VEGF covalently bound through a modified heparin molecule elicits an extended response of pVEGFR-2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that the covalent linkage reduces internalization of the growth factor during receptor endocytosis. Optical tweezer measurements show that the rupture force required to disrupt the heparin-VEGF-VEGFR-2 interaction increases from 3–8 pN to 6–12 pN when a covalent bond is introduced between VEGF and heparin. Importantly, by covalently binding VEGF to a heparin substrate, the stability (half-life) of VEGF is extended over three-fold. Here, mathematical models support the biological conclusions, further suggesting that VEGF internalization is significantly reduced when covalently bound, and indicating that VEGF is available for repeated phosphorylation events. PMID:21826315

  9. Verification of cell viability in bioengineered tissues and organs before clinical transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungebluth, Philipp; Haag, Johannes C; Lim, Mei L; Lemon, Greg; Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Ylva; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Gilevich, Irina; Simonson, Oscar E; Grinnemo, Karl H; Corbascio, Matthias; Baiguera, Silvia; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Strömblad, Staffan; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    The clinical outcome of transplantations of bioartificial tissues and organs depends on the presence of living cells. There are still no standard operative protocols that are simple, fast and reliable for confirming the presence of viable cells on bioartificial scaffolds prior to transplantation. By using mathematical modeling, we have developed a colorimetric-based system (colorimetric scale bar) to predict the cell viability and density for sufficient surface coverage. First, we refined a method which can provide information about cell viability and numbers in an in vitro setting: i) immunohistological staining by Phalloidin/DAPI and ii) a modified colorimetric cell viability assay. These laboratory-based methods and the developed colorimetric-based system were then validated in rat transplantation studies of unseeded and seeded tracheal grafts. This was done to provide critical information on whether the graft would be suitable for transplantation or if additional cell seeding was necessary. The potential clinical impact of the colorimetric scale bar was confirmed using patient samples. In conclusion, we have developed a robust, fast and reproducible colorimetric tool that can verify and warrant viability and integrity of an engineered tissue/organ prior to transplantation. This should facilitate a successful transplantation outcome and ensure patient safety.

  10. Bioengineering of Solution Processed Graphene for the Development of Ultrasensitive Flexible Biosensing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Hemanth, Suhith; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2016-01-01

    Development of low-cost, flexible and ultrasensitive biosensing platforms for rapid detection of different human metabolites is of great importance for the healthcare, pharmaceuticals and biomedical diagnostics sectors. Synthesis of novel functionalized nanomaterials with high surface area is a key...... responses2. In recent years, graphene based materials have invoked a new era for developing smart hybrid material based biosensors. Graphene could offer a perfect solution as an ideal signal transducer for the development of low-cost bioelectronics devices3....

  11. Computer-Aided Design and Bio-Engineering: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    describing the various motions and linkages of the limbs and torso. Further, the model had to be useful while still incomplete, in other words the...using a He-Ne laser scanner. These images had a range resolution of approximately 0.25 mm. The range data was stored in a 14-bit word which contained...1985. Sam•son P.D., "Dental Arch Shape: A Statistical Analysis Using Comic Sections", Am. J. Orthod ., May, 79 (5), 535-548, 1981. Siege& A.I., "Computer

  12. Bones and oil reservoirs : bioengineers use oilpatch technology to study fluid flow in bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    2003-06-01

    The fact that porosity and the presence of channels are qualities that are common to oil reservoirs and bones, led to the use of reservoir modelling technology in investigating bone disorders and to the discovery of dramatic changes in the structure and blood supply of osteoarthritic bones that lie under degenerating cartilage. CMG (Computer Modelling Group) Ltd., developers of reservoir simulation software claim that their software packages can help with the modelling of cellular responses to strains and deformations that occur as fluid flows through bone after a traumatic event such as a tear in the anterior cruciate ligament, a common sports-related injury. Researchers at the University of Calgary expect that by looking at the changes in blood and fluid flow within the bone, they can attain a better understanding of the chain of events that leads to osteoarthritis. Better understanding of the progression of the disease could eventually lead to more precise administration of drugs to deal with osteoarthritic pain, and even to the prevention of painful arthritic joints.

  13. U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory Annual Progress Report FY 1985. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    natural gas and open air detonation. The experimentally developed lithium thionyl chloride batteries by ERADCOM were tested for determination of health...Norwegian heater system are promising. The system is charcoal fueled and uses a battery powered fan to circulate warm air through a mattress and... battery operated, ultrasonic aerosol nozzle for ultra-low volume (ULV) pesticide dispersal are being conducted. Military Disease Hazards Branch

  14. Reverse Thermal Gel for In Utero Coverage of Spina Bifida Defects: An Innovative Bioengineering Alternative to Open Fetal Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Ahmed I; Williams, Sarah M; Bardill, James R; Gralla, Jane; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M; Park, Daewon

    2017-01-30

    Current state-of-the-art management of open spina bifida defects entails an open fetal surgery approach associated with significant morbidities. In an attempt to reduce these risks and provide for an earlier minimally invasive repair, it is aimed to develop and characterize an innovative alternative using a unique reverse thermal gel. This study focuses on characterization of the physical and biological properties of the polymer and its in vivo applicability. Based on the knowledge and benchmarking, the "ideal" biomaterial should have the following characteristics: stability in amniotic fluid, limited permeability, biocompatibility, biologically functional, nontoxic, ability to support cellular functions, and in vivo applicability. The results demonstrate that the polymer possesses a unique ultrastructure, is stable in amniotic fluid, possesses limited yet predictable permeability, biocompatible with cells exposed in neural tube defects, is nontoxic, and can support cellular migration. These characteristics make it a potential novel alternative to open fetal repairs.

  15. Bioengineering Multifunctional Quantum Dot-Polypeptide Assemblies and Immunoconjugates for the Ablation of Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER Srivatsan Kidambi, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: srivatsan.kidambi@gmail.com 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag Gm[39] J. Silver, W. Ou, Nano Lett. 2005, 5, 1445–1449. [40] O. Harush-Frenkel, E. Rozentur, S. Benita, Y. Altschuler, Bioma

  16. Vanillin-bioconversion and bioengineering of the most popular plant flavor and its de novo biosynthesis in the vanilla orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, biotechnology-derived production of flavors and fragrances has expanded rapidly. The world's most popular flavor, vanillin, is no exception. This review outlines the current state of biotechnology-based vanillin synthesis with the use of ferulic acid, eugenol, and glucose as substrates and bacteria, fungi, and yeasts as microbial production hosts. The de novo biosynthetic pathway of vanillin in the vanilla orchid and the possible applied uses of this new knowledge in the biotechnology-derived and pod-based vanillin industries are also highlighted.

  17. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  18. Nanoparticle-Based and Bioengineered Probes and Sensors to Detect Physiological and Pathological Biomarkers in Neural Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysinger, Dusica; Ji, Jeff; Hutter, Eliza; Cooper, Elis

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology, a rapidly evolving field, provides simple and practical tools to investigate the nervous system in health and disease. Among these tools are nanoparticle-based probes and sensors that detect biochemical and physiological properties of neurons and glia, and generate signals proportionate to physical, chemical, and/or electrical changes in these cells. In this context, quantum dots (QDs), carbon-based structures (C-dots, grapheme, and nanodiamonds) and gold nanoparticles are the most commonly used nanostructures. They can detect and measure enzymatic activities of proteases (metalloproteinases, caspases), ions, metabolites, and other biomolecules under physiological or pathological conditions in neural cells. Here, we provide some examples of nanoparticle-based and genetically engineered probes and sensors that are used to reveal changes in protease activities and calcium ion concentrations. Although significant progress in developing these tools has been made for probing neural cells, several challenges remain. We review many common hurdles in sensor development, while highlighting certain advances. In the end, we propose some future directions and ideas for developing practical tools for neural cell investigations, based on the maxim "Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so" (Galileo Galilei).

  19. Nanoparticle-based and bioengineered probes and sensors to detect physiological and pathological biomarkers in neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica eMaysinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, a rapidly evolving field, provides simple and practical tools to investigate the nervous system in health and disease. Among these tools are nanoparticle-based probes and sensors that detect biochemical and physiological properties of neurons and glia, and generate signals proportionate to physical, chemical, and/or electrical changes in these cells. In this context, quantum dots (QDs, carbon-based structures (C-dots, graphene and nanodiamonds and gold nanoparticles are the most commonly used nanostructures. They can detect and measure enzymatic activities of proteases (metalloproteinases, caspases, ions, metabolites, and other biomolecules under physiological or pathological conditions in neural cells. Here, we provide some examples of nanoparticle-based and genetically engineered probes and sensors that are used to reveal changes in protease activities and calcium ion concentrations. Although significant progress in developing these tools has been made for probing neural cells, several challenges remain. We review many common hurdles in sensor development, while highlighting certain advances. In the end, we propose some future directions and ideas for developing practical tools for neural cell investigations, based on the maxim Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so (Galileo Galilei.

  20. Bioengineering of Improved Biomaterials Coatings for Extracorporeal Circulation Requires Extended Observation of Blood-Biomaterial Interaction under Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Kris N. J.; Aldenhoff, Yvette B. J.; van der Veen, Frederik H; Maessen, Jos G.; Leo H. Koole

    2007-01-01

    Extended use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) systems is often hampered by thrombus formation and infection. Part of these problems relates to imperfect hemocompatibility of the CPB circuitry. The engineering of biomaterial surfaces with genuine long-term hemocompatibility is essentially virgin territory in biomaterials science. For example, most experiments with the well-known Chandler loop model, for evaluation of blood-biomaterial interactions under flow, have be...

  1. Measuring contact area, force, and pressure for bioengineering applications: using Fuji Film and TekScan systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachus, Kent N; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Judd, Kyle T; Horwitz, Daniel S; Brodke, Darrel S

    2006-06-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the TekScan I-Scan Pressure Measurement System with two methods of analysis involving the Fuji Film Prescale Pressure Measuring System in estimating area, force and pressure. Fuji Film and TekScan sensors were alternately placed between a cylindrical peg and a finely ground steel base plate, and compressed with known forces. All Fuji stains were digitally scanned and analyzed. The Erase method of Fuji Film analysis consisted of manually removing portions of the image judged by the user to be outside the perimeter of the stain. The second method of Fuji Film analysis, termed the Threshold method, used the threshold tool to analyze only those pixels that were stained from loading. The TekScan system utilized special matrix-based sensors interfaced with a Windows compatible desktop computer that was equipped with specialized data acquisition hardware and analysis software. The data from this study did not support the hypothesis that all three methods would have accuracies within +/-5% of a known value, when estimating area, force and pressure. Specifically, the TekScan system was found to be more accurate than either of the Fuji Film methods when estimating area and pressure.

  2. Bioengineering of plant (tri)terpenoids: from metabolic engineering of plants to synthetic biology in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Thevelein, Johan M; Goossens, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Terpenoids constitute a large and diverse class of natural products that serve many functions in nature. Most of the tens of thousands of the discovered terpenoids are synthesized by plants, where they function as primary metabolites involved in growth and development, or as secondary metabolites that optimize the interaction between the plant and its environment. Several plant terpenoids are economically important molecules that serve many applications as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, etc. Major challenges for the commercialization of plant-derived terpenoids include their low production levels in planta and the continuous demand of industry for novel molecules with new or superior biological activities. Here, we highlight several synthetic biology methods to enhance and diversify the production of plant terpenoids, with a foresight towards triterpenoid engineering, the least engineered class of bioactive terpenoids. Increased or cheaper production of valuable triterpenoids may be obtained by 'classic' metabolic engineering of plants or by heterologous production of the compounds in other plants or microbes. Novel triterpenoid structures can be generated through combinatorial biosynthesis or directed enzyme evolution approaches. In its ultimate form, synthetic biology may lead to the production of large amounts of plant triterpenoids in in vitro systems or custom-designed artificial biological systems.

  3. Monitoring tools for assessing the effectiveness and resilience of geotextile-supported soil bioengineering systems - a conceptional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, Michael; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Geotextile-supported systems are widely accepted as a convenient facility for erosion control measures. Technical auxiliaries such as geotextiles are typically used where difficult site conditions and human interventions, as a result of construction activity, require instant protection until its tasks as erosion-resistant layer can be assumed by vegetation. However, erosion control within an initial phase is directly related to restoration techniques whereas vegetation plays a major role for sustainable slope protection. To obtain desired system development over time, periodic monitoring can serve as quality assurance as well as economically viable resource. Practice shows that in-time interventions and maintenance activities have been more successful with regard to vegetation development and economic feasibility than missing supervision strategies. From the maintenance personnel perspective, monitoring tools are required to be designed for easy and valuable handling and processing. On that account specific tools for assessing the functional capacity of combined erosion control measures have been developed. One of these tools takes advantage of digital image processing for analyzing vegetation cover in a simple but effective way. Another tool serves as classification appliance based on condition data input (e.g. degree of vegetation cover, erosion damage) to gain automated reference concerning system status, resilience and presumable future development. Beside system assessment these appliances may be considered as contribution to quality improvement and sustainable ecosystem restoration and slope protection. At the conference the practical application and of these tools are demonstrated and its substantial advantages are displayed.

  4. Erosion Control and Recultivation Measures at a Headrace Channel of a Hydroelectric Power Plant using Different Combined Soil Bioengineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, M.; Florineth, F.; Rauch, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of land use change resulting in an increased number of slope protection constructions and with respect to effects associated with climate change like extremes in temperatures and temperature variations or increased frequency of heavy precipitation, adaptation strategies for sustainable erosion protection systems are needed which meet ecological compatibility and economical requirements. Therefore a wide range of different technical solutions respectively geotextiles and geotextile-related products (blankets, nettings, grids etc.) are available on the market differing considerably in function, material, durability and pricing. Manufacturers usually provide product-specific information pertaining to application field, functional range or (technical) installation features whereas vegetational aspects are frequently neglected while vegetation can contribute substantially to increased near-surface erosion protection respectively slope stability. Though, the success of sustainable erosion control is directly dependent on several vegetational aspects. Adequate development of a functional vegetation layer in combination with geotextiles is closely associated to application aspects such as seeding technique, sowing date and intensity, seed-soil contact or maintenance measures as well as to qualitative aspects like seed quality, germination rates, area of origin, production method or certification. As a general guideline, erosion control within an initial phase is directly related to restoration techniques whereas vegetation specifics with regard to species richness or species composition play a key role in medium to long-term development and slope protection. In this context one of the fundamental objectives of our study is the identification and subsequently the determination of the main interaction processes between technical and biological components of combined slope protection systems. The influence of different geotextile characteristics on specific vegetation properties are studied by setting up comparative test plots at a field study site located at a headrace channel of a hydroelectric power plant. Different vegetational parameters such as basal coverage, species richness, species composition, abundance/dominance values by using a refined Braun-Blanquet cover estimation scale were collected as well as local environmental properties. Results during the first vegetation period show distinct effects of geotextiles especially on overall vegetation coverage and grasses-herbs-ratio. Geotextile supported plots show 20% higher overall coverage but lower amount of herbs after three months of vegetation growth compared to control plots without installation of auxiliary materials. Furthermore coir blankets reveal higher penetration resistance for seed leaves of herbal plants compared to coir nettings. Hence technical erosion protection products, biological components and it's combination have to be closely coordinated in order to achieve specified revegetation objectives and meet long-term functionality.

  5. Structural Analysis and Bioengineering of Thermostable Pyrococcus furiosus Prolidase for the Optimization of Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS prolidase, organophosphate , OP nerve agent, thermostable enzyme, Pyrococcus furiosus...Singh, 2009). Annually, there are an estimated 3 million poisonings and 300,000 human deaths owing to OP compounds (Singh, 2009). There is a need... organophosphate anhydrolase/prolidase. Biochemistry, 49, 547-59. Wang, Q., Sun, M., Zhang, H. & Huang, C. 1998. Purification and properties of soman

  6. Bioengineering Multifunctional Quantum Dot-Polypeptide Assemblies and Immunoconjugates for the Ablation of Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    urgency for the discovery of site-specific therapeutics for residual disease and metastasis in advanced prostate cancer. PROSTATE-SPECIFIC MEMBRANE...Chromek, M., et al., The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection. Nat. Med., 2006. 12(6): p. 636...cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection. Nat Med 2006;12:636–41. 22. Berezin V, Bock E. NCAM mimetic peptides: Phar

  7. Vanillin - Bioconversion and Bioengineering of the most popular plant flavour and its de novo biosynthesis in the vanilla orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Moeller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-09-30

    During recent years, biotechnology derived production of flavours and fragrances have expanded rapidly. The world's most popular flavour vanillin is no exception. This review outlines the current state of biotechnology-based vanillin synthesis with the use of ferulic acid, eugenol and glucose as substrates and bacteria, fungi and yeasts as microbial production hosts. The elucidated de novo biosynthetic pathway of vanillin in the vanilla orchid and the possible applied uses of this new knowledge in the biotechnology derived and pod-based vanillin industries are also highlighted.

  8. Bioengineering of cultured epidermis from adult epidermal stem cells using Mebio gel sutable as autologous graft material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmana K Yerneni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Closure of burn wound is the primary requirement in order to reduce morbidity and mortality that are otherwise very high due to non-availability of permanent wound covering materials. Sheets of cultured epidermis grown from autologous epidermal keratinocyte stem cells are accepted world over as one of the best wound covering materials. In a largely populated country like ours where burn casualties occur more frequently due to inadequate safety practices, there is a need for indigenous research inputs to develop such methodologies. The technique to culturing epidermal sheets in vitro involves the basic Reheinwald-Green method with our own beneficial inputs. The technique employs attenuated 3T3 cells as feeders for propagating keratinocyte stem cells that are isolated from the epidermis of an initial skin biopsy of about 5 cm2 from the patient. The cultures are then maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium strengthened with Ham's F12 formula, bovine fetal serum and various specific growth-promoting agents and factors in culture flasks under standard culture conditions. The primary cultures thus established would be serially passaged to achieve the required expansion. Our major inputs are into the establishment of (1 an efficient differential trypsinization protocol to isolate large number epidermal keratinocytes from the skin biopsy, (2 a highly specific, unique and foolproof attenuation protocol for 3T3 cells and (3 a specialized and significant decontamination protocol. The fully formed epidermal sheet as verified by immuno-histochemical and light & electron microscopic studies, is lifted on to paraffin gauze by incubating in a neutral protease. The graft is then ready to be transported to the operating theatre for autologous application. We have a capability of growing cultured epidermal sheets sufficient enough to cover 40 per cent burn wound in 28 days. The preliminary small area clinical applications undertaken so far revealed quicker healing proving the importance and usefulness of the method. With this new approach a large number of moderate to severely burned patients could be saved in several burn centers across our country with reduced hospitalization period. However, the cell based therapeutic option in burn-wound healing by the application of in vitro - cultivated sheets of epidermis from autologous epidermal keratinocyte stem cells uses no matrix. This technque is sufficient for burn wounds of 2nd & 3rd mixed degree. The burn wounds predominantly of 3rd?and 4th?mixed degree can not be healed by the thin cultured epidermis, thus requiring a cellular or cellular scaffold that more or less mimic for graft take in deeper burns. With this aim, we are presently attempting to create such a scaffold using Mebiol gel, which could support the cultured epidermis for better transfer to the wound bed. Additionally, the usefulness of Mebiol gel in growing epidermal sheets without the necessity of FBS and/or animal origin feeder cells but using human feeder cells will also be tested.

  9. Molecular Mass Characterization of Glycosaminoglycans with Different Degrees of Sulfation in Bioengineered Heparin Process by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Robert J Linhardt

    2012-01-01

    Different degrees of glycosaminoglycan sulfation result in their different charge densities. The charge density differences impact their migration behavior in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography, two of the most common methods for determining relative molecular masses of polysaccharides. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using commercially available heparin oligosaccharides as calibrants for measuring the relative molecular masses of intermedia...

  10. Structural characterization of bioengineered α-D-glucans produced by mutant glucansucrase GTF180 enzymes of lactobacillus reuteri strain 180

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, S.S. van; Kralj, S.; Eeuwema, W.; Gerwig, G.J.; Dijkhuizen, L.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Mutagenesis of specific amino acid residues of the glucansucrase (GTF180) enzyme from Lactobacillus reuteri strain 180 yielded 12 mutant enzymes that produced modified exopolysaccharides (mEPSs) from sucrose. Ethanol-precipitated and purified mEPSs were subjected to linkage analysis, Smith degradati

  11. The Role of Endothelial Cells in Myofiber Differentiation and the Vascularization and Innervation of Bioengineered Muscle Tissue in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-08

    DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin) until use. MPCs were used no later than passage 2. Human umbilical vein...Biosciences) coated six-well tissue culture plates containing DMEM ( Hyclone , Thermo Scientific, Logan, UT) supplemented with 10% horse serum , 1% penicillin...streptomycin and 0.5% chick embryo extract ( Hyclone ) at 37 C in 5% CO2 for 4e6 days. Isolated MPCs were trypsinized and grown in growth media (GM

  12. Evaluation of “Autogenous Bioengineered Injectable PRF – Tooth graft” combination (ABIT in reconstruction of maxillary alveolar ridge defects: CBCT volumetric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Nabil Melek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracted human teeth were suggested as a source for autogenous bone grafts, especially that they have similar chemical composition to bone. In order to accelerate healing of bone graft over the bony defect, numerous techniques utilizing platelet and fibrinogen concentrations have been introduced in the literature. Objectives: To evaluate clinically and radiographically the use of autogenous tooth bone graft material in combination with injectable platelet-rich fibrin for reconstruction of resorbed maxillary alveolar ridge. Patients and methods: This study was conducted in ten patients indicated for extraction of maxillary anterior or premolar teeth and having maxillary ridge deficiency. Implants were placed after a period of 3 months of bone grafting. The patients were selected from those attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University. Results: Clinically, all the patients showed uneventful healing. Radiographically, the results show 30% increase in mean bone density in the period of six months when compared to pre-operative readings. The grafted site showed an increase in the mean volume by 23.47% three months post-operative when compared to the base line measurements preoperatively. Radiographic evaluation of the alveolar ridge after 3 months of grafting showed a significant mean increase in the ridge width and height at the grafted site. Conclusion: Autogenous fresh demineralized tooth graft that is prepared at the chairside after extractions could be considered as the gold standard for socket preservation, bone augmentation in sinuses or filling bone defects, in patients having non restorable teeth indicated for extraction. The adjuvant use of injectable PRF with its high growth factor content may contribute to more favorable and predictable bone formation at the grafted site.

  13. Interview. The story of Advanced BioHealing: commercializing bioengineered tissue products. Mr Tozer speaks to Emily Culme-Seymour, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Dean

    2011-03-01

    Dean Tozer is Senior Vice President at Advanced BioHealing, Inc. (ABH), overseeing marketing, corporate development, government affairs, product development, various regulatory functions and international expansion. After completing his Bachelor of Commerce from Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Canada, Mr Tozer spent 10 years in the global pharmaceutical industry, primarily with G.D. Searle (a division of Monsanto) where he had a wide variety of roles in Global Marketing, Sales, Business Redesign, and Accounting and Finance. Mr Tozer then worked as a consultant to the biopharmaceutical industry, assisting start-up organizations in developing commercial strategies for both pharmaceutical products and biomedical devices, prior to joining ABH in March 2006 as Vice President of Marketing & Corporate Development. In addition to his leadership role at ABH, Mr Tozer currently serves as an officer and board member for the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, a Washington DC-based organization formed to advance regenerative medicine by representing and supporting the community of companies, academic research institutions, patient advocacy groups, foundations, and other organizations before the Congress, federal agencies and the general public.

  14. Identifying new lignin bioengineering targets: impact of epicatechin, quercetin glycoside, and gallate derivatives on the lignification and fermentation of maize cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoplastic targeting of secondary metabolites compatible with monolignol polymerization may provide new avenues for designing lignins that are less inhibitory toward fiber fermentation. To identify suitable monolignol substitutes, we artificially lignified maize cell walls with normal monolignols pl...

  15. Integrative analysis and expression profiling of secondary cell wall genes in C4 biofuel model Setaria italica reveals targets for lignocellulose bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehanathan eMuthamilarasan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several underutilized grasses have excellent potential for use as bioenergy feedstock due to their lignocellulosic biomass. Genomic tools have enabled identification of lignocellulose biosynthesis genes in several sequenced plants. However, the non-availability of whole genome sequence of bioenergy grasses hinders the study on bioenergy genomics and their genomics-assisted crop improvement. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.; Si is a model crop for studying systems biology of bioenergy grasses. In the present study, a systematic approach has been used for identification of gene families involved in cellulose (CesA/Csl, callose (Gsl and monolignol biosynthesis (PAL, C4H, 4CL, HCT, C3H, CCoAOMT, F5H, COMT, CCR, CAD and construction of physical map of foxtail millet. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of identified proteins showed that monolignol biosynthesis proteins were highly diverse, whereas CesA/Csl and Gsl proteins were homologous to rice and Arabidopsis. Comparative mapping of foxtail millet lignocellulose biosynthesis genes with other C4 panicoid genomes revealed maximum homology with switchgrass, followed by sorghum and maize. Expression profiling of candidate lignocellulose genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormone treatments showed their differential expression pattern, with significant higher expression of SiGsl12, SiPAL2, SiHCT1, SiF5H2 and SiCAD6 genes. Further, due to the evolutionary conservation of grass genomes, the insights gained from the present study could be extrapolated for identifying genes involved in lignocellulose biosynthesis in other biofuel species for further characterization.

  16. Application of mass and energy balance regularities in fermentation. Reprinted from Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. XX, No. 10, Pages 1595-1621 (1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, L E; Minkevich, I G; Eroshin, V K

    2000-03-20

    Material and energy balances for fermentation processes are developed based on the facts that the heat of reaction per electron transferred to oxygen for a wide variety of organic molecules, the number of available electrons per carbon atom in biomass, and the weight fraction carbon in biomass are relatively constant. Mass-energy balance equations are developed which relate the biomass energetic yield coefficient to sets of variables which may be determined experimentally. Organic substrate consumption, biomass production, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, heat evolution, and nitrogen consumption are considered as measured variables. Application of the balances using direct and indirect methods of yield coefficient estimation is illustrated using experimental results from the literature. Product formation is included in the balance equations and the effect of product formation on biomass yield estimates is examined. Application of mass-energy balances in the optimal operation of continuous single-cell protein production facilities is examined, and the variation of optimal operating conditions with changes in yield are illustrated for methanol as organic substrate.

  17. A novel bio-engineering approach to generate an eminent surface-functionalized template for selective detection of female sex pheromone of Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Parikshit; Bhagat, Deepa; Pratap, Rudra; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2016-11-01

    Plant pests exert serious effects on food production due to which the global crop yields are reduced by ~20–40 percent per year. Hence to meet the world’s food needs, loses of food due to crop pests must be reduced. Herein the silicon dioxide based MEMS devices are covalently functionalized for robust and efficient optical sensing of the female sex pheromones of the pests like Helicoverpa armigera for the first time in literature. The functionalized devices are also capable of selectively measuring the concentration of this pheromone at femtogram level which is much below the concentration of pheromone at the time of pest infestation in an agricultural field. Experiments are also performed in a confined region in the presence of male and female pests and tomato plants which directly mimics the real environmental conditions. Again the reversible use and absolutely trouble free transportation of these pheromone nanosensors heightens their potentials for commercial use. Overall, a novel and unique approach for the selective and reversible sensing of female sex pheromones of certain hazardous pests is reported herein which may be efficiently and economically carried forward from the research laboratory to the agricultural field.

  18. The efficacy of different moisturizers on barrier recovery in hairless mice evaluated by non-invasive bioengineering methods. A model to select the potentially most effective product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Halkier-Sørensen, L

    1997-01-01

    perturbation with acetone. The efficacy was evaluated by measurement of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and electrical conductance at various time intervals during barrier repair. The test products were compared with acetone-treated air-exposed controls allowed to recover otherwise normally...

  19. Determining the Depth of Injury in Bioengineered Tissue Models of Cornea and Conjunctiva for the Prediction of All Three Ocular GHS Categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zorn-Kruppa

    Full Text Available The depth of injury (DOI is a mechanistic correlate to the ocular irritation response. Attempts to quantitatively determine the DOI in alternative tests have been limited to ex vivo animal eyes by fluorescent staining for biomarkers of cell death and viability in histological cross sections. It was the purpose of this study to assess whether DOI could also be measured by means of cell viability detected by the MTT assay using 3-dimensional (3D reconstructed models of cornea and conjunctiva. The formazan-free area of metabolically inactive cells in the tissue after topical substance application is used as the visible correlate of the DOI. Areas of metabolically active or inactive cells are quantitatively analyzed on cryosection images with ImageJ software analysis tools. By incorporating the total tissue thickness, the relative MTT-DOI (rMTT-DOI was calculated. Using the rMTT-DOI and human reconstructed cornea equivalents, we developed a prediction model based on suitable viability cut-off values. We tested 25 chemicals that cover the whole range of eye irritation potential based on the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS. Principally, the MTT-DOI test method allows distinguishing between the cytotoxic effects of the different chemicals in accordance with all 3 GHS categories for eye irritation. Although the prediction model is slightly over-predictive with respect to non-irritants, it promises to be highly valuable to discriminate between severe irritants (Cat. 1, and mild to moderate irritants (Cat. 2. We also tested 3D conjunctiva models with the aim to specifically address conjunctiva-damaging substances. Using the MTT-DOI method in this model delivers comparable results as the cornea model, but does not add additional information. However, the MTT-DOI method using reconstructed cornea models already provided good predictability that was superior to the already existing established in vitro/ex vivo methods.

  20. Variability of computational fluid dynamics solutions for pressure and flow in a giant aneurysm: the ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference CFD Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, David A; Hoi, Yiemeng; Fahy, Paul; Morris, Liam; Walsh, Michael T; Aristokleous, Nicolas; Anayiotos, Andreas S; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C; Berg, Philipp; Janiga, Gábor; Bols, Joris; Segers, Patrick; Bressloff, Neil W; Cibis, Merih; Gijsen, Frank H; Cito, Salvatore; Pallarés, Jordi; Browne, Leonard D; Costelloe, Jennifer A; Lynch, Adrian G; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Fu, Wenyu; Qiao, Aike; Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F; Kalsi, Hardeep; Long, Quan; Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Finol, Ender A; Kono, Kenichi; Malek, Adel M; Lauric, Alexandra; Menon, Prahlad G; Pekkan, Kerem; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Marsden, Alison L; Oshima, Marie; Katagiri, Kengo; Peiffer, Véronique; Mohamied, Yumnah; Sherwin, Spencer J; Schaller, Jens; Goubergrits, Leonid; Usera, Gabriel; Mendina, Mariana; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Habets, Damiaan F; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Yu, Yue; Karniadakis, George E; Shaffer, Nicholas; Loth, Francis

    2013-02-01

    Stimulated by a recent controversy regarding pressure drops predicted in a giant aneurysm with a proximal stenosis, the present study sought to assess variability in the prediction of pressures and flow by a wide variety of research groups. In phase I, lumen geometry, flow rates, and fluid properties were specified, leaving each research group to choose their solver, discretization, and solution strategies. Variability was assessed by having each group interpolate their results onto a standardized mesh and centerline. For phase II, a physical model of the geometry was constructed, from which pressure and flow rates were measured. Groups repeated their simulations using a geometry reconstructed from a micro-computed tomography (CT) scan of the physical model with the measured flow rates and fluid properties. Phase I results from 25 groups demonstrated remarkable consistency in the pressure patterns, with the majority predicting peak systolic pressure drops within 8% of each other. Aneurysm sac flow patterns were more variable with only a few groups reporting peak systolic flow instabilities owing to their use of high temporal resolutions. Variability for phase II was comparable, and the median predicted pressure drops were within a few millimeters of mercury of the measured values but only after accounting for submillimeter errors in the reconstruction of the life-sized flow model from micro-CT. In summary, pressure can be predicted with consistency by CFD across a wide range of solvers and solution strategies, but this may not hold true for specific flow patterns or derived quantities. Future challenges are needed and should focus on hemodynamic quantities thought to be of clinical interest.

  1. Bio-engineering methods for the utilization and disposal of cellulytic and lignocellulytic wastes. Final report; Biotechnologische Verwertung und Entsorgung von cellulytischen und lignocellulytischen Abfaellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne; Schwarz, U.

    1997-03-06

    Topic of this report is the decontamination of wood wastes from black coal tar oils. The purified wood should be used as building material. (SR) [Deutsch] Das im Rahmen des Projektes `Biotechnologische Verwertung und Entsorgung von cellulytischen und lignocellulytischen Abfaellen` bearbeitete Feld, sah urspruenglich eine Betrachtung aller anfallenden Althoelzer vor. Nach sehr kurzer Bearbeitungszeit musste allerdings durch alle Beteiligten festgestellt werden, dass eine zu entwickelnde Verwertungsschiene nur an einem Beispiel aufgezeigt werden konnte. Die Wahl fiel dabei auf das weitgehend homogene, hoch belastete und in grossen Mengen anfallende Sortiment Altschwelle, da hier eine exemplarische Darstellung einer moeglichen Entsorgung darstellbar ist. Die an dem Projekt beteiligten Einrichtungen Institut fuer Holztechnologie Dresden (ihd), Universitaet Goettingen, Institut fuer Forstbotanik, und die TU Dresden, Institut fuer Holz- und Papiertechnik bearbeiteten dabei jeweils abgegrenzte Teilprojekte. Wesentliches Ergebnis aus den durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen zur mykologischen Dekontaminierung ist, dass eine ausreichende B Abreicherung der Schadstoffe in den teeroelimpraegnierten Hoelzern bei einer befriedigenden Raum-Zeit-Ausbeute nicht moeglich ist. Dies war der Anlass nach technisch und wirtschaftlich realisierbaren Alternativen zur mykologischen Dekontaminierung zu suchen. Dazu wurden die drei folgenden Varianten eingehender untersucht: - Dekontaminierung mit Loesungsmitteln, - hydrothermische Dekontaminierung durch einen das Holz zerfasernden Aufschlussprozess, - Dekontaminierung von Holzfasern mittels oberflaechenaktiven Substanzen. (orig./SR)

  2. 城市生活垃圾的生物工程堆肥化利用%Study on municipal domestic refuse recycled by bioengineer composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建波; 王莉; 李树人

    2009-01-01

    在建立节约型社会、发展循环经济时代,通过对城市生活垃圾3种处理方法的比较得出,以堆肥方式通过生物工程技术对城市生活垃圾进行科学合理处置,是达到城市生活垃圾无害化、资源化、减量化、规模化处理的最佳选择.

  3. Application of Vetiver Grass Technology in Bioengineering Stabilization%培地茅技术(VGT)在植生工程的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王裕文; 曾美仓

    2002-01-01

    利用快速生长、深根丛生型禾本科植物--培地茅所建立的草篱(hedgerow),在联合国所属世界银行推动下,近十余年来在全球热带及亚热带地区广泛应用于农地及工程设施的水土保持的经验累积之下,所发展出来的培地茅技术(Vetiver Grass Technology, VGT)具有施工容易,价格低廉与成效快速显著的优点.介绍培地茅植物的特性,并透过培地茅在全球应用的经验,说明培地茅技术在边坡稳固工程上的利用,包含水库边坡、集水区、灌排水设施及水路等设施以及洪泛区内构造体的保护等各类水土保持工程.并简介培地茅草篱施工的注意事项与要点.

  4. Bio-Engineering tissue and V.A.C. therapy: A new method for the treatment of extensive necrotizing infection in the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenio, Andrea; Cutrignelli, Daniela Anna; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Maggio, Giulio; Memeo, Giuseppe; De Santis, Valerio; Giudice, Giuseppe; Ressa, Cosmo Maurizio

    2016-12-06

    La prevalenza mondiale del diabete nel 2000 è stata stimata essere del 2.8% con una previsione del 4.4% nel 2030. A causa della neuropatia e dei processi ischemici che ne derivano, i pazienti diabetici sono purtroppo predisposti all’insorgenza di infezioni a carico del piede con un rischio di amputazione molto elevato. A tal proposito, un trattamento rapido ed efficace del processo necrotizzante impedirebbe complicanze maggiori e la stessa amputazione. Il nostro studio consiste in un’analisi retrospettiva condotta su 20 pazienti atta a valutare l’efficacia del sostituto dermico autologo bioingegnerizzato (Hyalograft 3D Autograft) in associazione alla V.A.C (vacuum assisted closure) Therapy per il trattamento delle ulcere diabetiche, rispetto ai metodi sinora impiegati. I pazienti selezionati, a seconda del trattamento eseguito, sono stati suddivisi in due gruppi omogenei di dieci pazienti ciascuno. Il gruppo controllo è stato trattato con il metodo standard, ovvero con debridment chirurgico e innesti cutanei autologhi, mentre il gruppo studio è stato trattato con il metodo in analisi. La raccolta dei dati ha suggerito come l’impiego combinato del sostituto dermico bioingegnerizzato e della pressione negativa determini, rispetto al gruppo controllo, un aumento della percentuale di guarigione, una riduzione del tasso di recidiva di lesioni anche estese e una maggiore ripresa della deambulazione autonoma. In conclusione, la nostra analisi ha evidenziato un metodo sicuro, affidabile e competitivo per il trattamento di ampie lesioni necrotizzanti del piede diabetico. Anche se ulteriori valutazioni sono necessarie, crediamo fortemente che l’associazione del derma bioingegnerizzato e della pressione negativa possa condurre ad una rapida ed efficace guarigione delle ulcere, migliorando la qualità della vita del paziente diabetico.

  5. 生物工程专业化工原理综合性实验一例的探索%Exploration on a Comprehensive Experiment in Principles of Chemical Engineering Course of Bioengineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡扬剑; 胡兴

    2012-01-01

    We designed a comprehensive experiment in principles of cheminstry engineering, which combined ethanol fermentation with uncooked paddy with distillation. The experiment comprises multi - step synthesis, more operations and unexpected results. It is benefits for students to inspire learning interest and to train comprehensive practice abilities and creative consciousness.%介绍了一个适合于生物工程专业的化工原理综合性实验方案的设计,实验具有跨学科综合性、实验方法的多元性和实验过程的可探索性等特点,有利于激发学生学习的主动性和学习兴趣,培养学生的创新意识和创新能力.

  6. 海藻提取物EClean生物工程技术处理富营养型地表水%Seaweed extract EClean bio-engineering technology as a treatment for eutrophic water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立刚; 任天志; 王迎春; 耿旭

    2005-01-01

    以北京动物园的地表水为例,利用引进的海藻提取物EClean生物工程技术对富营养化地表水进行处理试验研究.试验结果表明:应用此项技术有效降低了水体的浊度、COD和BOD5,水体脱氮降磷明显,藻类细胞密度下降,水体富营养化得到控制,减轻了"水华"藻类的危害.此技术在北京动物园富营养化水体的治理上表现出明显的应用效果.

  7. BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOENGINEERING ‘‘NEW APPLICATION OF LIPASES IN LIPID TRANSFORMATION’’ Enzyme-catalysed enrichment of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of salmon oil: optimisation of reaction conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid from salmon oil (Salmo salar by enzymatic hydrolysis were studied. Enzymatic aqueous extraction of oil with Neutrase® 0.5l was applied to the salmon flesh in batch reactor. Reaction kinetics were monitored under nitrogen by measuring the degree of hydrolysis (DH% using the pH-stat method, in order to preserve the functional and nutritional values of hydrolysates. Lipids were separated by centrifugation yielding 14.3% (w/w for the product, compared to 15.2% (w/w obtained using the classical method with solvent. Lipase hydrolysis by Novozym® SP 398, a specific sn-1, sn-3 enzyme, and membrane filtration, were evaluated as means of selectively concentrating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA fractions. A Doehlert matrix was used to study the effect of reaction time, flow and enzyme/protein ratio. Quadratic models were used to generate response surfaces of the liberation of fatty acids during the lipolysis and the composition of major saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the permeate.

  8. Analysis of bioengineering research and development structures and potentials in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Final report; Analyse der baden-wuerttembergischen FuE-Strukturen und Potentiale in der Biotechnologie. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckel, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Strauss, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Reiss, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    The future trends in research activities of the industry, universities and other research institutions in Baden-Wuerttemberg are established on the basis of a written inquiry. Enterprises in biotechnology were also asked about their structure, staff, cooperation projects, and infrastructure. The findings are discussed in interviews with selected biotechnology enterprises. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mittels einer schriftlichen Umfrage unter allen Biotechnologieunternehmen und Forschungsinstituten in Baden-Wuerttemberg wird eine umfassende Darstellung der zukuenftigen Trends der Forschungsaktivitaeten der Industrie, der Universitaeten und anderen Forschungseinrichtung erstellt. Die Biotechnologieunternehmen wurden ausserdem nach ihrer Struktur, Personalfragen, Kooperationsverhalten und Infrastruktur befragt. Die Ergebnisse werden in Interviews mit ausgesuchten Biotechnologieunternehmen diskutiert. (orig.)

  9. The use of dental papillae cells and millipore filter for bioengineered dentin%大鼠牙乳头细胞复合微孔滤膜形成牙本质样结构的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪伟嘉; 李玉成; 吴家媛; 倪龙兴

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察SD大鼠牙乳头细胞在复合有转化生长因子β1(transforming growth factor-β1,TGF-β1)的微孔滤膜上形成牙本质样结构的能力,为组织工程化具有一定规则形状的牙本质提供实验依据.方法 取传代培养的第二代SD大鼠牙乳头细胞消化、离心,所得细胞团与复合有TGF-β1的微孔滤膜相结合,体外培养6 d或体内移植2周,观察附合物上细胞生长和硬组织形成情况.结果 体外培养观察到靠近微孔滤膜的牙乳头细胞发生极化,呈高柱状沿滤膜排列,并有细胞突起伸人材料的多孔结构中,牙本质涎蛋白(dentin sialoprotein,DSP)与牙本质基质蛋白1(dentin matrix protein-1,DMP-1)表达阳性;体内移植2周移植物可见管状基质沿滤膜表面沉积,扫描电镜可见厚度基本一致的管状牙本质样结构,DSP、DMP-1在高柱状细胞、管状基质和邻近的牙乳头细胞中均有表达.结论 复合有TGF-β1的微孔滤膜能够有效趋化和诱导成牙本质细胞前体细胞在其表面分化,并均匀分泌基质,矿化形成结构规则的牙本质样结构.%Objective To observe the ability of SD rat dental papillae cells forming dentin-like structure induced by millipore filter combined with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Methods The first passage SD rat dental papillae cells were enzymatically dissociated and centrifuged to obtain a cell mass.The cell mass was seeded on the millipore filter combined with TGF-β1. The complex was incubated for 6 d in vitro or transplanted under the renal capsule for 2 weeks. Then the differentiation of dental papillae cells on the filter and the formation of mineral tissue on the implant were analyzed. Results A layer of polarized columnar cells were observed along the surface of the millipore filter, with cell processes extending into the porous media. Dentin sialoprotein(DSP) and dentin matrix protein-1 ( DMP-1 ) were positive in these cells.After 2 weeks, tubular dentin matrix was deposited on the surface of the aligned cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the thickness of newly formed tubular dentin was consistent. DSP and DMP-1 were expressed in columnar cells, tubular matrix and the dental papillae cells adjacent to the filter. Conclusions The millipore filter combined with TGF-β1 could effectively recruit progenitors onto its surface and induce odontoblast differentiation, secrete matrix in a homogenous manner, leading to dentinogenesis.

  10. Bio-engineering methods for the utilization and disposal of cellulytic and lignocellulytic wastes. Partial project 3: Development of methods for optimizing the decomposition of different materials including old waste by bio-engineering methods making use of different micro-organisms. Final report; Biotechnologische Verwertung und Entsorgung von cellulytischen und lignocellulytischen Abfaellen. Teilvorhaben 3: Entwicklung von Verfahren zur Optimierung des biotechnologischen Abbaus von unterschiedlichen Materialien einschliesslich Altabfaellen unter Einsatz verschiedener Mikroorganismen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, S.

    1992-12-01

    The work had the objective to try to achieve an accelerating influence on rotting processes, especially during the composting of poorly degradable cellulose and lignocellulose containing wastes such as paper, cardboard, bark, paper napkins, sawdust, etc., with the aid of enzymatic and/or microbial biological agents. The application experiments, which began on the bench scale, confirmed for all investigated substrates like cardboard/paper, napkin dust, sawdust, etc. that cellulose degradation is accelerated by the addition of enzymes. The intensity of the degradation processes depends on the pretreatment of the substrate, enzyme specificity, enzyme dosage, and the duration of hydrolysis. Very fine distribution, as in the case of sawdust or cardboard, entailed slightly more rapid degradation. Whether heavy metals have an influence could not be established. The results of the investigations document that poorly degradable compost raw materials like cardboard and paper are enzymatically prehydrolysed, or rendered soluble, by addition of biological agents. In this way the time needed for rotting is shortened. The starting material for rotting may contain up to 50 or 60 per cent of such waste fractions. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde versucht, mit Hilfe von enzymatischen und/oder mikrobiellen Biowirkstoffen, einen beschleunigenden Einfluss auf die Rotteprozesse, vor allem bei der Kompostierung von schwer abbaubaren cellulose- und lignocellulosehaltigen Abfaellen wie Papier, Pappe, Rinden, Windeln, Saegespaene etc., zu erreichen. Beginnend mit Applikationsuntersuchungen im Labormassstab, konnte bei allen untersuchten Substraten wie Pappe/Papier, Baumwolle, Windelstaub, Saegespaenen etc. ein beschleunigender Celluloseabbau infolge Enzymzusatz beobachtet werden. Die Intensitaet der Abbauvorgaenge ist dabei von der Substratvorbehandlung, Enzymspezifitaet, der Enzymdosierung und der Hydrolysedauer abhaengig. Eine Feinverteilung, wie z.B. bei Saegespaenen oder Pappen liess eine geringfuegig hoehere Abbauleistung erkennen. Ein Einfluss von Schwermetallionen konnte nicht festgestellt werden. Die Ergebnisse der Applikationsuntersuchungen dokumentieren, dass durch Zusatz von Biowirkstoffen, schwer abbaubare Kompostrohstoffe, wie Pappen und Papier, enzymatisch vorhydrolisiert d.h. aufgeschlossen werden koennen und somit zu einer Verkuerzung der Rottezeit beitragen bzw. ein Einsatz solcher Abfallfraktionen von 50 - 60% im Ausgangsgemisch moeglich sind. (orig./EF)

  11. Littérature scientifique et formation à l'information, la situation des bioingénieurs à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg) (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Pochet, B.; Lepoivre, P.; Thirion, P

    2013-01-01

    Scholarly publication and education in Information Literacy within the bioengineering curriculum, the Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg) case. A review. This article is based on a doctoral study on the role of scientific literature in the teaching of bioengineering at Gembloux. It is essentially a summary incorporating recent advances in Information Literacy. Data analysis indicates that the bioengineers working at Gembloux publish at least as much as research as other scientists in Belgium. These ...

  12. Automated Detection of Epileptic Seizures in the EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1Department of Medical Physics & Bioengineering, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand 2Department of Electrical Engineering, University...Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Department of Medical Physics & Bioengineering

  13. 毛细管电泳-激光诱导荧光法测定基因工程人细胞生成素的N-连接糖谱%Characterization of N-glycan mapping of bioengineering recombinant erythropoietin by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国华; 张晓丹; 刁勇; 周勇; 罗国安; 程亚琴

    2003-01-01

    目的建立重组人红细胞生成素(EPO)中影响体内生物学活性的含唾液酸和去唾液酸的N-连接糖的糖谱.方法用肽糖苷酶F释放EPO中与天冬酰胺连接的寡糖,再用唾液酸酶脱去糖末端的唾液酸,采用荧光试剂APTS标记后,以毛细管凝胶电泳-激光诱导荧光法分离和检测糖的各种形态.结果 EPO样品含有大致相同的N-连接糖谱;去唾液酸后的N-连接糖组分的保留时间延长;体内生物学活性不同的样品,其N-连接糖也有差异. 结论此法可用于判断EPO产品的来源及批间差异,与肽图相结合可作为EPO的指纹鉴别图谱,用于 EPO的常规质检.

  14. From Nano to Macro: Multiscale Materials for Improved Stem Cell Culturing and Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, J.C.H.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells respond to nanoscale, microscale, and macroscale cues, such as matrix, growth factors, and niche organization, which are difficult to physiologically recapitulate in culture. We discuss how utilizing bioengineering approaches to manipulate and integrate spatiotemporal cues across these di

  15. Biomedical ethics and the biomedical engineer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, P S

    1997-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is responsible for many of the dramatic advances in modern medicine. This has resulted in improved medical care and better quality of life for patients. However, biomedical technology has also contributed to new ethical dilemmas and has challenged some of our moral values. Bioengineers often lack adequate training in facing these moral and ethical problems. These include conflicts of interest, allocation of scarce resources, research misconduct, animal experimentation, and clinical trials for new medical devices. This paper is a compilation of our previous published papers on these topics, and it summarizes many complex ethical issues that a bioengineer may face during his or her research career or professional practice. The need for ethics training in the education of a bioengineering student is emphasized. We also advocate the adoption of a code of ethics for bioengineers.

  16. Experimental Engineering Section semiannual progress report (excluding reactor programs), March 1, 1975--August 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Burtis, C.A.; Groenier, W.S.; Pitt, W.W.; Ryon, A.D.; Watson, C.D.; Watson, J.S. (comps.)

    1976-09-01

    Sections are included on centrifugal analyzer development, advanced analytical techniques, bioengineering research and development, environmental studies, chemical engineering research, controlled thermonuclear processing, and coal conversion process development. A separate abstract was prepared for each section. (JRD)

  17. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  18. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  19. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2016-11-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  20. Conference on microbiological processes useful in enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Six formal presentations were made at the meeting, followed by four workshops dealing with specific topics: bioengineering, reservoir ecology and environment, transformations, and bioproducts. All were related to microbial enhancement of oil recovery. (DLC)

  1. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  2. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-05-02

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.

  3. Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The objective of this Bioengineering Research Partnership is to focus the resources of a powerful interdisciplinary team from academia (MIT), industry (Philips...

  4. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Vessels - 5 years; Heart Valves – in progress Respiratory: Trachea – in progress Orthopedic : Cartilage, Bone, Skeletal Muscle, Digits Nephrology...interactions (bio-engineers) Small & large animal models (physiologists, biochemists, veterinarians ) Clinical trials (physicians, epidemiologists

  5. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 496-3500 Share Science Highlight: January 2, 2014 Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition Researchers funded ... Imaging and Bioengineering have demonstrated that their novel Tongue Drive System is superior to other assistive devices ...

  6. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  7. 75 FR 22819 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Sciences Integrated Review Group; Integrative Physiology of Obesity and Diabetes Study Section. Date: May... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings... Sciences, Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Integrated Review Group; Surgery, Anesthesiology and...

  8. Advanced Technology Section semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1977. Volume 1. Biotechnology and environmental programs. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Mrochek, J.E. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Research efforts in six areas are reported. They include: centrifugal analyzer development; advanced analytical systems; environmental research; bioengineering research;bioprocess development and demonstration; and, environmental control technology. Individual abstracts were prepared for each section for ERA/EDB. (JCB)

  9. Littérature scientifique et formation à l'information, la situation des bioingénieurs à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg).

    OpenAIRE

    Pochet, Bernard; Lepoivre, Philippe; Thirion, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article is written from a doctoral work on the role of scientific literature in the bioengineers' teaching at Gembloux. It is essentially a summary including recent advances in information literacy. Data analysis indicates that the bioengineers working at Gembloux publish at least as much as other scientists in Belgium, they preferentially publish articles in journals with impact factor, they read preferentially articles and they use all electronic resources available to them. Their fiel...

  10. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  11. Experimental Engineering Section semiannual progress report, March 1-August 31, 1976. Volume 2. Biotechnology and environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Jr., W. W.; Mrochek, J. E. [comps.

    1978-03-01

    This volume contains the progress report of the biotechnology and environmental programs in the Experimental Engineering Section of the Chemical Technology Division. Research efforts in these programs during this report period have been in five areas: (1) environmental research; (2) centrifugal analyzer development; (3) advanced analytical systems development; (4) bioengineering research; and (5) bioengineering development. Summaries of these programmatic areas are contained in Volume I.

  12. Constructing and perfecting the panoramic view of moral education curriculum system--Taking the practice of moral education in Bioengineering College of Tianjin University of Science and Technology asan example%高校全景式德育课程体系的构建与完善--以天津科技大学生物工程学院德育实践为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海江

    2013-01-01

    Along with the changes of the content of moral education, moral education has undergone profound changes. In this paper, taking the characteristics of ideological and political education in Tianjin University of Science and Technology for example, points out that universities should focus on the construction of curriculum system of moral education panoramic, follow the law of development of moral education curriculum and the students' moral cognition rule, reading from the text, context generation and participation in three aspects of planning, so as to realize to the present moral education curriculum and moral education.%  伴随高校德育理念的变迁,德育课程的内涵发生深刻变化。本文以天津科技大学思想政治教育的特色工作为实例,指出高校应着力构建全景式的德育课程体系,遵照德育课程的发展规律以及学生道德认知的规律,从文本解读、情境生成和主体参与三个方面统筹规划,从而实现当下德育课程和德育教育的转向。

  13. Littérature scientifique et formation à l'information, la situation des bioingénieurs à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochet, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly publication and education in Information Literacy within the bioengineering curriculum, the Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg case. A review. This article is based on a doctoral study on the role of scientific literature in the teaching of bioengineering at Gembloux. It is essentially a summary incorporating recent advances in Information Literacy. Data analysis indicates that the bioengineers working at Gembloux publish at least as much as research as other scientists in Belgium. These bioengineers choose to publish articles in journals with a high impact factor, preferring to read articles rather than books and using all the electronic resources available to them. Their fields of research, and reading, go beyond the bounds of agronomy in the strictest sense. The bioengineering courses provided at Gembloux are based on the concept of Information Literacy. This concept refers to a set of skills that allow individuals to recognize an information need and enable them to locate, evaluate and use the required information. The area of Information Literacy has evolved over the last two decades. The scope of education of this area goes well beyond the bounds of the library. In addition to intellectual skills, Information Literacy also involves social and cultural skills. These include an understanding of media and new information technologies, without being reduced to technical or technological skills. At Gembloux, education in Information Literacy is included in the student's timetable. It incorporates the production of scientific papers and is based on a methodological approach with its own didactic and specific content.

  14. Historical perspective on the use of visual grading scales in evaluating skin irritation and sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farage, Miranda A; Maibach, Howard I; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-01-01

    quality in comparison with current testing methods that rely on visual assessment. In addition, such measuring techniques can add considerably to the complexity of testing protocols. When benefits and cost are weighed in the balance, the visual assessment scales popularized by Draize and others remain...... such measures should supplement or replace visual assessment. Examples of investigations comparing the outcomes of studies that use visual scoring and those that use bioengineering methods are discussed. These examples provide little evidence that bioengineering measures provide an improvement in overall...

  15. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  16. Thermoplastics for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R B; Davies, R M

    1981-10-01

    The rapid and accurate thermoforming of plastics for prosthetic applications has been the subject of considerable research and development by the Bioengineering Centre. This paper outlines the progress in the general concepts that have been effected to date. The original below knee (B/K) socket vacuum forming technique has been extended to above knee (A/K) and supracondylar cases, and there have been developments in rotational casting technology. The work is necessarily based on a sound understanding of the properties of the materials concerned and of the associated manufacturing processes. The contribution of the Bioengineering Centre is outlined together with summaries of collaborative work carried out with other organizations.

  17. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.

  18. Systems biology characterization of engineered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Padmavathy; Kasif, Simon; Murali, T M

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering and molecular systems biology are inherently interdisciplinary fields that have been developed independently so far. In this review, we first provide a brief introduction to tissue engineering and to molecular systems biology. Next, we highlight some prominent applications of systems biology techniques in tissue engineering. Finally, we outline research directions that can successfully blend these two fields. Through these examples, we propose that experimental and computational advances in molecular systems biology can lead to predictive models of bioengineered tissues that enhance our understanding of bioengineered systems. In turn, the unique challenges posed by tissue engineering will usher in new experimental techniques and computational advances in systems biology.

  19. Twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheitlin, F.M. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the program and abstracts of the twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, held on May 7--11, 1990, at Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The symposium, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Institute, Badger Engineers, Inc., Gas Research Institute, and American Chemical Society, consists of five sessions: Session 1, thermal, chemical, and biological processing; Session 2 and 3, applied biological research; Session 4, bioengineering research; and Session 5, biotechnology, bioengineering, and the solution of environmental problems. It also consists of a poster session of the same five subject categories.

  20. Influence of Gender, Training and Circadian Time of Testing in The Cardiovascular Response to Stress Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Chronobiology Labs. Signal Processing Department, University of Vigo, Spain. Report Documentation Page Report Date 25 Oct 2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered...es) Bioengineering & Chronobiology Labs Signal Processing Department University of Vigo, Spain Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring

  1. 5th Annual World Congress of IBMISPS on Brain Mapping & Image Guided Therapy held at The University of California, Los Angeles on 26-29 August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Bioengineering & Electrical Engineering The Henry Samueli School of Engineering & Applied Science Professor of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA...Henry Samueli School of Engineering & Applied Science Professor of Surgery David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA Portfolio Manager, Nanomedicine and...Electrical Engineering The Henry Samueli School of Engineering & Applied Science Professor of Surgery, UCLA - David Geffen School of Medicine

  2. Preliminary Study on Airlift Membran-Bioreactor%气升式膜-生物反应器的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐农; 邢卫红; 徐南平; 时钧

    2002-01-01

    A new type of membrane bioreactor named "airlift membrane-bioreactor" is discussed. For municipal wastewater reclamation, the preliminary study on airlift membrane-bioreactor shows its good performance such as higher flux and lower energy consumption. The airlift membrane-bioreactor is potentially applicable in bioengineering and environmental protection fields.

  3. Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) echocardiograph in mockup rack in JSC's Bldg 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) life sciences laboratory equipment (LSLE) echocardiograph is documented in the JSC Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Displayed on the echocardiograph monitor is a heart image. The echocardiograph equipment is located in Rack 6 and will be used in conjunction with Experiment No. 294 Cardiovascular Adaptation to Zero Gravity during the STS-40 SLS-1 mission.

  4. Conformal Sheets of Thin Film Sensors, Electronics and Energy Harvesters for Structural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Bioengineering Mechanical Science and Engineering, and Chemistry Beckman Institute for...neurology D D C ll (P ) di lr. . a ans enn – car o ogy Dr. M. Slepian (Sarver) – cardiology Dr. J. McDonald (JHU) – rehabilitation Dr. I. Efimov (Wash Univ) -- cardiology

  5. Leadership in the Era of the Human Singularity: New Demands, New Skills, New Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    articles and book chapters on technology, leadership, creativity, eCommerce , and education and has frequently presented on these topics. He has been...situations, the resolution of which promise to be daunting, considering that legal issues posed by eCommerce and bio-engineering still confound society

  6. An Interactive Iterative Method for Electronic Searching of Large Literature Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Marco A.

    2013-01-01

    PubMed® is an on-line literature database hosted by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Containing over 21 million citations for biomedical literature--both abstracts and full text--in the areas of the life sciences, behavioral studies, chemistry, and bioengineering, PubMed® represents an important tool for researchers. PubMed® searches return…

  7. Post-Concussion Tools to Assist with Assessment, Treatment, and Return to Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    together academic physiotherapists, bioengineers in the field of balance assessment, NIH program managers for balance rehabilitation (NIDCD...to three groups of Fort Rucker Elementary School teachers, 26 Aug, 2013, USAARL. COL Smyrski briefed BG Edens (USACR/SC) regarding spatial...Nothing to Report.  Technologies or techniques . Nothing to Report.  Inventions, patent applications, and/or licenses. SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR

  8. 77 FR 293 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Bioengineering Integrated Review Group; Surgery, Anesthesiology and Trauma Study Section. Date: February 1-2...: Immunology Integrated Review Group; Immunity and Host Defense Study Section. Date: February 2-3, 2012. Time... Committee: Immunology Integrated Review Group; Cellular and Molecular Immunology--B Study Section....

  9. 78 FR 10186 - Center For Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Special Emphasis Panel; RFA: EY 13-001 Basic Behavioral Research on Multisensory Processing Date: March 7....gov . Name of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Fellowships: Cell Biology, Developmental Biology and Bioengineering. Date: March 7, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 6:00...

  10. 77 FR 11138 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Fellowship: Cell Biology and Development... Special Emphasis Panel; Small Business: Basic and Integrative Bioengineering. Date: March 21, 2012. Time...; RFA Panel: Developmental System Biology. Date: March 22-23, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Agenda:...

  11. Development of a Novel Translational Model of Vibration Injury to the Spine to Study Acute Injury in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Cervical Biomechanics : A Quantitative Anatomy Study. Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Philadelphia, PA, March 2012. 3. Baig HA, Guarino BB, Jaumard...Gohkale AJ, Guarino BB, Winkelstein BA. The Rat as a Viable Model for Human Cervical Biomechanics : A Quantitative Anatomy Study. Northeast...will integrate findings across all tasks of this work. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Pain, vibration, spine, transmissibility, biomechanics , injury 16

  12. Two-year follow-up of the Genous™ endothelial progenitor cell capturing stent versus the Taxus Liberté stent in patients with de novo coronary artery lesions with a high-risk of restenosis: a randomized, single-center, pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.M. Beijk; M. Klomp; N. van Geloven; K.T. Koch; J.P.S. Henriques; J. Baan; M.M. Vis; J.G.P. Tijssen; J.J. Piek; R.J. de Winter

    2011-01-01

    In the prospective randomized TRIAS pilot study, the bio-engineered Genous™ endothelial progenitor cell capturing stent was compared with the Taxus Liberté™ SR paclitaxel-eluting stent. At 1 yr, a statistically nonsignificant difference in the rates of target vessel failure (cardiac death, myocardia

  13. On the parameterization of biological influences on offshore sand wave dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, B.W.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Herman, P.M.J.; De Vries, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The bed of the North Sea is covered by sand waves and houses a great number of macrobenthic animals. These bio-engineers are known to have a significant influence on the stability of the bed and thereby on the geomorphology of the seabed. This paper proposes a parameterization of these bio-geomorpho

  14. Biomedical Engineering Approach to Evaluate Anastomosis Methods for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Umezu; J.Kawai; J.Suehiro; M.Arita; Y.Shiraishi; K.Iwasaki; T.Tanaka; H.Niinami

    2004-01-01

    There are two different methods for coronary artery bypass grafting: end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis. In vitro mock test, flow visualization and animal experiments were performed in parallel to compare the hemodynamic effect between two methods. Thus, bioengineers can provide practical useful information to the clinical team.

  15. Status of Research in Biomedical Engineering 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This status report is divided into eight sections. The first four represent the classical engineering or building aspects of bioengineering and deal with biomedical instrumentation, prosthetics, man-machine systems and computer and information systems. The next three sections are related to the scientific, intellectual and academic influence of…

  16. Engineering artificial machines from designable DNA materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Wang, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.

  17. Inventing "Animal Pharmaceutical Factories"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE cooperation between the Shanghai Institute of Medical Genetics and Fudan University’s Institute of Genetics has resulted in the production of bioengineered goats that can produce milk with human thrombofactors. In October, 1996, Chinese scientists began an experiment on gene recombination using 119 goats as test

  18. Recombinant yeast with improved ethanol tolerance and related methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Audrey P.; Lewis, Jeffrey A.

    2012-05-15

    The present invention provides isolated Elo1 and Mig3 nucleic acid sequences capable of conferring increased ethanol tolerance on recombinant yeast and methods of using same in biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering yeast using the Elo1 and, or, Mig3 nucleic acid sequences are also provided.

  19. 9 CFR 121.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Attorney General. The Attorney General of the United States or any person authorized to act for the..., fungi, rickettsiae, or protozoa), or infectious substance, or any naturally occurring, bioengineered, or... limits of the United States. Interstate. From one State into or through any other State, or within...

  20. Acquisition of Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer and Differential Scanning Calorimeter for Enhancing Science and Engineering Education and DOD-relevant research at Miami University

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-07

    capable of producing quantitative, high-quality data for a wide array of applications that span from chemistry to geology, from chemical...characterizations that span wide applications in bioengineering, chemical engineering, energy, geology, chemistry , and environmental remediation...interests that are not found in their textbooks . When students’ experimental data is defensible and of high quality, student reports are enhanced to

  1. Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭荣华

    2002-01-01

    As we come near to the 21st century, it is clear than ever that science and technology are changing the way we live and work. The breakthroughs1 in bioengineering2 science are helping to uncover the mysteries of life, holding out new hope for life-saving cures to some of our greatly terrible diseases.

  2. Biomechanical and Clinical Studies in EndoVascular Aortic Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, FJH

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This thesis investigates biomechanical and clinical performances of endovascular repair for thoracic aortic dissection (AD) and aneurysm. Insights from both medical and bio-engineering perspectives are pursued with the aim of providing scientific data that will help guide endovascular aor

  3. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Volume 2: FY2001-2003 Performance Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    translocation domains of the botulinum neurotoxins. Investigate the variability of clostridium botu- linum strains in terms of their neurotoxic...protective immunity in mice against neurotoxins produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum. Viral Vaccines - Define the correlates of immunity...with next generation nerve agent scavengers. Continue development of potential transgenic /bioengineered sources of next generation nerve agent

  4. When Preparation Meets Opportunity: A Case Study Exploring the Feasibility of Pursuing a Career in Biology for Two Latina High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Yeni Violeta

    2013-01-01

    The future of this country depends on utilizing human intellectual resources from varying viewpoints to make informed decisions on issues from conservation biology to biotechnology, or even bioengineering. An increase in Latina/o students in the biological sciences would bring a variety of viewpoints, as well as personal and cultural experiences…

  5. Computational Failure Modeling of Accelerative Injuries to the Lower Leg Below the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    below the knee, and (c) applied velocity boundary conditions used in this study. forefoot are not segmented into different bone types and are assigned...BIOPHYSICS GROUP DEPT OF BIOENGINEERING IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON ATTN S D MASOUROS 1 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE DEPT OF ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY UNIV OF

  6. Instructions for Manuscript Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Plasma Science and Technology (PST) is a joumal reporting novel experimental and theoretical results and progress of interdisciplinary and application sciences in the fields related to Plasma Physics. Specific interested areas include: basic plasma phenomena; magnetically confined plasma; inertially confined plasma; astrophysics and space plasma; low temperature plasma; plasma technology; fusion engineering and ion beam bioengineering.

  7. Instructions for Manuscript Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Plasma Science and Technology (PST) is a journal reporting novel experimental and theoretical results and progress of interdisciplinary and application sciences in the fields related to Plasma Physics. Specific interested areas include: basic plasma phenomena; magnetically confined plasma; inertially confined plasma; astrophysics and space plasma; low temperature plasma; plasma technology; fusion engineering and ion beam bioengineering.

  8. "Frankenstein" as Science Fiction and Fact

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Often called the first of its kind, "Frankenstein" paved the way for science fiction writing. Its depiction of a then impossible scientific feat has in our time become possible and is essentially recognizable in what we now refer to as bioengineering, biomedicine, or biotechnology. The fiction of "Frankenstein" has as it were given way to…

  9. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  10. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Characteristics and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantz, Tobias; Martin, Ulrich

    The induction of pluripotency in somatic cells is widely considered as a major breakthrough in regenerative medicine, because this approach provides the basis for individualized stem cell-based therapies. Moreover, with respect to cell transplantation and tissue engineering, expertise from bioengineering to transplantation medicine is now meeting basic research of stem cell biology.

  11. Preliminary Study on Airlift Membran—Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUNong; XINGWeihong; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new type of membrane bioreactor named “airlift membrane-bioreactor”is discussed.For municipal wastewater reclamation,the preliminary study on airlift membrane-bioreactor shows its good performance such as high flux and lower energy consumption.The airlift membrane-bioreactor is potentially applicable in bioengineering and environmental protection fields.

  12. Intraoperative Cerenkov Imaging for Guiding Breast Cancer Surgery and Assessing Tumor Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    RY, Gambhir SS (2004) Imaging tri-fusion multimodality reporter gene expression in living subjects. Cancer Res 64: 1323. 25. Yaghoubi S, Barrio JR...California; 3Stanford Photonics, Inc., Palo Alto , California; and 4Department of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford

  13. Proceedings of the COBEM 99: 15. Brazilian congress on mechanical engineering. Engineering committed to quality of life. Abstracts; Anais do COBEM 99: 15. Congresso brasileiro de engenharia mecanica. Engenharia comprometida com a qualidade de vida. Resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental papers are presented approaching the following area and subjects: petroleum industry, equipment and products, gas and wind turbines, hydroelectric power plants and equipment, environment, mechanical engineering, computerized analysis, fluid flow, thermal machines, fluid flow and mechanics, porous media, nuclear energy, refrigeration, bioengineering, energy sources, consumption and conservation.

  14. Space transportation system flight 2 OSTA-1 scientific payload data management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR), Future Identification and Location Experiment (FILE), Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS), Ocean Color Experiment (OCE), the Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL), and the Heflex Bioengineering Test (HBT) experiments are described.

  15. Laboratory Experience for Teaching Sensory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Ana L.; Farfan, Fernando D.; Felice, Carmelo J.

    2009-01-01

    The major challenge in laboratory teaching is the application of abstract concepts in simple and direct practical lessons. However, students rarely have the opportunity to participate in a laboratory that combines practical learning with a realistic research experience. In the Bioengineering Department, we started an experiential laboratory…

  16. The Washington Academy of Biomedical Engineering (WABME) Quarterly Workshops: Clinical Problems and Engineering Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Washington Academy of Biomedical Engineering (WABME) is an interdisciplinary and multi-institutional effort to promote research, technology...transfer, and education in biomedical engineering in the national capital region. The core members of WABME are faculty from the biomedical engineering /bioengineering...solution-rich engineering and scientific disciplines. These workshops build connections within the local biomedical engineering community and enable

  17. Biomedical Engineering: A Challenge to Educators and the Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Glenn V.

    The establishment and development of a graduate program in bioengineering at the University of Michigan is discussed. Included are the student entrance requirements, types of future employment for program graduates, and the philosophy underlying the choice of coursework and instructional methods for the program. (MLH)

  18. Flexural behaviour of selected plants under static load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Sutili

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal purposes of soil bioengineering is the application of vegetation layers from a civil engineering point of view. Living plants are used to reinforce slopes and to control erosion. For a standardised implementation, it is essential to quantify the effectiveness and to assess technical parameters for such bioengineering systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the flexibility of stems and branches of different riparian species of the area of Southern Brazil suitable for soil bioengineering (Phyllanthus sellowianus Müll. Arg., Sebastiania schottiana (Müll. Arg. Müll. Arg., Salix humboldtiana Willd., and Salix×rubens Schrank. Fifty specimens (green stem samples were collected in the surroundings of Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and subjected to static bending tests. Their overall deformation behaviour (elastic and plastic is of crucial importance for bioengineering systems. Thus, additional to the state of the art of material parameters, a new parameter is introduced: the "angle of flexibility". This parameter describes the elastic and plastic deformation behaviour of a plant under load in a more engineering practival experience. The results show that the species of Phyllanthus sellowianus is the most flexible species, followed by Sebastiania schottiana, Salix humboldtiana and Salix×rubens.

  19. INTERFACIAL SEPARATION OF PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouci Lu; Robert J.Pugh; Eric Forssberg

    2006-01-01

    @@ This book is addressed toscientists and engineersworking in pigment andfiller production, environ-mental protection, bioengi-neering, mineral and metal-lugical engineering, foodand beverage industry, andthe chemical industry ingeneral. The book des-cribes various interfacialseparation techniques andintends to promote theore-tical understanding of thesephenomena.

  20. Redox-controlled molecular permeability of composite-wall microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yujie; Dong, Wen-Fei; Hempenius, Mark A.; Möhwald, Helmuth; Vancso, G. Julius

    2006-01-01

    Many smart materials in bioengineering, nanotechnology and medicine allow the storage and release of encapsulated drugs on demand at a specific location by an external stimulus. Owing to their versatility in material selection, polyelectrolyte multilayers are very promising systems in the developmen

  1. International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ciupa, Radu

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the contributions of the third International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology (Meditech 2014), held in Cluj-Napoka, Romania. The papers of this Proceedings volume present new developments in - Health Care Technology, - Medical Devices, Measurement and Instrumentation, - Medical Imaging, Image and Signal Processing, - Modeling and Simulation, - Molecular Bioengineering, - Biomechanics.

  2. Patterning two-dimensional free-standing surfaces with mesoporous conducting polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Liu, Zhaoyang; Wei, Wei; Wagner, Manfred; Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser; Wu, Dongqing; Mai, Yiyong; Herrmann, Andreas; Müllen, Klaus; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pattern functional moieties with well-defined architectures is highly important in material science, nanotechnology and bioengineering. Although two-dimensional surfaces can serve as attractive platforms, direct patterning them in solution with regular arrays remains a major challenge

  3. Growth of Microbial Populations. Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Exercises, and Model-Based Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juska, Alfonsas; Gedminiene, Genovaite; Ivanec, Ruta

    2006-01-01

    This paper has arisen as a result of teaching Models in Biology to undergraduates of Bioengineering at the Gediminas Technical University of Vilnius. The aim is to teach the students to use a fresh approach to the problems they are familiar with, to come up with an articulate verbal model after a mental effort, to express it in rigorous…

  4. Encyclopedia of microfluidics and nanofluidics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Covering all aspects of transport phenomena on the nano- and micro-scale, the 800 entries include 300 essay entries.  The Encyclopedia gives an up to date look at the fundamentals of the field as well as many experiments and applications in growing areas such as energy devices and bioengineering applications.

  5. 75 FR 22412 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: Bioengineering Sciences & Technologies Integrated Review Group; Biomaterials and Biointerfaces...: Gastrointestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology. Date: May 28, 2010. Time: 12 p.m. to 2:30 p.m. Agenda: To...

  6. 77 FR 511 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings... Neurosciences Integrated Review Group, Bioengineering of Neuroscience, Vision and Low Vision Technologies Study..., Physiology and Robotics. Date: February 1, 2012. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  7. 5th International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the contributions of the fifth International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology (Meditech 2016), held in in Cluj-Napoka, Romania. The papers of this Proceedings volume present new developments in - Health Care Technology, - Medical Devices, Measurement and Instrumentation, - Medical Imaging, Image and Signal Processing, - Modeling and Simulation, - Molecular Bioengineering, - Biomechanics.

  8. A Paradigm for the Next Millenium: Health Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Described is a curriculum for a new multidisciplinary science-Health Information Science-that incorporates aspects of computer science, cognitive psychology, bioengineering, biomedical visualization, medicine, dentistry, anthropology, mathematics, library science, and the visual arts. The situation of the medical illustration profession is…

  9. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications Program: Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Literature Evaluation and Assessment, 1986-1987 Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    and electric fields downwind of HVDC transmission lines. Vernon Chartier of the Bonneville Power Administration presented their work measuring the...phase-advances. Torpor remained essentially unaffected. Dr. Walter R. Rogers of the Department of Bioengineering, Southwest Research Institute...Bracken, Inc. (Portland, OR ) and V.L. Chartier (Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, WA) reported preliminary data on the measurements of

  10. T-cell-directed therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandkumar, P; Furie, R

    2016-09-01

    Drug development for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has largely focused on B-cell therapies. A greater understanding of the immunopathogenesis of SLE coupled with advanced bioengineering has allowed for clinical trials centered on other targets for SLE therapy. The authors discuss the benefits and shortcomings of focusing on T-cell-directed therapies in SLE and lupus nephritis clinical trials.

  11. The performance of cuttings of Salix humboldtiana depending on the ratio of parts driven into the soil / emerging above surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, H. P.; Sutili, F. J.; Aschbacher, M.; Müller, B.

    2009-04-01

    Whenever plants are used for soil bioengineering techniques as a part of civil engineering structures, they have to fulfil specific biological and technical qualification. The knowledge of these kinds of qualification is a precondition of successful soil bioengineering applications. In Central Europe the reference books are based on empirical applications of soil bioengineering techniques, however fundamental civil engineering standards are still missing. This is particularly true for areas, such as South America, where the application of soil bioengineering techniques is a young civil engineering discipline. Sutili has started research work systematically a few years ago in order to identify potential native available plant species for soil bioengineering techniques in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This paper shows some results from empirical research work focusing on problem of the application of cuttings: Is the performance of below and above biomass production subject to the proportion of soil cover In sum 110 specimens of Salix humboldtiana were used for field investigations. All cuttings were implemented with an angle of 45 degree under the same soil conditions and with a length of 50 cm. The variations of the ratio were 1:1 (25 cm driven into the soil and 25 emerging above surface), 1:2, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16. After four months the plants were excavated and the data sets of all cuttings were collected and statistically analysed. The investigations are part of an integrated research project between the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil.

  12. Multifunctional spider silk polymers for gene delivery to human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, Olena S; Glettig, Dean L; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Kaplan, David L

    2015-10-01

    Non-viral gene delivery systems are important transport vehicles that can be safe and effective alternatives to currently available viral systems. A new family of multifunctional spider silk-based gene carriers was bioengineered and found capable of targeting human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). These carriers successfully delivered DNA to the nucleus of these mammalian cells. The presence of specific functional sequences in the recombinant proteins, such as a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of the large tumor (T) antigen of the Simian virus 40 (SV40 ), an hMSC high affinity binding peptide (HAB), and a translocation motif (TLM) of the hepatitis-B virus surface protein (PreS2), and their roles in mitigation and enhancement of gene transfection efficiency towards hMSCs were characterized. The results demonstrate that these bioengineered spider silk proteins serve as effective carriers, without the well-known complications associated with viral delivery systems.

  13. Application of spontaneously immortalized odontoblast cells in tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arany, Szilvia; Kawagoe, Masami; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2009-03-27

    Here, we report on the first attempt to bioengineer tooth using a spontaneously immortalized mesenchymal cell line. To assess the odontogenic potential of this cell line, odontoblast-lineage cells (OLC) were re-associated with competent dental epithelium isolated from E14.5 mice. A novel three-dimensional organ germ culture method was applied to nurture the constructs in vitro. Additionally, recombinants were transplanted under the kidney capsule in host animals for 2 weeks. Transplants developed into tooth tissues in one-third of the cases. OLC-derived GFP-positive cells could be identified in mineralizing tooth germs by immunohistochemistry. OLCs were capable of intercellular and cell-matrix communication, thus they eventually differentiated into functional odontoblasts. In summary, we managed to utilize OLCs for dental mesenchyme substitution in tooth regeneration experiments. Therefore, our spontaneously transformed cell line proved its potential for future complex, tooth developmental and bioengineering studies.

  14. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the building blocks for all other cells in an organism. The human body has about 200 different types of cells and any of those cells can be produced by a stem cell. This fact emphasizes the significance of stem cells in transplantational medicine, regenerative therapy and bioengineering. Whether embryonic or adult, these cells can be used for the successful treatment of a wide range of diseases that were not treatable before, such as osteogenesis imperfecta in children, different forms of leukemias, acute myocardial infarction, some neural damages and diseases, etc. Bioengineering, e.g. successful manipulation of these cells with multipotential capacity of differentiation toward appropriate patterns and precise quantity, are the prerequisites for successful outcome and treatment. By combining in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is now possible to manage the wide spectrum of tissue damages and organ diseases. Although the stem-cell therapy is not a response to all the questions, it provides more...

  15. Understanding the control of acyl flux through the lipid metabolic network of plant oil biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Philip D

    2016-09-01

    Plant oil biosynthesis involves a complex metabolic network with multiple subcellular compartments, parallel pathways, cycles, and pathways that have a dual function to produce essential membrane lipids and triacylglycerol. Modern molecular biology techniques provide tools to alter plant oil compositions through bioengineering, however with few exceptions the final composition of triacylglycerol cannot be predicted. One reason for limited success in oilseed bioengineering is the inadequate understanding of how to control the flux of fatty acids through various fatty acid modification, and triacylglycerol assembly pathways of the lipid metabolic network. This review focuses on the mechanisms of acyl flux through the lipid metabolic network, and highlights where uncertainty resides in our understanding of seed oil biosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  16. Test Tube Tooth: The Next Big Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mohammed; Yadav, Harsh; Sureka, Rakshit; Garg, Aarti

    2016-01-01

    Unlike some vertebrates and fishes, humans do not have the capacity for tooth regeneration after the loss of permanent teeth. Although artificial replacement with removable dentures, fixed prosthesis and implants is possible through advances in the field of prosthetic dentistry, it would be ideal to recreate a third set of natural teeth to replace lost dentition. For many years now, researchers in the field of tissue engineering have been trying to bioengineer dental tissues as well as whole teeth. In order to attain a whole tooth through dental engineering, that has the same or nearly same biological, mechanical and physical properties of a natural tooth, it’s necessary to deal with all the cells and tissues which are concerned with the formation, maintenance and repair of the tooth. In this article we review the steps involved in odontogenesis or organogenesis of a tooth and progress in the bioengineering of a whole tooth. PMID:27504430

  17. "The state of the heart": Recent advances in engineering human cardiac tissue from pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirabella, Dario; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-08-01

    The pressing need for effective cell therapy for the heart has led to the investigation of suitable cell sources for tissue replacement. In recent years, human pluripotent stem cell research expanded tremendously, in particular since the derivation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In parallel, bioengineering technologies have led to novel approaches for in vitro cell culture. The combination of these two fields holds potential for in vitro generation of high-fidelity heart tissue, both for basic research and for therapeutic applications. However, this new multidisciplinary science is still at an early stage. Many questions need to be answered and improvements need to be made before clinical applications become a reality. Here we discuss the current status of human stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes and the combined use of bioengineering approaches for cardiac tissue formation and maturation in developmental studies, disease modeling, drug testing, and regenerative medicine.

  18. Introduction and session summaries for the proceedings of the twelfth symposium on biotechnology fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wyman, C.E. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This Twelfth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals continues to provide an annual forum for researchers from industry, universities, and government laboratories to exchange information on recent developments in emerging bioprocessing technologies. As in the past, innovative processing concepts are stressed that are in the early stages of development. The meeting began with a session on Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing, followed by two sessions on Applied Biological Research. Next, topics in Bioengineering Research were presented, and a special session on Biotechnology, Bioengineering, and the Solution of Environmental Problems concluded the Twelfth Symposium. Both presentations and posters provided information exchange among meeting participants, and several discussion groups were organized to consider special topics of interest to the meeting participants. This paper presents a brief description of the discussions.

  19. Induction of corneal epithelial progenitors from bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells of rhesus monkeys in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jing; YU JianXiong; HUANG Bing; LIU BingQian; LIU JingBo; JIANG RuZhang; GE Jian

    2007-01-01

    Bioengineered corneas are substitutes for human donor tissue that are designed to treat severe disease affecting ocular surfaces.However, a shortage of candidate seed cells for bioengineering corneas is still a problem.Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of multilineage differentiation.Therefore, we determined whether MSCs differentiate into corneal epithelial cells (ECs).We applied three exoteric-microenvironmental systems to induce MSCs to become ECs.Induced MSC were identified by means of morphologic examination, immunocytochemical analysis, and flow cytometry.MSCs grown in one microenvironment had characteristics similar to those of corneal epithelial progenitors.Induced MSCs expressed markers for EC, including integrin β1, Cx43, Pax6, and P63.MSCs were successfully induced to become corneal epithelial progenitors.Therefore, the use of MSCs may hold substantial promise for reconstructing the ocular surface after corneal injury.

  20. [Application of fluid mechanics and simulation: urinary tract and ureteral catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Blanco, J C; Martínez-Reina, J; Cruz, D; Blas Pagador, J; Sánchez-Margallo, F M; Soria, F

    2016-10-01

    The mechanics of urine during its transport from the renal pelvis to the bladder is of great interest for urologists. The knowledge of the different physical variables and their interrelationship, both in physiologic movements and pathologies, will help a better diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this chapter is to show the physics principles and their most relevant basic relations in urine transport, and to bring them over the clinical world. For that, we explain the movement of urine during peristalsis, ureteral obstruction and in a ureter with a stent. This explanation is based in two tools used in bioengineering: the theoretical analysis through the Theory of concontinuous media and Ffluid mechanics and computational simulation that offers a practical solution for each scenario. Moreover, we review other contributions of bioengineering to the field of Urology, such as physical simulation or additive and subtractive manufacturing techniques. Finally, we list the current limitations for these tools and the technological development lines with more future projection.

  1. Didactic tools for understanding respiratory physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly Kehoe, P.; Bratovich, C.; Perrone, Ms; Mendez Castells, L.

    2007-11-01

    The challenges in Bioengineering are not only the application of engineering knowledge to the measurement of physiological variables, but also the simulation of biological systems. Experience has shown that the physiology of the respiratory system involves a set of concepts that cannot be effectively taught without the help of a group of didactic tools that contribute to the measurement of characteristic specific variables and to the simulation of the system itself. This article describes a series of tools designed to optimize the teaching of the respiratory system, including the use of spirometers and software developed entirely by undergraduate Bioengineering students from Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (UNER). The impact these resources have caused on the understanding of the topic and how each of them has facilitated the interpretation of the concepts by the students is also discussed.

  2. Didactic tools for understanding respiratory physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehoe, P Donnelly; Bratovich, C; Perrone, Ms; Castells, L Mendez [Catedra de FisiologIa y BiofIsica - Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios - Ruta Provincial N011 Km. 10, 5 - Oro Verde C.P. 3101 - Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The challenges in Bioengineering are not only the application of engineering knowledge to the measurement of physiological variables, but also the simulation of biological systems. Experience has shown that the physiology of the respiratory system involves a set of concepts that cannot be effectively taught without the help of a group of didactic tools that contribute to the measurement of characteristic specific variables and to the simulation of the system itself. This article describes a series of tools designed to optimize the teaching of the respiratory system, including the use of spirometers and software developed entirely by undergraduate Bioengineering students from Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (UNER). The impact these resources have caused on the understanding of the topic and how each of them has facilitated the interpretation of the concepts by the students is also discussed.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Karen K; Li, Song; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-07-11

    With the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it is now possible to convert differentiated somatic cells into multipotent stem cells that have the capacity to generate all cell types of adult tissues. Thus, there is a wide variety of applications for this technology, including regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modeling, and drug screening/discovery. Although biological and biochemical techniques have been well established for cell reprogramming, bioengineering technologies offer novel tools for the reprogramming, expansion, isolation, and differentiation of iPS cells. In this article, we review these bioengineering approaches for the derivation and manipulation of iPS cells and focus on their relevance to regenerative medicine.

  4. Impact of "Conversation Maps" on diabetes distress and self-efficacy of Chinese adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Li F; Yao P; Hsue C; Xu J.; Lou Q

    2016-01-01

    Fan Li,1,* Ping Yao,2,* Cunyi Hsue,3 Jin Xu,4 Qingqing Lou11Department of Health Education, Jiangsu Province Hospital on Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Endocrinology, Jiangsu Province Hospital on Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 3Hangzhou 9th Middle School, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Bioengineering, Universit...

  5. STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford trains in JSC's SLS mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford conducts Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) Experiment No. 198, Pulmonary Function During Weightlessness, in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford monitors instruments and settings on Rack 8's panels. Behind her in the center aisle are the body mass measurement device (foreground) and the stowed bicycle ergometer.

  6. Hematocrit and mean arterial blood pressure in pre- and postmenopause women

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrales, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez1,2, Miguel A Salazar Vázquez3,4, Marcos Intaglietta2, Ulf de Faire5, Bengt Fagrell6, Pedro Cabrales21Facultad de Medicina, 3Department of Physical Chemistry, Universidad Juárez del estado de Durango, Durango, México; 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 4Department of Pediatrics, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Durango, México; 5Division of Cardiovascular Ep...

  7. Unravelling evolutionary strategies of yeast for improving galactose utilization through integrated systems level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Vemuri, Goutham N

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the underlying molecular mechanisms for a derived phenotype by adaptive evolution is difficult. Here, we performed a systems-level inquiry into the metabolic changes occurring in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a result of its adaptive evolution to increase its specific...... design in bioengineering of improved strains and, that through systems biology, it is possible to identify mutations in evolved strain that can serve as unforeseen metabolic engineering targets for improving microbial strains for production of biofuels and chemicals....

  8. Effect of sequence features on assembly of spider silk block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, Olena S; Lin, Shangchao; Jacobsen, Matthew M; Huang, Wenwen; Rizzo, Daniel; Li, David; Simon, Marc; Staii, Cristian; Cebe, Peggy; Wong, Joyce Y; Buehler, Markus J; Kaplan, David L

    2014-06-01

    Bioengineered spider silk block copolymers were studied to understand the effect of protein chain length and sequence chemistry on the formation of secondary structure and materials assembly. Using a combination of in vitro protein design and assembly studies, we demonstrate that silk block copolymers possessing multiple repetitive units self-assemble into lamellar microstructures. Additionally, the study provides insights into the assembly behavior of spider silk block copolymers in concentrated salt solutions.

  9. Thin Film Assembly of Spider Silk-like Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Film Assembly of Spider Silk -like Block Copolymers Sreevidhya T. Krishnaji,†,‡ Wenwen Huang,§ Olena Rabotyagova,†,‡ Eugenia Kharlampieva, ) Ikjun Choi...Received November 26, 2010 We report the self-assembly of monolayers of spider silk -like block copolymers. Langmuir isotherms were obtained for a series of...bioengineered variants of the spider silks , and stable monolayers were generated. Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared by transferring the monolayers

  10. Summer Institute in Biomedical Engineering, 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloatch, E. M.; Coble, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Bioengineering of medical equipment is detailed. Equipment described includes: an environmental control system for a surgical suite; surface potential mapping for an electrode system; the use of speech-modulated-white-noise to differentiate hearers and feelers among the profoundly deaf; the design of an automatic weight scale for an isolette; and an internal tibial torsion correction study. Graphs and charts are included with design specifications of this equipment.

  11. Simultaneous transdermal extraction of glucose and lactate from human subjects by reverse iontophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly,Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Tak S Ching1, Patricia Connolly21Asia University, Taiwan; 2Bioengineering Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UKAbstract: This study investigated the possibility of simultaneously extracting glucose and lactate from human subjects, at the same skin location, using transdermal reverse iontophoresis. Transdermal monitoring using iontophoresis is made possible by the skin’s permeability to small molecules and the nanoporous and microporous nature of the structure of ski...

  12. Whole Tooth Regeneration as a Future Dental Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Dental problems caused by dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth injury compromise the oral and general health issues. Current advances for the development of regenerative therapy have been influenced by our understanding of embryonic development, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering technology. Tooth regenerative therapy for tooth tissue repair and whole tooth replacement is currently expected a novel therapeutic concept with the full recovery of tooth physiological functions. Dental stem cells and cell-activating cytokines are thought to be candidate approach for tooth tissue regeneration because they have the potential to differentiate into tooth tissues in vitro and in vivo. Whole tooth replacement therapy is considered to be an attractive concept for next generation regenerative therapy as a form of bioengineered organ replacement. For realization of whole tooth regeneration, we have developed a novel three-dimensional cell manipulation method designated the "organ germ method". This method involves compartmentalisation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells at a high cell density to mimic multicellular assembly conditions and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in organogenesis. The bioengineered tooth germ generates a structurally correct tooth in vitro, and erupted successfully with correct tooth structure when transplanted into the oral cavity. We have ectopically generated a bioengineered tooth unit composed of a mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and that tooth unit was engrafted into an adult jawbone through bone integration. Bioengineered teeth were also able to perform physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function and response to noxious stimuli. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning whole tooth regenerative therapy.

  13. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Reservoir Shoreline Revegetation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    riprap. Schiechtl (1980) cites a few rare examples where a direct comparison between bioengineering and traditional engineering costs has been made...Techniques in Eastern Kentucky , Revegetation Manual," Report ARC-71-66-74, prepared for Appalachian Region Commission and Kentucky Department of...Rosa, CA 95405 A3 7i Colorado (Continued) Connecticut Carhart Feed and Seed Puskas Wildflower Nursery Box 55, Third and Guyman Kent Hollow Road Dove

  14. La littérature scientifique dans la formation des bioingénieurs à Gembloux. Vingt années d'évolution du concept d'Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pochet, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In the education of bioengineers at Gembloux, the concept of information literacy was chosen as a guide for information literacy education. This concept describes a set of skills that allow individuals to recognize an information need and enable them to locate, evaluate and use information needed. The concept of information literacy has evolved over the last two decades. This essay traces, through five articles and a review of the literature on the subject, the evolution of the concept. It al...

  15. Bio-hybrid micro/nanodevices powered by flagellar motor: challenges and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo eKim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular motors, which are precision-engineered by nature, offer exciting possibilities for bio-hybrid engineered systems. They could enable real applications ranging from micro/nano fluidics, to biosensing, to medical diagnoses. This review describes the fundamental biological insights and fascinating potentials of these remarkable sensing and actuation machines, in particular bacterial flagellar motors, as well as their engineering perspectives with regard to applications in bio-engineered hybrid systems and nanobiotechnology.

  16. Dental-derived Stem Cells and whole Tooth Regeneration: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The need for new dental tissue-replacement therapies is evident in recent reports which reveal startling statistics regarding the high incidence of tooth decay and tooth loss. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of dental stem cells, and in dental tissue-engineering strategies, suggest that bioengineering approaches may successfully be used to regenerate dental tissues and whole teeth. Interest in dental tissue-regeneration applications continues to increase as clinical...

  17. Computational intelligence in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Tenne, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of recent studies covering the spectrum of computational intelligence applications with emphasis on their application to challenging real-world problems. Topics covered include: Intelligent agent-based algorithms, Hybrid intelligent systems, Cognitive and evolutionary robotics, Knowledge-Based Engineering, fuzzy sets and systems, Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Computational finance and Computational economics, Data mining, Machine learning, and Expert systems. ""Computational Intelligence in Optimization"" is a comprehensive reference for researchers, prac

  18. U.S. Declining Global Rankings in Math and Science and the Impact on Our National Security: Policy Options to Elicit Another Sputnik Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Since 1901, of the 530 Nobel Laureates in physics, chemistry , or medicine, more than 200 have been Americans. This technological innovation helped...of study, such as engineering, including electrical and computer engineering or bioengineering, mathematics, chemistry , and physics. A 2010 Wake...Statistics, 2007, p. 53). This included coming to school without their homework done, without the necessary supplies, or without their textbooks . Even more

  19. Construction of Tissue Engineering Artificial Cornea with Skin Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan LIU; Yan JIN

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction The clinical need for an alternative to donor corneal tissue has encouraged much interests in recent years. An artificial cornea must fulfill the functions of the cornea it replaces. More recently, the idea of a bio-engineered cornea has risen. Corneal equivalents have been reconstructed by tissue engineering method. Aim of this study is to construct an artificial rabbit cornea by employing tissue engineering method and to determine if skin stem cells have a role in tissue engineered cornea construction.

  20. Stability Thresholds and Performance Standards for Flexible Lining Materials in Channel and Slope Restoration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    stabilization Select industry term Vegetated reinforced soil slope VRSS A bioengineered system of geotextile -wrapped, vegetated soil lifts USACE...5.1-cm) samples intended for the geotextile fabric industry. When considering results for an application, designers should refer to the minimum...beneath TRM. 4 Non-woven geotextile fabric is recommended beneath ARVS for continuous flow applications and for unvegetated conditions or applications (0

  1. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mark R. Hurst; Ebtisam Wilkins

    2005-01-01

    Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons i...

  2. Lessons in Adaptability and Preparing for Black Swan Risks from the Military and Hedge Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    for degraded operations.11 However, the potential for cyber-attacks, high altitude EMP detonations that fry computer chips, and bioengineered viral ...Sachs exercised strong “mark to market ” discipline and hedged against a mortgage market collapse in 2007, profiting when that happened. Outside...product lines and services that will be in demand in the event of a viral pandemic or an economic collapse. And for lesser or more industry focused

  3. Proceedings of the Conference on Toxicology Held in Dayton, Ohio on 28- 30 October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    effects on general parameters and on the endocrine and lymphoid systems. Tozicol. Appi. Pharmacol., 75 (1984) 363-386. 15 J.G. Vos, A. dle Klerk , E.l...Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick , Maryland 21707-5010 Fish are useful in chemical carcinogenicity evaluation for several...Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick , Maryland 21701-5010 Fourteen-day-old medaka (Oryzias latipes

  4. Solutions manual to accompany Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  5. The regulation of tooth morphogenesis is associated with epithelial cell proliferation and the expression of Sonic hedgehog through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Kentaro; Murofushi, Mayumi [Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Nakao, Kazuhisa; Morita, Ritsuko [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Ogawa, Miho [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Organ Technologies Inc., Tokyo 101-0048 (Japan); Tsuji, Takashi, E-mail: t-tsuji@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Organ Technologies Inc., Tokyo 101-0048 (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Bioengineered teeth regulated the contact area of epithelium and mesenchyme. {yields} The crown width is regulated by the contact area of the epithelium and mesenchyme. {yields} This regulation is associated with cell proliferation and Sonic hedgehog expression. {yields} The cusp number is correlated with the crown width of the bioengineered tooth. {yields} Cell proliferation and Shh expression areas regulate the tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Ectodermal organs, such as the tooth, salivary gland, hair, and mammary gland, develop through reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphologies are defined by the crown width and tooth length (macro-morphologies), and by the number and locations of the cusp and roots (micro-morphologies). In our current study, we report that the crown width of a bioengineered molar tooth, which was reconstructed using dissociated epithelial and mesenchymal cells via an organ germ method, can be regulated by the contact area between epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers. We further show that this is associated with cell proliferation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in the inner enamel epithelium after the germ stage has formed a secondary enamel knot. We also demonstrate that the cusp number is significantly correlated with the crown width of the bioengineered tooth. These findings suggest that the tooth micro-morphology, i.e. the cusp formation, is regulated after the tooth width, or macro-morphology, is determined. These findings also suggest that the spatiotemporal patterning of cell proliferation and the Shh expression areas in the epithelium regulate the crown width and cusp formation of the developing tooth.

  6. 医療用コラーゲン性マテリアルの現状と近未来

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 勝; ムラタ, マサル; Masaru, MURATA

    2008-01-01

    Collagen is an essential component of multicellular organisms. Collagen is a structure protein and a main component of the human body. A collagenous material derived from animals is one of most useful biomaterials. The excellent biocompatibility of altelocollagen, telopeptide-depleted collagen, results in biological characteristics such as bioabsorbability, cell-attachment sequence, and low antigenecity. Recently, salmon skin collagen and bioengineered human gelatin have been developed as com...

  7. Multiscale computer modeling in biomechanics and biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews the state-of-the-art in multiscale computer modeling, in terms of both accomplishments and challenges. The information in the book is particularly useful for biomedical engineers, medical physicists and researchers in systems biology, mathematical biology, micro-biomechanics and biomaterials who are interested in how to bridge between traditional biomedical engineering work at the organ and tissue scales, and the newer arenas of cellular and molecular bioengineering.

  8. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.Science in China Series C: Life Sciences is published monthly in both print and electronic forms. It is indexed by Aquatic Science & Fisheries, Abstracts, BIOBASE, BioEngineering Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS,

  9. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic jour-nal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and pub-lished by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research. Science in China Series C: Life Sciences is published monthly in both print and electronic forms. It is indexed by Aquatic Science & Fisheries, Abstracts, BIOBASE, BioEngineering

  10. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna A; Tenconi B; De Ponti I; La Penna L

    2015-01-01

    Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti, Laura La PennaDermIng srl, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Monza, MB, ItalyAbstract: Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected p...

  11. Theoretical and experimental research on the influence of multiple piezoelectric effects on physical parameters of piezoelectric actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Shi; Haimin Zhou; Jie Huang; Jiliang Tan

    2015-01-01

    Compared with the traditional actuator of machinery and electricity, the piezoelectric actuator has the advantages of a compact structure, small volume, no mechanical friction, athermancy and no electromagnetic interference. Therefore, it has high application value in the fields of MEMS, bioengineering, medical science and so on. This article draws conclusions from the influence of multiple piezoelectric effects on the physical parameters (dielectric coefficient, equivalent capacity, energy c...

  12. Nanostructured polyurethane-poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffolds increase bladder tissue regeneration: an in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Yao C; Hedrick M; Pareek G; Renzulli J; Haleblian G; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Chang Yao,1 Matt Hedrick,1 Gyan Pareek,2 Joseph Renzulli,2 George Haleblian,2 Thomas J Webster3 1Nanovis LLC, West Lafayette, IN, 2Section of Minimally Invasive Urology, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, 3Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Although showing much promise for numerous tissue engineering applications, polyurethane and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) have suffered from a l...

  13. Does reactor staging influence microbial structure and functions in biofilm systems? The case of pre-denitrifying MBBRs

    OpenAIRE

    Polesel, Fabio; Torresi, Elena; Jensen, Marlene Mark; Fowler, Jane; Escola Casas, Monica; Barth F. Smets; Christensson, Magnus; Bester, Kai; Plósz, Benedek G.

    2016-01-01

    To date, a number of treatment technologies and configurations have been tested to improve the elimination of conventional and trace (e.g., pharmaceutical residues) pollutants via biological wastewater treatment. Bioreactor staging and the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) technology have emerged as promising bioengineered solutions (Plósz et al., 2010) for this purpose. In this study, we combined the two solutions and investigated microbial functions (heterotrophic denitrification, pharmaceu...

  14. The effects of topical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine experimental cutaneous wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lyoo, Young S.; JUNG, Dong-In; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells have been widely investigated in bioengineering approaches for tissue repair therapy. We evaluated the clinical value and safety of the application of cultured bone marrow-derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating skin wounds in a canine model. Hypothesis Topical allogenic MSC transplantation can accelerate the closure of experimental full-thickness cutaneous wounds and attenuate local inflammation. Animals Adult healthy beagle dogs (n = 10; 3–6 ...

  15. From synthetic genome to creation of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxue Zhang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Understanding the world and then changing the world is an everlasting mission of the human being.Life is an important component and one of the most sophisticated elements on the earth.In recent decades,the rapid development of molecular biology,genetics and the related biotechnology and bioengineering kept bringing surprises to scientists worldwide,including the cloning of Dolly(Wilmut et al.,

  16. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keidar, Michael, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Department of Neurological Surgery, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Robert, Eric [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orleans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  17. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  18. Medical devices regulations, standards and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishna, Seeram; Wang, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Medical Devices and Regulations: Standards and Practices will shed light on the importance of regulations and standards among all stakeholders, bioengineering designers, biomaterial scientists and researchers to enable development of future medical devices. Based on the authors' practical experience, this book provides a concise, practical guide on key issues and processes in developing new medical devices to meet international regulatory requirements and standards. Provides readers with a global perspective on medical device regulationsConcise and comprehensive information on how to desig

  19. High molecular weight hyaluronan for treatment of chronic shoulder pain associated with glenohumeral arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Weil AJ

    2011-01-01

    Arnold J WeilNon-Surgical Orthopedics PC, Marietta, GA, USABackground: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether intra-articular injections may be effective for treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Euflexxa® (high molecular weight hyaluronate), a bioengineered high molecular weight hyaluronan, has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis. There is also support for the use of hyaluronate injection for the treatment of chronic ...

  20. The Power and the Promise of Cell Reprogramming: Personalized Autologous Body Organ and Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Alvarez Palomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs or direct reprogramming to desired cell types are powerful and new in vitro methods for the study of human disease, cell replacement therapy, and drug development. Both methods to reprogram cells are unconstrained by the ethical and social questions raised by embryonic stem cells. iPSC technology promises to enable personalized autologous cell therapy and has the potential to revolutionize cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Potential applications of iPSC technology are rapidly increasing in ambition from discrete cell replacement applications to the iPSC assisted bioengineering of body organs for personalized autologous body organ transplant. Recent work has demonstrated that the generation of organs from iPSCs is a future possibility. The development of embryonic-like organ structures bioengineered from iPSCs has been achieved, such as an early brain structure (cerebral organoids, bone, optic vesicle-like structures (eye, cardiac muscle tissue (heart, primitive pancreas islet cells, a tooth-like structure (teeth, and functional liver buds (liver. Thus, iPSC technology offers, in the future, the powerful and unique possibility to make body organs for transplantation removing the need for organ donation and immune suppressing drugs. Whilst it is clear that iPSCs are rapidly becoming the lead cell type for research into cell replacement therapy and body organ transplantation strategies in humans, it is not known whether (1 such transplants will stimulate host immune responses; and (2 whether this technology will be capable of the bioengineering of a complete and fully functional human organ. This review will not focus on reprogramming to iPSCs, of which a plethora of reviews can be found, but instead focus on the latest developments in direct reprogramming of cells, the bioengineering of body organs from iPSCs, and an analysis of the immune response induced by i

  1. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  2. A paradigm for the next millennium: health information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, L L

    1991-01-01

    Although historically a major concern of both the artist and the scientist was the observation of nature, the two disciplines split when science became more wedded to mathematics and quantification. Today, with visualization, art and science can again together provide a view of the natural world. A prototype curriculum for a new multidisciplinary science--Health Information Science--incorporates aspects of computer science, cognitive psychology, bioengineering, biomedical visualization, medicine, dentistry, anthropology, mathematics, library science, and the visual arts.

  3. Bibliography of Technical Publications and Papers, October 1982 - September 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Rep. R&D Assoc., 35(1): 108-112 (1983). 37. MAIZE , R. S., II. The combat field feeding system tray pack testing results including the Fort Hood October...processes and products. International Symposium on Meat Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, November 1-4 1982. 60. MAIZE , R. S...continuous and fed batch culture by Trichoderma reesei MCG80. In Biotechnology & Bioengineering Symposium No. 12. C. Scott (ed). New York: John Wiley and

  4. Infection-resistant MRI-visible scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Mahmoudi; Mingming Zhao; Yuka Matsuura; Sophie Laurent; Yang, Phillip C.; Daniel Bernstein; Pilar Ruiz-Lozano; Vahid Serpooshan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tissue engineering utilizes porous scaffolds as template to guide the new tissue growth. Clinical application of scaffolding biomaterials is hindered by implant-associated infection and impaired in vivo visibility of construct in biomedical imaging modalities. We recently demonstrated the use of a bioengineered type I collagen patch to repair damaged myocardium. By incorporating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into this patch, here, we developed an MRI-visible scaffold. Mor...

  5. Nanopatterning and nanoscale devices for biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Šelimović, Seila

    2014-01-01

    ""This book is a good reference for researchers interested in realizing bio-applications based on micro- and nanostructures, where their interface with liquids and biomolecules is the key point. The most important 'players' of micro- and nano-bioengineering are considered, from DNA to proteins and cells. The work is a good merger of basic concepts and real examples of applications.""-Danilo Demarchi, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

  6. Temporal Progression of Visual Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    inertial head rotation in neonatal piglets. •Department of Bioengineering (2007-2010) Mechanics of ocular trauma in infants following inertial...6. Coats B, Ji S, Margulies SS. Using computational models to predict skull fracture in the infant . Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma , Hershey, PA...to predict skull fracture in the infant . Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma , Hershey, PA, July 2007 4. Coats B, Binenbaum G, Pieffer RL, Forbes BJ

  7. Introduction to tissue engineering applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Birla, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Covering a progressive medical field, Tissue Engineering describes the innovative process of regenerating human cells to restore or establish normal function in defective organs. As pioneering individuals look ahead to the possibility of generating entire organ systems, students may turn to this textbook for a comprehensive understanding and preparation for the future of regenerative medicine. This book explains chemical stimulations, the bioengineering of specific organs, and treatment plans for chronic diseases. It is a must-read for tissue engineering students and practitioners.

  8. Nanomedicine and the nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Colin R; Hunter, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    The nanosciences encompass a variety of technologies ranging from particles to networks and nanostructures. Nanoparticles can be suitable carriers of therapeutic agents, and nanostructures provide suitable platforms and scaffolds for sub-micro bioengineering. This book focuses on nanomedicine and nanotechnology as applied to the nervous system and the brain. It covers nanoparticle-based immunoassays, nanofiber microbrush arrays, nanoelectrodes, protein nanoassemblies, nanoparticles-assisted imaging, nanomaterials, and ion channels. Additional topics include stem cell imaging, neuronal performa

  9. Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-18

    FA2386-14-1-4086 Peter Kofinas Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA Abstract...Dow Corning was used as the uncured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release 4 Synthesis...water circulation during 1 h. The powders were separated by centrifugation and washed 3 times with ethanol and 3 times with deionized water to

  10. Enzymatic modification of phospholipids forfunctional applications and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Vikbjerg, Anders / Falk; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Rapid progress in biochemistry of phospholipids and evolution of modern bioengineering has brought forth a number of novel concepts and technical advancements in the modification of phospholipids for industrial applications and human nutrition. Highlights cover preparation of novel phospholipid...... analogs based on the latest understanding of pivotal role of phospholipids in manifold biological processes, exploration of remarkable application potentials of phospholipids in meliorating human health, as well as development of new chemical and biotechnological approaches applied to the modification...

  11. A Bioterrorism Prevention Strategy for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    organisms include smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulinum toxin, tularemia, Ebola and Marburg virus , and Lassa and Junin virus . However, this list...this topic. “Bioterrorism is the intentional use of any microorganism, virus , infectious substance, or biological product that may be engineered as a...result of biotechnology, or any naturally occurring or bioengineered component of any such microorganism, virus , infectious substance, or biologic

  12. Phage as a Genetically Modifiable Supramacromolecule in Chemistry, Materials and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Binrui; Yang, Mingying; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous bacteriophage (phage) is a genetically modifiable supramacromolecule. It can be pictured as a semiflexible nanofiber (~900 nm long and ~8 nm wide) made of a DNA core and a protein shell with the former genetically encoding the latter. Although phage bioengineering and phage display techniques were developed before the 1990s, these techniques have not been widely used for chemistry, materials, and biomedical research from the perspective of supramolecular chemistry until recently. ...

  13. 1st Global Conference on Biomedical Engineering & 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shyh-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering (APCMBE 2014). The proceedings address a broad spectrum of topics from Bioengineering and Biomedicine, like Biomaterials, Artificial Organs, Tissue Engineering, Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, Biomedical Imaging, Bio MEMS, Biosignal Processing, Digital Medicine, BME Education. It helps medical and biological engineering professionals to interact and exchange their ideas and experiences.

  14. Mobile-Phone Microscopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰

    2008-01-01

    Simple accessories could turn mobile phones into useful medical devices Robi Marrmari stares intently at the screen of his mobile phone.The student is not squinting to tap out yet another daft text message,but looking carefully for the faint blue dots that are the tell-tale diagnostic signature of malaria.Mr.Maamari is a member of a research team led by Dan Fletcher,a professor of bioengineering

  15. The influence of genetics on contemporary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelkin, Dorothy; Anker, Suzanne

    2002-12-01

    Contemporary visual artists are incorporating genetic concepts into their work, and this work has become prominently featured in numerous museum and gallery exhibitions. Such art uses visual images that represent the language of genomics, the values affected by genetic understanding of the body and the implications of bioengineering. Here, we present various examples of how artists depict aspects of genetics as cultural icons and symbols; in particular, their focus on DNA as information and on the commercialization of genetics research material.

  16. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY STUDY OF BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SCAFFOLD MADE FROM RECOMBINANT SPIDER SILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Pustovalova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the viability and dynamic of cell distribution during long-term cultivation of broblasts 3T3 in spider silk spidroin 1-based scaffold. Laser scanning confocal microscopy is shown to have advantages for visualization of cells situated on the external and internal surfaces of scaffold. Fibroblasts maintain high proliferative ability and viability during long term cultivation. Spidroin 1-based scaffold are the perspective materials for bioengineering

  17. A C-Type Cytochrome and a Transcriptional Regulator Responsible for Enhanced Extracellular Electron Transfer in Geobacter Sulfurreducens Revealed by Adaptive Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ducens fuel cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 7345–7348. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., and Maniatis , T. (1989) Molecular Cloning : A Laboratory Manual... Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA. 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory,Center for Bio/ Molecular Science and Engineering,Washington,DC,20375 8. PERFORMING

  18. Processing of hyperspectral medical images applications in dermatology using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new methods of analyzing and processing hyperspectral medical images, which can be used in diagnostics, for example for dermatological images. The algorithms proposed are fully automatic and the results obtained are fully reproducible. Their operation was tested on a set of several thousands of hyperspectral images and they were implemented in Matlab. The presented source code can be used without licensing restrictions. This is a valuable resource for computer scientists, bioengineers, doctoral students, and dermatologists interested in contemporary analysis methods.

  19. Regenerative endodontics as a tissue engineering approach: past, current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2012-12-01

    With the reported startling statistics of high incidence of tooth decay and tooth loss, the current interest is focused on the development of alternate dental tissue replacement therapies. This has led to the application of dental tissue engineering as a clinically relevant method for the regeneration of dental tissues and generation of bioengineered whole tooth. Although, tissue engineering approach requires the three main key elements of stem cells, scaffold and morphogens, a conductive environment (fourth element) is equally important for successful engineering of any tissue and/or organ. The applications of this science has evolved continuously in dentistry, beginning from the application of Ca(OH)(2) in vital pulp therapy to the development of a fully functional bioengineered tooth (mice). Thus, with advances in basic research, recent reports and studies have shown successful application of tissue engineering in the field of dentistry. However, certain practical obstacles are yet to be overcome before dental tissue regeneration can be applied as evidence-based approach in clinics. The article highlights on the past achievements, current developments and future prospects of tissue engineering and regenerative therapy in the field of endodontics and bioengineered teeth (bioteeth).

  20. Orthodontics at a Pivotal Point of Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The profession of orthodontics is projected to face a multitude of challenges. Do cyclic forces accelerate the rate of tooth movement and hence the speed of orthodontic treatment? Would bioengineered cementum and dentine be a solution to root resorption? What would orthodontics be like when bioengineered periodontal ligament and alveolar bone become clinical practice, or one day, entire teeth are bioengineered? Would it be possible to selectively differentiate stem cells into osteoblasts or osteoclasts by either static or cyclic forces? What is the new demand on orthodontic expertise with increasingly automated appliances? What will be the impact of the next generation of dental implants or rapid prototyped crowns on orthodontics? A century ago, Edward Angle’s practice of fixed appliances, along with other seminal contributions, such as functional appliances, established the profession of orthodontics. Today, the biophysical principles of orthodontics remain largely unchanged from Angle’s era, despite incremental refinements of brackets and wires. The paucity of fundamental innovations in orthodontics for decades presents intrinsic risks for the profession. This review will identify challenges for contemporary orthodontics and delineate strategies for the profession to evolve in an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advances, and serve as a call to action for the orthodontic profession. PMID:25018618

  1. Functional tooth regenerative therapy: tooth tissue regeneration and whole-tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Tsuji, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Oral and general health is compromised by irreversible dental problems, including dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth injury. Regenerative therapy for tooth tissue repair and whole-tooth replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept with the potential for the full recovery of tooth function. Several types of stem cells and cell-activating cytokines have been identified in oral tissues. These cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for tooth tissue regenerative therapies because they have the ability to differentiate into tooth tissues in vitro and in vivo. Whole-tooth replacement therapy is regarded as an important model for the development of an organ regenerative concept. A novel three-dimensional cell-manipulation method, designated the organ germ method, has been developed to recapitulate organogenesis. This method involves compartmentalisation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells at a high cell density to mimic multicellular assembly conditions and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. A bioengineered tooth germ can generate a structurally correct tooth in vitro and erupt successfully with the correct tooth structure when transplanted into the oral cavity. We have ectopically generated a bioengineered tooth unit composed of a mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and that tooth unit was successfully engrafted into an adult jawbone through bone integration. Such bioengineered teeth were able to perform normal physiological tooth functions, such as developing a masticatory potential in response to mechanical stress and a perceptive potential for noxious stimuli. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning tooth regenerative therapy.

  2. New Phase of Growth for Xenogeneic-Based Bioartificial Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorina Pitkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the advanced clinical development of bioartificial organs and describe the challenges to implementing such systems into patient care. The case for bioartificial organs is evident: they are meant to reduce patient morbidity and mortality caused by the persistent shortage of organs available for allotransplantation. The widespread introduction and adoption of bioengineered organs, incorporating cells and tissues derived from either human or animal sources, would help address this shortage. Despite the decades of development, the variety of organs studied and bioengineered, and continuous progress in the field, only two bioengineered systems are currently commercially available: Apligraf® and Dermagraft® are both approved by the FDA to treat diabetic foot ulcers, and Apligraf® is approved to treat venous leg ulcers. Currently, no products based on xenotransplantation have been approved by the FDA. Risk factors include immunological barriers and the potential infectivity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV, which is unique to xenotransplantation. Recent breakthroughs in gene editing may, however, mitigate risks related to PERV. Because of its primary role in interrupting progress in xenotransplantation, we present a risk assessment for PERV infection, and conclude that the formerly high risk has been reduced to a moderate level. Advances in gene editing, and more broadly in the field, may make it more likely than ever before that bioartificial organs will alleviate the suffering of patients with organ failure.

  3. Cell adaptation to a physiologically relevant ECM mimic with different viscoelastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kaustabh; Pan, Zhi; Guan, E; Ge, Shouren; Liu, Yajie; Nakamura, Toshio; Ren, Xiang-Dong; Rafailovich, Miriam; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2009-01-01

    To successfully induce tissue repair or regeneration in vivo, bioengineered constructs must possess both optimal bioactivity and mechanical strength. This is because cell interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) produces two different but concurrent signaling mechanisms: ligation-induced signaling, which depends on ECM biological stimuli, and traction-induced signaling, which depends on ECM mechanical stimuli. In this report, we provide a fundamental understanding of how alterations in mechanical stimuli alone, produced by varying the viscoelastic properties of our bioengineered construct, modulate phenotypic behavior at the whole-cell level. Using a physiologically-relevant ECM mimic composed of hyaluronan and fibronectin, we found that adult human dermal fibroblasts modify their mechanical response in order to match substrate stiffness. More specifically, the cells on stiffer substrates had higher modulus and a more stretched and organized actin cytoskeleton (and vice versa), which translated into larger traction forces exerted on the substrate. This modulation of cellular mechanics had contrasting effects on migration and proliferation, where cells migrated faster on softer substrates while proliferating preferentially on the stiffer ones. These findings implicate substrate rigidity as a critical design parameter in the development of bioengineered constructs aimed at eliciting maximal cell and tissue function. PMID:17049594

  4. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-05-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  5. New Phase of Growth for Xenogeneic-Based Bioartificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Zorina

    2016-09-21

    In this article, we examine the advanced clinical development of bioartificial organs and describe the challenges to implementing such systems into patient care. The case for bioartificial organs is evident: they are meant to reduce patient morbidity and mortality caused by the persistent shortage of organs available for allotransplantation. The widespread introduction and adoption of bioengineered organs, incorporating cells and tissues derived from either human or animal sources, would help address this shortage. Despite the decades of development, the variety of organs studied and bioengineered, and continuous progress in the field, only two bioengineered systems are currently commercially available: Apligraf(®) and Dermagraft(®) are both approved by the FDA to treat diabetic foot ulcers, and Apligraf(®) is approved to treat venous leg ulcers. Currently, no products based on xenotransplantation have been approved by the FDA. Risk factors include immunological barriers and the potential infectivity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), which is unique to xenotransplantation. Recent breakthroughs in gene editing may, however, mitigate risks related to PERV. Because of its primary role in interrupting progress in xenotransplantation, we present a risk assessment for PERV infection, and conclude that the formerly high risk has been reduced to a moderate level. Advances in gene editing, and more broadly in the field, may make it more likely than ever before that bioartificial organs will alleviate the suffering of patients with organ failure.

  6. New Phase of Growth for Xenogeneic-Based Bioartificial Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Zorina

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the advanced clinical development of bioartificial organs and describe the challenges to implementing such systems into patient care. The case for bioartificial organs is evident: they are meant to reduce patient morbidity and mortality caused by the persistent shortage of organs available for allotransplantation. The widespread introduction and adoption of bioengineered organs, incorporating cells and tissues derived from either human or animal sources, would help address this shortage. Despite the decades of development, the variety of organs studied and bioengineered, and continuous progress in the field, only two bioengineered systems are currently commercially available: Apligraf® and Dermagraft® are both approved by the FDA to treat diabetic foot ulcers, and Apligraf® is approved to treat venous leg ulcers. Currently, no products based on xenotransplantation have been approved by the FDA. Risk factors include immunological barriers and the potential infectivity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), which is unique to xenotransplantation. Recent breakthroughs in gene editing may, however, mitigate risks related to PERV. Because of its primary role in interrupting progress in xenotransplantation, we present a risk assessment for PERV infection, and conclude that the formerly high risk has been reduced to a moderate level. Advances in gene editing, and more broadly in the field, may make it more likely than ever before that bioartificial organs will alleviate the suffering of patients with organ failure. PMID:27657057

  7. [Modern toxicology of magnetic nanomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywińska, Monika A; Grudziński, Ireneusz P

    2012-01-01

    Current advances in nanobiotechnology have led to the development of new field of nanomedicine, which includes many applications of nano(bio)materials for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes (theranostics). Major expectations and challenges are on bioengineered magnetic nanoparticles when their come to delivering drug compounds, especially to targeting anticancer drugs to specific molecular endpoints in cancer therapy. The unique physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles offer great promise in modern cancer nanomedicine to provide new technological breakthroughs, such as guided drug and gene delivery, magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy, tissue engineering, cancer cell tracking and molecular magnetic resonance imaging. Along with the expanding interest in bio-engineered magnetic nanoproducts their potential toxicity has become one of the major concerns. To date, a number of recent scientific evidences suggest that certain properties of magnetic nanoparticles (e.g., enhanced reactive area, ability to cross cell membranes, resistance to biodegradation) may amplify their cytotoxic potential relative to bulk non-nanoscale counterparts. In other words, safety assessment developed for ordinary magnetic materials may be of limited use in determining the health and environmental risks of the novel bio-engineered magnetic nanoproducts. In the present paper we discuss the main directions of research conducted to assess the toxicity of magnetic nanocompounds in experimental in vitro and in vivo models, pointing to the key issues concerning the toxicological analysis of magnetic nanomaterials. In addition new research directions of nanotoxicological studies elucidating the importance of developing alternative methods for testing magnetic nano(bio)products are also presented.

  8. Industry 5.0—The Relevance and Implications of Bionics and Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sachsenmeier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bionics (the imitation or abstraction of the “inventions of nature and, to an even greater extent, synthetic biology, will be as relevant to engineering development and industry as the silicon chip was over the last 50 years. Chemical industries already use so-called “white biotechnology” for new processes, new raw materials, and more sustainable use of resources. Synthetic biology is also used for the development of second-generation biofuels and for harvesting the sun's energy with the help of tailor-made microorganisms or biometrically designed catalysts. The market potential for bionics in medicine, engineering processes, and DNA storage is huge. “Moonshot” projects are already aggressively focusing on diseases and new materials, and a US-led competition is currently underway with the aim of creating a thousand new molecules. This article describes a timeline that starts with current projects and then moves on to code engineering projects and their implications, artificial DNA, signaling molecules, and biological circuitry. Beyond these projects, one of the next frontiers in bionics is the design of synthetic metabolisms that include artificial food chains and foods, and the bioengineering of raw materials; all of which will lead to new insights into biological principles. Bioengineering will be an innovation motor just as digitalization is today. This article discusses pertinent examples of bioengineering, particularly the use of alternative carbon-based biofuels and the techniques and perils of cell modification. Big data, analytics, and massive storage are important factors in this next frontier. Although synthetic biology will be as pervasive and transformative in the next 50 years as digitization and the Internet are today, its applications and impacts are still in nascent stages. This article provides a general taxonomy in which the development of bioengineering is classified in five stages (DNA analysis, bio

  9. Cellular versus acellular matrix devices in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a comparative efficacy randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev-Tov Hadar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs represent a significant source of morbidity and an enormous financial burden. Standard care for DFUs involves systemic glucose control, ensuring adequate perfusion, debridement of nonviable tissue, off-loading, control of infection, local wound care and patient education, all administered by a multidisciplinary team. Unfortunately, even with the best standard of care (SOC available, only 24% or 30% of DFUs will heal at weeks 12 or 20, respectively. The extracellular matrix (ECM in DFUs is abnormal and its impairment has been proposed as a key target for new therapeutic devices. These devices intend to replace the aberrant ECM by implanting a matrix, either devoid of cells or enhanced with fibroblasts, keratinocytes or both as well as various growth factors. These new bioengineered skin substitutes are proposed to encourage angiogenesis and in-growth of new tissue, and to utilize living cells to generate cytokines needed for wound repair. To date, the efficacy of bioengineered ECM containing live cellular elements for improving healing above that of a SOC control group has not been compared with the efficacy of an ECM devoid of cells relative to the same SOC. Our hypothesis is that there is no difference in the improved healing effected by either of these two product types relative to SOC. Methods/Design To test this hypothesis we propose a randomized, single-blind, clinical trial with three arms: SOC, SOC plus Dermagraft® (bioengineered ECM containing living fibroblasts and SOC plus Oasis® (ECM devoid of living cells in patients with nonhealing DFUs. The primary outcome is the percentage of subjects that achieved complete wound closure by week 12. Discussion If our hypothesis is correct, then immense cost savings could be realized by using the orders-of-magnitude less expensive acellular ECM device without compromising patient health outcomes. The article describes the protocol proposed to test

  10. Tissue Engineering Using Transfected Growth-Factor Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Langer, Robert S.; Freed, Lisa E.; Trippel, Stephen; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2005-01-01

    A method of growing bioengineered tissues includes, as a major component, the use of mammalian cells that have been transfected with genes for secretion of regulator and growth-factor substances. In a typical application, one either seeds the cells onto an artificial matrix made of a synthetic or natural biocompatible material, or else one cultures the cells until they secrete a desired amount of an extracellular matrix. If such a bioengineered tissue construct is to be used for surgical replacement of injured tissue, then the cells should preferably be the patient s own cells or, if not, at least cells matched to the patient s cells according to a human-leucocyteantigen (HLA) test. The bioengineered tissue construct is typically implanted in the patient's injured natural tissue, wherein the growth-factor genes enhance metabolic functions that promote the in vitro development of functional tissue constructs and their integration with native tissues. If the matrix is biodegradable, then one of the results of metabolism could be absorption of the matrix and replacement of the matrix with tissue formed at least partly by the transfected cells. The method was developed for articular chondrocytes but can (at least in principle) be extended to a variety of cell types and biocompatible matrix materials, including ones that have been exploited in prior tissue-engineering methods. Examples of cell types include chondrocytes, hepatocytes, islet cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, other organ cells, bone- and cartilage-forming cells, epithelial and endothelial cells, connective- tissue stem cells, mesodermal stem cells, and cells of the liver and the pancreas. Cells can be obtained from cell-line cultures, biopsies, and tissue banks. Genes, molecules, or nucleic acids that secrete factors that influence the growth of cells, the production of extracellular matrix material, and other cell functions can be inserted in cells by any of a variety of standard transfection techniques.

  11. The role of the implementation angle of cuttings of Phyllanthus sellowianus as a reference for a soil protection measure against surface erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, H. P.; Sutili, F. J.; Aschbacher, M.; Müller, B.

    2009-04-01

    Cutting plantation is a very common method of soil bioengineering techniques. The potential of vegetative reproduction is used to install a vegetation cover on eroded slopes to prevent surface erosion. The development of above and below biomass from parts of the stock plant in a very short time and the fast and easy propagation are one of the most important advantages of this soil bioengineering type. Several handbooks (Schiechtl, 1992; Florineth, 2004 and Zeh, 2007) suggest potential plants for vegetative reproduction and describe the procedure of plantation in detail. It is recommended that the cuttings are not driven vertically into the ground. A flat implementation angle guarantees a more uniform rooting of the cutting part driven into the soil, however there are no systematically investigations of the impact of the implementation angle on the biomass performance and consequently on the performance as a surface erosion protection measure. This paper shows results from field investigations focusing on the problem of the impact of the implementation angle of cuttings. In sum 75 specimens of the species of Phyllanthus sellowianus. The plant species was recommended as a native potential soil bioengineering plant by Sutili (s. Sutili, 2006). The cuttings were planted with an average length of 50 cm and diameter of 2 cm. The implementation angle differences between 90 (vertical) 45 and 10 degree. Two months after plantation all plants were excavated and the relevant plant data sets were collected in order to analyse the biomass performance. The field investigations are part of an integrated research project of the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil.

  12. Decellularized Tooth Bud Scaffolds for Tooth Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Vazquez, B; Oreadi, D; Yelick, P C

    2017-01-01

    Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration. Porcine TBs were harvested from discarded 6-mo-old pig jaws, and decellularized by successive sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton-X cycles. Four types of replicate implants were used in this study: 1) acellular dTBs; 2) recellularized dTBs seeded with porcine dental epithelial cells, human dental pulp cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (recell-dTBs); 3) dTBs seeded with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (dTB-BMPs); and 4) freshly isolated nondecellularized natural TBs (nTBs). Replicate samples were implanted into the mandibles of host Yucatan mini-pigs and grown for 3 or 6 mo. Harvested mandibles with implanted TB constructs were fixed in formalin, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and analyzed via histological methods. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed on harvested 6-mo samples prior to decalcification. All harvested constructs exhibited a high degree of cellularity. Significant production of organized dentin and enamel-like tissues was observed in dTB-recell and nTB implants, but not in dTB or dTB-BMP implants. Micro-CT analyses of 6-mo implants showed the formation of organized, bioengineered teeth of comparable size to natural teeth. To our knowledge, these results are the first to describe the potential use of dTBs for functional whole tooth regeneration.

  13. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... branching connecting larger chain segments. In case of high BE activity this transfer happened prior to hydration and phase separation. The starch substrates thereby became locked in their granular structure and blocked furher access of BE. Transferase-based modification of starch has today almost...... exclusively been conducted on gelatinized starch. This study provides a new concept for transferase-based modification of starches in granular state....

  14. Baby, Where Did You Get Those Eyes?: IEEE Pulse talks with Mark Sagar about the new face of artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Mark Sagar is changing the way we look at computers by giving them faces?disconcertingly realistic human faces. Sagar first gained widespread recognition for his pioneering work in rendering faces for Hollywood movies, including Avatar and King Kong. With a Ph.D. degree in bioengineering and two Academy Awards under his belt, Sagar now directs a research lab at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, a combinatorial hub where artificial intelligence (AI), neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, and cognitive psychology intersect in creating interactive, intelligent technologies.

  15. World Congress on Engineering 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong; Gelman, Len

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains fifty-one revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the international conference on Advances in Engineering Technologies and Physical Science (London, UK, 2-4 July, 2014), under the World Congress on Engineering 2014 (WCE 2014). Topics covered include mechanical engineering, bioengineering, internet engineering, wireless networks, image engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers an overview of the tremendous advances made recently in engineering technologies and the physical sciences and their applications, and also serves as an excellent reference for researchers and graduate students working in these fields.

  16. Emerging nanotechnology approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim ES; Ahn EH; Dvir T; Kim DH

    2014-01-01

    Eung-Sam Kim,1,2 Eun Hyun Ahn,3,4 Tal Dvir,5,6 Deok-Ho Kim1,4,71Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea; 3Department of Pathology, 4Institute of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 5Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 6Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israe...

  17. Education in biomedical informatics: learning by doing bioimage archiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceglia, Sara; Bonacina, Stefano; Mazzola, Luca; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    For a common user, bioimages seem to be very easy to treat, to read, to understand and, therefore, to archive. Conversely, bioimage archiving require a very complex design and implementation process that needs skilled and trained technicians. We proposed to a class of bioengineering students at the Politecnico University of Milan the implementation of a hand image repository specifically designed for highlighting the main features that should be taken into account when treating bioimage archives. Students were required to build the archive with software tools they had previously learned in other programming language courses and available at the university informatics class-rooms.

  18. Biophotolysis, hydrogen, production and algal culture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skulberg, O.M. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this essay the importance and place of biophotolysis in the hydrogen energy system is described. The biophotolysis of water is achieved by two biochemical processes carried out by the activity of chlorophyll containing reaction centres coupled to hydrogenase and nitrogenase. Micro algae belonging to the classes Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae can produce molecular hydrogen by the decomposition of water using solar energy. Among Anoxyphotobactelia organisms of the families Chrorna iaceae and Chlorobiaceae are also used for the bioengineering development of biophotolysis. A review is presented of the organisms and the processes involved in the context of their applications for algal culture technology. 2 tabs., 52 refs.

  19. Layer-by-layer films for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Catherine; Voegel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique is a versatile approach for preparing nanoscale multimaterial films: the fabrication of multicomposite films by the LbL procedure allows the combination of literally hundreds of different materials with nanometer thickness in a single device to obtain novel or superior performance. In the last 15 years the LbL technique has seen considerable developments and has now reached a point where it is beginning to find applications in bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book gives a thorough overview of applications of the LbL technique in the c

  20. Modelling organs, tissues, cells and devices using Matlab and Comsol multiphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dokos, Socrates

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a theoretical and practical overview of computational modeling in bioengineering, focusing on a range of applications including electrical stimulation of neural and cardiac tissue, implantable drug delivery, cancer therapy, biomechanics, cardiovascular dynamics, as well as fluid-structure interaction for modelling of organs, tissues, cells and devices. It covers the basic principles of modeling and simulation with ordinary and partial differential equations using MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics numerical software. The target audience primarily comprises postgraduate students and researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for practitioners in the medical device industry.