WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioenergy master plan

  1. IDC Integrated Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This is the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project Integrated Master Plan (IMP). The IMP presents the major accomplishments planned over time to re-engineer the IDC system. The IMP and the associate Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) are used for planning, scheduling, executing, and tracking the project technical work efforts. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  2. Interior design. Mastering the master plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, C E

    1995-10-01

    Reflecting on the results of the survey, this proposed interior design master planning process addresses the concerns and issues of both CEOs and facility managers in ways that focus on problem-solving strategies and methods. Use of the interior design master plan process further promotes the goals and outcomes expressed in the survey by both groups. These include enhanced facility image, the efficient selection of finishes and furnishings, continuity despite staff changes, and overall savings in both costs and time. The interior design master plan allows administrators and facility managers to anticipate changes resulting from the restructuring of health care delivery. The administrators and facility managers are then able to respond in ways that manage those changes in the flexible and cost-effective manner they are striving for. This framework permits staff members to concentrate their time and energy on the care of their patients--which is, after all, what it's all about.

  3. Master Plan para UNIMAK

    OpenAIRE

    Llorente Moreno, Francisco; Navarrete Mancebo, Gonzalo; Cruz Pinilla, Javier de la; García Méndez, María; Lacastagneratte de Figueiredo, Laura

    2012-01-01

    El Master Plan de UNIMAK se presenta como una apuesta a futuro, no solo para la Universidad de Makeni, sino también para la propia ciudad de Makeni. Se pretende potencias la Universidad como una referencia a nivel regional y como desencadenante de la estructura de trazado de la ciudad. El proyecto plantea potencial la dualidad que existe entre la infraestructura viaria y la red verde , existente en la ciudad, introduciéndola en el nuevo desarrollo del campus universitario y dotándola de la i...

  4. Low Impact Development Master Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    This project creates a Low Impact Development (LID) Master Plan to guide and prioritize future development of LID projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The LID Master Plan applies to developed areas across the Laboratory and focuses on identifying opportunities for storm water quality and hydrological improvements in the heavily urbanized areas of Technical Areas 03, 35 and 53. The LID Master Plan is organized to allow the addition of LID projects for other technical areas as time and funds allow in the future.

  5. PNNL Campus Master Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, Whitney LC

    2012-09-07

    The Plan is used as a guide for PNNL in making facility and infrastructure decisions essential to supporting the PNNL vision: to establish a modern, collaborative, flexible, and sustainable campus while optimizing the efficiency of operations in support of courageous discovery and innovation.

  6. The master plan for Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Lobnik

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maribor Town plan project began in 1995. The elaborate analytical part was directed into recognising and establishing key problems in the town and guidelines for their solution. Expert guidelines were elaborated and presented as conceptual ideas, easily understood by professionals and lay-people. The concept of the master plan or town plan as such is based on the division and connection of the four parts of the town. In the concluding remarks certain ideas on improving the planning system are presented.

  7. Nuclear safety research master plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Yang, J. U.; Jun, Y. S. and others

    2001-06-01

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output

  8. Nuclear safety research master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Yang, J. U.; Jun, Y. S. and others

    2001-06-01

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output.

  9. United States Shipbuilding Standards Master Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr, Albert W

    1992-01-01

    This Shipbuilding Standards Master Plan was developed using extensive surveys, interviews, and an iterative editing process to include the views and opinions of key persons and organizations involved...

  10. Bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chum, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Moreira, J.R.; Junginger, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy has a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential, provided that the resources are developed sustainably and that efficient bioenergy systems are used. Certain current systems and key future options including perennial cropping systems, use of biomass residues and wastes and

  11. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-09

    This is the May 2014 Update to the Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Office. It identifies the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation.

  12. Bioenergy

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Judy; Demain, Arnold L

    2008-01-01

    Given the limited supply of fossil fuels and the devastating effects of ever-increasing greenhouse gases, researchers have been committed to finding alternative fuel sources. Perhaps one of the least explored areas is bioenergy from microbes. In this landmark volume, world-renowned experts explore the possible contributions of microbes to the next generation of fuels. In 31 detailed chapters, Bioenergy provides thorough explanations of the current knowledge and future areas for research on microbial energy conversions. The volume begins with 10 chapters on ethanol production from cellulosic fe

  13. AUA Program Master Plan. Volume 1: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The Office of Air Traffic Systems Development (AUA) Program Master Plan : summarizes the management, development approach, and status of products and : services provided by the AUA organization to fulfill its role in supporting : National Airspace Sy...

  14. Momentum: "Developing Masterful Marketing Plans."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meservey, Lynne D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how directors can plan and develop a written marketing plan which can increase enrollment at child care centers. Components of successful marketing plans include parent retention; program merchandising; staff and director training; sales promotions; networking; and enrichment programs/fundraising. (NH)

  15. Evaluation of the Navy Master Planning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    econoilic, environmental and socia -political impli- cations. -47 - NOTES: PART I I Department of the Navy, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, "Command...directive aciually pre- dated the NAVFAC master planning instruction. It stated- ’(Ma~ter plans) will become the media for maintaining continuity in future

  16. Colorado Academic Library Master Plan, Spring 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; And Others

    Based on a need to assess current library strengths and weaknesses and to project potential library roles in supporting higher education, this master plan makes a series of recommendations to Colorado's academic libraries. It is noted that the plan was endorsed by both the Colorado Commission on Higher Education and the Colorado State Department…

  17. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan. March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office is one of the 10 technology development offices within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy. This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (the Office). It identifies the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D), and market transformation and crosscutting activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation. This MYPP is intended for use as an operational guide to help the Office manage and coordinate its activities, as well as a resource to help communicate its mission and goals to stakeholders and the public.

  18. Whatcom Community College Master Plan, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatcom Community Coll., Bellingham, WA.

    This master plan for Whatcom Community College (WCC) is intended to communicate the purposes and direction of the College to its clientele and to provide WCC personnel with guidelines for developing activities which will accomplish the purposes and move the College in that direction. The first chapter traces the history of WCC, describes WCC's…

  19. Master environmental plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Peters, R.W.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1991-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a master environmental plan (MEP) for Fort Devens, Massachusetts, for the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. The MEP is an assessment based on environmental laws and regulations of both the federal government and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The MEP assess the physical and environmental status of 58 potential hazardous waste sites, including 54 study areas (SAs) that pose a potential for releasing contamination into the environment and 4 areas of concern (AOCs) that are known to have substantial contamination. For each SA or AOC, this MEP describes the known history and environment, identifies additional data needs, and proposes possible response actions. Most recommended response actions consist of environmental sampling and monitoring and other characterization studies. 74 refs., 63 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. TWRS Privatization Phase 1 Master Site Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARAZIN, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two privatization phases. Phase I, a 'proof of concept' phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary far privatization to proceed. Once established, privatization will be expanded in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. In conjunction with preparation of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP)(RL, 1996), a location was selected for the Phase I demonstration facilities (Shord, 1996). The location selected was the area previously developed and characterized for the Grout Disposal Site, adjoining the 200 East Area. The site is of sufficient size for a Private Contractor (PC) to carry out pretreatment, immobilization, and vitrification operations and possesses the required characteristics (e.g., close to feed tanks) to best facilitate the Phase I operations. This overall long-range Master Site Plan (MSP) has been developed to establish a ''baseline'' for the (TWRS) Privatization Phase I (TPPI) PC Site. The MSP depicts the planned layout for the PC Site along with various interfaces between the site and other Hanford utilities and functions. The complete integration of TPPl MSP with overall Hanford Site planning process will assist in establishing the PC site and the necessary priorities to meet the Hanford cleanup mission. The MSP has been developed systematically into a comprehensive, safe, flexible, logical and cost-effective plan. The general philosophy behind the preparation of a MSP for the TPPl program is that it will serve as a single source documentation of the planning for the development of the TPPl complex. The effort will plan temporary and permanent land use, utilities, and traffic flow for the overall program. It will identify needs

  1. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  2. Double Star project - master science operations plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available For Double Star Project (DSP exploration, the scientific operations are very important and essential for achieving its scientific objectives. Two years before the launch of the DSP satellites (TC-1 and TC-2 and during the mission operating phase, the long-term and short-term master science operations plans (MSOP were produced. MSOP is composed of the operation schedules of all the scientific instruments, the modes and timelines of the Payload Service System on TC-1 and TC-2, and the data receiving schedules of the three ground stations. The MSOP of TC-1 and TC-2 have been generated according to the scientific objectives of DSP, the orbits of DSP, the near-Earth space environments and the coordination with Cluster, etc., so as to make full use of the exploration resources provided by DSP and to acquire as much quality scientific data as possible for the scientific communities. This paper has summarized the observation resources of DSP, the states of DSP and its evolution since the launch, the strategies and rules followed for operating the payload and utilizing the ground stations, and the production of MSOP. Until now, the generation and execution of MSOP is smooth and successful, the operating of DSP is satisfactory, and most of the scientific objectives of DSP have been fulfilled.

  3. Double Star project - master science operations plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Liu, Z.

    2005-11-01

    For Double Star Project (DSP) exploration, the scientific operations are very important and essential for achieving its scientific objectives. Two years before the launch of the DSP satellites (TC-1 and TC-2) and during the mission operating phase, the long-term and short-term master science operations plans (MSOP) were produced. MSOP is composed of the operation schedules of all the scientific instruments, the modes and timelines of the Payload Service System on TC-1 and TC-2, and the data receiving schedules of the three ground stations. The MSOP of TC-1 and TC-2 have been generated according to the scientific objectives of DSP, the orbits of DSP, the near-Earth space environments and the coordination with Cluster, etc., so as to make full use of the exploration resources provided by DSP and to acquire as much quality scientific data as possible for the scientific communities. This paper has summarized the observation resources of DSP, the states of DSP and its evolution since the launch, the strategies and rules followed for operating the payload and utilizing the ground stations, and the production of MSOP. Until now, the generation and execution of MSOP is smooth and successful, the operating of DSP is satisfactory, and most of the scientific objectives of DSP have been fulfilled.

  4. Planning for Increased Bioenergy use - Strategies for Minimising Environmental Impacts and Analysing the Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Anna

    2006-08-01

    There are several goals aimed at increasing the use of renewable energy in the Swedish energy system. Bioenergy is one important renewable energy source and there is a potential to increase its use in the future. This thesis aimed to develop and analyse strategies and tools that could be used when planning for conversion to bioenergy-based heating systems and the building of new residential areas with bioenergy-based heating. The goal was to enable the increase of bioenergy and simultaneously minimise the negative health effects caused by emissions associated with the combustion of bioenergy. The thesis consists of two papers. Paper I concerned existing residential areas and conversion from electric heating and individual heating systems, such as firewood and oil boilers, to more modern and low-emitting pellet techniques and small-scale district heating. Paper II concerned new residential areas and how to integrate bioenergy-based heating systems that cause impacts on local air quality into the physical planning process through using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and a meteorological dispersion model, ALARM. The results from Paper I indicated that it was possible to convert areas currently using electric heating to pellet techniques and small-scale district heating without degrading local air quality. Furthermore, it was possible to decrease high emissions caused by firewood boilers by replacing them with pellet boilers. The results from Paper II highlighted that GIS and ALARM were advantageous for analysing local air quality characteristics when planning for new residential areas and before a residential area is built: thus, avoiding negative impacts caused by bioenergy-based combustion. In conclusion, the work procedures developed in this thesis can be used to counteract negative impacts on local air quality with increasing use of bioenergy in the heating system. Analysis of potentially negative aspects before conversion to bioenergy-based heating

  5. LLNL line-item construction projects Master Site Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-15

    This interim submittal is an updated 1996 overview of the Master Plan based on the 1995 LLNL Site Development Plan, illustrating the future land use considerations, and the locations of proposed facilities as documented through the line item development process and keyed to the summary table. The following components in addition to the line-item proposals remain key elements in the implementation strategy of the Master Plan: personnel migration, revitalization, space reduction, classified core contraction, utility systems, and environmental restoration.

  6. Two levels decision system for efficient planning and implementation of bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, Nasser; Martins, Ricardo; Wang, Kefeng; Seki, Hiroya; Naka, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    When planning bioenergy production from biomass, planners should take into account each and every stakeholder along the biomass supply chains, e.g. biomass resources suppliers, transportation, conversion and electricity suppliers. Also, the planners have to consider social concerns, environmental and economical impacts related with establishing the biomass systems and the specific difficulties of each country. To overcome these problems in a sustainable manner, a robust decision support system is required. For that purpose, a two levels general Bioenergy Decision System (gBEDS) for bioenergy production planning and implementation was developed. The core part of the gBEDS is the information base, which includes the basic bioenergy information and the detailed decision information. Basic bioenergy information include, for instance, the geographical information system (GIS) database, the biomass materials' database, the biomass logistic database and the biomass conversion database. The detailed decision information considers the parameters' values database with their default values and the variables database, values obtained by simulation and optimization. It also includes a scenario database, which is used for demonstration to new users and also for case based reasoning by planners and executers. Based on the information base, the following modules are included to support decision making: the simulation module with graph interface based on the unit process (UP) definition and the genetic algorithms (GAs) methods for optimal decisions and the Matlab module for applying data mining methods (fuzzy C-means clustering and decision trees) to the biomass collection points, to define the location of storage and bioenergy conversion plants based on the simulation and optimization model developed of the whole life cycle of bioenergy generation. Furthermore, Matlab is used to set up a calculation model with crucial biomass planning parameters (e.g. costs, CO 2 emissions), over

  7. Review of Current Aircrew Coordination Training Program and Master Plan for Program Enhancement: Aircrew Coordination Training Master Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grubb, G

    2001-01-01

    ...) program to develop a master plan of continuous improvement. Research source materials included policies, training courseware, evaluation guides, research papers and reports, and assessment summaries of operational trend data...

  8. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: November 2014 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    This is the November 2014 Update to the Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office. It identifies the RDD&D activities the Office will focus on over the next four years.

  9. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: March 2015 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-03-01

    This is the March 2015 Update to the Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office. It identifies the RDD&D activities the Office will focus on over the next four years.

  10. Development of Facilities Master Plan and Laboratory Renovation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrea D

    2011-10-03

    Funding from this grant has allowed Morehouse School of Medicine to complete its first professionally developed, comprehensive campus master plan that is in alignment with the recently completed strategic plan. In addition to master planning activities, funds were used for programming and designing research renovations, and also to supplement other research facility upgrades by providing lighting and equipment. The activities funded by this grant will provide the catalyst for substantial improvement in the School's overall facilities for biomedical education and research, and will also provide much of the information needed to conduct a successful campaign to raise funds for proposed buildings and renovations.

  11. Educational Program Master Plan for San Mateo Community College District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo Community Coll. District, CA.

    In 1974, the San Mateo Community College District (SMCCD) organized a District Master Planning Committee (DMPC), which was charged with outlining a planning program for the District which would be responsive to individual and community needs. The DMPC was comprised of student, staff, and community representatives, and was aided by a District…

  12. Hypermedia Applications for Army Installation Master Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    node E, "pizza 8 1. Habermas . Communication and the Evolution of Society (Beacon Press, 1979). 9 J. Forester. 10 1. Friend and A. Hickling, Planning...Planning Under Pressure (Pergamon, 1987). Gillenson. M.L., Database (Wiley, 1985). Habermas , J., Communication and the Evolution of Society (Beacon Press

  13. Implementation plan for HANDI 2000 TWRS master equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the implementation plan for an additional deliverable of the HANDI 2000 Project. The PassPort Equipment Data module processes include those portions of the COTS PassPort system required to support tracking and management of the Master Equipment List for Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) and custom software created to work with the COTS products

  14. 78 FR 61373 - Animal Center Master Plan Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... cumulative negative impacts to regional air quality. Wastewater/Water Supply The Master Plan recommends system upgrades and water conservation measures to address the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP... Quality Air monitoring data at the stations closest to NIHAC demonstrate that ozone and PM ambient air...

  15. 33 CFR 385.30 - Master Implementation Sequencing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Master Implementation Sequencing Plan. 385.30 Section 385.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... from the adaptive management program, including new information on costs and benefits; or (vii...

  16. Educational Services Master Plan Project. Phase I: Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Suzanne; And Others

    This document reports the findings of four task forces involved in the first phase of master planning for the Peralta Community College District. Task Force I concerned itself with population, revenue, and enrollment trends. Peralta has had financial difficulty because of inflation and a general decline in assessed valuation per ADA. After the…

  17. Integrated Energy Design in Master Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    of opportunities and limitations with regard to light, shade, sun and wind. The aim is threefold: (1) to unfold the link between building energy use and urban density, typology and fabric; (2) to analyse how technical scientific knowledge can be integrated in early urban planning and design decisions (IED); and (3...... important observation for qualitative design research is that the first step to improving energy performance must be taken with the architect's first sketch on paper. It is here that the framework and preconditions for the city and the building's performance will be set. Argued this way, optimization...

  18. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework combined with increasing demand for energy has created an opportunity for dramatic changes in the way energy is generated in Ghana. However, the impending changes and their implication remain uncertain. This paper examines the extent to which future energy scenarios in Ghana could rely on energy from biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate that introducing bioenergy to the energy mix could reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions by about 6 million tonnes CO 2 e by 2030, equivalent to a 14% reduction in a business-as-usual scenario. This paper advocates the use of second generation ethanol for transport, to the extent that it is economically exploitable. Resorting to first generation ethanol would require the allocation of over 580,000 ha of agricultural land for ethanol production. - Highlights: • This paper examines modern bioenergy contribution to Ghana's future energy mix. • Three scenarios are developed and analysed. • Opportunities exist for modern bioenergy to replace carbon intensive fuels. • Introducing modern bioenergy to the mix could result in a 14% reduction in GHG.

  19. Freezing the Master Production Schedule Under Rolling Planning Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sridharan; William L. Berry; V. Udayabhanu

    1987-01-01

    The stability of the Master Production Schedule (MPS) is a critical issue in managing production operations with a Material Requirements Planning System. One method of achieving stability is to freeze some portion or all of the MPS. While freezing the MPS can limit the number of schedule changes, it can also produce an increase in production and inventory costs. This paper examines three decision variables in freezing the MPS: the freezing method, the freeze interval length, and the planning ...

  20. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  1. Master-planned in exurbia: examining the drivers and impacts of master-planned communities at the urban fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenna H. Tilt; Lee. Cerveny

    2013-01-01

    Smart growth strategies of infill and compact growth in existing suburban cities will most likely not be sufficient to absorb a new US household growth in the future. To meet housing demands and preferences, master-planned communities will continue to be built in outlying exurban areas. However, little is known about the impacts these communities may have on the...

  2. Louisiana's 2017 Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority is charged with coordinating restoration and protection investments through the development and implementation of Louisiana's Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The first master plan was submitted to the Louisiana Legislature in 2007 and is mandated to be updated every five years. The plan's objectives are to reduce economic losses from flooding, promote sustainability by harnessing natural processes, provide habitats for commercial and recreational activities, sustain cultural heritage and promote a viable working coast. Two goals drive decision making about the appropriate suite of restoration and protection projects to include in the Plan: restore and maintain Louisiana's wetlands and provide flood protection for coastal Louisiana's citizens. As part of the decision making process, a wide range of additional metrics are used to evaluate the complex, competing needs of communities, industries, navigation and fisheries. The master plan decision making process includes the identification of individual protection and restoration projects that are evaluated with landscape, storm surge, and risk assessment models and then ranked by how well they perform over time across the set of decision drivers and metrics. High performing projects are assembled into alternatives constrained by available funding and river resources. The planning process is grounded not only on extensive scientific analysis but also on interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists, engineers, planners, community advocates, and coastal stakeholders which creates the long-term dialogue needed for complex environmental planning decisions. It is through this collaboration that recommended alternatives are reviewed and modified to develop the final Plan. Keywords:alternative formulation, comprehensive planning, ecosystem restoration, flood risk reduction and stakeholder engagement

  3. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  4. Underground storage tank - Integrated Demonstration Technical Task Plan master schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.M.

    1994-08-01

    This document provides an integrated programmatic schedule (i.e., Master Schedule) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program. It includes top-level schedule and related information for the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50) UST-ID activities. The information is based upon the fiscal year (FY) 1994 technical task plans (TTPS) and has been prepared as a baseline information resource for program participants. The Master Schedule contains Level 0 and Level 1 program schedules for the UST-ID Program. This document is one of a number of programmatic documents developed to support and manage the UST-ID activities. It is composed of the following sections: Program Overview - provides a summary background of the UST-ID Program. This summary addresses the mission, scope, and organizational structure of the program; Activity Description - provides a programmatic description of UST-ID technology development activities and lists the key milestones for the UST-ID systems. Master Schedules - contains the Level 0 and Level 1 programmatic schedules for the UST-ID systems. References - lists the UST-ID programmatic documents used as a basis for preparing the Master Schedule. The appendixes contain additional details related to site-specific technology applications

  5. Quality control of brachytherapy system module Oncentra MasterPlan V3.3 planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monja Ray, P. de la; Torres Pozas, S.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Macias Verde, D.; Martin Oliva, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of quality control carried out the planning system (SP) MasterPlan Oncentra Brachy, version 3.3 (Nucletron), on the occasion of its launch, following the recommendations proposed in the Protocol for quality control in planning systems therapy with ionizing radiation [SEFM] published by the Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM) in 2005.

  6. Path planning of master-slave manipulator using graphic simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. K.; Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    To handle the high level radioactive materials such as spent fuels remotely, the master-slave manipulator is generally used as a remote handling equipment in the hot cell. To analyze the motion and to implement the training system by virtual reality technology, the simulator for M-S manipulator using the computer graphics is developed. The parts are modelled in 3-D graphics, assembled, and kinematics are assigned. The inverse kinematics of the manipulator is defined, and the slave of manipulator is coupled with master by the manipulator's specification. Also, the virtual work cell is implemented in the graphical environment which is the same as the real environment and the path planning method using the function of the collision detection for a manipulator are proposed. This graphic simulator of manipulator can be effectively used in designing of the maintenance processes for the hot cell equipment and enhance the reliability of the spent fuel management

  7. The Waterfront of Naples in the New Master Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giannì

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  The paper suggests a synthetic summary of the main elements involved in the complex process of requalification of Naples coastline, starting from the new general town plan. The requalification of the coastline and the reconstitution of a true relationship of city and sea is one of the crucial actions of the strategy established by the new Master Plan in order to offer an high urban quality to Naples. In the Master Plan the whole coastline, from La Pietra to Pietrarsa, is subjected to the approval of an Executive Plan (Piano Urbanistico Attuativo that, for few segments covered by environmental planning, such as Posillipo, is required also by the landscape plan in force, in order to suggest planning and operative solutions to the current safeguarding action. The development of the UIP is still in progress and the Municipal Urban Planning Department has been given the task of it. As it occurred in similar occasions, the operating choice consists in making an implementing planning for sections, placed anyway into a unitary basic design and formal framework which define the fundamental strategy and goals. The reconstitution of the relationship between city and sea is pursued in three different ways: a improvement of the accesses to the sea, which at present are forbidden in several stretches of the coast; b improvement of the coast infrastructure, on different levels, from swimming to harbour ones; c realization of a coast infrastructure and equipment system articulated and distributed in different ways: infrastructure specifically targeted to improve the mobility along the coast, characterized by high congestion of the metropolitan area; equipment specifically targeted to facilitate the use of the coast as unique, extraordinary infrastructure for free time, amusements and enjoyment of natural resources. All those modalities should be accomplished in accordance with the safeguard and exploitation of the many historic and environmental resources

  8. Yakima Habitat Improvement Project Master Plan, Technical Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golder Associates, Inc.

    2003-04-22

    The Yakima Urban Growth Area (UGA) is a developing and growing urban area in south-central Washington. Despite increased development, the Yakima River and its tributaries within the UGA continue to support threatened populations of summer steelhead and bull trout as well as a variety of non-listed salmonid species. In order to provide for the maintenance and recovery of these species, while successfully planning for the continued growth and development within the UGA, the City of Yakima has undertaken the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project. The overall goal of the project is to maintain, preserve, and restore functioning fish and wildlife habitat within and immediately surrounding the Yakima UGA over the long term. Acquisition and protection of the fish and wildlife habitat associated with key properties in the UGA will prevent future subdivision along riparian corridors, reduce further degradation or removal of riparian habitat, and maintain or enhance the long term condition of aquatic habitat. By placing these properties in long-term protection, the threat of development from continued growth in the urban area will be removed. To most effectively implement the multi-year habitat acquisition and protection effort, the City has developed this Master Plan. The Master Plan provides the structure and guidance for future habitat acquisition and restoration activities to be performed within the Yakima Urban Area. The development of this Master Plan also supports several Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPAs) of the NOAA Fisheries 2000 Biological Opinion (BiOp), as well as the Water Investment Action Agenda for the Yakima Basin, local planning efforts, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program. This Master Plan also provides the framework for coordination of the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project with other fish and wildlife habitat acquisition and protection activities currently being implemented in the area. As a

  9. Master planning for stream protection in urban watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, B R; Doerter, J T

    2005-01-01

    Urbanization results in great changes to the landscape and the water environment simply because stormwater runoff differs in quantity and quality from the pre-urbanization state. Streams, rivers, lakes, estuaries and other receiving water bodies experience the changes to runoff frequencies and volumes and react accordingly. The forces behind the observed changes in the receiving waters are discussed in this paper and suggestions are made on how to plan to deal with them. Urban watershed and waterway master planning can help to mitigate, in large part, the impacts imposed on these waters by land-use changes. Although each watershed is unique, some general principles are suggested to deal with these emergent problems.

  10. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  11. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. 75 FR 6625 - Dixie National Forest, UT, Kitty Hawk Administrative Site Master Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Development Plan. The Proposed Action is a Master Development Plan (MDP) for the existing 14-acre administrative site. The MDP will detail planned facilities, other development and uses for the site into the...

  13. a New Master Plan for Harran University Based on Geodesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, F. B.; Erdoğan, S.; Yılmaz, M.; Ulukavak, M.; Şenol, H. İ.; Memduhoğlu, A.

    2017-11-01

    Harran hosted the historical Harran University, which is considered to be the oldest university of the world. The Department of Geomatics of the modern Harran University has been charged with the design of a new master plan using Geodesign technology. Carl Steinitz developed a complete framework for doing Geodesign as applied to regional landscape studies. In this project "Geodesign Hub", an online software for collaborative Geodesign, has been selected as the main tool. According to the Geodesign concept, data collection had to be limited to support the evaluation of the ten selected systems. The deployment of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been necessary in order to collect data with the required accuracy for such a vast area. Currently, works on the third model of the Geodesign framework are continuing.

  14. A NEW MASTER PLAN FOR HARRAN UNIVERSITY BASED ON GEODESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Ernst

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Harran hosted the historical Harran University, which is considered to be the oldest university of the world. The Department of Geomatics of the modern Harran University has been charged with the design of a new master plan using Geodesign technology. Carl Steinitz developed a complete framework for doing Geodesign as applied to regional landscape studies. In this project “Geodesign Hub”, an online software for collaborative Geodesign, has been selected as the main tool. According to the Geodesign concept, data collection had to be limited to support the evaluation of the ten selected systems. The deployment of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS has been necessary in order to collect data with the required accuracy for such a vast area. Currently, works on the third model of the Geodesign framework are continuing.

  15. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gallo Pizella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.

  16. Using Climate Change Information in Large Scale Coastal Planning: Louisiana's 2017 Coastal Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Louisiana coast has suffered severe land loss in recent decades as human activities have exacerbated the effects of natural stressors leading to catastrophic land loss and increased flood threats to coastal communities. Planning for the future requires a recognition of climate change but also leads to the challenge of understanding how different plausible future conditions influence the outcomes of restoration and protection actions. In coastal Louisiana, the $50 billion Coastal master Plan is legislatively required to be revisited every 5 years in order to ensure that plans for the future continue to be based on the best available, but constantly evolving, scientific information. For the 2017 iteration of the Coastal Master Plan, identification of the environmental scenarios to be explored began in 2014 and included both professional judgment regarding the most important drivers of future change, as well as climate change information derived during the National Climate Assessment. The number of scenarios to be explored was limited by both available resources and the need to make the findings accessible to stakeholders and policy makers. Plausible ranges were identified for key drivers of coastal landscape change, including climatic factors such as eustatic sea-level, precipitation and evapotranspiration. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore how the coastal landscape changed in response to combinations of values, allowed agency personnel to select three scenarios against which to test the effectiveness of different restoration and protection actions. The 2017 Coastal Master Plan was then developed by exploring the response of different actions to the scenarios, and how project costs also varied depending on future conditions. Such consideration of climate change in coastal planning at the state scale is facilitated by the availability of scientifically valid information on climate change, that has already been reviewed and sourced.

  17. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  18. Homeroom Activities in a College of Technology Based on the Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchida, Kunihiiko; Murata, Hideaki; Yuji, Junichiro

    Homeroom (HR) activities have an important role in engineering education at technical colleges. Yatsushiro National College of Technology has made a master plan for them and has been putting the plan into practical use since 2002. This plan is comprehensive and has two main categories, social education and career guidance, both being composed of three sub-categories (e.g., self-understanding and making future plans) . Based on the master plan, each HR teacher makes his own plan for HR activities for his classroom at the beginning of the academic year. We have reached a consensus to share our practice and to improve HR activities for years to come. We also recognize that to carry out HR activities based on a master plan that reflects the school's educational goals is essential in order to train students who are well-prepared, both as engineers and as humans.

  19. The Effect of Modeling Qualities, Tones and Gages in Ceramic Supply Chains' Master Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel MUNDI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic production processes are characterized by providing quantities of the same finished goods that differ in qualities, tones and gages. This aspect becomes a problem for ceramic supply chains (SCs that should promise and serve customer orders with homogeneous quantities of the same finished good. In this paper a mathematical programming model for the cen-tralized master planning of ceramic SC is proposed. Inputs to the master plan include demand forecasts in terms of customer order classes based on their order size and splitting percentages of a lot into homogeneous sub-lots. Then, the master plan defines the size and loading of lots to production lines and their distribution with the aim of maximizing the number of customer orders fulfilled with homogeneous quantities in the most efficient manner for the SC. Finally, the effect of modeling qualities, tones and gages in master planning is assessed.

  20. "Hospital Master Plan'ist" haiglavõrgu arengukavani / Tarmo Bakler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bakler, Tarmo, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade, kuidas Hospital Master Planìs toodud põhimõtteid on kasutatud praeguseni elluviidud muutuste tegemisel ja kuidas on HMPd täiendatud Eesti Tervishoiuprojekt 2015 koostatud haiglavõrgu arengukavas 2002. Kaart. Tabelid

  1. Minimizing Lid Overstows in Master Stowage Plans for Container Vessels is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajspur, Mai Lise; Jensen, Rune Møller; Guilbert, Nicolas

    Container vessel stowage is a particularly hard combinatorial problem within the shipping industry. The currently most successful approaches decompose the problem hierarchically and first generate a master plan that handle highlevel constraints and objectives such as balance and stress moments......, maximization of crane utility, and minimization of crane lifts. Extra crane lifts are mainly caused by containers that overstow or block each other. In particular, it is essential that no containers in a master plan stored under and over a hatch-lid cover overstow each other. In this report we show...... that it is an NP -complete problem to generate master plans that minimize the number of these lid overstows. Since any efficient approach to container vessel stowage most likely must include a master plan, the implication of this result is that future research must focus and developing good heuristics...

  2. Emerging role of Geographical Information System (GIS), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and spatial LCA (GIS-LCA) in sustainable bioenergy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Baruah, D C; Singh, Anoop; Kataki, Sampriti; Medhi, Kristina; Kumari, Shilpi; Ramachandra, T V; Jenkins, B M; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-10-01

    Sustainability of a bioenergy project depends on precise assessment of biomass resource, planning of cost-effective logistics and evaluation of possible environmental implications. In this context, this paper reviews the role and applications of geo-spatial tool such as Geographical Information System (GIS) for precise agro-residue resource assessment, biomass logistic and power plant design. Further, application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in understanding the potential impact of agro-residue bioenergy generation on different ecosystem services has also been reviewed and limitations associated with LCA variability and uncertainty were discussed. Usefulness of integration of GIS into LCA (i.e. spatial LCA) to overcome the limitations of conventional LCA and to produce a holistic evaluation of the environmental benefits and concerns of bioenergy is also reviewed. Application of GIS, LCA and spatial LCA can help alleviate the challenges faced by ambitious bioenergy projects by addressing both economics and environmental goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Methodology for Assessing how Master Plans Contribute Toward Acheiving Sustainable Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdana NEAMŢU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of master plans and their role in advancing the goals of sustainable development at the local level. The research objectives are threefold: to examine the role of sustainability planning among other strands of planning and to assess the importance of sustainable local development plans/strategies as an important tool for contemporary planners based on literature produced at the international level; to examine how the evolutions in the field of international planning theory and practice fit with the Romanian context; and to empirically test the perception of local planners with regard to the role sustainability planning and plans play in the future development of their communities. The empirical research is based on two complementary methods: interviews with planners and the assessment of master plans based on a set of pre-determined criteria. The conclusion of the article is that despite the widespread evolution of master plans, they are perceived as a goal in themselves rather than a means. Sustainability considerations are often part of these plans; however, planners themselves seem to have difficulties in labeling a certain policy/program as sustainable or not. In addition, sustainability is defined based on existing definitions rather than being context-driven. The master plans rarely reflect if certain issues are on the public agenda and how the community will address them; thus, in our opinion, the plans by themselves, cannot represent a good indicator of how seriously communities take sustainability.

  4. Challenges and Choices: The Master Plan for Florida Postsecondary Education. Report and Recommendations by the Florida Postsecondary Education Planning Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, Tallahassee.

    This document presents the master plan for Florida postsecondary education, with recommendations in the areas of access, interdependence, outcomes, and funding. An introduction offers a vision statement for postsecondary education in the state, reviews the planning process, identifies underlying principles, and explains the planning context. The…

  5. 20 CFR 632.22 - Modification of a Comprehensive Annual Plan (CAP) and/or Master Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of a Comprehensive Annual Plan (CAP) and/or Master Plan. 632.22 Section 632.22 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING..., Application and Modification Procedures § 632.22 Modification of a Comprehensive Annual Plan (CAP) and/or...

  6. SEA effectiveness for landscape and master planning: An investigation in Sardinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Montis, Andrea, E-mail: andreadm@uniss.it [Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione Ingegneria del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Ledda, Antonio, E-mail: antonioledda@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione Ingegneria del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Caschili, Simone, E-mail: s.caschili@ucl.ac.uk [UCL QASER Lab and Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 7HB (United Kingdom); Ganciu, Amedeo, E-mail: dott.amedeoganciu@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione Ingegneria del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Barra, Mario, E-mail: barra@uniss.it [Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione Ingegneria del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The Italian administrative bodies and planning agencies have embraced with mixed feedbacks the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) through the European Directive 2001/42/EC. Concurrently, regional and local spatial planning practice have been characterized by a new approach inspired by landscape planning. The Italian region of Sardinia has been one of the pioneering administrative bodies in the Italian and European arena that has adopted landscape principles for the construction of its regional master plan (PPR, Piano Paesaggistico Regionale). Municipalities are now carrying out the review of their master plans to the PPR's prescriptions and indications. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to assess the level of SEA implementation in the municipal master plans of Sardinia, six years after the approval of the PPR. Rooted in the SEA international literature we construct a modular and adaptable on-line survey for officers involved in the review of municipal master plans. The results show that many Sardinian municipalities have not reviewed their master plans to the PPR's regulations yet and only a few municipalities have started this review process according to the SEA procedure. - Highlights: • We study strategic environmental assessment (SEA) effectiveness on land use plans • Four SEA implementation key issues are drawn from international literature • Data collection has included an on-line survey with close and open questions • Results indicate that SEA has been poorly implemented in landscape and master plans • Weak aspects include planning alternatives, financial resources, and monitoring.

  7. Evaluation of Plan Implementation: Peri-urban Development and the Shanghai Master Plan 1999-2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuan He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s China has experienced unprecedented urbanisation as a result of a series of reforms promoting rapid economic development. Shanghai, like the other big cities along China’s coastline, has witnessed extraordinary growth in its economy and population with industrial development and rural-to-urban migration generating extensive urban expansion. Shanghai’s GDP growth rate has been over 10 per cent for more than 15 years. Its population in 2013 was estimated at 23.47 million, which is double its size in 1979. The urban area enlarged by four times from 644 to 2,860 km2 between 1977 and 2010. Such demanding growth and dramatic changes present big challenges for urban planning practice in Shanghai. Plans have not kept up with development and the mismatch between the proposals in plans and the actual spatial development has gradually increased, reaching a critical level since 2000. The mismatch in the periurban areas is more notable than that in the existing urban area, but there has not been a systematic review of the relationship between plan and implementation. Indeed, there are few studies on the evaluation of plan implementation in China generally. Although many plans at numerous spatial levels are successively prepared and revised, only few of them have been evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and implementation.  This particularly demanding context for planning where spatial development becomes increasingly unpredictable and more difficult to influence presents an opportunity to investigate the role of plans under conditions of rapid urbanisation. The research project asks to what extent have spatial plans influenced the actual spatial development in the peri-urban areas of Shanghai? The research pays particular attention to the role of the Shanghai Master Plan 1999-2020 (Plan 1999. By answering the main research question this study seeks to contribute to a better understanding of present planning practice in Shanghai

  8. Mastering the city: Formal and informal planning tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliopa Dimitrovska Andrews

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly discusses features of the current town planning systems in Europe and in Slovenia, and on-going changes relating to new approaches to town planning, focussing on specific aspects, namely: on the need for an urban design strategy and informal planning documentation support, on planning gain and on action planning. Three examples of design issues are discussed: implementation of statutory plans (The Highbury initiatives, Birmingham, negotiated urban form (Broadgate Centre, London and development control (Rog renewal, Ljubljana. Special attention is given to public involvement in design issues.

  9. Master plan for remediation of the Sillamaee tailings pond and technical design project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.

    2000-01-01

    Remediation of the Sillamaee radioactive tailings pond is a priority in the Estonian National Environmental Plan. The Sillamaee plant has processed metal ores by hydrometallurgical methods since 1946. Processing continued until 1990, but in the 1970s, production of rare earths and rare metals was introduced and continues today at a smaller scale. The tailings pond contains residues from these operations. The environmental problems associated with the tailings pond are the stability of the dam and the release of contaminants. In order to deal with these two issues effectively, a master plan was drawn up. The master plan covers the period from 1997 to 2008 and was compiled with the cooperation of the Silmet Group and the Sillamaee International Expert Reference Group (SIERG). The master plan sets up a systematic approach for the overall tailings pond remediation, including drying its interior, reshaping and covering the surface, minimizing water flow through the tailings, and ensuring long-term dam stability

  10. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  11. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  12. OPS Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OPS Master is a management tool and database for integrated financial planning and portfolio management in USAID Missions. Using OPS Master, the three principal...

  13. Quality control of brachytherapy system module Oncentra MasterPlan V3.3 planning; Control de calidad del modulo de braquiterapia del sistema de planificacion Oncentra MasterPlan V3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monja Ray, P. de la; Torres Pozas, S.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Macias Verde, D.; Martin Oliva, R.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of quality control carried out the planning system (SP) MasterPlan Oncentra Brachy, version 3.3 (Nucletron), on the occasion of its launch, following the recommendations proposed in the Protocol for quality control in planning systems therapy with ionizing radiation [SEFM, published by the Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM) in 2005].

  14. Clackamas Community College Master Planning Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Associates, Redwood City, CA.

    A study aimed at the development of alternative solutions to building and campus planning problems of the Clakamas Community College (Oregon City, Oregon) is reported. The two main objectives of the study were: (1) to evaluate the current proposed solution (Community Center Building) to the college's need for a community/student center facility;…

  15. Master Plan for Tennessee Schools: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Board of Education, Nashville.

    The Education Improvement Act (EIA) was passed in Tennessee in 1992. It established the Basic Education Program (BEP) as the funding formula used to provide adequate, equitable, and sustainable school funding. The 1997 master plan is consistent with the national Goals 2000 legislation and addresses each of the eight national goals. The plan…

  16. Master Plan for Tennessee Schools, 1995: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Board of Education, Nashville.

    The Tennessee State Legislature passed the Education Improvement Act (EIA) in 1992, which established the Basic Education Program (BEP) as the funding formula for providing adequate, equitable, and sustainable school funding. This document presents the 1995 Master Plan for Tennessee Schools, which focuses on the priority issues that must be…

  17. Syracuse urban forest master plan: guiding the city's forest resource into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Paul R. O' Connor; [Compilers

    2001-01-01

    The Syracuse Urban Forest Master Plan is one of the most comprehensive urban forest assessments ever developed for a city. This report combines a high-resolution digital urban cover map with field vegetation sampling data from all land uses, a 100-percent street-tree inventory, a survey of city residents regarding desirable and undesirable tree characteristics and...

  18. The Structure of the University Network: From the Soviet to Russian "Master Plan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminov, Ia. I.; Semenov, D. S.; Froumin, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss the underpinnings of structural analysis in the higher education system. The article justifies why it focuses on specific labor market segments and the nature of the university's basic product as grounds for proposing a typology and groups of institutions. A Soviet "master plan" is reconstructed on the basis of the…

  19. And the Sky Is Grey: The Ambivalent Outcomes of the California Master Plan for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2018-01-01

    In the 1960 Master Plan for Higher Education, California in the United States famously combined the principles of excellence and access within a steep three-tiered system of Higher Education. It fashioned the world's strongest system of public research universities, while creating an open access system that brought college to millions of American…

  20. An LNS Approach for Container Stowage Multi-port Master Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario

    2013-01-01

    ) to solve the first of the two phases, the multi-port master planning problem. Our approach combines the strength of mathematical modeling with the flexibility of a local search. We show how the new approach can solve more instances than previous mathematical models, and present an analysis of its...

  1. The Dutch Bicycle Master Plan and road safety : measures to be taken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Blokpoel, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Bicycle Master Plan was launched in 1990 and concluded in 1996. To mark its conclusion, a study was carried out to assess developments in road safety for cyclists. An overview of future measures was also compiled. Since 1950, there have been three broad periods: (1) 1950-1975: an increase in the

  2. Cooperative Path Planning and Constraints Analysis for Master-Slave Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Gan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategy of cooperative path planning for a master-slave multiple robot system is presented in this paper. The path planning method is based on motion constraints between the end-effectors of cooperative robots. Cooperation motions have been classified into three types by relative motions between end-effectors of master and slave robots, which is concurrent cooperation, coupled synchronous cooperation and combined synchronous cooperation. Based on this classification, position /orientation constraints and joint velocity constraints are explored in-depth here. In order to validate the path planning method and the theoretical developments in motion constraints analysis, representative experiments based on two industrial robots, Motoman VA1400 and HP20, are provided at the end of the paper. The experimental results have proved both the effectiveness of the path planning method and the correctness of the constraints analysis.

  3. Bioenergy Sustainability in China: Potential and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W.; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S.; Bickham, John W.

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China’s bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  4. Building a System...To Be among the Best: The Washington State Master Plan for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report presents Washington State's Master Plan for building a higher education system that addresses change in four fundamental elements: accessing education in urban areas; developing a new higher education funding process; evaluating institutional performance; and strengthening admissions standards. The Master Plan recommends the following:…

  5. Australia's master plan for uranium: questions still cloud the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Although the Australian Government has given the long-awaited green light for mining and export of uranium, potential uranium producers will have to battle a welter of red tape before the production outlook from the 1980s on becomes clear. An extensive number of bureaucratic agencies must be established before site work can begin. However, it now seems reasonably certain that by the mid-1980s Australian uranium mines will be producing 10,000 to 15,000 mtpy of uranium oxide. After that, production should grow rapidly, given the government's optimism about longer term market prospects. In the months ahead the government will assess the levels of international demand to be expected in coming years and will plan production and sales to meet those needs. Uranium deposits developed so far are described briefly

  6. Stability measures for rolling schedules with applications to capacity expansion planning, master production scheduling, and lot sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Kimms, Alf

    1996-01-01

    This contribution discusses the measurement of (in-)stability of finite horizon production planning when done on a rolling horizon basis. As examples we review strategic capacity expansion planning, tactical master production schedulng, and operational capacitated lot sizing.

  7. California Higher Education, the Master Plan, and the Erosion of College Opportunity. National Center Report #09-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    This occasional paper describes the development of the 1960 Master Plan for Higher Education and the current statewide challenges that make the plan ineffective today in preventing the erosion of college opportunity. (Contains 29 endnotes and 8 tables.)

  8. The Challenges of Implementing Sustainable Development: The Case of Sofia’s Master Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar D. Slaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore how master planning promotes and implements particular urban development patterns and, more generally, contributes to sustainability. Our goal is to understand the link between urban growth intentions articulated through the master planning process and realisation of its specific forms, e.g., monocentric or polycentric, compact or dispersed. As a case study, we examine the current General Urban Development Plan (GUDP of the Bulgarian capital Sofia against the city’s actual development pattern. We observe that the primary goals of the GUDP are to promote a polycentric urban structure and low-density expansion, as well as preserve green edges. While the question of whether and how these goals reflect the sustainability ideal requires further consideration, there are some indications that Sofia’s GUDP may not be effective in encouraging sustainable forms of growth. Substantial inconsistencies exist between the plan’s overall goals and some of its measures and implementation tools. The results on the ground suggest that, despite the plan’s low-density aspirations, Sofia is becoming more compact and densified, while losing its green edges and failing to redirect growth to its northern territories where ample space and opportunities exist. We conclude that employing the achievements of research on sustainability and developing relevant implementation tools such as more effective zoning regulations and viable suburban transportation infrastructure are necessary for realising both the patterns proposed through master planning and achieving sustainable urban growth.

  9. Methodical approaches in the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources; Metodiske problemstillinger ved Samlet plan for vassdrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowitz, Einar

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources instructs the management not to consider applications for concession to develop hydroelectric projects in the so called category II of the plan. These are the environmentally most controversial projects or the most expensive projects. This report discusses the methods used in this Master Plan to classify the projects. The question whether the assessments of the environmental disadvantages of hydropower development are reasonable is approached in two ways: (1) Compare the environmental costs imbedded in the Plan with direct assessments, and (2) Discuss the appropriateness of the methodology used for environmental evaluations in the Plan. The report concludes that (1) the environmental costs that can be derived from the ranking in the Plan are significantly greater than those following from direct evaluations, (2) the differences are generally so great that one may ask whether the methods used in the Plan overestimate the real environmental costs, (3) it seems to have been difficult to make a unified assessment of the environmental disadvantages, (4) the Plan has considered the economic impact on agriculture and forestry very roughly and indirectly, which may have contributed to overestimated environmental costs of hydropower development. 20 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Developing a Robust Strategy for Implementing a Water Resources Master Plan in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, N.; Groves, D.; Bonzanigo, L.; Molina-Perez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Lima, the capital of Peru, faces significant water stress. It is the fifth largest metropolitan area in Latin America, and the second largest desert city in the world. The city has developed a Master Plan of major investment projects to improve water reliability until 2040. Yet key questions remain. Is the Master Plan sufficient for ensuring reliability in the face of deeply uncertain future climate change and demand? How do uncertain budget and project feasibility conditions shape Lima's options? How should the investments in the plan be prioritized, and can some be delayed? Lima is not alone in facing these planning challenges. Governments invest billions of dollars annually in long-term projects. Yet deep uncertainties pose formidable challenges to making near-term decisions that make long-term sense. The World Bank has spearheaded a community of practice on methods for Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty (DMU). This pilot project in Peru is the first in-depth application of DMU techniques to water supply planning in a developing country. It builds on prior analysis done in New York, California, and for the Colorado River, yet shows how these methods can be applied in regions which do not have as advanced data or tools available. The project combines three methods in particular -- Robust Decision Making, Decision Scaling, and Adaptive Pathways -- to help Lima implement its Master Plan in a way that is robust, no-regret, and adaptive. It was done in close partnership with SEDAPAL, the water utility company in Lima, and in coordination with other national WRM and meteorological agencies. This talk will: Present the planning challenges Lima and other cities face, including climate change Describe DMU methodologies and how they were applied in collaboration with SEDAPAL Summarize recommendations for achieving long-term water reliability in Lima Suggest how these methodologies can benefit other investment projects in developing countries.

  11. Master Plan UMKM Berbasis Perikanan untuk Meningkatkan Pengolahan Produk Ikan yang Memiliki Nilai Tambah Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Meydianawathi, Luh Gede; Wiagustini, Ni Luh Putu; Riana, I Gede

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to generate a Master plan of fisheries-based SME development concept in Bali region, in order to build Bali as the centre for production and processing of fishery products in the Coridor of Bali-Nusa Tenggara. In Year-1 of the study period, the research activities carried out includes three processes, including analysis of the potensial of SMEs, analyzes the business cycle, and identification of barriers and chalenges. By using the method of linear regression analysis, Geog...

  12. 75 FR 53735 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on East Lake Sammamish Master Plan Trail in King County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Final Federal Agency Actions on East Lake Sammamish Master Plan Trail in King County, WA AGENCY: Federal... 11-mile-long paved trail, providing an alternative non- motorized transportation corridor and...

  13. Voluntary research results for five years along the master plan on nuclear safety research. FY 2001 - 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshinori

    2006-05-01

    Safety Research has been conducted from FY 2001 to FY 2005 according to the Master Plan on Nuclear Safety Research (FY 2001-2005) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency which took over former Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. This report shows the voluntary research results for five years conducted from FY 2001 to FY 2005 according to the Master Plan on Nuclear Safety Research (FY 2001-2005). (author)

  14. Implementability Of Municipal Transport Master Plan Of Bandipur Inner Ring Road Tanahun Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjay Kumar Mishra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this study is to assess the implementability of Municipal Transport Master Plan with the assessment of Bandipur Inner Ring Road. Various literatures were reviewed to assess the planning adopted approaches and implementability related with the transportation master plan. Data were collected through Questionnaire survey Interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Technical Survey was also conducted for assessing compliance level of technical parameters of ring road. Traffic Count Survey and Household Survey were carried out to analyze the traffic situation of ring road. Possible budget allocation and possible budget requirement for ring road were calculated for five years FY 201617 to FY 202021 and determined the possible financial gap. Results were assessed with the indicators of implementability rational legitimate feasible politically viable and socially acceptable. The result showed that still 2.64km section of ring road is earthen where total length of road is 3.9km. Just 500m lined and 460m dry side drain is constructed throughout the ring road. It complies 70.59 technical parameters of Village Road Standards and only 6.25 of Urban Road Standards but 510 vehicles including motorcycle 567 PCU run on this road per day from two sides. The road is found overloaded. MTMP report has just prepared in municipality and 93 of total respondents has accepted that MTMP is prepared adopting Participatory and Bottom Up planning Approach. MTMP is implementable by generating internal revenue.

  15. Optimal Pricing and Production Master Planning in a Multiperiod Horizon Considering Capacity and Inventory Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale R. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and solve a single-item joint pricing and master planning optimization problem with capacity and inventory constrains. The objective is to maximize profits over a discrete-time multiperiod horizon. The solution process consists of two steps. First, we solve the single-period problem exactly. Second, using the exact solution of the single-period problem, we solve the multiperiod problem using a dynamic programming approach. The solution process and the importance of considering both capacity and inventory constraints are illustrated with numerical examples.

  16. Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program, Technical Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation

    2008-04-28

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded program initiated as a mitigation measure for Columbia River hydrosystem effects on anadromous fish. The HRPP began in the early 1990s with the release of spring Chinook and winter steelhead smolts into the basin. Prior to implementation, co-managers, including the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife drafted the Hood River Production Master Plan (O'Toole and ODFW 1991a; O'Toole and ODFW 1991b) and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan (Smith and CTWSR 1991). Both documents were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Council in 1992 and authorized through a BPA-led Environmental Impact Statement in 1996. In 2003, a 10-year programmatic review was conducted for BPA-funded programs in the Hood River (Underwood et al. 2003). The primary objective of the HRPP Review (Review) was to determine if program goals were being met, and if modifications to program activities would be necessary in order to meet or revise program goals. In 2003, an agreement was signed between PacifiCorp and resource managers to remove the Powerdale Dam (RM 10) and associated adult trapping facility by 2010. The HRPP program has been dependant on the adult trap to collect broodstock for the hatchery programs; therefore, upon the dam's removal, some sort of replacement for the trap would be needed to continue the HRPP. At the same time the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) was being written and prompted the co-managers to considered future direction of the program. This included revising the numerical adult fish objectives based on the assimilated data and output from several models run on the Hood River system. In response to the Review as well as the Subbasin Plan, and intensive monitoring and evaluation of the current program, the HRPP co-managers determined the spring Chinook program was not achieving the HRPP

  17. From the global efforts on certification of bioenergy towards an integrated approach based on sustainable land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dam, J.; Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 67 ongoing certification initiatives to safeguard the sustainability of bioenergy. Most recent initiatives are focused on the sustainability of liquid biofuels. Content-wise, most of these initiatives have mainly included environmental principles. Despite serious concerns in various parts of the world on the socio-economic impacts of bioenergy production, these are generally not included in existing bioenergy initiatives. At the same time, the overview shows a strong proliferation of standards. The overview shows that certification has the potential to influence direct, local impacts related to environmental and social effects of direct bioenergy production. Key recommendations to come to an efficient certification system include the need for further harmonization, availability of reliable data and linking indicators on a micro, meso and macro levels. Considering the multiple spatial scales, certification should be combined with additional measurements and tools on a regional, national and international level. The role of bioenergy production on indirect land use change (ILUC) is still very uncertain and current initiatives have rarely captured impacts from ILUC in their standards. Addressing unwanted LUC requires first of all sustainable land use production and good governance, regardless of the end-use of the product. It is therefore recommended to extend measures to mitigate impacts from LUC to other lands and feedstock. (author)

  18. Integral stormwater management master plan and design in an ecological community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wu; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Zheng; Li, Junqi; Shi, Man

    2014-09-01

    Urban stormwater runoff nearly discharges directly into bodies of water through gray infrastructure in China, such as sewers, impermeable ditches, and pump stations. As urban flooding, water shortage, and other environment problems become serious, integrated water environment management is becoming increasingly complex and challenging. At more than 200ha, the Oriental Sun City community is a large retirement community located in the eastern side of Beijing. During the beginning of its construction, the project faced a series of serious water environment crises such as eutrophication, flood risk, water shortage, and high maintenance costs. To address these issues, an integral stormwater management master plan was developed based on the concept of low impact development (LID). A large number of LID and green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) approaches were designed and applied in the community to replace traditional stormwater drainage systems completely. These approaches mainly included bioretention (which captured nearly 85th percentile volume of the annual runoff in the site, nearly 5.4×10(5)m(3) annually), swales (which functioned as a substitute for traditional stormwater pipes), waterscapes, and stormwater wetlands. Finally, a stormwater system plan was proposed by integrating with the gray water system, landscape planning, an architectural master plan, and related consultations that supported the entire construction period. After more than 10 years of planning, designing, construction, and operation, Oriental Sun City has become one of the earliest modern large-scale LID communities in China. Moreover, the project not only addressed the crisis efficiently and effectively, but also yielded economic and ecological benefits. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Developing a master plan for hospital solid waste management: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, Mohammad; Zahraie, Banafsheh; Kerachian, Reza; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Mahjouri, Najmeh

    2007-01-01

    Disposal of about 1750 tons of solid wastes per day is the result of a rapid population growth in the province of Khuzestan in the south west of Iran. Most of these wastes, especially hospital solid wastes which have contributed to the pollution of the environment in the study area, are not properly managed considering environmental standards and regulations. In this paper, the framework of a master plan for managing hospital solid wastes is proposed considering different criteria which are usually used for evaluating the pollution of hospital solid waste loads. The effectiveness of the management schemes is also evaluated. In order to rank the hospitals and determine the share of each hospital in the total hospital solid waste pollution load, a multiple criteria decision making technique, namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP), is used. A set of projects are proposed for solid waste pollution control and reduction in the proposed framework. It is partially applied for hospital solid waste management in the province of Khuzestan, Iran. The results have shown that the hospitals located near the capital city of the province, Ahvaz, produce more than 43% of the total hospital solid waste pollution load of the province. The results have also shown the importance of improving management techniques rather than building new facilities. The proposed methodology is used to formulate a master plan for hospital solid waste management

  20. Istra district heating system. Specific technical report. Appendix 2 to the master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the master plan project is to improve heat supply in Istra. The considerable system losses from the fuel supplied to the end-users are one subject for improvement. At the same time, the current system operation results in poor quality heat for the consumers. Due to the inflexibility of the system, the dwellings/premises of the consumers are either overheated or insufficiently heated. The financial situation in Istra, the legal ownership of the district heating system and consumers ability to pay limit the possibilities for system improvements. The Master Plan and Feasibility Study evaluates four different development scenarios. Each of the scenarios is compared to the current situation in Istra, where nothing is done to change the system, but only to operate the present system in a sustainable way. The sustainable operation of the district heating system includes all necessary renovations and component replacements necessary. The project does not take into account the present financial situation in Istra, which has resulted in less maintenance than necessary. This situation is not a comparable parameter, as it is not sustainable and will lead to a breakdown of the heat supply within a short time horizon. (EHS)

  1. Istra district heating system. General technical report. Appendix 1 to the master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the master plan project is to improve the heat supply in Istra. The considerable system losses from the fuel supplied to the end-users are one issue for improvement. At the same time, the current system operation results in poor quality heat for the consumers. Due to the inflexibility of the system the dwellings/premises of the consumers are either overheated or insufficiently heated. The financial situation in Istra, the legal ownership of the district heating system and consumers' lacking ability to pay limit the possibilities for system improvements. The Master Plan and Feasibility Study evaluates four different development scenarios. Each of the scenarios is compared to the current situation in Istra, where nothing is done to change the system, but only to operate the present system in a sustainable way. The sustainable operation of the district heating system includes all necessary renovations and component replacements necessary. The project does not take into account the present financial situation in Istra, which has resulted in less maintenance than necessary. This situation is not a comparable parameter, as it is not sustainable and will lead to a breakdown of the heat supply within a short time horizon. The General Technical Report evaluates the technical situation and describes system improvements at a general level. The intention with this report is to provide important information useful to other district heating companies in Russia. (au)

  2. Master plan envisions multi-billion-dollar expansion of Vietnam's electricity monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Massive investment in Vietnam's electricity monopoly by Western aid and export credit agencies form part of the ten-year master plan developed for Vietnam. Central planning and political patronage, instead of market assessments and customer choice form the basis for monopoly investments in a centralized grid linking big hydro, gas, coal, and nuclear power projects. Western aid agencies might effectively crowd out viable private-sector energy investments by financing power projects considered too large and risky by the private sector. These investments by Western aid agencies would assist in winning contracts for favoured exporters of engineering services and equipment. It would be a breeding ground for corruption in Vietnam if market discipline, public oversight, and enforceable property rights are not present in the face of power sector aid. There is a real possibility that damages to the environment could result from electricity investments, and some communities might be victimized, electricity costs might increase, the indebtedness level of the population might increase

  3. A review on salt lake city, Kolkata, India: Master planning and realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation for construction of Salt Lake City comes from the circumstances characterizing life in Calcutta known by its social, political and cultural activities. Among many problems, the City was faced with poverty and overcrowding. West Bengal Government realized that serious steps have to be taken to resolve the situation. One of the biggest actions of the Government was creation of so called 'NEDECO' Plan for reclamation certain area of the Salted Lakes, followed by the tender for urban planning. The enterprise for water ways Ivan Milutinović was considered the most convenient for both: reclamation and planning. The Conceptualization covers the Main Aims and interests forming plan basis where three factors were selected: urban character, new vs old town, inhabitants and town growth. Follows Existing Land Use Pattern of the Municipal Area. The realization of the Salt Lake Master Plan, as a part of the Municipal Area, is shown through an Overview of Achieved Infrastructure covering Roads, Water Supply, Sewerage, Area Level Storm Water Drainage, Solid Waste Management and, finally, through the Other Municipal Services, such as: Administrative Infrastructure, Health Infrastructure, Greeneries, Water bodies, Socio-Cultural Infrastructure. .

  4. Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes - Romanian experience: Master - Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.; Valeca, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the Master Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan are: 1. To deliver higher education and training in the following specific domains, such as: Powders Technology and Ceramic Materials, Techniques of Structural Analysis, Composite Materials, Semiconductor Materials and Components, Metals and Metallic Alloys, Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Nuclear Materials, The Engineering of Special Nuclear Materials, 2. To train managers of the Nuclear Waste Products and Nuclear Safety, 3. To qualify in ICT Systems for Nuclear Process Guidance, 4. To qualify in Environmental Protection System at the Level of Nuclear Power Stations, 5. To train managers for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Energetic Processes, 6. To deliver higher education and training regarding the International Treatises, Conventions and Settlements in force in the field of nuclear related activities. (author)

  5. Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Xiuzhen; English, Alex; Lu Jia; Chen, Yongqin David

    2011-01-01

    The enactment and implementation of the 2003 EIA Law in China institutionalised the role of plan environmental impact assessment (PEIA). While the philosophy, methodology and mechanisms of PEIA have gradually permeated through the various levels of government with a positive effect on the process and outcome of urban planning, only a few cities in China have so far carried out PEIA as a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)-type procedure. One such case is the southern city of Shenzhen. During the past three decades, Shenzhen has grown from a small town to a large and booming city as China has successfully and rapidly developed its economy by adopting the 'reform and open door' policy. In response to the challenges arising from the generally divergent processes of rapid urbanisation, economic transformation and environment protection, Shenzhen has incrementally adopted the SEA concept in developing the city's Master Urban Plan. As such, this paper reviews the effectiveness of PEIA in three ways: ·as a tool and process for achieving more sustainable and strategic planning; ·to determine the level of integration of SEA within the planning system; and, ·its effectiveness vis-a-vis implementation. The implementation of PEIA within Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan offers important insights into the emergence of innovative practices in undertaking PEIA as well as theoretical contributions to the field, especially in exploring the relationship between PEIA and SEA and highlighting the central role of local governing institutions in SEA development.

  6. Master plan envisions multi-billion-dollar expansion of Vietnam's electricity monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    Massive investment in Vietnam's electricity monopoly by Western aid and export credit agencies form part of the ten-year master plan developed for Vietnam. Central planning and political patronage, instead of market assessments and customer choice form the basis for monopoly investments in a centralized grid linking big hydro, gas, coal, and nuclear power projects. Western aid agencies might effectively crowd out viable private-sector energy investments by financing power projects considered too large and risky by the private sector. These investments by Western aid agencies would assist in winning contracts for favoured exporters of engineering services and equipment. It would be a breeding ground for corruption in Vietnam if market discipline, public oversight, and enforceable property rights are not present in the face of power sector aid. There is a real possibility that damages to the environment could result from electricity investments, and some communities might be victimized, electricity costs might increase, the indebtedness level of the population might increase.

  7. Georgia Institute of Technology chilled water system evaluation and master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-15

    As the host of the Olympic Village for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Georgia Tech has experienced a surge in construction activities over the last three years. Over 1.3 million square feet of new buildings have been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. This growth has placed a strain on the Georgia Tech community and challenged the facilities support staff charged with planning and organizing utility services. In concert with Olympic construction, utility planners have worked to ensure long term benefits for Georgia Tech facilities while meeting the short term requirements of the Olympic Games. The concentration of building construction in the northwest quadrant of the campus allowed planners to construct a satellite chilled water plant to serve the needs of this area and provide the opportunity to integrate this section of the campus with the main campus chilled water system. This assessment and master plan, funded in part by the US Department of Energy, has evaluated the chilled water infrastructure at Georgia Tech, identified ongoing problems and made recommendations for long term chilled water infrastructure development and efficiency improvements. The Georgia Tech office of Facilities and RDA Engineering, Inc. have worked together to assemble relevant information and prepare the recommendations contained in this document.

  8. Evolution of strategic risks under future scenarios for improved utility master plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ana; Lickorish, Fiona; Pollard, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Integrated, long-term risk management in the water sector is poorly developed. Whilst scenario planning has been applied to singular issues (e.g. climate change), it often misses a link to risk management because the likelihood of impacts in the long-term are frequently unaccounted for in these analyses. Here we apply the morphological approach to scenario development for a case study utility, Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres (EPAL). A baseline portfolio of strategic risks threatening the achievement of EPAL's corporate objectives was evolved through the lens of three future scenarios, 'water scarcity', 'financial resource scarcity' and 'strong economic growth', built on drivers such as climate, demographic, economic, regulatory and technological changes and validated through a set of expert workshops. The results represent how the baseline set of risks might develop over a 30 year period, allowing threats and opportunities to be identified and enabling strategies for master plans to be devised. We believe this to be the first combined use of risk and futures methods applied to a portfolio of strategic risks in the water utility sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 9218 - Notice of Availability Record of Decision for the Update to the Master Plan for the Consolidation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Master Plan for the Consolidation of the Food and Drug Administration Headquarters at the Federal... Drug Administration (FDA) Headquarters at the Federal Research Center at White Oak in Silver Spring... a new eastern access point into the FRC. In September 2007, new legislation was enacted that...

  10. Implementation of the Master Plan Activities in Serayu River Voyage (SRV Within the Framework of Tourism Development in Banyumas Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pamungkas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Master Plan Activity of Serayu River Voyage (SRV for tourism development in Banyumas Regency were expected to be completed within five years from 2008 to 2012, but during the period until 2013, most programs and activities have not been implemented. The results showed that the Master Plan of SRV in the framework of tourism development in Banyumas Regency has not been implemented properly. The cause is the absence of good coordination between agencies, the lack programs and activities integration, supporting documents have not been revised, absence of good socialization, and the lack of private sector contribution. The factors that constrain and support implementation of the Master Plan is described as follows. Supporting factors: competent human resources (implementor already available at the managerial level and have intellectual tourism, it is only need to add personnel in the sector of culture; the availability of adequate budget; institutions that have been effective and efficient; High community response; High commitment of Banyumas Regent and cooperation related parties (stakeholders; and natural conditions of Serayu tend to calm and the river slope condition is small. The constrain factors: regulatory policies; integration of programs and activities; coordination and socialization implied sectoral ego that need to be addressed. Keywords : implementation, master plan, Serayu River Voyage, human resources, regulation

  11. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  12. Changing Perspectives on the Planning of Ankara (1924-2007 and Lessons for a New Master-Planning Approach to Developing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgu Çalişkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the newly planned capitals in the 20th century – like Islamabad, Canberra and Brazil –, Ankara represents an original case in planning history: from shaping a new town under the influence of early European urbanism to the control of a dynamic metropolitan form by structural planning approaches. Forming its urban core according to the initial planning perspectives between the beginning of 1930s and the mid-1970s, the city has entered a rapid phase of space production in its extensions for about the last thirty years.In the current period of development, highly fragmented urban peripheral formation has being occurred in Ankara. Since the existing trend on the dispersion of urban form lacking spatial coherence at different scale-levels causes the dominance of the private domain and a loss of urbanity, this trend might at first glance be considered as a break with the European tradition and the emergence of Anglo-Americanization in Turkish planning system in terms of looser development control approach on urban form.Before, coming to such a critical end-point, the paper prefers a closer look into the changing dynamics of master plans of the city. It is aimed to reveal the developmental logic of the city by means of master plan analysis. The comprehensive outlook – called plan matrix – is integrated into each master plan schema by correlating the basic components like main policy directions, depth of control, settlement typology, and city structure and form. Such a framework has a potential to be utilized for any kind of plan analysis at metropolitan scale for different cases. At the end of the analysis, the paper tends to address an alternative master planning approach for the similar types of developing cities striving for keeping its urban character within a fragmented urban body.

  13. 2015 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  14. Master Plan UMKM Berbasis Perikanan untuk Meningkatkan Pengolahan Produk Ikan yang Memiliki Nilai Tambah Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Riana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to generate a Master plan of fisheries-based SME development concept in Bali region, in order to build Bali as the centre for production and processing of fishery products in the Coridor of Bali-Nusa Tenggara. In Year-1 of the study period, the research activities carried out includes three processes, including analysis of the potensial of SMEs, analyzes the business cycle, and identification of barriers and chalenges. By using the method of linear regression analysis, Geographic Information System (GIS and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, the study result in Year-1, obtained some information about characteristics of fisheries based SMEs Bali, consisting of: 1 there is positive effect between GDP growth and energy work on the level of productivity (output value of SMEs; 2 the need for development of fisheries-based SMEs in Bali include some operational, capital, and market access aspects. To the Bali Provincial Government, SMEs and the poblic are expected to synergize themselves, in term of institutionally, improving the quality of human recources, empowering financial institutions at the local level, as well as active participation in marketing access to the international level.

  15. Master plan for renewable energies + Summary for policy makers + Presentation to the Council of Ministers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Julien; Bitot, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    This document reports a study which aimed at determining a master plan which would allow a mix with 50 per cent of renewable energies for electricity production to be reached by 2020 in the specific case of French Polynesia. It proposes a comprehensive analysis of of the present energetic situation in Tahiti and in eleven islands of the French Polynesia. After a presentation of the social and economic context, the report proposes a diagnosis of energy and electricity consumption in Polynesia, an analysis of electricity demand and of its possible evolutions (scenarios), and an analysis of the present production (fossil thermal, hydroelectric, photovoltaic, and wind energy, quality and requirements for an island grid). It reports the analysis the potential of development of renewable energies (hydroelectricity, photovoltaic, other solar production, wind, biomass, marine renewable energies, seawater air conditioning), and the analysis of the supply-demand balance in the different scenarios for Tahiti and the other islands. Short term perspectives are discussed, and an overview of installed renewable powers is provided. A second document proposes a summary of this study under the form of a Power Point presentation illustrated by many graphs

  16. Assessing interdependent operational, tactical and strategic risks for improved utility master plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ana; Lickorish, Fiona; Pollard, Simon

    2015-05-01

    Risk management plays a key role in water utilities. Although risk tools are well-established at operational levels, approaches at the strategic level are rarely informed by systemic assessments of the water supply and lack a long-term perspective. Here, we report a baseline strategic risk analysis, founded on a systemic analysis of operational risks developed 'bottom-up' and validated in a large water utility. Deploying an action-oriented research method, supported by semi- structured interviews with in-house water utility risk experts, deep connections are established between operational risk and strategic risk that surpass those existing elsewhere in the sector. Accessible presentational formats - influence diagrams, risk "heat-maps" and supporting narratives are used to promote Board-level risk discussions, and characterise a baseline set of strategic risks core to forward utility master planning. Uniquely, the influence of operational events, exposures and potential harms, together with the mitigating measures in place to mediate these risks are linked to corporate objectives on business sustainability, profitability, water quality, water quantity, supply disruption and reputation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On new methodological and other standards in planning: The case of the Master Plan of Belgrade 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Miodrag L.

    2002-01-01

    changed structure of stakeholders and concomitant institutional arrangements. This also applies to 'educators' in general, because the prolonged international isolation of the FR Yugoslavia has caused the gross of their knowledge and capabilities irrelevant. In sum, it seems that many planners would not be able to assume new roles that they are expected to on the part of the society at large. (8The planning/policy information, research, institutional and other support provided by the state and other agents often does not satisfy even the most basic needs in this fields, partly for a general scarcity of resources concomitant to the overall and deep social, economic and political crisis the society found itself in the 1990s. (9 Most frightfully, manipulation, paternalism and clientelism still represent dominant forms of power, which is a problem by itself in Yugoslavia being one of the most corruptive countries in the world. What is now most missing is a non-manipulative persuasion, as well as the authority of professional values, as the communication and interaction forms that seem only promising for and supportive to developing of a democratic, emancipatory and transformative planning mode. A number of attempts during the last decade to embark upon the preparation of the new 'Master Plan of the City Belgrade' (in the sequel: MP came into realization not before the democratic political changes of October 2000 took place in Serbia. However, the so far undertaken steps do not seem promising, as they failed to satisfy a number of methodological and other standards, as well as to introduce necessary innovations. Unfortunately, the MP was commissioned to the Bureau of Urban Planning of the City of Belgrade (otherwise a 'faithful ally' of all non-democratic regimes in the City's urban planning and related matters over the last more than ten years now, during which there has been a so far unrecorded squandering and illegal privatization of public urban assets, mostly uncontrolled

  18. Analytical Master Plan for the analysis of the data from the electric utility rate demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The Federal Energy Administration (now the US Department of Energy), in cooperation with state public utility commissions and participating utilities, has initiated 16 electric utility rate demonstration projects. The primary purpose of these projects was to evaluate experimentally the effects of time-of-use pricing of electricity for residential customers. The time-of-use rate most frequently employed was a time-of-day (TOD) rate. The method employed by the states to evaluate TOD rates was to select a subset of the residential population, place these people on TOD rates, and with special meters, monitor their temporal use of electricity. As might be expected, with the varying objectives of the states, available resources, and background in load management studies, a variety of approaches were employed, and a variety of data generated by the projects. Also, the received and expected analyses of the data vary considerably among the projects due to the differing interests of the states, available resources, and the composition of the project teams. The three purposes of this Analytical Master Plan (AMP) are: to ensure the data derived from the FEA projects and from related sources are subjected to econometric and statistical analysis that is both rigorous and as highly sophisticated as the state of the art will permit; to ensure that the results of the analysis are organized and displayed in a manner useful to utility and regulatory decision-makers; and to ensure that the analytical effort is conducted on a timely and professional basis. This report identifies the alternative analytical approaches, project specific analyses, project-pooled analyses and organization and management plan for completing the study. Synopses of all the demonstration projects are presented in the appendixes which are bound separately in Volume II.

  19. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  20. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  1. Bioenergy 93 conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In this report the presentations given in the Bioenergy 93 Conference are published. The papers are grouped as follows: Opening addresses, biomass implementation strategies, nordic bioenergy research programs, production, handling and conversion of biofuels, combustion technology of biofuels and bioenergy visions

  2. Developing a Master Plan for Restoring/Stabilizing an Urban Watercourse: Highland Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkar, M. T.; Hindley, B.; Phillips, R. T.; Snodgrass, B.

    2009-05-01

    Highland Creek is a fully urbanized watershed (104 km2 ) in Toronto, Ontario. Through the process of urbanization and placement of sanitary, storm and transportation infrastructure within the channel corridor, the length of channel within the drainage network has been reduced. Of the remaining length (38 km), more than half the channel is protected by engineering counter measures along channel bank and/or bed, many of which are failing. In addition, through the processes of channel adjustment (i.e., primarily degradation and widening) in response to urban hydromodification, 17 % of the 143 subsurface sanitary sewer crossings are currently exposed and at risk of failure. Indeed, a major storm event in 2005 caused substantial channel movement, failure of a manhole and underlying sanitary sewer, leading to sewage discharge into Highland Creek. A consequence of all of these modifications has been the creation of numerous fish barriers, loss of all but the most tolerant fish species and degradation of both the physical and chemical habitat conditions. The City of Toronto has initiated a study to develop a Geomorphic Systems Master Plan to stabilize/restore Highland Creek with the primary intent of protecting infrastructure. The study is following the Nine Step Analysis Procedure of the Adaptive Management Methodology (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) which includes three stages of analyses (i.e., Watershed Issue Assessment, Planning and Environmental Assessment, and Design Process). The study is multi-disciplinary and has included a thorough inventory of existing channel conditions and characteristics (biologic, geomorphic); a comprehensive risk assessment that considers implications of historic channel change and existing conditions exposure/failure of infrastructure/counter measures; assessment of further anticipated channel responses (cross-section, profile, planform) to urban hydromodification have been undertaken. Analyses to assess the effectiveness of

  3. Innovative Stormwater Quality Tools by SARA for Holistic Watershed Master Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Su, Y. C.; Hummel, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Stormwater management strategies such as Best Management Practices (BMP) and Low-Impact Development (LID) have increasingly gained attention in urban runoff control, becoming vital to holistic watershed master plans. These strategies can help address existing water quality impairments and support regulatory compliance, as well as guide planning and management of future development when substantial population growth and urbanization is projected to occur. However, past efforts have been limited to qualitative planning due to the lack of suitable tools to conduct quantitative assessment. The San Antonio River Authority (SARA), with the assistance of Lockwood, Andrews & Newnam, Inc. (LAN) and AQUA TERRA Consultants (a division of RESPEC), developed comprehensive hydrodynamic and water quality models using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) for several urban watersheds in the San Antonio River Basin. These models enabled watershed management to look at water quality issues on a more refined temporal and spatial scale than the limited monitoring data. They also provided a means to locate and quantify potential water quality impairments and evaluate the effects of mitigation measures. To support the models, a suite of software tools were developed. including: 1) SARA Timeseries Utility Tool for managing and processing of large model timeseries files, 2) SARA Load Reduction Tool to determine load reductions needed to achieve screening levels for each modeled constituent on a sub-basin basis, and 3) SARA Enhanced BMP Tool to determine the optimal combination of BMP types and units needed to achieve the required load reductions. Using these SARA models and tools, water quality agencies and stormwater professionals can determine the optimal combinations of BMP/LID to accomplish their goals and save substantial stormwater infrastructure and management costs. The tools can also help regulators and permittees evaluate the feasibility of achieving compliance

  4. Connecting Systems Model Design to Decision-Maker and Stakeholder Needs: Lessons from Louisiana's Coastal Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, J. R.; Johnson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Louisiana's Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast is a 50-year plan designed to reduce flood risk and minimize land loss while allowing for the continued provision of economic and ecosystem services from this critical coastal region. Conceived in 2007 in response to hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, the master plan is updated on a five-year planning cycle by the state's Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA). Under the plan's middle-of-the-road (Medium) environmental scenario, the master plan is projected to reduce expected annual damage from storm surge flooding by approximately 65% relative to a future without action: from 5.3 billion to 2.2 billion in 2040, and from 12.1 billion to 3.7 billion in 2065. The Coastal Louisiana Risk Assessment model (CLARA) is used to estimate the risk reduction impacts of projects that have been considered for implementation as part of the plan. Evaluation of projects involves estimation of cost effectiveness in multiple future time periods and under a range of environmental uncertainties (e.g., the rates of sea level rise and land subsidence, changes in future hurricane intensity and frequency), operational uncertainties (e.g., system fragility), and economic uncertainties (e.g., patterns of population change and asset exposure). Between the 2012 and 2017 planning cycles, many improvements were made to the CLARA model. These included changes to the model's spatial resolution and definition of policy-relevant spatial units, an improved treatment of parametric uncertainty and uncertainty propagation between model components, the addition of a module to consider critical infrastructure exposure, and a new population growth model. CPRA also developed new scenarios for analysis in 2017 that were responsive to new scientific literature and to accommodate a new approach to modeling coastal morphology. In this talk, we discuss how CLARA has evolved over the 2012 and 2017 planning cycles in response to the needs

  5. Defense Infrastructure: Overseas Master Plans Are Improving, But DOD Needs to Provide Congress Additional Information about the Military Buildup on Guam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lepore, Brian J; Little, Mark; Alcoser, Nelsie; Lenane, Kate; Prochaska, Erika; Tomlinson, Roger; Weissman, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    .... The Senate and House reports accompanying the fiscal year 2004 military construction appropriation bill directed GAO to monitor DoD's overseas master plans and to provide congressional defense...

  6. The Controversies over Bioenergy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Andersen, Bente Hessellund

    2012-01-01

    for processing of biomass for biofuels. The alignment with the private car regime is strong, because biofuel enables continuation of fuel-driven vehicles as dominating transportation mode. Danish farmers see manure as important source for biogas while arguing for reduction of climate impact and nuisances from......Based on the approach of 'arena of development' controversies over bioenergy in the shaping of a Danish climate strategy are analyzed as a contribution to a sustainable transition perspective on bioenergy in industrialized societies with substantial agricultural production. Bioenergy plays...... a prominent role in several Danish climate and energy plans, alongside with wind and solar energy, and energy savings. There are major controversies about targets for bioenergy with respect to acceptable types, sources and amounts of biomass. Strong path dependency is identified. Energy companies in Denmark...

  7. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Kossmann, J.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  8. Planning a Master's Level Curriculum According to Career Space Recommendations Using Concept Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral Marin, Sergio L.; Martineztorres, Rocio; Barrero Garcia, Federico J.; Vazquez, Sergio Gallardo; Vargas, Enrique; Ayala, Vicente Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays the European Universities are worried about how to adapt higher education to the new European Higher Education Area, as proposed in the Bologna Magna Charta Universitatum of 1998, and signed by 32 European Education Ministers. One of the key points in this higher education reform was the introduction of new Master's level curricula. These…

  9. Bioenergy and biodiversity: Key lessons from the Pan American region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinelli, Fernanda Silva [UFRRJ/Conservation International Brazil, Seropedica (Brazil); Mayer, Audrey L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medeiros, Rodrigo [Federal Rural Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F. [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Sparovek, Gerd [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (Brazil); Walter, Arnaldo [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Venier, Lisa A. [Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie (Canada). Great Lakes Forestry Centre

    2015-06-24

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil, regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land management systems. Lastly, we propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  10. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  11. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  12. Energy-Integrating Master Plan for the City of Atlantic City, New Jersey: energy conservation element. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The Master Plan describes a coordinated energy-conservation effort for the City, the effective application and ultimate success of which depend primarily on the active involvement of the City government and its functional departments. Following an introductory section, Section XXI, Community Energy Determinants, describes the natural and man-made environment, growth and energy profiles, and the institutional environment. Additional sections are entitled: Energy-Conservation Options (passive energy options and active energy-conservation options); Energy Integration; Community Energy Management; Energy-Conservation Implementation Plan; and an appendix containing an energy-related glossary, a directory to various sources of information on energy conservation, various technical documents, a copy of the National Energy Act, and a bibliography. (MCW)

  13. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. United States Shipbuilding Standards Master Plan Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... 7. Develop a marketing strategy for the plan. 8. Adopt or convert existing global standards for domestic use. This update includes an updated survey, the SP-6 tactical plan, new windows into standards on the internet, and more.

  14. Application of a computerized environmental information system to master and sector planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A computerized composite mapping system developed as an aid in the land use decision making process is described. Emphasis is placed on consideration of the environment in urban planning. The presence of alluvium, shallow bedrock, surface water, and vegetation growth are among the environmental factors considered. An analysis of the Shady Grove Sector planning is presented as an example of the use of computerized composite mapping for long range planning.

  15. Bio-energy in global and local policy and planning in developing countries, in particular in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedacker, A.

    1997-01-01

    Biomass energy is investigated from different viewpoints; in business as usual developments, in local and global perspectives trying to promote sustainable development. The objectives and the methodology are clarified. It is considered how these principles are applicable in particular in sub-Saharan Africa. Local planning and implementation is also discussed. Activities of the RABEDE, an African Network on Bio-resources and Energies for Development and Environment are presented. (K.A.)

  16. Path to Zero: Ultra-Efficient Architecture on the NREL Campus: S&TF and Master Planning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, N.

    2012-05-01

    Describe the aspects of NREL's S and TF and Campus Master Planning in terms of how they have influenced ultra-efficient architecture on NREL's campus. Energy goals for the NREL campus are: (1) Understand how buildings uses energy, implement the cost-effective energy and water efficiency retrofits; (2) Use principals of energy efficiency and low energy design to reduce energy demand in all new construction; (3) Operate central plants efficiently; (4) Alternative transportation; (5) Use combined heat and power systems; (6) Use on-site renewables for demonstration and where it is cost-effective; and (7) Buy green power (over the next 25 years) so that 100% of our power will be from renewable sources.

  17. Combining Bioenergy with CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a carbon reduction technology that offers permanent net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This has been termed negative carbon dioxide emissions, and offers a significant advantage over other mitigation alternatives, which only decrease the amount of emissions to the atmosphere. The benefits inherent within this technology are currently receiving increased attention from policy makers. To facilitate the development of appropriate policy incentives, this paper reviews the treatment of negative carbon dioxide emissions under current and planned international carbon accounting frameworks. It finds that, while current frameworks provide limited guidance, proposed and revised guidelines could provide an environmentally sound reporting framework for BECCS. However, the paper also notes that, as they currently stand, new guidelines do not tackle a critical issue that has implications for all biomass energy systems, namely the overall carbon footprint of biomass production and use. It recommends that, to the best extent possible, all carbon impacts of BECCS are fully reflected in carbon reporting and accounting systems under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol.

  18. 18th ICPR paper: Master Production Scheduling and A Comparision of Material Requirements Planning and Cover-Time Planning

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract For a company?s long-term profitability, most important processes are the way it starts parts of the manufacturing process before the customer order arrives and the way it determines and promises delivery quantities and times for the customer orders. In practical computer applications Material Requirement Planning and/or Reorder point systems are the base techniques mostly used. This article pre?sents Cover-Time Planning, a variant of a reorder point system. Cover-Time Pla...

  19. Mastering the Master Space

    CERN Document Server

    Forcella, Davide; He, Yang-Hui; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Supersymmetric gauge theories have an important but perhaps under-appreciated notion of a master space, which controls the full moduli space. For world-volume theories of D-branes probing a Calabi-Yau singularity X the situation is particularly illustrative. In the case of one physical brane, the master space F is the space of F-terms and a particular quotient thereof is X itself. We study various properties of F which encode such physical quantities as Higgsing, BPS spectra, hidden global symmetries, etc. Using the plethystic program we also discuss what happens at higher number N of branes. This letter is a summary and some extensions of the key points of a longer companion paper arXiv:0801.1585.

  20. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  1. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  2. Decision Support in a Changing and Contentious World--Successfully Supporting the Development of a 50-year Comprehensive Coastal Master Plan in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, D.

    2014-12-01

    After the devastating 2005 hurricane season, Louisiana embarked on an ambitious and daunting effort to develop and implement a comprehensive Coastal Master Plan. The Master Plan sought to achieve two key goals simultaneously: reduce hurricane flood risk and halt the net conversion of its coastal landscape to open ocean. Numerous prior efforts to achieve these goals had been tried without significant success. In 2012, however, the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA) produced a 50-year, $50 billion Master Plan. It had broad support from a diverse and often adversarial set of stakeholders, and it was unanimously passed by the Louisiana legislature. In contrast to other efforts, CPRA took an approach to planning called by the U.S. National Research Council as "deliberation with analysis". Specifically, CPRA used data, models, and decision support tools not to define an optimal or best strategy, but instead to support stakeholder dialogue and deliberations over alterative coastal management strategies. RAND researchers, with the support of CPRA and other collaborators, developed the planning tool at the center of this process. The CPRA planning tool synthesized large amounts of information about how the coast might evolve over time with and without different combinations of hundreds of different projects and programs. The tool helped CPRA propose alternative strategies that could achieve the State's goals while also highlighting to stakeholders the key tradeoffs among them. Importantly, this process helped bring diverse communities together to support a single vision and specific set of projects and programs to meet many of Louisiana's coastal water resources challenges. This presentation will describe the planning approach and decision support tools developed to support the Master Plan's participatory stakeholder process. The presentation will also highlight several important key takeaway messages that have broad applicability to other water

  3. 77 FR 13141 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Master Leasing Plan, Amendments to the Resource Management Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... currently identified by a BLM interdisciplinary team include the following: air quality and climate change... and determine how the planning team approaches development of alternatives and ultimately, selection..., and results of inventory, monitoring, and coordination to determine appropriate decisions for mineral...

  4. 8. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This conference volume contains lectures and poster contributions with the following main topics: integrated biomass utilisation concepts; Solid bioenergy carrier; Bioenergy in the transport sector; Biogas. Seven papers are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  5. Master plan for development of the district heating system in Teplice. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The City of Teplice is located in North Bohemia in the Czech Republic. Teplic has a population of approximately 65,000. Today, the heat supply in the Teplice area is covered by district heating based on steam, natural gas fired boilers (block heating stations) and individual heating with small gas fired boilers. The existing district heating system has some major problems: not all district heating networks are connected to the main system although capacity is available; natural gas is an imported and expensive fuel and too valuable to be used for heating; a high percentages of the heat is lost in the distribution network; many leakages in the distribution network make re-investment necessary; The hop tap water system is in a very bad condition and must be changed; the technology of the present system is old-fashioned, and has an inflexible operating regime. All these problems will have to be dealt with within the next 5 to 10 years, and a plan solving the problems has to be made. As an alternative to the development of an integrated hot water district heating system, a plan for the development of a number of heat islands has been analysed. This development strategy is agreed upon and recommended by both the Consultant and NB-DHC. A system with a total capacity of 150 MW must be established and the different areas of Teplice connected to a new hot water network in the period between year 2000 and 2010. A plan for connection of the different areas in Teplice is made, and the total investments in the system are estimated. (EG)

  6. Final master work plan : environmental investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, 2002 revision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. C.; Environmental Research

    2003-01-23

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under which Argonne National Laboratory provides technical assistance for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation for the CCC/USDA. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites in Kansas where former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were located. Argonne applies its QuickSite(reg sign) Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) approach to these former facilities. The QuickSite environmental site characterization methodology is Argonne's proprietary implementation of the ESC process (ASTM 1998). Argonne has used this approach at several former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, including Agenda, Agra, Everest, and Frankfort. The Argonne ESC approach revolves around a multidisciplinary, team-oriented approach to problem solving. The basic features and steps of the QuickSite methodology are as follows: (1) A team of scientists with diverse expertise and strong field experience is required to make the process work. The Argonne team is composed of geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, hydrogeologists, chemists, biologists, engineers, computer scientists, health and safety personnel, and regulatory staff, as well as technical support staff. Most of the staff scientists are at the Ph.D. level; each has on average, more than 15 years of experience. The technical team works together throughout the process. In other words, the team that plans the program also implements the program in the field and writes the reports. More experienced scientists do not remain in the office while individuals with lesser degrees or experience carry out the field work. (2) The technical team reviews, evaluates, and interprets existing data for the site and the contaminants there to determine which data sets are technically valid and can be used in initially designing the field program. A basic

  7. 11. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The seven main focus of the bioenergy forum were: 1. Political regulation and its consequences; 2. Flexible energy supply; 3. Biorefineries for the use of residues from bioenergy production; 4. Process optimization biogas; 5. Alternative substrates for biogas production; 6. Cross-sectoral bioenergy concept; 7. Transport sector (biofuels). Five lectures are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  8. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Foundation building project for international energy use rationalization. Master plan preparation for rationalized energy use; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika kiso seibi jigyo chosa hokokusho. Goriteki energy shiyo no tame no master plan sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For energy conservation and environmental protection using technologies for effective consumption of energy and for preventing pollution due to energy consumption, master plans were studied and prepared on photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, natural gas utilization, and so on, for the Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, Gansu Province, and Guandong Province, respectively. Propositions addressing the Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu involved a decrease in dependence on coal, utilization of natural gas, introduction of coal-fired cogeneration systems, introduction of wind power up to the level equivalent to the supply reserve capability, energy conversion and new industry development using natural gas, promotion of electrification of local communities, and so on. Propositions addressing Gansu Province involved the hydroelectric power system as the core of power sources, decrease in dependence on coal, enhanced utilization of natural gas, energy conversion and new industry development utilizing natural gas, and so on. Propositions addressing Guangdong Province involved a decrease in dependence on coal and oil, enhanced utilization of natural gas, introduction of natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation into urban sectors, accelerated utilization of wind power generation on isolated islands, and so on. (NEDO)

  9. "In the driver's seat": the Health Sector Strategic Master Plan as an instrument for aid coordination in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulikpan, Anar; Narula, Indermohan; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter

    2014-04-03

    In 2005, the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Mongolia initiated the process of developing its Health Sector Strategic Master Plan (HSSMP), using a wide-ranging consultative process, driven by the MoH, and requiring participation from all levels of health facilities, other ministries, donor agencies and NGOs. Among other objectives, the MoH sought to coordinate the disparate inputs from key donors through the HSSMP, aligning them with the Plan's structure. This research explores the extent to which the HSSMP process served as a mechanism for effective aid coordination while promoting ownership and capacity building and the lessons learned for the wider international development community. The study is based on document review, key-informant interviews and authors' experience and participation in the MoH planning processes. The HSSMP process improved alignment and harmonisation. It enabled a better local understanding of the benefits of aid coordination, and the recognition that aid coordination as not only a mere administrative task, but a strategic step towards comprehensive management of both domestic and external resources. The process was not challenge free; the fractious political environment, the frequent turnover of key MoH staff, the resistance of some donors towards MoH scrutiny over their programmes and the dismantling of the central coordination and return of seconded staff following completion of the HSSMP, has slowed the pace of reform. Despite the challenges, the approach resulted in positive outcomes in the areas of ownership and better aid coordination, with HSSMP development emphasising ownership and capacity building. This contrasted with the usual outcomes focus, and neglect of the capacity building learning processes and structural and policy changes needed to ensure sustainable change. The largest and most influential programmes in the health sector are now largely aligned with HSSMP strategies, enabling the MoH to utilize these opportunities to

  10. Unlocking the electric mobility potential of Toronto: moving toward an electric mobility master plan for the city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, A.; Scratch, K.

    2010-10-01

    This report is an analysis of the current state of electric transportation and its potential integration in the transportation system of the city of Toronto. In this document, electric vehicles include every mode of transport involving the use of energy drawn from the electricity grid, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), extended range electric vehicles (EREV), battery electric vehicles (BEV), grid connected transit vehicles and electrified locomotives. An overview of the movement of people and goods, including the consideration of patterns of commuting and modes of transportation, is provided in the first section of this document. It has been demonstrated that most of the trips taking place in the city correspond to the predicted operating range of many EVs. Section one also provides a description of the local electricity grid system serving Toronto neighbourhoods and of the sources and movements of air contaminants. It gives a evaluation of the state of EV technologies and analyzes the economic and social factors that have an impact on the public perceptions regarding these technologies. Current policies and programs designed to promote market adoption of EVs around the world are outlined in the conclusion of this section. A simulation work was performed through a collaborative work with Toronto Hydro Electric System Limited in order to analyze the consequences of different EV charging scenarios on the electricity grid system. The results of this simulation are described in section two of the report. The document also presents the outcomes of the workshop on the implementation of an electric mobility master plan held in Toronto in April, 2010. 176 refs.

  11. Prospective Analysis and Critique of the Territory of Araquari: The Relationship Between Sustainability Criteria in the City Master Plan and Territorial Sustainable Development (TSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Freitas da Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prospective analysis and criticism for the territory of Araquari (Santa Catarina according to the sustainability criteria of Ignacy Sachs and the Master Plan in the field of Sustainable Territorial Development (DTS. The research is qualitative and exploratory and uses a socio-historical context of Araquari.  The objective is to identify the potential of the territory and to highlight the role of the management of organizational settings and social transformations, during an automotive factory installation in 2014 (Bayerische Motoren Werke - BMW. Through evaluation of the sustainability criteria, the Master Plan of the municipality is assessed with regard to the managers and civil society, state and market, with terms and Reflections of DTS and the expectations and challenges in view of the managers. The research reports on aspects of Brazilian municipalities that are home to complex automotive and crossed processes with the expectation that positive and similar processes should happen in Araquari. The study concludes with the need to comply to the letter of the Master Plan by all stakeholders in accordance with its guidelines. It is essential that the following requirements be addressed: the social functions of the city, social function of property, sustainability, equality in social justice, and democratic and participatory management.

  12. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren

    2007-01-01

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  13. Wide Spread Exploitations of Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Paatero, Jukka V.; Lahdelma, Risto

    2016-01-01

    The recoverable proven reserves of fossil fuel sources are projected to be exhausted by the end of this century. In response to the exhaustion of fossil resources, there is a serious need to find alternative fuel sources. Bioenergy is one of the potential candidates to counteract the fossil-fuel depletion challenge. Despite bioenergy sources appear to be renewable and net-zero GHG emitting, bioenergy undergoes competition with food, feed and other crucial applications. Since earth’s eco syste...

  14. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  15. Finnish bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1993-12-31

    Finland is one of the leading countries in the use of biofuels. The share of wood derived fuels of the total primary energy requirement was about 14% (ca. 4 million toe) and peat about 5% (1.4 million toe). The possibilities for increasing the use of biofuels in Finland are significant. There is theoretically about 10 million m{sup 3}/a (about 2 million toe/a) of harvestable wood. Areas suitable for fuel peat production (0.5 million ha) could produce ca. 420 million toe of peat. At present rates of use, the peat reserves are adequate for centuries. During the next few years 0.5--1 million hectares of fields withdrawn from farming could be used for biofuel production. The production potential of this field area is estimated to be about 0.2--0.5 million toe. In addition, the use of wastes in energy production could be increased. The aim of the new Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. New economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and use of biofuels will also be developed. The main research areas are production of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass.

  16. Pectins, Endopolygalacturonases, and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarullo, Mariana B. G.; Tavares, Eveline Q. P.; Padilla, Gabriel; Leite, Débora C. C.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2016-01-01

    The precise disassembly of the extracellular matrix of some plant species used as feedstocks for bioenergy production continues to be a major barrier to reach reasonable cost effective bioethanol production. One solution has been the use of pretreatments, which can be effective, but increase even more the cost of processing and also lead to loss of cell wall materials that could otherwise be used in industry. Although pectins are known to account for a relatively low proportion of walls of grasses, their role in recalcitrance to hydrolysis has been shown to be important. In this mini-review, we examine the importance of pectins for cell wall hydrolysis highlighting the work associated with bioenergy. Here we focus on the importance of endopolygalacturonases (EPGs) discovered to date. The EPGs cataloged by CAZy were screened, revealing that most sequences, as well as the scarce structural work performed with EPGs, are from fungi (mostly Aspergillus niger). The comparisons among the EPG from different microorganisms, suggests that EPGs from bacteria and grasses display higher similarity than each of them with fungi. This compilation strongly suggests that structural and functional studies of EPGs, mainly from plants and bacteria, should be a priority of research regarding the use of pectinases for bioenergy production purposes. PMID:27703463

  17. Pectins, Endopolygalacturonases, and Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. G. Latarullo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise disassembly of the extracellular matrix of some plant species used as feedstocks for bioenergy production continues to be a major barrier to reach reasonable cost effective bioethanol production. One solution has been the use of pretreatments, which can be effective, but increase even more the cost of processing and also lead to loss of cell wall materials that could otherwise be used in industry. Although pectins are known to account for a relatively low proportion of walls of grasses, their role in recalcitrance to hydrolysis has been shown to be important. In this mini-review, we examine the importance of pectins for cell wall hydrolysis highlighting the work associated with bioenergy. Here we focus on the importance of endopolygalacturonases (EPGs discovered to date. The EPGs cataloged by CAZy were screened, revealing that most sequences, as well as the scarce structural work performed with EPGs, are from fungi (mostly Aspergillus niger. The comparisons among the EPG from different microorganisms, suggests that EPGs from bacteria and grasses display higher similarity than each of them with fungi. This compilation strongly suggests that structural and functional studies of EPGs, mainly from plants and bacteria, should be a priority of research regarding the use of pectinases for bioenergy production purposes.

  18. Spatial Analysis of Urban Master Plans of Towns in North-Eastern Poland in the Context of Urban Revalorisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek; Klopotowski, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The research subject raised in this study is the urban structure of small towns in Warmia, a region rich in history, situated in the north-eastern Poland. This area, together with the neighbouring region of Mazury, is referred to as the Land of a Thousand Lakes. The historical events, such as the conquest of this territory by the Teutonic Order in 13th century, gave rise to the foundation of twelve towns in Warmia, which have survived until our time. Of these settlements, only one, which is Olsztyn, grew to a larger size over the centuries and eventually became the capital of Warmia. The others are still small towns, with a population from a few to less than twenty thousand inhabitants. The policy and economic goals of the Teutonic Order underlay the spread of a uniform type of urban master plan in the entire region. The establishment of urban centres was dictated by military considerations - all towns had fortified castles and were 15-30 km distant from one another, which stemmed from the organisation of the Teutonic State. The location of new towns in Warmia coincided in time with the general urban planning principles governing urban development in the Middle Ages. The medieval towns, which grew on the foundations of ancient cultures, were developed on a regular grid of streets, delineating land lots for compact town houses and a central square serving as a market place. Within this structure, the town’s most significant spatial dominants, such as a town hall, a church and a fortified castle, were situated. The castle often stood on the outskirts of a town, as it had to be connected to the town’s fortifications. The location of medieval towns in Warmia proceeded according to a similar concept. All these towns are distinguished by characteristically medieval, regular urban layouts, which - while being similar - have certain intrinsic features. Differences can be seen in the design of main streets, the size and proportions of market squares, the ways in which

  19. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran

    International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), 42 (Biorefining – Sustainable Processing of Biomass into a Spectrum of Marketable Bio-based Products and Bioenergy), and 43 (Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets). The purpose of the collaboration has been to analyze prospects for large...

  20. Halophytes as Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops.

  1. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  2. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  3. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  4. Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    (Leading abstract). The conference ''Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology'' took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  5. 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristen L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-03

    This report provides a snapshot of the bioenergy industry status at the end of 2016. The report compliments other annual market reports from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offices and is supported by DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO). The 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report focuses on past year data covering multiple dimensions of the bioenergy industry and does not attempt to make future market projections. The report provides a balanced and unbiased assessment of the industry and associated markets. It is openly available to the public and is intended to compliment International Energy Agency and industry reports with a focus on DOE stakeholder needs.

  6. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    sources of biomass for energy purposes in the European Union. Estimation of European biomass resources is associated with significant uncertainty, and it is not sure if the European Union can meet its 2020 energy policy targets with biomass produced in the EU, although some countries hold sway over...... a total production of residues from these six crops of ~3.7 billion tonnes dry matter annually. North and South America; Eastern, South-Eastern and Southern Asia and Eastern Europe each produce more than 200 million tonnes dry matter annually. The theoretical energy potential from the selected crop......, where bio-ethanol production is integrated with combined heat and power production may improve the energy balance with about 30 % point and reach energy efficiencies almost comparable to those seen for conversion of petroleum into gasoline. Minimisation of GHG emissions from bioenergy production...

  7. 10. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biomass energy not only contributes to the energy transition, but also for climate and resource protection. The main topics of the conference are: Alternative solid bioenergy sources; Optimizing the use of heat; Prospects for biofuels; Emission reduction through use of biofuels; Alternative biomass for biogas; Optimization and adjustment in the biogas sector; Flexibility of biogas plants; New uses of bioenergy. 12 contributions were recorded separately for the INIS database. [de

  8. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas S.; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  9. ACMECS Bioenergy Network: Implementing a transnational science-based policy network on bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Haruthaithanasan, Maliwan; Kraxner, Florian; Brenner, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Despite the currently low prices for fossil energy resulting from a number of geopolitical reasons, intergovernmental efforts are being made towards a transition to a sustainable bio-economy. The main reasons for this include climate change mitigation, decreasing dependencies fossil fuel imports and hence external market fluctuations, diversification of energy generation and feedstock production for industrial processes. Since 2012, the ACMECS bioenergy network initiative leads negotiations and organizes workshops to set up a regional bioenergy network in Indochina, with the aim to promote biomass and -energy markets, technology transfer, rural development and income generation. Policy development is guided by the International Union of Forest Research Institutions (IUFRO) Task Force "Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Network". In this paper, we highlight the achievements so far and present results of a multi-stakeholder questionnaire in combination with a quantitative analysis of the National Bioenergy Development Plans (NBDP's). We found that traditional fuelwood is still the most important resource for generating thermal energy in the region, especially in rural settings, and it will remain an important resource even in 25 years. However, less fuelwood will be sourced from natural forests as compared to today. NBDP's have a focus on market development, technology transfer and funding possibilities of a regional bioenergy strategy, while the responses of the questionnaire favored more altruistic goals, i.e. sustainable resource management, environmental protection and climate change mitigation, generation of rural income and community involvement etc. This is surprising, since a sub-population of the (anonymous) questionnaire respondents was actually responsible drafting the NBDP's. We therefore suggest the following measures to ensure regulations that represent the original aims of the network (climate change mitigation, poverty alleviation, sustainable resource use

  10. Mastering Grunt

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This easy-to-understand tutorial provides you with several engaging projects that show you how to utilize Grunt with various web technologies, teaching you how to master build automation and testing with Grunt in your applications.If you are a JavaScript developer who is looking to streamline their workflow with build-automation, then this book will give you a kick start in fully understanding the importance of the described web technologies and automate their processes using Grunt.

  11. Navigating Bioenergy. Contributing to informed decision making on bioenergy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, M.; Reumerman, P.; Frederiks, B. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In order to further contribute to sustainable global bioenergy development, UNIDO will this year be launching the Bioenergy Capacity Building Programme (BIOCAB), offering a comprehensive training package to policy makers and entrepreneurs aimed at enhancing their engagement in shaping a sustainable bioenergy industry in developing countries. The training package, disseminated through a network of key institutions and certified trainers, will consist of four modules covering the following subjects: Technologies and Processes, Policy, Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues, Financial and Project Development Issues, Industrial Applications for Productive Use. While designing the training package and its modules at a meeting hosted by UNIDO at headquarters in August 2008, experts reiterated a demand, previously expressed by UNIDO clients at various international fora, for an easy-to-read, practical and user-friendly introduction to certain contentious bioenergy issues. The expert meeting selected the most hotly-debated bioenergy issues and came up with the following eight topics: (1) Jatropha, the feedstock of the future?; (2) Biomethane, is it an underestimated energy source?; (3) Energy from Municipal Solid Waste, can this potential be realized?; (4) The Biorefinery Concept, how relevant is it for developing countries?; (5) Competition with Food, what are the facts in the food versus fuel discussion?; (6) Sustainability and Certification of Biomass, what are the benefits?; (7) Clean Development Mechanism, how does it work?; (8) Success Stories.

  12. Management swing potential for bioenergy crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, S.C.; Boddey, R.M.; Alves, B.J.R.; Cowie, A.L.; George, B.H.; Ogle, S.M.; Smith, P.; Noordwijk, van M.; Wijk, van M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy crops are often classified (and subsequently regulated) according to species that have been evaluated as environmentally beneficial or detrimental, but in practice, management decisions rather than species per se can determine the overall environmental impact of a bioenergy production

  13. Urban form and urban master plan: Haussmann’s Paris and Josimović’s Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Marković Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an everlasting, unbreakable connection between the urban plan and the form of a city. The current appearance of the Belgrade city centre was influenced by the plan, or, more precisely, the draft Reconstruction Plan for the Town within the Moat, drawn by Emilijan Josimović in 1867. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of this Plan on the form of Belgrade, considering the social environment and the institutional framework under which it was developed. For the same reason, and to obtain a full insight into the impact of regulation plans on urban forms, Haussmann’s reconstruction plan of Paris, made only a few years earlier, will also be reviewed, as it also caused vast changes in the structure of Paris. The study will encompass the role of urban planners and contracting authorities, the social environment, the features of the “field design” determined by the ownership structure of urban construction land and the value of inherited structures, the structural form requirements imposed by the contracting authority and the social context, including the social, political and institutional framework under which the planning process took place, and other, given the complexity of the said process influenced by a number of actors and factors. Understanding the process of developing an urban form helps the process of its evaluation. On the 150th anniversary of the completion of the Reconstruction Plan for the Town within the Moat, this paper is yet another small contribution to its study, as well as the tribute to its creator, Emilijan Josimović, his visions and possibilities (or inabilities to carry them out.

  14. Succession planning for the future through an academic-practice partnership: a nursing administration master's program for emerging nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Rose; Dyess, Susan; Hannah, Ed; Prestia, Angela

    2013-01-01

    A global nursing leadership shortage is projected by the end of this decade. There is an urgent need to begin developing emerging nurse leaders now. This article describes the work of an academic-practice partnership collaborative of nurse leaders. The goal of the partnership is to develop and promote an innovative enhanced nursing administration master's program targeted to young emerging nurse leaders, who have not yet moved into formal leadership roles. An action research design is being used in program development and evaluation. Qualities needed by emerging leaders identified through research included a need to be politically astute, competency with business skills required of nurse leaders today, comfort with ambiguity, use of a caring approach, and leadership from a posture of innovation. The current curriculum was revised to include clinical immersion with a nurse leader from the first semester in the program, a change from all online to online/hybrid courses, innovative assignments, and a strong mentorship component. Eighteen young emerging nurse leaders began the program in January 2012. Early outcomes are positive. The emerging nurse leaders may be uniquely positioned, given the right skills sets, to be nurse leaders in the new age.

  15. Learning profiles of Master students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Hemmingsen, Lis

    2005-01-01

    at DPU in 2001 several evaluations and research have been carried out on several topics relating to form, content, and didactics, but one important focus is missing: the research about the psychological profile and learning style of the master student. Knowledge is lacking on how teaching methods...... and programme designs relate to and support the learning profiles and learning styles of the master students. In other words: What are the consequences of the students' learning styles in terms of planning and teaching in the master programme?......Master education as a part of lifelong learning/education has over the last years increased in Denmark. Danish Universities now offer more than110 different programmes. One of the characteristics of the master education is that the students get credits for their prior learning and practical work...

  16. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  17. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-29

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) is an online collaboration and geospatial analysis tool that allows researchers, policymakers, and investors to explore and engage the latest bioenergy research. This publication describes how the KDF harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that facilitates collaborative production, integration, and analysis of bioenergy-related information.

  18. 8051 Master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Deok Yong

    1981-01-01

    This book tells of system and function of 8051 like what micro controller is, command and addressing mode of 8051, handling of interrupt of 8051, and IO port and timer of 8051, outer interface of 8051 such as semiconductor memory and interface, timer and 82C54 PIT, serial communication and 82C55A PPI, parallel transmission and 82C55A PPI, and AP/D/A converter, tool for software development of 8051, 8051 master kit OK-8051, assembly language programming like instruction manual of OK-8051 kit and addition and subtraction program and C-language programing.

  19. 76 FR 36955 - West Los Angeles VA Medical Center Veterans Programs Enhancement Act of 1998; Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... over the next 50 years.'' This is a land use plan that guides the physical development of the campus to... Development (HUD) Section 8 permanent housing vouchers (940), and community residential beds for veterans with... homeless veterans, especially those coping with mental health problems such as PTSD. The WLA campus is a...

  20. Bioenergy research advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijai G; Kubicek, Christian P; Saddler, Jack; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post...

  1. The role of bioenergy in the energy transition. The ''Smart Bioenergy'' concept; Die Rolle der Bioenergie in der Energiewende. Das ''Smart Bioenergy''-Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thraen, Daniela [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Bioenergie (BEN); DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Seitz, Stefanie B.; Wirkner, Ronny; Nelles, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme

    2016-08-01

    The energy system's transformation away from fossil and therefore finite resources and ecological harmful use towards renewable energy sources and sustainable forms of usage proceeds. But even after 35 years, the German energy transition has yet not reached its ambitious goals. Moreover, in the recent years the progress has stagnated in certain areas. This is due to the fact that one of the central challenges of the energy system's changeover to an sole use renewable energy (RE) have not yet mastered: the reliable and stable delivery of RE for all energy dependent sectors starting form electricity via heat to mobility in the face of fluctuating energy sources like sun and wind. Bioenergy with its flexible use of innovative technologies and smart integration in the overall system is therefore vital to grant stability of energy supply. Furthermore, bioenergy can recourse on sustainable resources and may become therefore the backbone of the future bioeconomy. For this purpose an integrative approach is necessary that aligns the aforementioned building blocks in a cohesive whole: the Smart Bioenergy concept - that will be presented here with its elements but also open questions and challenges.

  2. Technical/economical analysis of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: (1) To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels; (2) To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on technoeconomic basis to establish future development needs, and (3) To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned. (orig.)

  3. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  4. The role of bioenergy in the energy transition. The ''Smart Bioenergy'' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thraen, Daniela; DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig; Seitz, Stefanie B.; Wirkner, Ronny; Nelles, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The energy system's transformation away from fossil and therefore finite resources and ecological harmful use towards renewable energy sources and sustainable forms of usage proceeds. But even after 35 years, the German energy transition has yet not reached its ambitious goals. Moreover, in the recent years the progress has stagnated in certain areas. This is due to the fact that one of the central challenges of the energy system's changeover to an sole use renewable energy (RE) have not yet mastered: the reliable and stable delivery of RE for all energy dependent sectors starting form electricity via heat to mobility in the face of fluctuating energy sources like sun and wind. Bioenergy with its flexible use of innovative technologies and smart integration in the overall system is therefore vital to grant stability of energy supply. Furthermore, bioenergy can recourse on sustainable resources and may become therefore the backbone of the future bioeconomy. For this purpose an integrative approach is necessary that aligns the aforementioned building blocks in a cohesive whole: the Smart Bioenergy concept - that will be presented here with its elements but also open questions and challenges.

  5. The Joint Master Operational Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    failures and ensure U.S. strategic interests are preserved, the Department of Defense must make changes in current officer professional military education ...to develop a core population of elite strategic thinkers and operational artists . This thesis proposes a program, called the Joint Master...devise effective campaign and operational plans at the Combatant Command level. Planner, Planning, Complexity, Professional Military Education

  6. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (master plan for changing district heating boilers, Nizhniy Novgorod province); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nizhniy Novgorod shu chiiki danboyo boiler tenkan master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The above-named plan aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy efficiency. The above-named Russian system for supplying heat and hot water is operated by the 51 local governments in the province, with boiler houses sited at 4047 locations. Almost all of them are approximately 30 years old, low in thermal efficiency because of their obsolete design and structure, costly because of their old parts and components wanting repair, and higher in fuel cost than those fired by natural gas. It is indispensable to replace the existing boilers with natural gas-fired boilers, and it is estimated that there are 4511 boilers that require such replacement. When the heat supply business operated by the local governments is modernized, the CO2 gas emission will be reduced by approximately 2.675-million tons/year. As for energy efficiency, it is found that replacement by heavy oil-fired boilers is the highest in terms of the effect of investment. (NEDO)

  8. Evolutionary algorithms approach for integrated bioenergy supply chains optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, Nasser; Elmoshi, Elsayed; Seki, Hiroya; Naka, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization model and solution approach for designing and evaluating integrated system of bioenergy production supply chains, SC, at the local level. Designing SC that simultaneously utilize a set of bio-resources together is a complicated task, considered here. The complication arises from the different nature and sources of bio-resources used in bioenergy production i.e., wet, dry or agriculture, industrial etc. Moreover, the different concerns that decision makers should take into account, to overcome the tradeoff anxieties of the socialists and investors, i.e., social, environmental and economical factors, was considered through the options of multi-criteria optimization. A first part of this research was introduced in earlier research work explaining the general Bioenergy Decision System gBEDS [Ayoub N, Martins R, Wang K, Seki H, Naka Y. Two levels decision system for efficient planning and implementation of bioenergy production. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48:709-23]. In this paper, brief introduction and emphasize on gBEDS are given; the optimization model is presented and followed by a case study on designing a supply chain of nine bio-resources at Iida city in the middle part of Japan.

  9. Defense Infrastructure: Opportunity to Improve the Timeliness of Future Overseas Planning Reports and Factors Affecting the Master Planning Effort for the Military Buildup on Guam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lepore, Brian J; Little, Mark; Alcoser, Nelsie; Jones, Mae; Lenane, Kate; Matta, Julia; Moon, Jamilah

    2008-01-01

    ... after the February 2008 budget submission, even though both the Senate and conference reports accompanying the fiscal year 2004 military construction bill require DOD to issue the plans with the military construction budget submission...

  10. Moderne bioenergi har store muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Kossmann, J.; Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergi er energi, der stammer fra vedvarende kilder af biologisk oprindelse. Normalt bruges energiafgrøder dyrket specielt til formålet, eller biprodukter fra landbrug, skovbrug eller fiskeri. Eksempler på bioenergikilder er træbrændsel, bagasse(udpressede sukkerrør), organisk affald, biogas og...

  11. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  12. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  13. Assessment of renewable bioenergy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    into biogas. In order to validate the proposed options of bioenergy application, we considered a food processing company in Denmark as a case company in a single in-depth case study. In the case studied, the produced biogas is to be utilized in one of two options at a bakery site: To substitute natural gas...

  14. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  15. APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA TO STELLA, MISSOURI-SOCIAL PLANNING-PRELIMINARY SITE INFORMATION AND ELEMENTS OF THE MASTER PLAN-16NOV2006 (0915-0930)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social systems constraints and performance requirements that are essential to society in general form a list of criteria for planning a sustainable society. This presentation places these social criteria in the context of Stella, Missouri so that workshop participants can provide...

  16. APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA TO STELLA, MISSOURI-ECONOMIC PLANNING-PRELIMINARY SITE INFORMATION AND ELEMENTS OF THE MASTER PLAN-16NOV2006 (1130)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic systems constraints and performance requirements that are essential to providing goods and services, jobs, and a functioning economic system form a list of criteria for planning a sustainable economy. This presentation places these economic criteria in the context of Ste...

  17. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) Change Detection in Islamabad and its Comparison with Capital Development Authority (CDA) 2006 Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaan, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing is very useful for the production of land use and land cover statistics which can be beneficial to determine the distribution of land uses. Using remote sensing techniques to develop land use classification mapping is a convenient and detailed way to improve the selection of areas designed to agricultural, urban and/or industrial areas of a region. In Islamabad city and surrounding the land use has been changing, every day new developments (urban, industrial, commercial and agricultural) are emerging leading to decrease in vegetation cover. The purpose of this work was to develop the land use of Islamabad and its surrounding area that is an important natural resource. For this work the eCognition Developer 64 computer software was used to develop a land use classification using SPOT 5 image of year 2012. For image processing object-based classification technique was used and important land use features i.e. Vegetation cover, barren land, impervious surface, built up area and water bodies were extracted on the basis of object variation and compared the results with the CDA Master Plan. The great increase was found in built-up area and impervious surface area. On the other hand vegetation cover and barren area followed a declining trend. Accuracy assessment of classification yielded 92% accuracies of the final land cover land use maps. In addition these improved land cover/land use maps which are produced by remote sensing technique of class definition, meet the growing need of legend standardization.

  18. Bioenergy industries development in China. Dilemma and solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peidong, Zhang; Yanli, Yang; Xutong, Yang; Yonghong, Zheng; Lisheng, Wang; Yongsheng, Tian; Yongkai, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Having 2.8 x 10 8 -3.0 x 10 8 t/a of wood energy, 4.0 x 10 6 t/a of oil seeds, 7.7 x 10 8 t/a of crops straw, 3.97 x 10 9 t/a of poultry and livestock manure, 1.48 x 10 8 t/a of municipal waste, and 4.37 x 10 10 t/a of organic wastewater, China is in possession of good resource condition for the development of bioenergy industries. Until the end of 2007, China has popularized 2.65 x 10 7 rural household biogas, established 8318 large and middle-scale biogas projects, and produced 1.08 x 10 10 m 3 /a of biogas; the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biomass briquettes fuel and biomass power generation reached to 1.5 x 10 6 t/a, 3.0 x 10 5 t/a, 6.0 x 10 4 t/a and 6.42 x 10 9 kWh, respectively. In recent years, bioenergy industries developed increasingly fast in China. However, the industrial base was weak with some dilemma existing in raw material supply, technological capability, industry standards, policy and regulation, and follow-up services, etc. From the viewpoint of long-term effective development system for bioenergy industries in China, a series of policy suggestions have been offered, such as strengthening strategy research, improving bioenergy industries development policies and plan, enhancing scientific research input, persisting in technology innovation, establishing product quality standard, improving industrial standard system, opening market and accelerating commercialization, etc. It is expected that the advices mentioned above could be helpful for the improvement of bioenergy industries development. (author)

  19. The future of bioenergy; Die Zukunft der Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the following five contributions: 1. The impact of the governmental biogas production on agricultural rents in Germany. An econometric study (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas as price drivers on the land and rental market? An Empirical Analysis (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analysis of comparative advantage of bioenergy in electricity and heat production. Greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation costs in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibility potential of biogas and biomethane CHP in the investment portfolio (Matthias Edel); 5. Legal possibilities and limitations of a reform of the system for the promotion of bioenergy (Jose Martinez). [German] Dieser Band enthaelt folgende fuenf Themenbeitraege: 1. Die Auswirkungen der staatlichen Biogasfoerderung auf landwirtschaftliche Pachtpreise in Deutschland. Eine oekonometrische Untersuchung (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas als Preistreiber am Bodenmarkt und Pachtmarkt? Eine empirische Analyse (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analyse komparativer Kostenvorteile von Bioenergielinien in der Strom- und Waermeproduktion Treibhausgasvermeidung und Vermeidungskosten in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibilisierungspotenzial von Biogas- und Biomethan-BHKWs im Anlagenbestand (Matthias Edel); 5. Rechtliche Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer Reform des Systems zur Foerderung der Bioenergie (Jose Martinez).

  20. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  1. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  2. La "capacidad vial" del plan regulador chileno, ¿es lo suficientemente buena para dar forma a un entorno edificado sostenible?/ The "road capacity" of the chilean master plan is it good enough for shaping a sustainable built environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Jirón, Luz Alicia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The "road capacity" of the Chilean Master Plan is a tool developed to measure the capacity of streets in terms of supporting the size of vehicle flow. This tool considers topics such as land use, population density and street width. The purpose of this technique is to incorporate it to the Master Plan, as a town planning instrument, so as to cope with traffic forecasting and congestion. However, the technique does not embrace any sustainability concept, this is due to a disregard of any district ´s social or environmental needs. Therefore a sustainable urban development would doubtfully be reached. It is argued that some other approaches are required for shaping a sustainable built environment in which it is understood that the streets are a public space for people rather than a platform for moving vehicles only. This means, to promote accessibility as well as mobility. In this paper the author reviews borrowed concepts such as "carrying capacity" and "environmental capacity" from bioregionalist and ecological disciplines using a case study in outskirts of Santiago´s metro area./La "capacidad vial" del Plan Regulador chileno es una herramienta desarrollada para medir la capacidad de las calles en términos de apoyar el tamaño del flujo de vehículos. Esta herramienta considera temas como el uso de la tierra, la densidad de población y ancho de la calle. El propósito de esta técnica es su incorporación al Plan Maestro, como un instrumento de planificación de la ciudad, con el fin de hacer frente a la previsión del tráfico y la congestión. Sin embargo, la técnica no incluye ningún concepto de sostenibilidad. Por lo tanto un desarrollo urbano sostenible dudosamente sería alcanzado. Se argumenta que algunos otros enfoques son necesarios para dar forma a un medio ambiente sostenible integrado, en el que se entiende que las calles son un espacio público para las personas en lugar de una plataforma para mover los vehículos solamente

  3. Strategy for increased development of bio-energy; Strategi for oekt utbygging av bioenergi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    The goal for the bio-energy strategy is to secure goal-oriented and coordinated effort towards increased development of bio-energy by 14 TWh within 2020. The increase in development of bio-energy is important because it reduces greenhouse gases, contribute to industrial and commercial development and strengthen the reliability of energy supply

  4. Bioenergy. The manifold renewable energy. 4. compl. rev. ed.; Bioenergie. Die vielfaeltige erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy source in Germany. With about 70 percent bioenergy contributes to the largest share of energy supply from renewable energy sources. This brochure provides an overview of the various possibilities, advantages and opportunities in the use of biomass and bioenergy.

  5. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-07-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) supports the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry by providing access to a variety of data sets, publications, and collaboration and mapping tools that support bioenergy research, analysis, and decision making. In the KDF, users can search for information, contribute data, and use the tools and map interface to synthesize, analyze, and visualize information in a spatially integrated manner.

  6. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  7. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  8. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre; Wit, Marc de; Bolkesjoe, Torjus; Bradley, Douglas; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Walter, Arnaldo da Silva; Heinimoe, Jussi; Hektor, Bo; Leistad, Oeyvind; Ling, Erik; Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Ryckmans, Yves; Schouwenberg, Peter-Paul; Solberg, Birger; Troemborg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  9. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch status document on bio-energy has been updated with data for the year 2011. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets. The status document shows there has been a slight increase in the share of bio-energy in overall energy consumption as well as in the total amount of renewable energy generated (which now stands at a little over 4% of gross final consumption). The question, however, is whether this growth is sufficient to meet the European target of 14% renewables in 2020. The limited growth is due partly to the decrease in the amount of energy generated in the category 'other incineration'. In addition, there was a decline in the physical delivery of transport biofuels because certain types of fuel can be 'double-counted' in the records, although they do not contribute to the 14% target. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2011 geeft de huidige status weer van bioenergie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken aan overheden en marktpartijen in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie. De kabinetsdoelstellingen voor hernieuwbare energie zijn conform de doelstellingen uit de richtlijn voor hernieuwbare energie (2009/28/EG), die is vastgesteld door de EC. In 2020 moet 14% van het nationale bruto finaal eindgebruik afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare bronnen, de Nederlandse overheid schat dat dat overeenkomt met 300 PJ. Naar schatting is in 2011 ongeveer 88 PJ aan hernieuwbare energie geproduceerd, ongeveer evenveel

  10. Interfaces entre a política habitacional e o Plano Diretor Participativo na metrópole Fortaleza-CE / Relations between the housing policy and participatory master plan in metropolis Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete de Oliveira Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The housing question appears as essential element to understanding the production, consumption and appropriation processes of urban space, illuminating the relationship between sociospatial segregation and real state speculation that govern the brazilians' cities structuring. This paper proposes to discuss the relations between the Participatory Master Plan of Fortaleza (PDPFor and the Municipal Housing Policy (PHIS, aiming to contribute to the reflection of the importance of the urban and housing policies integration. The text is divided into three parts: the first discusses the context of the emergence of the master plans "new generation" in Brazil; the second reconstructs the preparation process of the PDPFor and PHIS; and the third proposes a questioning about the dialogue between the urban and housing political, based on the analysis of the content of PHIS and housing policy chapter in PDPFor.

  11. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  12. The master plan of Cartagena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Diego Hernan

    2004-01-01

    The paper refers to the activities to execute for ECOPETROL in the refinery of Cartagena, like they are the increment in the production of gasoline, new units of sulfur, optimization of the refinery including the construction of a new unit of raw

  13. Medical Technology Base Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    peak nionthe pinn~am- "anii warfare training I*N4. ftem’a 300 Casa $ all"a I95F fernofnagic Fever iWorea, 1101 -195 2.S00 cases with S% iprtah1~ts: sec~l...had 220 cases requiring evacuation from the field. On the Argentine side. 275 troops viere hosprIalized and most required some degree o1 amp ~utation

  14. Dayton Greenway Conceptual Master Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Gilboy, Elizabeth Truex; Philen, Melissa; Stroud, Patricia; Thomas, Andrea; Williams, Daphne; Alves, Elena; Zhong, Cen

    2016-01-01

    The Town of Dayton, with a population of just over 1,500 in 2013, is one of the oldest settled communities in Rockingham County and the county's second oldest incorporated town. Formed in 1778 from Augusta County, Rockingham County is bounded on the west by the Allegheny Mountains and on the east by the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Between the natural boundaries, approximately a third of Rockingham County is protected by the Federal Government as National Forest and National Park land. ...

  15. Master Plan for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This Task investigated the general question of environmental education from the standpoint of the shipyard industry. Personal interviews were...a listing of the environmental regulations and statutes that bear on environmental education . Analysis of the findings suggests that environmental ... education programs in most shipyards are limited to what is required by the regulations. Little or no additional environmental education is being

  16. Changes of the carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio resulting from the implementation of the 2nd Energy Master Plan in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, M.J.; Kim, Y.P.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the national greenhouse gas emission reduction target for 2030 (“GHG target for 2030″) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (“2nd EMP”), several power mix configuration scenarios were tested to estimate the sensitivity of the carbon dioxide emissions and the ‘overshoot ratio’, which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity. It would be only possible to achieve the GHG target for 2030 if the fraction of non-emission energy be more than 70% of the total input primary energy for power generation with the current conversion efficiency (40%). Even the conversion efficiency is changed to 50%, still the carbon dioxide emissions are larger than the targeted carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. The overshoot ratio would still increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035 even with the successful implementation of the 2nd EMP. Thus, additional efforts to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio from the energy sector are required beyond adjusting the supply mix configuration for power generation and the conversion efficiency. Policies and programs encouraging the changes in consumer behavior toward reduction of goods consumption and energy savings are expected to impact on reducing the carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio. - Highlights: •The overshoot ratio will increase in 2035 even if the 2nd EMP is fully implemented. •Power mix configuration changes would not be enough to achieve the GHG target. •Increasing the conversion efficiency is good in long-term to achieve the GHG target.

  17. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program : Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.

    1999-09-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and

  18. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  19. Bioenergy has a key role to play!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;......Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;...

  20. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulat...... about such factors, and about the inherent trade-offs in bioenergy governance....

  1. Bioenergy in energy transformation and climate management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, S.K.; Kriegler, E.; Bibas, R.; Calvin, K.; Popp, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Weyant, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a large inter-model comparison of 15 models, we comprehensively characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run

  2. Metaheuristic Algorithms Applied to Bioenergy Supply Chain Problems: Theory, Review, Challenges, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is a new source of energy that accounts for a substantial portion of the renewable energy production in many countries. The production of bioenergy is expected to increase due to its unique advantages, such as no harmful emissions and abundance. Supply-related problems are the main obstacles precluding the increase of use of biomass (which is bulky and has low energy density to produce bioenergy. To overcome this challenge, large-scale optimization models are needed to be solved to enable decision makers to plan, design, and manage bioenergy supply chains. Therefore, the use of effective optimization approaches is of great importance. The traditional mathematical methods (such as linear, integer, and mixed-integer programming frequently fail to find optimal solutions for non-convex and/or large-scale models whereas metaheuristics are efficient approaches for finding near-optimal solutions that use less computational resources. This paper presents a comprehensive review by studying and analyzing the application of metaheuristics to solve bioenergy supply chain models as well as the exclusive challenges of the mathematical problems applied in the bioenergy supply chain field. The reviewed metaheuristics include: (1 population approaches, such as ant colony optimization (ACO, the genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and bee colony algorithm (BCA; and (2 trajectory approaches, such as the tabu search (TS and simulated annealing (SA. Based on the outcomes of this literature review, the integrated design and planning of bioenergy supply chains problem has been solved primarily by implementing the GA. The production process optimization was addressed primarily by using both the GA and PSO. The supply chain network design problem was treated by utilizing the GA and ACO. The truck and task scheduling problem was solved using the SA and the TS, where the trajectory-based methods proved to outperform the population

  3. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-31

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  4. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  5. Watershed Boundaries, HDR engineering consulting company conducted stormwater master plan and gave us the dataset.ArcHydro can create watersheds using DEM and ArcGIS Spatial Analyst., Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Decatur Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Watershed Boundaries dataset current as of 2010. HDR engineering consulting company conducted stormwater master plan and gave us the dataset.ArcHydro can create...

  6. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  7. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  8. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  9. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  10. BIOENERGY AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaška Filip

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with bioenergy as an innovative source of regional development in Europe.It provides overview about main drivers and barriers to bioenergy implementation andemphases the role of potential socio-economic factors. Brief summary of real contributionto regional development in Germany, Austria and Norway is presented. The paper analyzesproblems and benefits of Slovak bioenergy project in town Detva as well. The finalsuggestions focus on creating effective information campaign in combination withappropriate tax measures and setting up conditions for better utilization of municipalorganic waste.

  11. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  12. Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology; Bioenergi `97: nordisk bioenergikonferanse, marked, miljoe og teknikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    (Leading abstract). The conference ``Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology`` took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  13. Understanding bioenergy conflicts: Case of a jatropha project inKenya’s Tana Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arevalo, J.; Ochieng, R.M.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Gritten, D.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, conflicts related to tenure, management and utilization of natural resources, in particularbioenergy conflicts, are becoming increasingly common. Many bioenergy conflicts are related to plan-tation projects seeking to capitalize on the opportunity to profit from a combination of

  14. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    agriculture and forestry including bioenergy options. Results reveal that bioenergy targets have significant effects on conservation planning and nature conservation. The additional land utilization demands driven by bioenergy targets influence not only the restoration costs of wetland areas. Also wetland conservation targets in one place stimulate land use intensification elsewhere due to market linkages. It also implies that environmental stresses (to wetlands) may be transferred to other countries. In all the results show that an integrated modelling of environmental and land use changes in European scale is able to estimate the impacts of policy decisions in nature conservation and agriculture. As shown by the case study, the implementation of any targets concerning resource utilization need to be followed by adequate land use planning. References Schleupner C. (2007). Estimation of wetland distribution potentials in Europe. FNU-135, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg. Schneider U.A., J Balkovic, S. De Cara, O. Franklin, S. Fritz, P. Havlik, I. Huck, K. Jantke , A.M.I. Kallio, F. Kraxner, A. Moiseyev, M. Obersteiner, C.I. Ramos, C. Schleupner, E. Schmid, D. Schwab & R. Skalsky (2008). The European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model - EUFASOM. FNU-156, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg.

  15. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  16. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  17. Canada report on bioenergy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Canada possesses significant forest resources. This paper reviewed Canada's bioenergy potential and market. Biomass in Canada is used to produce heat and power, as well as to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is also used to produce pyrolysis oil and wood pellets. Biomass resources included woody biomass; annual residue production; hog fuel piles; forest harvest waste and urban wood residues; agricultural residues; and municipal solid wastes. Trends in biomass production and consumption were discussed, and current biomass users were identified. A review of biomass prices was presented, and imports and exports for ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets were discussed. Barriers and opportunities for trade were also outlined. 6 tabs., 6 figs. 1 appendix.

  18. Recent developments of biofuels/bioenergy sustainability certification: A global overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Nicolae; Dallemand, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a review on the latest developments on the main initiatives and approaches for the sustainability certification for biofuels and/or bioenergy. A large number of national and international initiatives lately experienced rapid development in the view of the biofuels and bioenergy targets announced in the European Union, United States and other countries worldwide. The main certification initiatives are analysed in detail, including certification schemes for crops used as feedstock for biofuels, the various initiatives in the European Union, United States and globally, to cover biofuels and/or biofuels production and use. Finally, the possible way forward for biofuel certification is discussed. Certification has the potential to influence positively direct environmental and social impact of bioenergy production. Key recommendations to ensure sustainability of biofuels/bioenergy through certification include the need of an international approach and further harmonisation, combined with additional measures for global monitoring and control. The effects of biofuels/bioenergy production on indirect land use change (ILUC) is still very uncertain; addressing the unwanted ILUC requires sustainable land use planning and adequate monitoring tools such as remote sensing, regardless of the end-use of the product. - Research highlights: → There is little harmonisation between certification initiatives. → Certification alone is probably not able to avoid certain indirect effects. → Sustainability standards should be applied globally to all agricultural commodities. → A critical issue to certification is implementation and verification. → Monitoring and control of land use changes through remote sensing are needed.

  19. Spatiotemporal Changes in Crop Residues with Potential for Bioenergy Use in China from 1990 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available China has abundant crop residues (CRE that could be used for bioenergy. The spatiotemporal characteristics of bioenergy production are crucial for high-efficiency use and appropriate management of bioenergy enterprises. In this study, statistical and remote-sensing data on crop yield in China were used to estimate CRE and to analyze its spatiotemporal changes between 1990 and 2010. In 2010, China’s CRE was estimated to be approximately 133.24 Mt, and it was abundant in North and Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and South China; CRE was scarce on the Loess and Qinghai–Tibet Plateaus. The quantity of CRE increased clearly over the 20-year analysis period, mainly from an increase in residues produced on dry land. Changes in cultivated land use clearly influenced the changes in CRE. The expansion of cultivated land, which mainly occurred in Northeast and Northwest China, increased CRE by 5.18 Mt. The loss of cultivated land, which occurred primarily in North China and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, reduced CRE by 3.55 Mt. Additionally, the interconversion of paddy fields and dry land, which occurred mostly in Northeast China, increased CRE by 0.78 Mt. The findings of this article provide important information for policy makers in formulating plans and policies for crop-residue-based bioenergy development in China, and also for commercial ventures in deciding on locations and production schedules for generation of bioenergy.

  20. Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    H2 production in microalgae and cyanobacteria • Genetically engineer pathways to improve the H2 producing capacity of these phototrophs 10...density of enzymatic fuel cells (EFC) - sustained oxygen-tolerant hydrogen production by photosynthetic microbes Artificial Systems Research...Metabolic Engineering for the Production of Biofuels 2 H2O water-splitting enzyme 4 e_ 4 H+ H2-generating hydrogenase enzyme

  1. The position of bioenergy and development possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a review of bioenergy in energy economy of Finland and generally a review of bioenergy markets in the world. This review concentrates on wood and peat fuels. Municipal wastes, agro biomass and use of biogas in energy production are also considered in this review but in minor aspect. The significant part of this work is an estimation of bioenergy development prospects. The schedule is strategic to the year 2010, partly to the year 2025. The use of bioenergy in Finland has increased 64 % from the year 1980 and was in 1996 almost 7 million toe. The use of peat was 2,1 million toe and the rest consisted mainly of wood and wood based fuels. The share of bioenergy in the primary energy consumption is over 20 %. As far as the resources are concerned the possibilities to increase the use are very good. The main problem is the competitiveness. The competitiveness of forest biomass has improved as a result of technological research and development but it is still potential to maintain more by systematical R and D. A large target setting of increasing the bioenergy use in Finland is included in this review. The target is to increase the bioenergy use 25 % by the year 2005. This equals to 1,5 million toe. The target for the year 2010 is suggested to increase of 3,5 million toe from the 1995 level. Also the possibilities to develop new bioenergy technology for export markets are considered. A large number of concrete actions and long term activities to achieve these targets are presented. (orig.) 24 refs

  2. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  3. The Vermont Bioenergy Initiative: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Chris [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); Sawyer, Scott [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); Kahler, Ellen [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of the Vermont Bioenergy Initiative (VBI) was to foster the development of sustainable, distributed, small-scale biodiesel and grass/mixed fiber industries in Vermont in order to produce bioenergy for local transportation, agricultural, and thermal applications, as a replacement for fossil fuel based energy. The VBI marked the first strategic effort to reduce Vermont’s dependency on petroleum through the development of homegrown alternatives.

  4. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectives—reducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  5. Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecideIT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (i) structuring the problem, (ii) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (iii) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable

  6. A holistic sustainability assessment tool for bioenergy using the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, T.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) released a set of indicators for sustainable bioenergy. However, two important issues still remain unresolved. One of them is the definition of “sustainability”, and the other is the lack of a holistic assessment tool for drawing conclusions from the

  7. Master Console, SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paga Marrero, Hector Jose

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console oversees the function of Computer Systems in Firing room 1 (FR1). Master Console Operators, MCOs' for short, are our customer. I was integrated into the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) software team that is under the guidance of David Slaiman, who is the product group lead. I have been brought up to speed with System Monitoring and Control. The initial time spent reading SMC software design description and understanding how it works. The current Firing Room 1 Console Display is a floor layout giving the MCO two essential pieces of information which are Health and Status. When an issue arises, the MCO has to look on the display to find which console is affected and then the MCO must use the Reference designator from the display to manually search for the Portal Workstation (PWS) installed in the console using the hardware map; which is a long process to lookup a PWS if an issue is present. My project is to make the FR1 Console Display easier for the MCO's to pinpoint PWS's without having to lookup additional resources in the process. My project also includes updating Firing Room 1 Console Display to include the F1R Non-Redundant Set. The display does not have good use of space and functionality. PWS numbers were not present in the previous design and are the critical component in efficient understanding and administration of the consoles. Part of the process includes getting feedback from the customer, instead of just emailing them with a question, we made a proposal with changes so they could respond and give us their input; which proved to be an effective method for engaging them. In order to do this I had to use the Display Editor (DE) tool developed by NASA, Paint.Net and Visio. The process I have been using has been Visio to alter the floor layout of Firing Room and take advantage of the white areas, and then I take the altered floor plan into Paint.Net. Once in Paint.Net I put the new floor plan as a background to the standard console

  8. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  9. Master of science as change masters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Bøgelund, Pia; Kolmos, Anette

    2006-01-01

    Engineers are the driving forces of technological development – how do engineers obtain the relevant skills in order to fulfil this position? In this chapter, we ask whether the concept of change master could be a possible future direction for engineering skills. Developed by Kanter, the change...... master concept stresses the importance of creativity, innovation, leadership, and change. In this chapter, this concept will be analyzed and elaborated on partly in relation to the concepts of Bildung and Skill and partly to three different notions of engineering practice in technological innovation......: a rational perspective, a natural perspective, and an open-system perspective. This is related to a normative perspective on technological innovation, including guidelines to successful technological innovation in the hands of the so-called Change Masters. This normative perspective on how the innovation...

  10. Reconciling food security and bioenergy : Priorities for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kline, Keith L.; Msangi, Siwa; Dale, Virginia H.; Woods, Jeremy; Souza, Glaucia m.; Osseweijer, P.; Clancy, Joy S.; Hilbert, Jorge A.; Johnson, Francis X.; Mcdonnell, Patrick C.; Mugera, Harriet K.

    Understanding the complex interactions among food security, bioenergy sustainability, and resource management requires a focus on specific contextual problems and opportunities. The United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Goals place a high priority on food and energy security; bioenergy

  11. Bioenergy, its present and future competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The thesis deals with aspects of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The central aim is to develop a number of concepts that enables an extended analysis. The thesis is composed of four studies. In study 1 and 2 the emphasis is put on two institutional frameworks within the forest company, i.e. the framework around the forest fuel operations and the framework around the industrial timber operations. Depending on which of the two institutional frameworks that makes up the basis for the understanding of forest fuel operations, the forest fuel operations will be given different roles and different priorities. Different goals and the process of integrating the forest fuel operations into the forest company will therefore be carried out with different means, different feelings and different resources. Study 3 examines the conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold. The study presents the concept of logic, which is an institutionalised conception of the competitiveness of bioenergy. Logics can be seen as the dominating conceptions within the energy system and are decisive in determining the factors and parameters that state the competitiveness of different forms of energy. Study 4 argues that the strategical work concerning the competitiveness of bioenergy in the long-run to a great extent is about understanding, shaping and utilising the conceptions that affect the bioenergy system. The study problematises strategies that are used to develop bioenergy by introducing the uncertainty of the future into the analysis. The uncertainty of the future is captured in different scenarios

  12. Master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. (U.K.)

  13. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses.

  14. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  15. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  16. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  17. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  18. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects......-scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and livelihoods. The integration...

  19. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  20. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  1. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  2. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  3. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  5. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  6. Technological learning in bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Visser, Erika de; Hjort-Gregersen, Kurt; Koornneef, Joris; Raven, Rob; Faaij, Andre; Turkenburg, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to determine whether cost reductions in different bioenergy systems can be quantified using the experience curve approach, and how specific issues (arising from the complexity of biomass energy systems) can be addressed. This is pursued by case studies on biofuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Sweden, global development of fluidized bed boilers and Danish biogas plants. As secondary goal, the aim is to identify learning mechanisms behind technology development and cost reduction for the biomass energy systems investigated. The case studies reveal large difficulties to devise empirical experience curves for investment costs of biomass-fuelled power plants. To some extent, this is due to lack of (detailed) data. The main reason, however, are varying plant costs due to differences in scale, fuel type, plant layout, region etc. For fluidized bed boiler plants built on a global level, progress ratios (PRs) for the price of entire plants lies approximately between 90-93% (which is typical for large plant-like technologies). The costs for the boiler section alone was found to decline much faster. The experience curve approach delivers better results, when the production costs of the final energy carrier are analyzed. Electricity from biofuelled CHP-plants yields PRs of 91-92%, i.e. an 8-9% reduction of electricity production costs with each cumulative doubling of electricity production. The experience curve for biogas production displays a PR of 85% from 1984 to the beginning of 1990, and then levels to approximately 100% until 2002. For technologies developed on a local level (e.g. biogas plants), learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting are important learning mechanism, while for CHP plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers, upscaling is probably one of the main mechanisms behind cost reductions

  7. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khanh-Quang; Luo, Xun; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Jirjis, Raida

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  8. Trends in european bioenergy law: problems, perspectives and risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Caputo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into new forms of energy is a current challenge. This paper aims to inquire into the real advantages of bioenergy and its sustainable development within the European legal framework, while also considering the negative aspects of bioenergy use. The European Union, in fact, is an important supporter of bioenergy and shows that, through good legislative policy, the negative aspects of bioenergy use can be surmounted . In conclusion, bioenergy and sustainable development can still be a plausible solution to feed the planet

  9. Techno-economic analysis of bioenergy systems; Bioenergiasysteemien teknistaloudellinen analyysi. IEA Bioenergy Agreement Techno-economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels. To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on techno-economic basis to establish future development needs. To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned

  10. Acronym master list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  11. Mastering Lumion 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    This book is designed for all levels of Lumion users; from beginner to advanced, you will find useful insights and professional techniques to improve and develop your skills in order to fully control and master Lumion.

  12. IEA Bioenergy Countries' Report: Bioenergy policies and status of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacovsky, Dina [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Ludwiczek, Nikolaus [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Pointner, Christian [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Verma, Vijay Kumar [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2016-08-05

    This report was prepared from IEA statistical data, information from IRENA, and IEA Bioenergy Tasks’ country reports, combined with data provided by the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee. All individual country reports were reviewed by the national delegates to the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee, who have approved the content. In the first section of each country report, national renewable energy targets are presented (first table in each country report), and the main pieces of national legislation are discussed. In the second section of each country report the total primary energy supply (TPES) by resources and the contribution of bioenergy are presented. All data is taken from IEA statistics for the year 2014. Where 2014 data was not available, 2013 data was used. It is worth noting that data reported in national statistics can differ from the IEA data presented, as the reporting categories and definitions are different. In the third section of each country report, the research focus related to bioenergy is discussed. Relevant funding programs, major research institutes and projects are described. In the fourth section, recent major bioenergy developments are described. Finally, in the fifth section, links to sources of information are provided.

  13. Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; van Dam, J.M.C.; Zarrilli, S.; Mohamed, F.A.; Marchal, D.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international

  14. Water usage in southeastern bioenergy crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southeastern United States with its long growing season and mild winter temperatures has long been able to produce a variety of food, forage, and fiber crops. In addition to these crops, the Southeast is capable of producing a plethora of lignoceullosic-based bioenergy crops for conversion into ...

  15. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  16. Wood bioenergy and soil productivity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Timber harvesting can cause both short- and long-term changes in forest ecosystem functions, and scientists from USDA Forest Service (USDA FS) have been studying these processes for many years. Biomass and bioenergy markets alter the amount, type, and frequency at which material is harvested, which in turn has similar yet specific impacts on sustainable productivity....

  17. Social Aspects of Bioenergy Sustainability Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchner, Sarah [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Lindauer, Alicia [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); McKinnon, Taryn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Broad, Max [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office held a workshop on “Social Aspects of Bioenergy” on April 24, 2012, in Washington, D.C., and convened a webinar on this topic on May 8, 2012. The findings and recommendations from the workshop and webinar are compiled in this report.

  18. Water for bioenergy: A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.; Gasparatos, A.; Stromberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is by far the largest water user. This chapter reviews studies on the water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy (in the form of bioethanol, biodiesel, and heat and electricity produced from biomass) and compares their results with the WFs of fossil energy and other types of renewables (wind

  19. Sustainable forest-based bioenergy in Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kraxner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the Russian forest biomass-based bioenergy sector. It is shown that presently – although given abundant resources – the share of heat and electricity from biomass is very minor. With the help of two IIASA models (G4M and BeWhere, future green-field bioenergy plants are identified in a geographically explicit way. Results indicate that by using 3.78 Mt (or 6.16 M m3, twice as much heat and electricity than is presently available from forest biomass could be generated. This amount corresponds to 3.3 % of the total annual wood removals or 12 % of the annually harvested firewood, or about 11 % of illegal logging. With this amount of wood, it is possible to provide an additional 444 thousand households with heat and 1.8 M households with electricity; and at the same time to replace 2.7 Mt of coal or 1.7 Mt of oil or 1.8 G m3 of natural gas, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels by 716 Mt of CO2-equivalent per year. A multitude of co-benefits can be quantified for the socio-economic sector such as green jobs linked to bioenergy. The sustainable sourcing of woody biomass for bioenergy is possible as shown with the help of an online crowdsourcing tool Geo-Wiki.org for forest certification.

  20. Role of community acceptance in sustainable bioenergy projects in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswarlal, Vimal Kumar; Vasudevan, Geoffrey; Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Vasudevan, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Community acceptance has been identified as one of the key requirements for a sustainable bioenergy project. However less attention has been paid to this aspect from developing nations and small projects perspective. Therefore this research examines the role of community acceptance for sustainable small scale bioenergy projects in India. While addressing the aim, this work identifies influence of community over bioenergy projects, major concerns of communities regarding bioenergy projects and factors influencing perceptions of communities about bioenergy projects. The empirical research was carried out on four bioenergy companies in India as case studies. It has been identified that communities have significant influence over bioenergy projects in India. Local air pollution, inappropriate storage of by-products and credibility of developer are identified as some of the important concerns. Local energy needs, benefits to community from bioenergy companies, level of trust on company and relationship between company and the community are some of the prime factors which influence community's perception on bioenergy projects. This research sheds light on important aspects related to community acceptance of bioenergy projects, and this information would help practitioners in understanding the community perceptions and take appropriate actions to satisfy them

  1. Legal framework for a sustainable biomass production for bioenergy on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Pelikan, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The EU H2020 funded project SEEMLA is aiming at the sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands in Europe. Partners from Germany, Italy, Ukraine and Greece are involved in this project. Whereas Germany can be considered as well-established and leading country with regard to the production of bioenergy, directly followed by Italy and Greece, Ukraine is doing its first steps in becoming independent from fossil energy resources, also heading for the 2020+ goals. A basic, overarching regulation is the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) which has been amended in 2015; these amendments will be set in force in 2017. A new proposal for the period after 2020, the so called RED II, is under preparation. With cross-compliance and greening, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) offers measures for an efficient and ecological concept for a sustainable agriculture in Europe. In country-specific National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) a concept for 2020 targets is given for practical implementation until 2030 which covers e.g. individual renewable energy targets for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport sectors, the planned mix of different renewables technologies, national policies to develop biomass resources, and measures to ensure that biofuels are used to meet renewable energy targets are in compliance with the EU's sustainability criteria. While most of the NREAP have been submitted in 2010, the Ukrainian NREAP was established in 2014. In addition, the legal framework considering the protection of nature, e.g. Natura 2000, and its compartments soil, water, and atmosphere are presented. The SEEMLA approach will be developed in agreement with this already existing policy framework, following a sustainable principle for growing energy plants on marginal lands (MagL). Secondly, legislation regarding bioenergy and biomass potentials in the EU-28 and partner countries is introduced. For each SEEMLA partner an overview of regulatory

  2. Mastering VMware vSphere 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new and updated edition of bestselling Mastering VMware vSphere 4 Written by leading VMware expert, this book covers all the features and capabilities of VMware vSphere. You'll learn how to install, configure, operate, manage, and secure the latest release.Covers all the new features and capabilities of the much-anticipated new release of VMware vSphereDiscusses the planning, installation, operation, and management for the latest releaseReviews migration to the latest vSphere softwareOffers hands-on instruction and clear explanations with real-world examples Mastering VMware vSphere is the

  3. ELECTRONIC MASTER SLAVE MANIPULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Thompson, Wm.M.; Olsen, R.A.

    1958-08-01

    A remote control manipulator is described in which the master and slave arms are electrically connected to produce the desired motions. A response signal is provided in the master unit in order that the operator may sense a feel of the object and may not thereby exert such pressures that would ordinarily damage delicate objects. This apparatus will permit the manipulation of objects at a great distance, that may be viewed over a closed TV circuit, thereby permitting a remote operator to carry out operations in an extremely dangerous area with complete safety.

  4. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  5. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  6. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  7. Strategic planning of the master programme in health informatics at Aalborg University: targeting and updating the programme, to meet explicit customer needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøhr, C; Bygholm, A; Hejlesen, O

    1998-06-01

    Education is essentially giving people new skills and qualifications to fulfil certain tasks. In planning and managing educational programmes it is crucial to know what skills and what qualifications are needed to carry out the tasks in question, not to mention the importance of knowing what tasks are relevant to carry out. The programme in health informatics at Aalborg University produces health informatics professionals. The students are developing skills in solving informatics problems in health care organisations. The programme has been running for 3 years now and to maintain the perception of the aim for the programme a number of activities have been launched. In the following, the programme will be presented, the activities to obtain information on how to keep the programme targeted and updated will be described and the changes that are going to be introduced will be outlined.

  8. Proceedings of the IEA Bioenergy Task 39 conference : biofuels and bioenergy, a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to showcase the advancements that have been made in bioenergy development. The presentations addressed several issues, including biorefinery integration; thermochemical technologies; biochemical technologies; feedstock harvest, pretreatment and logistics; biomass production and management; policy, strategies and trade; and greenhouse gas and life cycle assessment. Discussions focused on recent innovations in bioenergy and the feasibility of biofuels in the commercial marketplace with the aim to advance bioenergy development and reduce fossil fuel dependency. A two-day forest management and supply chain field trip was organized in conjunction with the conference. The conference featured 152 presentations, of which 30 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Mastering your Fellowship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    essay question (MEQ) and critical reading paper (evidence- based medicine). Each of these question types are ... national unit standards, and the critical reading section includes evidence-based medicine and primary care ..... steps 3 and 4 (item clarification and voting phases) for the master list. The final voting papers from ...

  10. Hvorfor master i medborgerskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2002-01-01

    Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet planlægger i samarbejde med Syddansk Universitet at udbyde en master i medborgerskab: etisk og demokratisk dannelse. Artiklens forfatter gør rede for nogle af de tanker, der ligger bag uddannelsen, og belyser, hvorfor medborgerskab er blevet et nøglebegreb i nyere...

  11. Mastering your Fellowship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Patellar tendinopathy. J. Popliteus tendinopathy. K. Pre-patellar bursitis. Abstract. The series, “Mastering your Fellowship”, provides examples of the question format encountered in the written examination, Part A of the FCFP(SA) examination. The series aims to help Family Medicine registrars prepare for this examination.

  12. Mastering Ext JS

    CERN Document Server

    Groner, Loiane

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be a structured guide, Mastering Ext JS is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for developers who are familiar with using Ext JS who want to augment their skills to create even better web applications.

  13. Complex master slave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Sylvain; Maria, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-02-08

    A general theoretical model is developed to improve the novel Spectral Domain Interferometry method denoted as Master/Slave (MS) Interferometry. In this model, two functions, g and h are introduced to describe the modulation chirp of the channeled spectrum signal due to nonlinearities in the decoding process from wavenumber to time and due to dispersion in the interferometer. The utilization of these two functions brings two major improvements to previous implementations of the MS method. A first improvement consists in reducing the number of channeled spectra necessary to be collected at Master stage. In previous MSI implementation, the number of channeled spectra at the Master stage equated the number of depths where information was selected from at the Slave stage. The paper demonstrates that two experimental channeled spectra only acquired at Master stage suffice to produce A-scans from any number of resolved depths at the Slave stage. A second improvement is the utilization of complex signal processing. Previous MSI implementations discarded the phase. Complex processing of the electrical signal determined by the channeled spectrum allows phase processing that opens several novel avenues. A first consequence of such signal processing is reduction in the random component of the phase without affecting the axial resolution. In previous MSI implementations, phase instabilities were reduced by an average over the wavenumber that led to reduction in the axial resolution.

  14. Mastering Unity scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Mastering Unity Scripting is an advanced book intended for students, educators, and professionals familiar with the Unity basics as well as the basics of scripting. Whether you've been using Unity for a short time or are an experienced user, this book has something important and valuable to offer to help you improve your game development workflow.

  15. Master in Urban Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Development and content of an international Master in Urban Quality development and management. The work has been done in a cooperation between Berlage institut, Holland; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Mahidol University, Thailand; University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; og Aalborg Univers...... University, Denmark (Asean-EU University Network Program)...

  16. Stakeholder engagement in scenario development process - bioenergy production and biodiversity conservation in eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haatanen, Anniina; den Herder, Michael; Leskinen, Pekka; Lindner, Marcus; Kurttila, Mikko; Salminen, Olli

    2014-03-15

    In this study participatory approaches were used to develop alternative forest resource management scenarios with particular respect to the effects on increased use of forest bioenergy and its effect on biodiversity in Eastern Finland. As technical planning tools, we utilized a forest management planning system (MELA) and the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) to visualize the impacts of the scenarios. We organized a stakeholder workshop where group discussions were used as a participatory method to get the stakeholder preferences and insights concerning forest resource use in the year 2030. Feedback from the workshop was then complemented with a questionnaire. Based on the results of the workshop and a questionnaire we developed three alternative forest resource scenarios: (1) bioenergy 2030 - in which energy production is more centralized and efficient; (2) biodiversity 2030 - in which harvesting methods are more nature friendly and protected forests make up 10% of the total forest area; and (3) mixed bioenergy + biodiversity 2030 scenario - in which wood production, recreation and nature protection are assigned to the most suitable areas. The study showed that stakeholder engagement combined with the MELA and ToSIA tools can be a useful approach in scenario development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Alcorn-Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Maglinao, Randy [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-09-30

    MSU-Northern established the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) into a Regional Research Center of Excellence to address the obstacles concerning biofuels, feedstock, quality, conversion process, economic viability and public awareness. The Center built its laboratories and expertise in order to research and support product development and commercialization for the bio-energy industry in our region. The Center wanted to support the regional agricultural based economy by researching biofuels based on feedstock’s that can be grown in our region in an environmentally responsible manner. We were also interested in any technology that will improve the emissions and fuel economy performance of heavy duty diesel engines. The Center had a three step approach to accomplish these goals: 1. Enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities 2. Develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops. 3. Educate and outreach for public understanding and acceptance of new technology. The Center was very successful in completing the tasks as outlined in the project plan. Key successes include discovering and patenting a new chemical conversion process for converting camelina oil to jet fuel, as well as promise in developing a heterogeneous Grubs catalyst to support the new chemical conversion process. The Center also successfully fragmented and deoxygenated naturally occurring lignin with a Ni-NHC catalyst, showing promise for further exploration of using lignin for fuels and fuel additives. This would create another value-added product for lignin that can be sourced from beetle kill trees or waste products from cellulose ethanol fuel facilities.

  18. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Major Native Non-Food Bioenergy Plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of “precipitation of the warmest quarter” and “annual mean temperature” were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China. PMID:25365425

  19. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguo Wang

    Full Text Available Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080 on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  20. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  1. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of earth materials collected by research personnel over the course of its history. In 2006, a Geologic Collections Inventory was conducted within the USGS Geology Discipline to determine the extent and nature of its sample collections, and in 2008, a working group was convened by the USGS National Geologic and Geophysical Data Preservation Program to examine ways in which these collections could be coordinated, cataloged, and made available to researchers both inside and outside the USGS. The charge to this working group was to evaluate the proposition of creating a Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a centralized database that would (1) identify all existing USGS geologic collections, regardless of size, (2) create a virtual link among the collections, and (3) provide a way for scientists and other researchers to obtain access to the samples and data in which they are interested. Additionally, the group was instructed to develop criteria for evaluating current collections and to establish an operating plan and set of standard practices for handling, identifying, and managing future sample collections. Policies and procedures promoted by the GCMS would be based on extant best practices established by the National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution. The resulting report—USGS Circular 1410, “The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): A Master Catalog and Collections Management Plan for U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Samples and Sample Collections”—has been developed for sample repositories to be a guide to establishing common practices in the collection, retention, and disposal of geologic research materials throughout the USGS.

  2. Analysis of growth dynamics of Mediterranean bioenergy crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archontoulis, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the rapidly growing bioenergy production worldwide, there is lack of field experience and experimental data on the cultivation of bioenergy crops. This study aims to advance crop management operations and modelling studies by providing essential information on phenology, agronomy and

  3. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Biofuels AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS), USDA. ACTION: Notice of Contract for Proposal... Year 2009 for the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP... Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels. In response to the previously published NOCP, approximately $14.5...

  4. Medium and long-term perspectives of international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Daioglou, Vasileios; Faaij, Andre; Junginger, Martin; Keramidas, Kimon; Matzenberger, Julian; Tromborg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the coming decades, huge challenges in the global energy system are expected. Scenarios indicate that bioenergy will play a substantial role in this process. However, up to now there is very limited insight regarding the implication this may have on bioenergy trade in the long term. The

  5. Bio-energy and the environment: land of possible misunderstanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncada P C, Pietro; Grassi, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a point of view that bio-energy could assume sustainable environmental features for our future. The principal arguments of this paper are: bio-energy system and carbon emission -including confrontation of CO 2 emissions between electricity closed system and a coal-based electric generation system - soil erosion, fertilizer use, pesticide use, and biodiversity. (author)

  6. Developments in international bio-energy markets and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and sustainable supply of biomass is vital to any market activity aimed at bioenergy production. Given the high expectations for bioenergy on a global scale and of many nations, the pressure on available biomass resources is increasing rapidly. Due to high prices for fossil fuels

  7. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 country report for the Netherlands 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Junginger, H.M.; Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This country report was written within the frame of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. In summary, the aims of this country report are: (1) To provide a concise overview of biomass policy, domestic resources, biomass users, biomass prices and biomass trade, and (2) To analyse bioenergy trends, and reasons for

  8. Potential Bioenergy Options in Developed and Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant –based energy production (energy crops, forest growth) and residue and waste based fuels can substitute fossil fuels in a sustainable and environmental friendly way. In this study, bioenergy includes bio-resources that can be potentially used for modern energy production. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, ...

  9. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and

  10. Master Study: Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    In painting and drawing classes, it is typical to ask students to work directly from a master. It is one way to study composition techniques, and to become familiar with classical style firsthand. In museums, easels are set up as artists work, not in an attempt to copy or plagiarize, but in an attempt to be part of history by participating in it.…

  11. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  12. Mastering Apache Cassandra

    CERN Document Server

    Neeraj, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Apache Cassandra is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. The smooth and easy tutorial approach focuses on showing people how to utilize Cassandra to its full potential.This book is aimed at intermediate Cassandra users. It is best suited for startups where developers have to wear multiple hats: programmer, DevOps, release manager, convincing clients, and handling failures. No prior knowledge of Cassandra is required.

  13. Harmonising bioenergy resource potentials - Methodological lessons from review of state of the art bioenergy potential asessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Published estimates of the potential of bioenergy vary widely, mainly due to the heterogeneity of methodologies, assumptions and datasets employed. These discrepancies are confusing for policy and it is thus important to have scientific clarity on the basis of the assessment outcomes. Such clear

  14. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  15. Un Plan Regulador para Cartagena, una ciudad de la costa central de Chile: una visión de futuro en 1976. / A master plan for Cartagena, a city on the central coast of Chile: a vision in 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes,María Isabel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la reseña de un proyecto de planificación urbana, conforme a la escuela desarrollada por la FAU de la Universidad de Chile, durante la etapa madura del Estado Planificador Urbano-Regional chileno. / It provides an overview of an urban planning project, developed under the FAU School of the University of Chile, during the mature stage of the Urban-Regional Planning State of Chile.

  16. The future of bioenergy in Sweden. Background and summary of outstanding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, G.

    2006-01-01

    This report is intended to give a background to discussions about the future of bioenergy in Sweden, to be used by the Swedish Energy Agency in the planning of future efforts in the biofuel supply chain. An overview of the present supply and use of biomass in Sweden is given, and trends and prospects for increased use of bioenergy in Sweden are assessed. Both sources of increased bioenergy demand and possibilities for increased domestic supply are treated. Biomass contributes about 110 TWh, or one fifth of the Swedish energy supply. Biomass is mainly used for energy within the forest industry, in district heating plants, in the residential sector and for electricity production. More than 50% of the heat comes from biomass today. Based on a number of studies it is concluded that there is a potential for a substantial increase in the Swedish biofuel use, by introduction of new forest management practices and a re-orientation of agriculture. Calculations indicate that there is scope for a substantial increase in bioenergy use in Sweden and that the Swedish bioenergy potential is large enough to accommodate such an increase. However, related to the aspirations in the EC biofuel directive and the hopes that Sweden by taking early steps could become a major supplier of liquid biofuels in EU, it is also shown that Sweden to a significant extent would need to rely on imported bioenergy (biomass feedstock at the magnitude 100 TWh) in order to supply a biofuels industry capable of providing for the domestic market and also exporting substantial volumes of liquid biofuels to Europe. The prospects for a large-scale import of biofuels are discussed based on an analysis of the potential global biomass production and use in forestry and agriculture. A number of issues of great importance for increased biomass use are discussed - competitive land uses, availability of water, international trade rules, and international politics. The report also discusses additional and new uses of

  17. The future of bioenergy in Sweden. Background and summary of outstanding issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy and Environment; Magnusson, Leif [EnerGia Konsulterande Ingenjoerer AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-30

    This report is intended to give a background to discussions about the future of bioenergy in Sweden, to be used by the Swedish Energy Agency in the planning of future efforts in the biofuel supply chain. An overview of the present supply and use of biomass in Sweden is given, and trends and prospects for increased use of bioenergy in Sweden are assessed. Both sources of increased bioenergy demand and possibilities for increased domestic supply are treated. Biomass contributes about 110 TWh, or one fifth of the Swedish energy supply. Biomass is mainly used for energy within the forest industry, in district heating plants, in the residential sector and for electricity production. More than 50% of the heat comes from biomass today. Based on a number of studies it is concluded that there is a potential for a substantial increase in the Swedish biofuel use, by introduction of new forest management practices and a re-orientation of agriculture. Calculations indicate that there is scope for a substantial increase in bioenergy use in Sweden and that the Swedish bioenergy potential is large enough to accommodate such an increase. However, related to the aspirations in the EC biofuel directive and the hopes that Sweden by taking early steps could become a major supplier of liquid biofuels in EU, it is also shown that Sweden to a significant extent would need to rely on imported bioenergy (biomass feedstock at the magnitude 100 TWh) in order to supply a biofuels industry capable of providing for the domestic market and also exporting substantial volumes of liquid biofuels to Europe. The prospects for a large-scale import of biofuels are discussed based on an analysis of the potential global biomass production and use in forestry and agriculture. A number of issues of great importance for increased biomass use are discussed - competitive land uses, availability of water, international trade rules, and international politics. The report also discusses additional and new uses of

  18. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  19. Metodología para elaborar el Plan Maestro de Validación de los procesos de producción del Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria Methodology to design the Master Plan of Validation of production processes of National Center of Agricultural Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivian Montes de Oca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La metodología para la elaboración del Plan Maestro de Validación de los procesos de producción del Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, se diseñó a partir de los requisitos contenidos en la Regulación 16 del 2006 de Buenas Prácticas de Fabricación de medicamentos. Abarcó la política de la organización para la actividad de validación su estructura organizativa, las instalaciones, sistemas, equipos y procesos que se deben validar; el formato de la documentación a utilizar; la planificación y calendario de cada actividad; los resultados de cada protocolo ejecutado, el control de los cambios que se generan; un resumen de las validaciones anteriores; cumplimiento del plan propuesto; las conclusiones donde se precisan de forma resumida si los procesos validados están bajo control, los resultados más relevantes, así como las acciones correctivas y preventivas a tomar; por último se define la distribución de toda la información generada, conformando así el Plan Maestro de Validación. Este sistema de validación se muestra a través de procedimientos, protocolos y registros aplicados en el proceso de fabricación de Surfacen®, medicamento para uso humano que se fabrica en el Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria.The methodology to design the Validation Master Plan the production processes of National Center of Agricultural Health was created from the requirements present in the Regulation 16, 2006 of Good Practices of drugs manufacture including the organization policy for validation activity of its organizing structure, installations, systems, equipments and processes to be validated, documentation format used, planning and calendar of each activity; the results from each protocol performed, the generating changes control, abstract of prior validations, fulfillment of proposed plan, conclusions where are determined in a summarized way if the validated processes are under control, the more relevant results, as well as how

  20. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  1. Market survey Czech Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in the Czech Republic and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. The Czech biomass market is still developing and is segmented and disintegrated to many regional or sector markets where also prices of biomass differ significantly and could be affected by dominant players. There were several attempts to establish a kind of biomass exchange, but were unsuccessful. The biomass trade is done usually on bilateral basis but without clear long-term agreements on contracts which would secure stable supply and prices

  2. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  3. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    as Europeans. This fact makes their success in forging cultural landscapes from the new land all the more interesting for students of environmental history. As an example of such processes, New Zealand illustrates the way human newcomers learn to master an environment, change the land and its resources...... and physically. With this perspective in mind the chapter outlines the history of production of spatial knowledge about the environments of New Zealand. This is not only to provide an overview of understandings of the environment, but also to investigate and illustrate the close ties between knowledge...

  4. Master/slave manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxmoore, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    For detecting a fault in a flexible gaiter enclosing the slave arm of a master/slave manipulator used in the nuclear industry, valve means comprising oppositely acting non-return valves are arranged in the wall of the gaiter. On extension and retraction of the slave arm the valves operate to equalise pressure differences at opposite sides of the gaiter. Failure of the valves to function during extension and retraction of the slave arm can indicate a fault, such as a tear, in the gaiter. (author)

  5. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A beautifully-packaged, advanced reference on the very latest version of Maya. If you already know the basics of Maya, the latest version of this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, this book will help you master the entire CG production pipeline.: Provides professional-level instruction on Maya, the industry-leading

  6. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The exclusive, official guide to the very latest version of Maya Get extensive, hands-on, intermediate to advanced coverage of Autodesk Maya 2012, the top-selling 3D software on the market. If you already know Maya basics, this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, author Todd Palamar will help you master the entire CG

  7. Master Environmental Plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Sassafras Leguminosae Robina hispida Bristly locust Liliaceae Sm&iaz rotundfoia Greenbrier A-6 TABLE A.1 (Cont’d) Classification Commnon Name(s) Myricaceae...Wood rush Leguminosae Baptisia australis Blue false indigo Lupinus perennis Wild lupine Melilotus offcinalis Yellow sweet clover Trifolium pratense Red

  8. FINAL MASTER PLAN FOR STELLA, MISSOURI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of sustainability to place is the outcome of responding to human needs and expectations within economic, social, and environmental constraints and desired performance of these systems. These constraints and performance requirements of these systems provides a way ...

  9. Site 300 City Water Master Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Jeff [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-03-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a scientific research facility, operates an experimental test site known as Site 300. The site is located in a remote area of southeastern Alameda County, California, and consists of about 100 facilities spread across 7,000-acres. The Site 300 water system includes groundwater wells and a system of storage tanks, booster pumps, and underground piping to distribute water to buildings and significant areas throughout the site. Site 300, which is classified as a non-transient non-community (NTNC) water system, serves approximately 110 employees through 109 service connections. The distribution system includes approximately 76,500-feet of water mains varying from 4- to 10-inches in diameter, mostly asbestos cement (AC) pipe, and eleven water storage tanks. The water system is divided into four pressure zones fed by three booster pump stations to tanks in each zone.

  10. Master Planning School District Facility Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Gary; Matschulat, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Most educational entities confront any number of facility issues. Upgrading the physical infrastructure to meet current and future demands can be intimidating. The quantity and magnitude of capital issues in a changing environment can be overwhelming. How can all this complexity be made coherent to assure that decisions are sound and limited…

  11. Ebeye 2023: Comprehensive Capacity Development Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    the Marshall Islands, is facing a number of challenges to include overpopulation , collapsing infrastructure, a weak school system as well as a very...satisfaction of a population with their living conditions. The current social well-being is directly related to overpopulation and health... Overpopulation is a large problem because it affects a substantial portion of everyday life. One area where this is the most evident is the living space

  12. Master plan for Greene County Community Park

    OpenAIRE

    Steika, Kim; Clough, Jordan; Dart, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Members of Greene County have expressed a desire to expand Greene County Community Park's facilities to maximize the park's potential within the community. A diverse set of recreational opportunities are needed to achieve the desired potential. CDAC project team: Kim Steika, project coordinator; Jordan Clough, Daniel Dart

  13. Perennial Forages as Second Generation Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Adler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The lignocellulose in forage crops represents a second generation of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. Some of the most extensively studied species for cellulosic feedstock production include forages such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. An advantage of using forages as bioenergy crops is that farmers are familiar with their management and already have the capacity to grow, harvest, store, and transport them. Forage crops offer additional flexibility in management because they can be used for biomass or forage and the land can be returned to other uses or put into crop rotation. Estimates indicate about 22.3 million ha of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture will be needed for biomass production in 2030. Converting these lands to large scale cellulosic energy farming could push the traditional forage-livestock industry to ever more marginal lands. Furthermore, encouraging bioenergy production from marginal lands could directly compete with forage-livestock production.

  14. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest GHG emission reduction.

  15. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take. (author)

  16. Bioenergy in the new Finnish energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, S.

    1997-01-01

    As discussed in this conference paper, the goal of Finnish energy strategy is to bring the growth of the total energy consumption to a halt in the next 10-15 years and to speed up the restructuring of the energy economy without hampering economic growth. By 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases should be down to the 1990 level. To reach the goals, various means are available: taxation, subsidies, energy efficiency measures, replacing fossil sources with renewable and low-emission energy sources. By 1999 Finland should be connected to the European gas network. The use of bioenergy, wood fuels and wind power is encouraged. Peat is a competitive fuel in areas where it is locally available. To cut down on CO 2 emission it is necessary to increase the use of bioenergy, and by 2025 the use of wood will have increased considerably from the present level. At present, the wood reserves increase by one percent per year. Public funds will be set aside for energy wood research, for product development and marketing. Peat is an important indigenous energy resource, accounting for about 5% of all energy use. The Government is committed to closely follow up the implementation of its energy strategy. 1 ref., 3 figs

  17. Perennial Forages as Second Generation Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matt A.; Adler, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The lignocellulose in forage crops represents a second generation of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. Some of the most extensively studied species for cellulosic feedstock production include forages such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). An advantage of using forages as bioenergy crops is that farmers are familiar with their management and already have the capacity to grow, harvest, store, and transport them. Forage crops offer additional flexibility in management because they can be used for biomass or forage and the land can be returned to other uses or put into crop rotation. Estimates indicate about 22.3 million ha of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture will be needed for biomass production in 2030. Converting these lands to large scale cellulosic energy farming could push the traditional forage-livestock industry to ever more marginal lands. Furthermore, encouraging bioenergy production from marginal lands could directly compete with forage-livestock production. PMID:19325783

  18. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Edward Martinus Wilhelmus Utrecht University

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  19. Large or small? Rethinking China’s forest bioenergy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Su, Yufang; Tennigkeit, Timm; Yang, Yongping; Xu, Jianchu

    2013-01-01

    China’s forest bioenergy policies are evolving against the backdrop of pressing national energy challenges similar to those faced by OECD countries, and chronic rural energy challenges more characteristic of developing countries. Modern forest bioenergy could contribute to solutions to both of these challenges. However, because of limitations in current technologies and institutions, significant policy and resource commitments would be required to make breakthroughs in either commercializing forest bioenergy or modernizing rural energy systems in China. Given the potential attention, funding, and resource trade-offs between these two goals, we provide an argument for why the focus of China’s forest bioenergy policy should initially be on addressing rural energy challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for laying the groundwork for a modern, biomass-based energy infrastructure in rural China. -- Highlights: ► China’s bioenergy policy is at a crossroads. ► Trade-offs exist between forest bioenergy policy for urban and rural users in China. ► There are strong arguments for focusing forest bioenergy policy on rural areas. ► China’s rural energy policy should increasingly support modern energy carriers

  20. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Sample, David W; Williams, Carol L; Turner, Monica G

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  1. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  2. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah C.; House, Joanna I.; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A.; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished. PMID

  3. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Movva, Sunil [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Chase, Adrian S Z [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  4. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  5. 11. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 11. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2017-08-01

    The seven main focus of the bioenergy forum were: 1. Political regulation and its consequences; 2. Flexible energy supply; 3. Biorefineries for the use of residues from bioenergy production; 4. Process optimization biogas; 5. Alternative substrates for biogas production; 6. Cross-sectoral bioenergy concept; 7. Transport sector (biofuels). Five lectures are separately analyzed for this database. [German] Die sieben Themenschwerpunkte des Bioenergieforums waren: 1. Politische Regulierung und deren Folgen; 2. Flexible Energiebereitstellung; 3. Bioraffinerie zur Nutzung von Reststoffen der Bioenergiegewinnung; 4. Prozessoptimierung Biogas; 5. Alternative Substrate zur Biogasgewinnung; 6. Sektoruebergreifende regionale Bioenergiekonzept; und 7. Transportsektor (Biokraftstoffe). Fuenf Vortraege wurden fuer diese Datenbank separat aufgenommen.

  6. Smart bioenergy technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues, and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the ...

  7. The methodological rigour of South African master's and doctoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning knowledge is increasingly contested while publication pressure on supervisors and their students is mounting. Given these challenges, to what extent has the methodological rigour of South African master's and doctoral planning theses improved over time? This article examines improvements in methodological ...

  8. Interfaz entre el plan de producción y el programa de producción en ambientes de ensamble Interface between the production plan and the master production schedule in assembly environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moya Navarro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En un entorno de producción existe una relación directa entre el mercado y los procesos de manufactura de los bienes. Sin embargo, cuando la producción está inmersa en un ambiente de ensamble, el procedimiento de la planificación y la programación se vuelve complejo, con el riesgo de que la empresa pierda ventaja competitiva en términos de incumplimiento de las fechas de entrega y elevados costos de planificación y control. La programación lineal constituye una herramienta apropiada para construir modelos de programación y control de la producción en entornos de manufactura complejos. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar la interfaz entre el plan de producción y el programa de producción en ambientes de ensamble mediante el modelado por programación lineal. Para ello, se seleccionó un entorno que produce tres productos finales cuya estructura de producto está dispuesta en tres niveles con un máximo de ocho componentes. Los datos proporcionados por el plan de producción se desglosaron en diez órdenes, cada una indicando el tipo de producto, la cantidad por producir y su respectiva fecha de entrega. Los resultados obtenidos en el programa de producción establecieron la recepción de pedidos planificados y el programa de componentes totales requeridos en cada periodo de producción, para minimizar los costos totales de emisión de órdenes de producción e inventario.In a production environment there is a direct relationship between the market and the manufacturing process of goods.When production is immersed in an assembly environment, the process of production planning and scheduling becomes complex, and the enterprises have the risk of losing competitive advantages in terms of not meeting delivery dates and production high costs. Linear programming has become an appropriate tool for production planning and scheduling in complex manufacturing environments. The aim of this paper is to show the interface between both the

  9. Bioenergy. A sustainable option for Germany?; Bioenergie. Eine nachhaltige Option fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schink, Bernhard [Konstanz Univ. (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Biogas, biodiesel and bioethanol have experienced a major boom over the past years. However, a critical look at the climate impact, surface area efficiency and ecosystem impact of these energy resources shows them to be in need of reassessment, along with the policies in place for their promotion. This is the conclusion to which the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina comes in an opinion entitled ''Bioenergy - possibilities and limits''.

  10. Selecting Metrics for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Key decisions about land-use practices and dynamics in biofuel systems affect the long-term sustainability of biofuels. Choices about what crops are grown and how are they planted, fertilized, and harvested determine the effects of biofuels on native plant diversity, competition with food crops, and water and air quality. Those decisions also affect economic viability since the distance that biofuels must be transported has a large effect on the market cost of biofuels. The components of a landscape approach include environmental and socioeconomic conditions and the bioenergy features [type of fuel, plants species, management practices (e.g., fertilizer and pesticide applications), type and location of production facilities] and ecological and biogeochemical feedbacks. Significantly, while water (availability and quality) emerges as one of the most limiting factors to sustainability of bioenergy feedstocks, the linkage between water and bioenergy choices for land use and management on medium and large scales is poorly quantified. Metrics that quantify environmental and socioeconomic changes in land use and landscape dynamics provide a way to measure and communicate the influence of alternative bioenergy choices on water quality and other components of the environment. Cultivation of switchgrass could have both positive and negative environmental effects, depending on where it is planted and what vegetation it replaces. Among the most important environmental effects are changes in the flow regimes of streams (peak storm flows, base flows during the growing season) and changes in stream water quality (sediment, nutrients, and pesticides). Unfortunately, there have been few controlled studies that provide sufficient data to evaluate the hydrological and water quality impacts of conversion to switchgrass. In particular, there is a need for experimental studies that use the small watershed approach to evaluate the effects of growing a perennial plant as a biomass crop

  11. Masters in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickwood, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Continuing global efforts to improve the security of nuclear and other radioactive material against the threat of malicious acts are being assisted by a new initiative, the development of a corps of professional experts to strengthen nuclear security. The IAEA, the European Commission, universities, research institutions and other bodies working in collaboration have established an International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN). In 2011, six European academic institutions, the Vienna University of Technology, the Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences, the Demokritos National Centre for Scientific Research in Greece, the Reactor Institute Delft of the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, the University of Oslo, and the University of Manchester Dalton Nuclear Institute, started developing a European Master of Science Programme in Nuclear Security Management. In March 2013, the masters project was inaugurated when ten students commenced studies at the Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences in Germany for two weeks. In April, they moved to the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands for a further two weeks of studies. The pilot programme consists of six teaching sessions in different academic institutions. At the inauguration in Delft, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano commended this effort to train a new generation of experts who can help to improve global nuclear security. ''It is clear that we will need a new generation of policy-makers and nuclear professionals - people like you - who will have a proper understanding of the importance of nuclear security,'' Mr. Amano told students and faculty members. ''The IAEA's goal is to support the development of such programmes on a global basis,'' said David Lambert, Senior Training Officer in the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. ''An existing postgraduate degree programme focused on nuclear security at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS) is currently supported by

  12. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A Meyer

    Full Text Available Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS. This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification

  13. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus A; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are governance

  14. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  15. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  16. Energy master equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1995-01-01

    energies chosen randomly according to a Gaussian. The random-walk model is here derived from Newton's laws by making a number of simplifying assumptions. In the second part of the paper an approximate low-temperature description of energy fluctuations in the random-walk model—the energy master equation...... (EME)—is arrived at. The EME is one dimensional and involves only energy; it is derived by arguing that percolation dominates the relaxational properties of the random-walk model at low temperatures. The approximate EME description of the random-walk model is expected to be valid at low temperatures...... of the random-walk model. The EME allows a calculation of the energy probability distribution at realistic laboratory time scales for an arbitrarily varying temperature as function of time. The EME is probably the only realistic equation available today with this property that is also explicitly consistent...

  17. The Master Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  18. Bioenergy from willow. 1995 Annual report, November 1987--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre (odt ac{sup -1}) with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production. Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse. Several new cooperators joined the project, broadening the funding base, and enabling establishment of additional willow plantings. Willow clone-site trials were planted at Himrod, King Ferry, Somerset, and Tully, NY, during 1995. A willow cutting orchard was planted during 1995 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Saratoga Tree Nursery in Saratoga, NY. Plans are to begin site preparation for a 100+ acre willow bioenergy demonstration farm in central New York, and additional clone-site trials, in 1996.

  19. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  20. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  1. Integrated Model of Bioenergy and Agriculture System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    approach that builds on Life Cycle Inventory and carries out Life Cycle Impact Assessment for a con- sequential Life Cycle Assessment on integrated bioenergy and agriculture systems. The model framework is built in Python which connects various freely available soft- ware that handle different aspects......Due to increased burden on the environment caused by human activities, focus on industrial ecology designs are gaining more attention. In that perspective an environ- mentally effective integration of bionergy and agriculture systems has significant potential. This work introduces a modeling...... of the overall model. C- TOOL and Yasso07 are used in the carbon balance of agri- culture, Dynamic Network Analysis is used for the energy simulation and Brightway2 is used to build a Life Cycle Inventory compatible database and processes it for vari- ous impacts assessment methods. The model is success- fully...

  2. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  3. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikurainen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m 3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m 3 . On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m 3 /a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  4. Securing a bioenergy future without imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfle, Andrew; Gilbert, Paul; Thornley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The UK has legally binding renewable energy and greenhouse gas targets. Energy from biomass is anticipated to make major contributions to these. However there are concerns about the availability and sustainability of biomass for the bioenergy sector. A Biomass Resource Model has been developed that reflects the key biomass supply-chain dynamics and interactions determining resource availability, taking into account climate, food, land and other constraints. The model has been applied to the UK, developing four biomass resource scenarios to analyse resource availability and energy generation potential within different contexts. The model shows that indigenous biomass resources and energy crops could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050 without impacting food systems. The scenarios show, residues from agriculture, forestry and industry provide the most robust resource, potentially providing up to 6.5% of primary energy demand by 2050. Waste resources are found to potentially provide up to 15.4% and specifically grown biomass and energy crops up to 22% of demand. The UK is therefore projected to have significant indigenous biomass resources to meet its targets. However the dominant biomass resource opportunities identified in the paper are not consistent with current UK bioenergy strategies, risking biomass deficit despite resource abundance. - Highlights: • Biomass Resource Model and Scenarios reflect biomass supply-chain dynamics to 2050. • High potential availability of biomass and energy crops without food systems impacts. • UK Indigenous biomass resource could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050. • Robust residue resource from ongoing activities and large potential waste resource. • Indigenous resource abundance and the UK’s path towards increased resource deficit

  5. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  6. Policies to Enable Bioenergy Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinksi, Sharon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Bioenergy is renewable energy generated from biological source materials, and includes electricity, transportation fuels and heating. Source materials are varied types of biomass, including food crops such as corn and sugarcane, non-edible lignocellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry waste and dedicated crops, and municipal and livestock wastes. Key aspects of policies for bioenergy deployment are presented in this brief as part of the Clean Energy Solutions Center's Clean Energy Policy Brief Series.

  7. Forest Carbon Accounting Considerations in US Bioenergy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid A. Miner; Robert C. Abt; Jim L. Bowyer; Marilyn A. Buford; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Jay O' Laughlin; Elaine E. Oneil; Roger A. Sedjo; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Four research-based insights are essential to understanding forest bioenergy and “carbon debts.” (1) As long as wood-producing land remains in forest, long-lived wood products and forest bioenergy reduce fossil fuel use and long-term carbon emission impacts. (2) Increased demand for wood can trigger investments that increase forest area and forest productivity and...

  8. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 country report for the Netherlands 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, C.S.; Junginger, H.M.; Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This country report was written within the frame of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. In summary, the aims of this country report are: (1) To provide a concise overview of biomass policy, domestic resources, biomass users, biomass prices and biomass trade, and (2) To analyse bioenergy trends, and reasons for change in the Netherlands and point out barriers & opportunities for trade in detail, and Current biomass user (energy use) Table ES-1 shows the energy use of biomass in the Netherlands in 2010. The...

  9. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  10. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  11. Mastering jQuery mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Chip

    2015-01-01

    You've started down the path of jQuery Mobile, now begin mastering some of jQuery Mobile's higher level topics. Go beyond jQuery Mobile's documentation and master one of the hottest mobile technologies out there. Previous JavaScript and PHP experience can help you get the most out of this book.

  12. MASTER: bright high amplitude CV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Shumkov, V.; Gabovich, A.

    2018-03-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 19h 52m 10.21s -61d 41m 04.9s on 2018-03-05.05144 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=19.1).

  13. MASTER: QSO flare and CV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Gorbunov, I.; Krylov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Buckley, D.; Gabovich, A.

    2018-03-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net",Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) detected OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 48m 38.11s -27d 49m 13.4s on 2018-03-11.05672 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=18.7m).

  14. Plan maestro de producción basado en programación lineal entera para una empresa de productos químicos || Master Production Scheduling Based on Integer Linear Programming for a Chemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Zotelo, Yunuem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un modelo de programación lineal entera para planificar la producción de un conjunto de artículos finales con demanda independiente. El modelo para la planificación maestra de producción (PMP está diseñado considerando los costes de producción e inventario, así como las restricciones definidas por el mismo proceso productivo en cuanto a instalaciones y tiempos de producción. El objetivo del modelo propuesto es la minimización de los costes implicados; concretamente, el tiempo ocioso y extra de los recursos, así como la consideración de un nivel mínimo de servicio ligado a la demanda diferida. La validación del modelo considera datos pertenecientes a la demanda de cada producto en un horizonte de 12 semanas y compara cinco escenarios en los que se modifican algunos aspectos del sistema y diferentes niveles de servicio. Por último, los resultados obtenidos para cada uno de los escenarios exponen la mejora obtenida por el modelo propuesto respecto al procedimiento actual en la empresa objeto de estudio. || In this work, we propose an integer linear programming model for production scheduling of a group of finished products with independent demand. The model for the master production scheduling (MPS is designed by considering production and inventory costs, as well as the productive process constraints regarding installations and production times. The aim of the proposed model is the minimization of the costs involved; specifically, undertime and overtime costs of resources, as well as the consideration of a minimum service level related to the deferred demand. The validation of the model considers data belonging to the demand of each product in a 12-week planning horizon and compares five scenarios in which some characteristics of the system and different service levels are modified. Finally, the results obtained for each one of the scenarios expose the improvement obtained by the proposed model with

  15. Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vliet, Jasper van; Stehfest, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Potentials for bio-energy have been estimated earlier on the basis of estimates of potentially available land, excluding certain types of land use or land cover (land required for food production and forests). In this paper, we explore how such estimates may be influenced by other factors such as land degradation, water scarcity and biodiversity concerns. Our analysis indicates that of the original bio-energy potential estimate of 150, 80 EJ occurs in areas classified as from mild to severe land degradation, water stress, or with high biodiversity value. Yield estimates were also found to have a significant impact on potential estimates. A further 12.5% increase in global yields would lead to an increase in bio-energy potential of about 50%. Changes in bio-energy potential are shown to have a direct impact on bio-energy use in the energy model TIMER, although the relevant factor is the bio-energy potential at different cost levels and not the overall potential.

  16. LCA Study of Oleaginous Bioenergy Chains in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cocco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports outcomes of life cycle assessments (LCAs of three different oleaginous bioenergy chains (oilseed rape, Ethiopian mustard and cardoon under Southern Europe conditions. Accurate data on field practices previously collected during a three-year study at two sites were used. The vegetable oil produced by oleaginous seeds was used for power generation in medium-speed diesel engines while the crop residues were used in steam power plants. For each bioenergy chain, the environmental impact related to cultivation, transportation of agricultural products and industrial conversion for power generation was evaluated by calculating cumulative energy demand, acidification potential and global warming potential. For all three bioenergy chains, the results of the LCA study show a considerable saving of primary energy (from 70 to 86 GJ·ha−1 and greenhouse gas emissions (from 4.1 to 5.2 t CO2·ha−1 in comparison to power generation from fossil fuels, although the acidification potential of these bioenergy chains may be twice that of conventional power generation. In addition, the study highlights that land use changes due to the cultivation of the abovementioned crops reduce soil organic content and therefore worsen and increase greenhouse gas emissions for all three bioenergy chains. The study also demonstrates that the exploitation of crop residues for energy production greatly contributes to managing environmental impact of the three bioenergy chains.

  17. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hengfu [ORNL; Chen, Rick [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Ye, Ning [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Cheng, Zong-Ming [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  18. Bioenergy systems sustainability assessment & management (BIOSSAM) guidance portal for policy, decision and development support of integrated bioenergy supply interventions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, WHL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available . There are several new bioenergy interventions (policies, projects, or programmes) that are being considered and these developments must be assessed in terms of their sustainability. Both public and private sector policy makers, decision makers, and technology...

  19. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  20. Formulation for less master production schedule instability under rolling horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera , Carlos; Thomas , André

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In Manufacturing Planning and Control Systems, the Master Production Schedule (MPS) makes a link between tactical and operational levels, taking into account information provided by end items, demand forecast as well as Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) suggestions. Therefore, MPS plays an important role to maintain an adequate customers service level and an efficient production system. In a rolling planning horizon, MPS is periodically computed over whole operation...

  1. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  2. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  3. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  4. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, E.; Lundgren, K.; Maartensson, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  5. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  6. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  7. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  8. An introduction to BIOSSAM: the South African BIOenergy systems sustainability assessment and management portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The global bioenergy industry is advancing rapidly. New technologies and potential feedstocks are being proposed that aim for bioenergy to contribute to a wider range of economic, social, and environmental objectives. However, these advancements all...

  9. Perspective: The social science of sustainable bioenergy production in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The social sciences have made considerable inroads into exploring the politics of environment, land and resources throughout Southeast Asia, yet the social and political character of bioenergy development remains little understood. Current assumptions that bioenergy provides benefits to rural

  10. Mastering your Fellowship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quantitative research). We suggest that you attempt answering the questions (by ... to considered against the potential harm. It is important to emphasise the importance of keeping abreast with routine health .... help the team with critical thinking and rational planning at either the individual, household or community level.

  11. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  12. TMS320C31 master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Deok Yong

    1999-06-01

    The contents of this book are explanation of basic conception for DSP, perfect a complete master of TMS320C31, I/O interface design and memory, practice with PC print port, basic programing skill, assembly and C programing technique, timer and interrupt application skill, serial communication programing technique, application of digital conditioning and application of digital servo control. This book is divided into two parts, which is about TMS320C31 master of theory and application.

  13. Master in ICT and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The Master in ICT and Learning (MIL)was started in 2000, and it is owned in collaboration by five Danish universities. It is an accredited virtual part-time 2-year education. MIL is unique in that it builds on the pedagogical framework of project pedagogy and is based in virtual collaboration. It....... It is organized around ICT and Learning. This is illustrated through a presentation of the study program, the four modules, the projects and the master thesis....

  14. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  15. Master in ICT and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The Master in ICT and Learning (MIL)was started in 2000, and it is owned in collaboration by five Danish universities. It is an accredited virtual part-time 2-year education. MIL is unique in that it builds on the pedagogical framework of project pedagogy and is based in virtual collaboration....... It is organized around ICT and Learning. This is illustrated through a presentation of the study program, the four modules, the projects and the master thesis....

  16. Prospects for Bioenergy in Europe. Supply, Demand and Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Karin

    2006-11-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES), such as biomass, can be used to address two important issues in Europe: climate change and energy security. If biomass is produced sustainably and used efficiently, bioenergy contributes very little to CO 2 emissions. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a scientific basis describing how bioenergy can play a fundamental role in the transition to more sustainable energy systems. For this purpose, an assessment of the potential biomass supply was made. This assessment shows that the long-term biomass supply could amount to up to 16 EJ/y in the EU27, i.e. 21% of the current primary energy supply, taking environmental and land-use restrictions into account. The greater part of this potential biomass supply consists of perennial energy crops. Thus, if biomass is to play a major role in the future energy supply, large-scale perennial energy crop production is required. The analysis of the economics of growing willow, a perennial energy crop, indicates that it can be equally viable for the farmer as that of cereal crops if subsidies and the cost of risk are excluded. In a strategy to reduce the cost of risk, a central issue is to create opportunities for a long-term demand for bioenergy. In Sweden and Finland, two of the leading bioenergy-using countries in Europe, energy and CO 2 taxes have been the key instruments in increasing the use of bioenergy. Creating opportunities for bioenergy in general will not immediately or necessarily stimulate perennial crop production since production costs are at the high end of the biomass cost range. In a strategy to stimulate perennial crop production, large coal-fired power and combined heat and power (CHP) plants can play an important role. Co-firing of biofuels in these plants is a low-risk bioenergy strategy for energy companies. The continuous and, compared to other continents in the world, more intense promotion of bioenergy in Europe is likely to increase

  17. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Pisarek, Marcin; Buriak, Jerzy; Oniszk-Poplawska, Anna; Bucko, Pawel; Ericsson, Karin; Jaworski, Lukasz

    2006-01-01

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  18. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  19. Improving Bioenergy Crops through Dynamic Metabolic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Faraji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enormous advances in genetics and metabolic engineering have made it possible, in principle, to create new plants and crops with improved yield through targeted molecular alterations. However, while the potential is beyond doubt, the actual implementation of envisioned new strains is often difficult, due to the diverse and complex nature of plants. Indeed, the intrinsic complexity of plants makes intuitive predictions difficult and often unreliable. The hope for overcoming this challenge is that methods of data mining and computational systems biology may become powerful enough that they could serve as beneficial tools for guiding future experimentation. In the first part of this article, we review the complexities of plants, as well as some of the mathematical and computational methods that have been used in the recent past to deepen our understanding of crops and their potential yield improvements. In the second part, we present a specific case study that indicates how robust models may be employed for crop improvements. This case study focuses on the biosynthesis of lignin in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Switchgrass is considered one of the most promising candidates for the second generation of bioenergy production, which does not use edible plant parts. Lignin is important in this context, because it impedes the use of cellulose in such inedible plant materials. The dynamic model offers a platform for investigating the pathway behavior in transgenic lines. In particular, it allows predictions of lignin content and composition in numerous genetic perturbation scenarios.

  20. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  1. The market for bioenergy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1997-01-01

    Conference paper. The demand for energy in Europe at present amounts to 16 PWh. Of this, 50% is needed for heating, 27% for transportation, 23% for light, communication and power. The European Commission in 1996 proposed that the share of renewables should be doubled to 12% by 2010. It is calculated that 3/4 of the supply of renewables must be supplied by biomass. A comprehensive energy crop programme is needed to guarantee the supply. According to calculations, 77% of the bioenergy supply will be used to deliver heat. For small heating installations financial support is necessary to overcome the investment costs. It is recommended that biomass based district heating grids should be subsidized by a joint programme of the Commission and the national governments. For industrial users little or no subsidies are required. It is suggested that the members of the EU should submit to the commission regional heat concepts, ''heat from biomass'', of a certain specified content. The necessary investment should come from private investors, from public money and from the EU. Green electricity is a way to promote renewable energy resources. As a realistic target for electricity from biomass within 12 years, 80 TWh is proposed. The production of raw materials for the energy sector on set-aside land is unsuccessful because of the changing set-aside rate. Some remedial actions are proposed

  2. Reconciling food security and bioenergy: priorities for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Science Division, Climate Change Science Inst.; Msangi, Siwa [International Food Policy Research Inst., Washington DC (United States); Dale, Virginia H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Bioenergy Sustainability, Environmental Science Division; Woods, Jeremy [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Policy; Souza, Glaucia M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Osseweijer, Patricia [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Biotechnology; Clancy, Joy S. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). CSTM; Hilbert, Jorge A. [Rural Engineering Institute (INTA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Johnson, Francis X. [Stockholm Environment Inst. Africa Centre, Nairobi (Kenya). World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF); McDonnell, Patrick C. [BEE Energy, Nicasio CA (United States); Mugera, Harriet K. [World Bank, Washington D.C. (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Addressing the challenges of understanding and managing complex interactions among food security, biofuels, and land management requires a focus on specific contextual problems and opportunities. The United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals prioritize food and energy security and bioenergy links these two priorities. Effective food security programs begin by clearly defining the problem and asking, What options will be effective to assist people at high risk? Headlines and cartoons that blame biofuels for food insecurity reflect good intentions but mislead the public and policy makers because they obscure or miss the main drivers of local food insecurity and opportunities for biofuels to contribute to solutions. Applying sustainability guidelines to bioenergy will help achieve near- and long- term goals to eradicate hunger. Priorities for achieving successful synergies between bioenergy and food security include (1) clarifying communications with clear and consistent terms, (2) recognizing that food and bioenergy do not compete for land but food and bioenergy systems can and do work together to improve resource management, (3) investing in innovations to build capacity and infrastructure such as rural agricultural extension and technology, (4) promoting stable prices that incentivize local production, (5) adopting flex crops that can provide food along with other products and services to society, and (6) engaging stakeholders in identifying and assessing specific opportunities for biofuels to improve food security. In conclusion, systematic monitoring and analysis to support adaptive management and continual improvement are essential elements to build synergies and help society equitably meet growing demands for both food and energy.

  3. Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdonk, M.; Dieperink, C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal. (author)

  4. Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M. [Department of Water and Energy, Grontmij Nederland BV, P.O. Box 203, 3730 AE, De Bilt (Netherlands); Dieperink, C. [Department of Innovation and Environmental Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); Faaij, A.P.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal. (author)

  5. The current situation in the bioenergy sector in South Ostrobothnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauhanen, R.; Humalamaeki, H.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a research project was launched about bioenergy production and use that serves the South Ostrobothnia Target 2 area. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the South Ostrobothnia Employment and Economic Centre and Sein j oki University of Applied Sciences. A meeting of experts was held in Aehtaeri during April 2006 to establish the views on the problems, bottlenecks and research needs of the bioenergy sector. The bioenergy trade was seen as regional opportunity and strength. Its domestic content, effect on employment and the regional economy plus the plentiful raw material sources of forests, fields and bogs were identified. Like-wise, the competing position between bioenergy and other forms of energy became evident. Forest owners emphasised the weakness of low energy wood prices and the risks of forest soil nutrient losses. The forest industry was concerned about a foreseen shortage of machine operators. Forest owners, municipalities, researchers and Forest Centre raised the short-sightedness of state subsidy policy. The Forest Centre also brought up the issue of operators who only seek fast profits in a fast growing trade. The issue of emissions trade benefits ending up outside the forest sector was also considered a problem. The core research needs identified were collating fragmented research in-formation for the use of operators in the Target area, mapping the bioenergy potential of the region, logistical calculations and energy wood measurement

  6. Recent advances in membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Bagley, David M; Leung, Kam Tin; Liss, Steven N; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The bioeconomy, and in particular, biorefining and bioenergy production, have received considerable attention in recent years as a shift to renewable bioresources to produce similar energy and chemicals derived from fossil energy sources, represents a more sustainable path. Membrane technologies have been shown to play a key role in process intensification and products recovery and purification in biorefining and bioenergy production processes. Among the various separation technologies used, membrane technologies provide excellent fractionation and separation capabilities, low chemical consumption, and reduced energy requirements. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on membrane technologies related to various processes of biorefining and bioenergy production, including: (i) separation and purification of individual molecules from biomass, (ii) removal of fermentation inhibitors, (iii) enzyme recovery from hydrolysis processes, (iv) membrane bioreactors for bioenergy and chemical production, such as bioethanol, biogas and acetic acid, (v) bioethanol dehydration, (vi) bio-oil and biodiesel production, and (vii) algae harvesting. The advantages and limitations of membrane technologies for these applications are discussed and new membrane-based integrated processes are proposed. Finally, challenges and opportunities of membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production in the coming years are addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Site-adapted cultivation of bioenergy crops - a strategy towards a greener and innovative feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thorsten; Emmerling, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops is of increasing interest to produce valuable feedstocks e.g. for anaerobic digestion. In the past decade, the focus was primarily set to cultivation of the most economic viable crop, namely maize. In Germany for example, the cultivation area of maize was expanded from approx. 200,000 ha in 2006 to 800,000 ha in 2015. However, this process initiated a scientific and public discussion about the sustainability of intense maize cultivation. Concerns addressed in this context are depletion of soil organic matter, soil erosion and compaction as well as losses of (agro-)biodiversity. However, from a soil science perspective, several problems arise from not site-adapted cultivation of maize. In contrast, the cultivation of perennial bioenergy crops may provide a valuable opportunity to preserve or even enhance soil fertility and agrobiodiversity without limiting economic efficiency. Several perennial energy crops, with various requirements regarding stand conditions, allow a beneficial selection of the most suitable species for a respective location. The study aimed to provide a first step towards a more strategic planning of bioenergy crop cultivation with respect to spatial arrangement, distribution and connectivity of sites on a regional scale. The identification of pedological site characteristics is a crucial step in this process. With the study presented, we tried to derive site information that allow for an assessment of the suitability for specific energy crops. Our idea is to design a multifunctional landscape with a coexistence of sites with reduced management for soil protection and highly productive site. By a site adapted cultivation of perennial energy plants in sensitive areas, a complex, heterogeneous landscape could be reached.

  8. Small-scale bioenergy alternatives for industry, farm, and institutions: A user's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folk, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases

  9. Residues of bioenergy production chains as soil amendments: Immediate and temporal phytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gell, K.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Cayuela, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The current shift towards bioenergy production increases streams of bioenergy rest-products (RPs), which are likely to end-up as soil amendments. However, their impact on soil remains unclear. In this study we evaluated crop phytotoxicity of 15 RPs from common bioenergy chains (biogas, biodiesel,

  10. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  11. Overcoming barriers to increased bio-energy use. Suggestions for a high impact policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanakya, H.N.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    A few options that are likely to result in a high impact policy towards ensuring increased use of bio-energy in the developing world are discussed. Such options are: Moving towards greater energy security /guarantee, bio-energy technology transfer platforms, documentation in bio-energy businesses, removing risk perceptions in financing, increasing private entrepreneur stakes, etc. (K.A.)

  12. Planning Sustainability: A Master Plan For Stella, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Life is conditional upon intact ecosystems that provide goods and services required to sustain human life. Because development will incrementally and cumulative consume the biophysical environment, the conditions of intact ecosystems must be the basis for how the environme...

  13. Mastering the management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2008-01-01

    Companies have always found it hard to balance pressing operational concerns with long-term strategic priorities. The tension is critical: World-class processes won't lead to success without the right strategic direction, and the best strategy in the world will get nowhere without strong operations to execute it. In this article, Kaplan, of Harvard Business School, and Norton, founder and director of the Palladium Group, explain how to effectively manage both strategy and operations by linking them tightly in a closed-loop management system. The system comprises five stages, beginning with strategy development, which springs from a company's mission, vision, and value statements, and from an analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, and competitive environment. In the next stage, managers translate the strategy into objectives and initiatives with strategy maps, which organize objectives by themes, and balanced scorecards, which link objectives to performance metrics. Stage three involves creating an operational plan to accomplish the objectives and initiatives; it includes targeting process improvements and preparing sales, resource, and capacity plans and dynamic budgets. Managers then put plans into action, monitoring their effectiveness in stage four. They review operational, environmental, and competitive data; assess progress; and identify barriers to execution. In the final stage, they test the strategy, analyzing cost, profitability, and correlations between strategy and performance. If their underlying assumptions appear faulty, they update the strategy, beginning another loop. The authors present not only a comprehensive blueprint for successful strategy execution but also a managerial tool kit, illustrated with examples from HSBC Rail, Cigna Property and Casualty, and Store 24. The kit incorporates leading management experts' frameworks, outlining where they fit into the management cycle.

  14. 10. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 10. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2016-08-01

    Biomass energy not only contributes to the energy transition, but also for climate and resource protection. The main topics of the conference are: Alternative solid bioenergy sources; Optimizing the use of heat; Prospects for biofuels; Emission reduction through use of biofuels; Alternative biomass for biogas; Optimization and adjustment in the biogas sector; Flexibility of biogas plants; New uses of bioenergy. 12 contributions were recorded separately for the INIS database. [German] Energie aus Biomasse traegt nicht nur zur Energiewende bei, sondern auch zum Klima- und Ressourcenschutz. Die Schwerpunktthemen der Konferenz sind: Alternative feste Bioenergietraeger; Optimierung der Waermenutzung; Perspektiven fuer Biokraftstoffe; Emissionsminderung durch Biokraftstoffnutzung; Alternative Biomassen fuer Biogas; Optimierung und Anpassung im Biogasbereich; Flexibilisierung von Biogasanlagen; Neue Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten der Bioenergie. Fuer die Datenbank INIS wurden 12 Beitraege separat aufgenommen.

  15. The Role of Bioenergy in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass can play a dual role in greenhouse gas mitigation related to the objectives of the UNFCCC, i.e. as an energy source to substitute fossil fuels and as a carbon store. However, compared to the maintenance and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs, it appears that the use of bioenergy has so far received less attenuation as a means of mitigating climate change. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, cost-effective and perpetual opportunities toward meeting emission reduction targets while providing additional ancillary benefits. Moreover, via the sustainable use of the accumulated carbon, bioenergy has the potential for resolving some of the critical issues surrounding long-term maintenance of biotic carbon stocks. < finally, wood products can act as substitutes for more energy-intensive products, can constitute carbon sinks, and can be used as biofuels at the end of their lifetime. (author)

  16. Optimization of bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Østergård, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    A cost minimization model for supply of starch, oil, sugar, grassy and woody biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry. Crop area distributions...... and feed production, or e) on site carbon sequestration. In addition, two oil price levels were considered. The crop area distributions differed between scenarios and were affected by changing fossil oil prices up to index 300 (using 55$ per barrel in 2005 as index = 100). The bioenergy supply (district...... a low nitrogen load to the environment. In conclusion, even after drastic landuse changes the bioenergy supply as final energy will not exceed 184 PJ annually (including 26 PJ processed biowaste sources) by far lower than the annual domestic total energy consumption ranging between 800 and 850 PJ yr−1....

  17. Urban Logistics in Master Plan and a Review on Istanbul Master Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Senay Oguztimur; Metin Canci

    2011-01-01

    Urban logistics might be called as city logistics, urban freight transportation is a specific subsection of logistics concept. Urban logistics is generally based on logistics and freight activities in urban areas and focus on these activities' linkage with urban areas. Urban logistics issues might be evaluated under seven subtitles: These are respectively: logistics activities regarding with citizen subsistence, energy supply, industrial manufacturing, construction-maintenance activities, par...

  18. Urban Logistics in Master Plan and a Review on İstanbul Master Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Oguztimur, Senay; Canci, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Urban logistics might be called as city logistics, urban freight transportation is a specific subsection of logistics concept. Urban logistics is generally based on logistics and freight activities in urban areas and focus on these activities' linkage with urban areas. Urban logistics issues might be evaluated under seven subtitles: These are respectively: logistics activities regarding with citizen subsistence, energy supply, industrial manufacturing, construction-maintenance activities, par...

  19. Institutional Repositories: The Experience of Master's and Baccalaureate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; St. Jean, Beth; Soo, Young Rieh; Yakel, Elizabeth; Kim, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, MIRACLE Project investigators censused library directors at all U.S. academic institutions about their activities planning, pilot testing, and implementing the institutional repositories on their campuses. Out of 446 respondents, 289 (64.8 percent) were from master's and baccalaureate institutions (M&BIs) where few operational…

  20. Strain Rate Effects, Transition Behaviour and Master Curve Concept

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Pluvinage, G.; Holzmann, Miloslav

    č. 8 (2004), s. IV 16-IV 22 ISSN 1291-8199 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041003; GA ČR GA106/01/0342 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ferritic steel * pressure vessel steel * master curve Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  1. Masters athletes: factors affecting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharam, L G; Bauman, P A; Kalman, D; Skolnik, H; Perle, S M

    1999-10-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in interest in issues related to the enhancement of the performance of the masters athlete. Many of the changes in health status that have been thought to be the normal result of aging have been found to be actually the result of a long-standing sedentary lifestyle. Thus, masters athletes may be able to increase their athletic performance to higher levels than what was once thought. Decreases in muscle strength thought to be the result of aging do not appear to be so. The masters athlete may be able to maintain and increase strength in situations where strength training has not been previously engaged in. However, the literature lacks longitudinal studies demonstrating improvements in strength with age in masters athletes who have maintained habitual strength training. Studies in the past have shown that aging results in changes in fibre type, with a shift towards a higher percentage of type I fibres. This again may be an adaptation to lack of use. Decreases in heart function and aerobic capacity appear to be immutable, but in the masters athlete the rate of this decrease can be slowed. The masters athlete has certain elevated nutritional needs over younger athletes. Degenerative joint disease, although effecting most persons as they age, is not a certain result of aging and disability as the condition is reduced in the active person. Some orthopaedic conditions are related to decreases in flexibility of soft tissues that appear to accompany the aging process. Performance improvement in the masters athlete requires the same commitment to hard training that it requires from younger athletes, with some modifications for changes that are associated with aging.

  2. Bio-energy in Europe: changing technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-energy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. This is certainly evident in Europe, where a kaleidoscope of activities and programs was and is executed for developing and stimulating bio-energy. Over the past 10-15 years in the European Union, heat and electricity production from biomass increased with some 2% and 9% per year, respectively, between 1990 and 2000 and biofuel production increased about eight-fold in the same period. Biomass contributed some two-thirds of the total renewable energy production in the European Union (EU) (2000 PJ) or 4% of the total energy supply in 1999. Given the targets for heat, power and biofuels, this contribution may rise to some 10% (6000 PJ) in 2010. Over time, the scale at which bio-energy is being used has increased considerably. This is true for electricity and combined heat and power plants, and how biomass markets are developing from purely regional to international markets, with increasing cross-border trade-flows. So far, national policy programs proved to be of vital importance for the success of the development of bio-energy, which led to very specific technological choices in various countries. For the future, a supra-national approach is desired: comprehensive research development, demonstration and deployment trajectories for key options as biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle and advanced biofuel concepts, develop an international biomass market allowing for international trade and an integral policy approach for bio-energy incorporating energy, agricultural, forestry, waste and industrial policies. The Common Agricultural Policy of the (extended) EU should fully incorporate bio-energy and perennial crops in particular

  3. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology: Evidence from a new Danish bioenergy concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Butts, Michael Brian; Jensen, Niels H; Kjaer, Tyge

    2016-01-15

    The interest in sustainable bioenergy solutions has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce GHG emissions and to meet environmental policy targets, not least for the protection of groundwater and surface water quality. In the Municipality of Solrød in Denmark, a novel bioenergy concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under construction, was designed to handle an annual input of up to 200,000 t of biomass based on four main fractions: pectin wastes, carrageenan wastes, manure and beach-cast seaweed. This paper describes how this bioenergy concept can contribute to strengthening the linkages between climate change mitigation strategies and Water Framework Directive (WFD) action planning. Our assessments of the projected biogas plant indicate an annual reduction of GHG emissions of approx. 40,000 t CO2 equivalents, corresponding to approx. 1/3 of current total GHG emissions in the Municipality of Solrød. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorous loads to Køge Bay are estimated to be reduced by approx. 63 t yr.(-1) and 9 tyr.(-1), respectively, contributing to the achievement of more than 70% of the nutrient reduction target set for Køge Bay in the first WFD river basin management plan. This study shows that anaerobic co-digestion of the specific food industry residues, pig manure and beach-cast seaweed is feasible and that there is a very significant, cost-effective GHG and nutrient loading mitigation potential for this bioenergy concept. Our research demonstrates how an integrated planning process where considerations about the total environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions. Copyright © 2015

  4. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s.Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area.Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late summer

  5. LANL capabilities towards bioenergy and biofuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Min S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unkefer, Clifford J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    LANL invented technology for increasing growth and productivity of photosysnthetic organisms, including algae and higher plants. The technology has been extensively tested at the greenhouse and field scale for crop plants. Initial bioreactor testing of its efficacy on algal growth has shown promising results. It increases algal growth rates even under optimwn nutrient supply and careful pH control with CO{sub 2} continuously available. The technology uses a small organic molecule, applied to the plant surfaces or added to the algal growth medium. CO{sub 2} concentration is necessary to optimize algal production in either ponds or reactors. LANL has successfully designed, built and demonstrated an effective, efficient technology using DOE funding. Such a system would be very valuable for capitalizing on local inexpensive sources of CO{sub 2} for algal production operations. Furthermore, our protein engineering team has a concept to produce highly stable carbonic anhydyrase (CA) enzyme, which could be very useful to assure maximum utilization of the CO{sub 2} supply. Stable CA could be used either imnlobilized on solid supports or engineered into the algal strain. The current technologies for harvesting the algae and obtaining the lipids do not meet the needs for rapid, low cost separations for high volumes of material. LANL has obtained proof of concept for the high volume flowing stream concentration of algae, algal lysis and separation of the lipid, protein and water fractions, using acoustic platforms. This capability is targeted toward developing biosynthetics, chiral syntheses, high throughput protein expression and purification, organic chemistry, recognition ligands, and stable isotopes geared toward Bioenergy applications. Areas of expertise include stable isotope chemistry, biomaterials, polymers, biopolymers, organocatalysis, advanced characterization methods, and chemistry of model compounds. The ultimate realization of the ability to design and

  6. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D.J. [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  7. Using corngrass1 to engineer poplar as a bioenergy crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilan, Richard; Rubinelli, Peter Marius; Chuck, George

    2016-05-10

    Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to new bioenergy crops and methods of creating new bioenergy crops. For example, genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are used to create transgenic crops. In some embodiments, over-expression of miRNA is used to produce transgenic perennials, such as trees, with altered lignin content or composition. In some embodiments, the transgenic perennials are Populus spp. In some embodiments, the miRNA is a member of the miR156 family. In some embodiments, the gene is Zea mays Cg1.

  8. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in summary tables...

  9. Bioenergy, the Carbon Cycle, and Carbon Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolving energy and land-use policies across North America and Africa provide critical case studies in the relationship between regional development, the management of natural resources, and the carbon cycle. Over 50 EJ of the roughly 430 EJ total global anthropogenic energy budget is currently utilized in the form of direct biomass combustion. In North America 3 - 4 percent of total energy is derived from biomass, largely in combined heat and power (CHP) combustion applications. By contrast Africa, which is a major consumer of 'traditional' forms of biomass, uses far more total bioenergy products, but largely in smaller batches, with quantities of 0.5 - 2 tons/capita at the household level. Several African nations rely on biomass for well over 90 percent of household energy, and in some nations major portions of the industrial energy supply is also derived from biomass. In much of sub-Saharan Africa the direct combustion of biomass in rural areas is exceeded by the conversion of wood to charcoal for transport to the cities for household use there. There are major health, and environmental repercussions of these energy flows. The African, as well as Latin American and Asian charcoal trade has a noticeable signature on the global greenhouse gas cycles. In North America, and notably Scandinavia and India as well, biomass energy and emerging conversion technologies are being actively researched, and provide tremendous opportunities for the evolution of a sustainable, locally based, energy economy for many nations. This talk will examine aspects of these current energy and carbon flows, and the potential that gassification and new silvicultural practices hold for clean energy systems in the 21st century. North America and Africa will be examined in particular as both sources of innovation in this field, and areas with specific promise for application of these energy technologies and biomass/land use practices to further energy and global climate management.

  10. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  11. Very Bright CV discovered by MASTER-ICATE (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffe, C.; Levato, H.; Mallamaci, C.; Lopez, C.; Lipunov, F. Podest V.; Denisenko, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Yecheistov, V.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Gabovich, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Gress, O.; Frolova, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Parkhomenko, A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Podvorotny, P.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2013-06-01

    MASTER-ICATE very wide-field camera (d=72mm f/1.2 lens + 11 Mpix CCD) located near San Juan, Argentina has discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 20m 23.5s -48d 55m 40s on the combined image (exposure 275 sec) taken on 2013-06-08.048 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 12.1m (limit 13.1m). There is no minor planet at this place. The OT is seen in more than 10 images starting from 2013-06-02.967 UT (275 sec exposure) when it was first detected at 12.4m.

  12. Excellence through maintenance mastering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, M.; Guillot, M.; Monier, M.

    1987-01-01

    To improve the overall availability factor of nuclear power plants you have to cut either the forced outage role and the planned outage time or you need to reduce simultaneously the failures and the efforts devoted to avoiding them. Among other results, this goal leads to a decrease in the number of real or anticipated problems. Electricite de France policy, in this matter, is to focus on decreasing the compoents' maintenance needs through a comprehensive modification program, targeted to eliminating the weak points as revealed by the operation. Thereby one may reach, for simple equipment, a nearly maintenance-free condition in which the only maintenance needed is surveillance, which provides assurance that everything is operating properly. A good example of this type of equipment is the family of static components, drums, and pipes whose corrective maintenance is almost nil when their initial condition is good

  13. Residential bioenergy heating: A study of consumer perceptions of improved woodstoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyrud, Anders Q.; Roos, Anders; Sande, Jon Bingen

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' choices play a key role for the development of biomass heating in the residential sector. The city of Oslo has granted subsidies to households who change to new, improved low-emission woodstoves. The purpose of this study is to expand the knowledge about users' experiences and attitudes to residential biomass heating. An adapted model of the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to model households' inclination to continue using their woodstoves for heating. More than 800 questionnaires were collected from households that recently had invested in an improved woodstove. The respondents were satisfied with the new woodstoves. The respondents also considered themselves competent to use and maintain the stove and few had problems acquiring fuelwood. Further analyses showed that the intention to continue to use the new woodstove depends on economic benefits, heating performance, perceived time and effort to operate the stove, environmental effects of heating as well as perceived subjective norm. The results imply that when marketing a modern technology for bioenergy heating, both public authorities and producers should consider issues related to the users' perception of subjective norm, such as perceived status of using bioenergy or environmental concerns, when designing campaigns to promote the use of woodstoves

  14. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review—Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States)

    2013-05-22

    The presentation provides an overview of the Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center). It summarizes the project history, timeline, budget, partners, objectives, goals, future plans and in closer detail reviews the used approaches and technical accomplishments. The main project goals were (1) developing strategies and tools that assist in the creation of economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy industries within ecologically-sensitive regions such as South Florida and, in particular, the greater Everglades, (2) using these bioenergy strategies and tools in evolving the existing agricultural, urban, and ecological sectors towards more sustainable structures and practices and (3) using bioenergy as a focal point in the larger effort to mitigate climate change and sea level rise, realities with particularly catastrophic consequences for South Florida. The project started on Oct 1, 2010 and ended on Feb 28, 2013. It yearly average budget was $369,770, with the Dept. of Energy annual cost share of $317,167. The main project partners were Hendry County, University of Florida - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Intelligentsia International, Inc., Edison State College and University of South Florida. Used approaches, main accomplishments and results in the categories of (1) technical research, (2) education and (3) business development are presented in detail. The project uniqueness is mainly related to the use of system approaches and integrating several systems analyses. Relevance of the project applicable to sustainability of bioenergy, food production, & restoration is explained, critical success factors are challenges are outlined and future work drafted. Finally, the main publications and presentations catalogue list is presented.

  15. Mercury from bioenergy. Environmental problem or phobia?; Kwik uit bio-energie. Milieuprobleem of fobie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, W.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    An overview is given of the consequences of mercury emission from bioenergy projects, based on several environmental effect reports (so-called Mer or 'Milieueffectrapportages' in Dutch). It is concluded that in the Netherlands there is no atmospheric mercury problem. [Dutch] De gevolgen van de kwikemissies bij bioenergieprojecten worden beschreven op basis van diverse uitgevoerde Milieu-effectrapportages. Daarbij wordt ingegaan op de bezwaren ten aanzien van deze emissies die onder andere door milieugroepen worden ingebracht en de verpande emissie-eisen die vergunningverleners menen te moeten opleggen. De auteur beargumenteert dat er geen atmosferisch kwikprobleem is in Nederland en ten gevolge van de bio-energieprojecten ook niet is te verwachten. Alleen een Europese aanpak van grootschalige luchtverontreiniging is effectief. De Nederlandse kwikemissie is verhoudingsgewijs al zeer laag. Op basis hiervan zijn er volgens de auteur geen goede redenen om in Nederland strengere kwikeisen op te leggen dan elders in Europa.

  16. 76 FR 60451 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master Development Plan--Phase 1 Projects; Additional Filings AGENCY... (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP). The proposed projects include: Adding new lifts to serve... would be amended. Corrected Dates: After publication of the original Notice of Intent, a letter...

  17. Robust and sustainable bioenergy: Biomass in the future Danish energy system; Robust og baeredygtig bioenergi: Biomasse i fremtidens danske energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoett, T.

    2012-09-15

    The publication is a collection of articles about new, exciting technologies for the production of bioenergy, which received support from Danish research programmes. The green technologies must be sustainable so that future generations' opportunities for bioenergy use is not restricted, and the solutions must be robust in relation to security of supply, costs and energy economy. In this context, research plays a crucial role. Research is especially carried out within the use of residues as bio-waste, straw, wood and manure for energy purposes, but there are also projects on energy crops, as well as research into how algae from the sea can increase the production of biomass. (LN)

  18. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capareda, Sergio [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hall, Kenneth R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Searcy, Royce [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; Thompson, Wayne H. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Baltensperger, David [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Myatt, Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Blumenthal, Jurg [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

    2012-11-30

    Maintaining a predictable and sustainable supply of feedstock for bioenergy conversion is a major goal to facilitate the efficient transition to cellulosic biofuels. Our work provides insight into the complex interactions among agronomic, edaphic, and climatic factors that affect the sustainability of bioenergy crop yields. Our results provide science-based agronomic response measures that document how to better manage bioenergy sorghum production from planting to harvest. We show that harvest aids provide no significant benefit as a means to decrease harvest moisture or improve bioenergy yields. Our efforts to identify optimal seeding rates under varied edaphic and climatological conditions reinforce previous findings that sorghum is a resilient plant that can efficiently adapt to changing population pressures by decreasing or increasing the numbers of additional shoots or tillers – where optimal seeding rates for high biomass photoperiod sensitive sorghum is 60,000 to 70,000 seeds per acre and 100,000 to 120,000 seeds per acre for sweet varieties. Our varietal adaptability trials revealed that high biomass photoperiod sensitive energy sorghum consistently outperforms conventional photoperiod insensitive sweet sorghum and high biomass forage sorghum as the preferred bioenergy sorghum type, with combined theoretical yields of both cellulosic and fermentable water-soluble sugars producing an average yield of 1,035 gallons of EtOH per acre. Our nitrogen trials reveal that sweet sorghums produce ample amounts of water-soluble sugars with minimal increases in nitrogen inputs, and that excess nitrogen can affect minor increases in biomass yields and cellulosic sugars but decrease bioenergy quality by decreasing water-soluble sugar concentrations and increasing ash content, specifically when plant tissue nitrogen concentrations exceed 0.6 %, dry weight basis. Finally, through our growth and re-growth trials, we show that single-cut high biomass sorghum bioenergy yields

  19. Coordinate Mastering Using Optical Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieman, Leonard H.

    1989-01-01

    For a multi-sensor machine vision system, relating each sensor's measurement to a master gage coordinate system has been a difficult task. This is especially true for sheet metal gaging in the automotive industry where sensors may be separated by four or five meters. The current approach used to establish this master coordinate system, which is difficult at best, has been the following. First, the part is placed in the gage. The exact location, that is being measured by each sensor, is marked on the part. Then the marked part is transported to a coordinate measuring machine (CMM), where the location of each of the marked points is measured. These CMM measurements establish a master coordinate system. The procedure just described has major drawbacks including: the accuracy of marking the exact location being measured; the sensors orientation must be known with respect to the master coordinate system; and deformation of the sheet metal part when it is transported to the CMM. The mastering process can be significantly improved by optical coupling a theodolite pair with each machine vision sensor. This optical coupling is established by locating a target in a position that can be accurately measured by both a sensor and the theodolite system. First, the theodolite system is calibrated in gage coordinates by sighting on reference points placed on the machine vision gage. Then, for each sensor, the target location is measured by both the sensor and theodolite pair at three or more positions (or alternately one target may have three or more points that can be measured). From this data, the transforms from sensor coordinates to gage coordinates can be calculated. This report will present the configuration and calculations for coordinate mastering using optical coupling.

  20. The time aspect of bioenergy. Climate impacts of bioenergy due to differences in carbon uptake rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Chen, Deliang [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy due to how they influence carbon stocks over time and more specifically how fast combustion related carbon emissions are compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon. A set of fuel types representing different uptake rates are investigated, namely willow, branches and tops, stumps and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilisation. In the case of forest residues, the compensating 'uptake' is avoided emissions from the reference case of leaving the residues to decompose on the ground. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature, which have been calculated by an energy balance climate model. We conclude that there is a climate impact from using bioenergy due to how fast the emission pulse is compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon (or avoided emissions). Biofuels with slower uptake rates have a stronger climate impact than fuels with a faster uptake rate, assuming all other parameters equal. The time perspective over which the analysis is done is crucial for the climate impact of biofuels. If only biogenic fluxes are considered, our results show that over a 100 year perspective branches and tops are better for climate mitigation than stumps which in turn are better than coal. Over a 20 year time perspective this conclusion holds, but the differences between these fuels are relatively smaller. Establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric carbon, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects, if needed, of producing the traditional agricultural crops elsewhere. The analysis is not a life cycle assessment of different fuels and does therefore not consider the use of fossil fuels for logging, transportation and refining, other greenhouse gases than carbon or energy

  1. Mastering IDEAScript the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    With approximately 44,000 users in the U.S. and Canada, as well as 42,000 in Europe, IDEA software has become a leading provider of data analysis software for use by auditors and accountants. Written to provide users with a quick access guide for optimal use of IDEAScript, Mastering IDEAScript: The Definitive Guide is IDEA's official guide to mastering IDEAScript, covering essential topics such as Introducing IDEAScript, Understanding the Basics of IDEAScript Editor, Designing Structured Applications, Understanding IDEA Databases and much more. For auditors, accountants and controllers.

  2. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  3. Master/Programmable-Slave Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaistrla, David; Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Unique modular computer features compactness, low power, mass storage of data, multiprocessing, and choice of various input/output modes. Master processor communicates with user via usual keyboard and video display terminal. Coordinates operations of as many as 24 slave processors, each dedicated to different experiment. Each slave circuit card includes slave microprocessor and assortment of input/output circuits for communication with external equipment, with master processor, and with other slave processors. Adaptable to industrial process control with selectable degrees of automatic control, automatic and/or manual monitoring, and manual intervention.

  4. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. 6. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 6. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the 6th Rostock bioenergy forum at 14th and 15th June, 2012, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Regional concepts of bioenergy as a contribution to the energy policy turnaround (A. Schuette); (2) Bio energy region Ruegen - Regional mastering of the energy policy turnaround (S. Gehrig); (3) Bio energy Austria - Developments, state of the art and perspectives (A.M. Ragossnig); (4) Public relations and conflict management at regional bio energy projects (T. Turk); (5) Approaches for the determination of a regional added value by biomass by means of the technical-economical accompanying research in competition bio energy regions (S. Bohnet); (6) Town with energy efficiency - SEE - Stuttgart: Flagship project ''Wilhelma'' (A. Hilse); (7) Paludiculture - A regional bio energy concept for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (C. Schroeder); (8) Pilot projects for the utilization of biomass from paludiculture in integrated biomass heating systems in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (T. Dahms); (9) Production of biomass in wet peatlands (paludiculture). The EU-AID project 'Wetland energy' in Belarus - solutions for the substitution of fossil fuels (peat briquettes) by biomass from wet peatlands (W. Wichtmann); (10) State of the art of the compacting of straw in Germany (T. Hering); (11) Heating with straw - Cost structure of the agricultural heat production (M. Dietze); (12) Utilization and development of alternative fuels - state of the art and innovations (L. Di Matteo); (13) Production of qualitatively high-value wood-pellets for an energetic utilization (C. Kirsten); (14) Decentralized power generation from solid biomass in the course of the Renewable Energy Law EEG (P. Sauter); (15) MixBioPellets: Improvement of the market relevance of alternative and mixed biomass pellets in Europe - Framework conditions, measures and suitable utilisation concepts (T. Zeng); (16) Optimisation of a pellet

  6. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater

  7. Designing selection criteria for reed canarygrass as a bioenergy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a perennial C3 grass with a circumglobal distribution in the northern hemisphere and adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions. This species is currently under development as a bioenergy feedstock in both North America and Europe. Thus, the ...

  8. The South's outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy and biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wear; Robert Abt; Janaki Alavalapati; Greg Comatas; Mike Countess; Will McDow

    2010-01-01

    The future of a wood-based biofuel/bioenergy sector could hold important implications for the use, structure and function of forested landscapes in the South. This paper examines a set of questions regarding the potential effects of biofuel developments both on markets for traditional timber products and on the provision of various non-timber ecosystem services. In...

  9. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa | Ogbonna | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable, renewable and clean energy. In order to minimize possible negative effects of bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. Energy security cannot be separated from ...

  10. determination of bio-energy potential of palm kernel shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    88888888

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Keywords: palm kernel shell, bioenergy, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis, gasification ... tain higher energy density fuels. Fast Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass for bio-char, bio- oil and combustible gas production in the absence of ... Calorific Value of Coal and Coke) was used for the.

  11. The Impact of Water Scarcity on Food, Bioenergy and Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, N.; Ledvina, K.; Strzepek, K. M.; Reilly, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    We evaluate the impact of explicitly representing irrigated land and water scarcity in an economy-wide model on food prices, bioenergy production and deforestation both with and without a global carbon policy. The analysis develops supply functions of irrigable land from a water resource model resolved at 282 river basins and applies them within a global economy-wide model of energy and food production, land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions. The irrigable land supply curves are built on basin-level estimates of water availability, and the costs of improving irrigation efficiency and increasing water storage, and include other water requirements within each basin. The analysis reveals two key findings. First, explicitly representing irrigated land at has a small impact on food, bioenergy and deforestation outcomes. This is because this modification allows more flexibility in the expansion of crop land (i.e. irrigated and rainfed land can expand in different proportions) relative to when a single type of crop land is represented, which counters the effect of rising marginal costs for the expansion of irrigated land. Second, due to endogenous irrigation and storage responses, changes in water availability have small impacts on food prices, bioenergy production, land-use change and the overall economy, even with large scale ( 150 exajoules) bioenergy production.

  12. Design and Development of Synthetic Microbial Platform Cells for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun eLee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes, non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.

  13. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    peelings, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). This was done to establish detailed compositional mass balances, enabling estimations of accurate bioenergy...

  14. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  15. Sustainability of bioenergy chains: the result is in the details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigated how the feasibility and sustainability of large-scale bioenergy production, supply and use for local use or trade can be determined ex ante on a regional level, taking into account the complexities and variabilities of the underlying factors like food demand and land use.

  16. Field windbreaks for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree windbreaks are a multi-benefit land use with the ability to mitigate climate change by modifying the local microclimate for improved crop growth and sequestering carbon in soil and biomass. Agroforestry practices are also being considered for bioenergy production by direct combustion or produci...

  17. Carbon debt and carbon sequestration parity in forest bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Mitchell; M.E. Harmon; K.B. O' Connell

    2012-01-01

    The capacity for forests to aid in climate change mitigation efforts is substantial but will ultimately depend on their management. If forests remain unharvested, they can further mitigate the increases in atmospheric CO2 that result from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. Alternatively, they can be harvested for bioenergy production and...

  18. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  19. Superhump Period of MASTER OT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnavich, Peter; McClelland, Colin

    2013-02-01

    We observed the optical transient MASTER OT J065608.28+744455.2 (ATEL #4783) with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) and VATT4K CCD camera. V-band imaging began at 2013 Feb. 5.15 (UT) and continued for 3.3 hours with a time resolution of 22 seconds.

  20. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  1. Master-slave micromanipulator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    A method based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be remotized by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  2. Master/slave manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    System capabilities are equivalent to mobility, dexterity, and strength of human arm. Arrangement of torque motor, harmonic drive, and potentiometer combination allows all power and control leads to pass through center of slave with position-transducer arrangement of master, and "stovepipe joint" is incorporated for manipulator applications.

  3. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  4. Harmonising bioenergy resource potentials-Methodological lessons from review of state of the art bioenergy potential assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Published estimates of the potential of bioenergy vary widely, mainly due to the heterogeneity of methodologies, assumptions and datasets employed. These discrepancies are confusing for policy and it is thus important to have scientific clarity on the basis of the assessment outcomes. Such clear

  5. Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade. Evaluating the impact of sustainability criteria and policy on past and future bioenergy supply and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Within a single decade, bioenergy has shifted from a largely local energy source with marginal trade volumes to a globally traded item. The primary objective of this thesis is to evaluate the links between national renewable energy support and trade policies and market forces on past global

  6. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  7. From convolutionless generalized master to Pauli master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capek, V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is a continuation of previous work within which it has been proved that time integrals of memory function (i.e. Markovian transfer rates from Pauli Master Equations, PME) in Time-Convolution Generalized Master Equations (TC-GME) for probabilities of finding a state of an asymmetric system interacting with a bath with a continuous spectrum are exactly zero, provided that no approximation is involved, irrespective of the usual finite-perturbation-order correspondence with the Golden Rule transition rates. In this paper, attention is paid to an alternative way of deriving the rigorous PME from the TCL-GME. Arguments are given in favor of the proposition that the long-time limit of coefficients in TCL-GME for the above probabilities, under the same assumption and presuming that this limit exists, is equal to zero. 11 refs

  8. Collaborative development of Estonian nuclear master's program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, A. H.; Kikas, A.; Realo, E.; Kirm, M.; Kiisk, M.; Isakar, K.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R.; Feldbach, E.; Lushchik, A.; Reivelt, K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 Estonia approved the National Development Plan for the Energy Sector, including the nuclear energy option. This can be realized by construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Estonia or by participation in neighboring nuclear projects (e.g., Lithuania and/or Finland). Either option requires the availability of competent personnel. It is necessary to prepare specialists with expertise in all aspects related to nuclear infrastructure and to meet workforce needs (e.g. energy enterprises, public agencies, municipalities). Estonia's leading institutions of higher education and research with the support of the European Social Fund have announced in this context a new nuclear master's curriculum to be developed. The language of instruction will be English. (authors)

  9. Paving the Way for Heat. Local Government Policies for Developing Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Johnsen Rygg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Local governments play dual roles in developing renewable energy projects. They are the targets of many goals concerning energy and climate, set by national and international actors, and they are important actors in energy planning, regulation setting, and the development of infrastructure and residential areas. In this paper, I study how local governments’ technology policies affect the actual outcome of project development based on experiences from 14 local governments. Technology policies are studied from the perspective of Sørensen’s [1] four areas of concern: direct support of innovation, infrastructure, regulation (protection and standards and public engagement. I find that local governments use policy instruments within all four areas, and that the way local governments involves in the process of bioenergy development are surprisingly similar despite differences in location and size of both the local government and the project.

  10. Bioenergy knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among young citizens - from cross-national surveys to conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, P.

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of

  11. Impact of bioenergy on regionalized nitrogen balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häußermann, Uwe; Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin

    2017-04-01

    use a dataset which is kept and regularly updated by the Germany Federal Network Agency („Bundesnetzagentur") (Bundesnetzagentur 2016). These dataset does not include information about substrate input and therefore need to be intersect with regionalized substrate input data (DBFZ 2012), and to obtain nitrogen input quantities with the nitrogen content of these substrates (KTBL 2016). Without including bioenergy production, the linear trend of the net-N-surplus in 2003 to 2014 for Germany is -1.66x + 71.25 kg N (ha LF a)-1? , therefore, an overall decrease of the net-N-surplus of 18.3 kg N ha LF-1 within 11 years was calculated. No such decrease was calculated, when biogas production was included into the net-N-balance.

  12. Hybrid quantum-classical master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    We discuss hybrid master equations of composite systems, which are hybrids of classical and quantum subsystems. A fairly general form of hybrid master equations is suggested. Its consistency is derived from the consistency of Lindblad quantum master equations. We emphasize that quantum measurement is a natural example of exact hybrid systems. We derive a heuristic hybrid master equation of time-continuous position measurement (monitoring). (paper)

  13. Developing "Masterity": The "Habitus" of Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wonsup; Koo, Yoojeong

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers "masters" as the ideal archetype of workers. Here, the term "master" includes not only those who are in traditional handcrafting or manufacturing industry, but also who work in various fields such as information technology, medicine, arts, and so on. To explore the lifelong learning of masters, we conducted…

  14. Improved electromechanical master-slave manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, G.; Goertz, R.; Grimson, J.; Mingesz, D.; Potts, C.

    1968-01-01

    Electric master-slave manipulator uses force multiplication and allows the operator to remotely control the slave arm. Both the master and slave arms execute seven distinct motions by a specially designed force-reflecting servo having a one to one correspondence between the motion at the master and slave.

  15. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment

  16. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  17. IEA Bioenergy task 40. Country report for the Netherlands 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.

    2007-12-01

    Short-term objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 'Sustainable International Bio-energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand' are amongst other objectives to present an overview of development of biomass markets in various parts of the world and to identify existing barriers hampering development of a (global) commodity market (e.g. policy framework, ecology, economics). As in most countries biomass is a relatively new (though quickly growing) commodity, relatively little information is available on e.g. the traded volumes and prices of various biomass streams, policies and regulations on biomass use and trade, and existing and perceived barriers. This country report aims to provide an overview of these issues for the Netherlands and is an extended update of previous reports (2005 and 2006)

  18. Sweet sorghum as a model system for bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Martín; Messing, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Bioenergy is the reduction of carbon via photosynthesis. Currently, this energy is harvested as liquid fuel through fermentation. A major concern, however, is input cost, in particular use of excess water and nitrogen, derived from an energy-negative process, the Haber-Bosch method. Furthermore, the shortage of arable land creates competition between uses for food and fuel, resulting in increased living expenses. This review seeks to summarize recent knowledge in genetics, genomics, and gene expression of a rising model species for bioenergy applications, sorghum. Its diploid genome has been sequenced, it has favorable low-input cost traits, and genetic crosses between different cultivars can be used to study allelic variations of genes involved in stem sugar metabolism and incremental biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent developments in microbial fuel cell technologies for sustainable bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microbial catabolic activities to generate electricity from a variety of materials, including complex organic waste and renewable biomass. These sources provide MFCs with a great advantage over chemical fuel cells that can utilize only purified reactive fuels (e.g., hydrogen). A developing primary application of MFCs is its use in the production of sustainable bioenergy, e.g., organic waste treatment coupled with electricity generation, although further technical developments are necessary for its practical use. In this article, recent advances in MFC technologies that can become fundamentals for future practical MFC developments are summarized. Results of recent studies suggest that MFCs will be of practical use in the near future and will become a preferred option among sustainable bioenergy processes.

  20. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indirect energy input of agricultural machinery in bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu J.; Ahokas, Jukka [Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28 (Koetilantie) 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-01-15

    Sustainability of bioenergy products should be evaluated by means of an energy analysis that takes into account all relevant direct and indirect energy inputs. Direct energy input is viewed as the major energy consuming factor, and is quite easy to measure. Indirect energy input, however, has received relatively scant attention, so it is likely to be insufficiently analysed and possibly underestimated. This paper reviews the data available and suggests the type of research that would be needed to get a better understanding of the indirect energy input. The analysis addresses questions about the use of energy to produce and maintain agricultural machinery, the allocation of energy to different bioenergy products, and the real use and lifetime of machinery. (author)

  2. Bioenergy potentials from forestry to 2050. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-05-01

    In this study a bottom-up scenario analysis of the global bioenergy production potential is carried out, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing outlook studies on demand and supply and gaps in the knowledge base that explain the large range in estimates. Key variables are the demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, plantation establishment rates and natural forest growth. Key uncertainties are the supply of wood from trees outside and the impact of sustainable forest management (SFM) of yields. Results show that the world is capable of meeting the future demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, without further deforestation. The total potential of bioenergy from surplus forest growth and residues is estimated at 27 to 140 EJy -1 in 2050

  3. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    Climate change impacts resulting from fossil fuel combustion and concerns about the diversity of energy supply are driving interest to find low-carbon energy alternatives. As a result bioenergy is receiving widespread scientific, political and media attention for its potential role in both supplying energy and mitigating greenhouse (GHG) emissions. It is estimated that the bioenergy contribution to EU 2020 renewable energy targets could require up to 17-21 million hectares of additional land in Europe (Don et al., 2012). There are increasing concerns that some transitions into bioenergy may not be as sustainable as first thought when GHG emissions from the crop growth and management cycle are factored into any GHG life cycle assessment (LCA). Bioenergy is complex and encapsulates a wide range of crops, varying from food crop based biofuels to dedicated second generation perennial energy crops and forestry products. The decision on the choice of crop for energy production significantly influences the GHG mitigation potential. It is recognised that GHG savings or losses are in part a function of the original land-use that has undergone change and the management intensity for the energy crop. There is therefore an urgent need to better quantify both crop and site-specific effects associated with the production of conventional and dedicated energy crops on the GHG balance. Currently, there is scarcity of GHG balance data with respect to second generation crops meaning that process based models and LCAs of GHG balances are weakly underpinned. Therefore, robust, models based on real data are urgently required. In the UK we have recently embarked on a detailed program of work to address this challenge by combining a large number of field studies with state-of-the-art process models. Through six detailed experiments, we are calculating the annual GHG balances of land use transitions into energy crops across the UK. Further, we are quantifying the total soil carbon gain or

  4. Support and opportunity for lifelong learning in the field of bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaemsen, M.; Wihersaari, M.; Paeaellysaho, J. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland), Dept.of Biological and Environmental Sciences), e-mail: miia.jamsen@jyu.fi

    2010-07-01

    The expanding bioenergy sector requires well-educated professionals with specialised expertise. The objective of the Bioenergy Cluster of Central Finland Project (BEV-specialist) is to map the pathways, and identify the obstacles, of lifelong learning in the field of bioenergy. Learning is not only a question of desire or curiosity; it is also affected by one's standing in life as well as by different legislation, support mechanisms and limitations. These factors have an enormous impact on lifelong learning. Pathways of learning and their influential elements have been identified. Now is the time to pass the knowledge forward and start building bioenergy know-how within this framework. (orig.)

  5. Young citizens' knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy and future policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Pradipta; Pietarinen, Janne; Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years extensive discussions on bioenergy has been both positive and negative. In Europe, the image of bioenergy appears to be low with lack of broad public support. Previous studies show that younger people are unsure about many issues surrounding renewable energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy among pupils in North Karelia, Finland. Data drawn from 495 ninth grade students indicate that the majority of them lack in-depth knowledge about different renewable energy sources, including bioenergy. Only a small percentage has a 'high' level of knowledge about bioenergy and the majority indicates critical perceptions of it. Statistically significant gender differences are not apparent. Girls appear to be more knowledgeable than boys. Results also show a clear 'urban' and 'rural' difference in perceptions of bioenergy. Perceptions of urban respondents being more positive than that of their rural counterparts. Developing collaboration between future bioenergy policies and bioenergy education for younger citizens is necessary for their engagement in critical debates on bioenergy.

  6. Sustainability standards for bioenergy-A means to reduce climate change risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Renate; Blasch, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of standards for sustainable bioenergy production. Sustainability of bioenergy production is crucial if bioenergy is supposed to contribute effectively to climate change mitigation. First, a brief overview of current bioenergy policies and of initiatives and legislation for bioenergy sustainability are given. Then, the authors show that under free market conditions undersupply of sustainable bioenergy will prevail. Two types of market failures are identified: information asymmetry and externalities in bioenergy production. Due to these market failures bioenergy is less sustainable than it could be. It is shown that mandatory certification and subsequent labeling can help to overcome the information asymmetry and lead to a more efficient market outcome since consumers can choose products according to their preferences. The authors conclude, however, that the existence of production externalities asks for stronger market intervention, for example in the form of binding minimum standards or taxes. The paper discusses the efficiency and feasibility of such policy measures and shows that mandatory certification combined with binding minimum standards can be an adequate policy choice to regulate the bioenergy market.

  7. Tradeoffs in ecosystem services of prairies managed for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Meghann Elizabeth

    The use of perennial plant materials as a renewable source of energy may constitute an important opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of managed land. Currently, the production of energy from agricultural products is primarily in the form of ethanol from corn grain, which used more than 45% of the domestic U.S. corn crop in 2011. Concomitantly, using corn grain to produce ethanol has promoted landscape simplification and homogenization through conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual row crops, and has been implicated in increasing environmental damage, such as increased nitrate leaching into water bodies and increased rates of soil erosion. In contrast, perennial prairie vegetation has the potential to be used as a bioenergy feedstock that produces a substantial amount of biomass as well as numerous ecosystem services. Reincorporating prairies to diversify the landscape of the Midwestern U.S. at strategic locations could provide more habitat for animals, including beneficial insects, and decrease nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment movement into water bodies. In this dissertation, I present data from two field experiments that examine (1) how managing prairies for bioenergy production affects prairie ecology and agronomic performance and (2) how these prairie systems differ from corn systems managed for bioenergy production. Results of this work show that there are tradeoffs among prairie systems and between corn and prairie systems with respect to the amount of harvested biomass, root production, nutrient export, feedstock characteristics, growing season utilization, and species and functional group diversity. These results emphasize the need for a multifaceted approach to fully evaluate bioenergy feedstock production systems.

  8. Social acceptability of bioenergy in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Peter Brosius; John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner

    2013-01-01

    Global interest in bioenergy development has increased dramatically in recent years, due to its promise to reduce dependence on fossil fuel energy supplies, its contribution to global and national energy security, its potential to produce a carbon negative or neutral fuel source and to mitigate climate change, and its potential as a vehicle for rural development....

  9. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  10. Sustainable Palm Oil Production For Bioenergy Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wai Kiat

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergy supply chain is formed by many parts which from the raw material, biomass feedstock until the distribution and utilisation. The upstream activity is always managed in a sustainable way in order to be capable enough to support the downstream activity. In this dissertation, the sustainable production of palm oil is focused and researched through problem identification and solving by using the operation management perspective and practices. At first, the global biomass industry is st...

  11. Biomass production on marginal lands - catalogue of bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Ivanina, Vadym; Hanzhenko, Oleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Marginal lands are the poorest type of land, with various limitations for traditional agriculture. However, they can be used for biomass production for bioenergy based on perennial plants or trees. The main advantage of biomass as an energy source compared to fossil fuels is the positive influence on the global carbon dioxide balance in the atmosphere. During combustion of biofuels, less carbon dioxide is emitted than is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis. Besides, 20 to 30 times less sulphur oxide and 3 to 4 times less ash is formed as compared with coal. Growing bioenergy crops creates additional workplaces in rural areas. Soil and climatic conditions of most European regions are suitable for growing perennial energy crops that are capable of rapid transforming solar energy into energy-intensive biomass. Selcted plants are not demanding for soil fertility, do not require a significant amount of fertilizers and pesticides and can be cultivated, therefore, also on unproductive lands of Europe. They prevent soil erosion, contribute to the preservation and improvement of agroecosystems and provide low-cost biomass. A catalogue of potential bioenergy plants was developed within the EU H2020 project SEEMLA including woody and perennial crops that are allowed to be grown in the territory of the EU and Ukraine. The catalogue lists high-productive woody and perennial crops that are not demanding to the conditions of growing and can guarantee stable high yields of high-energy-capacity biomass on marginal lands of various categories of marginality. Biomass of perennials plants and trees is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are directly used to produce solid biofuels. Thanks to the well-developed root system of trees and perennial plants, they are better adapted to poor soils and do not require careful maintenance. Therefore, they can be grown on marginal lands. Particular C4 bioenergy crops are well adapted to a lack of moisture and high

  12. Adaptive Airport Strategic Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Walker, W.E.; Marchau, V.A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Airport Strategic Planning (ASP) focuses on the development of plans for the long-term development of an airport. The dominant approach for ASP is Airport Master Planning (AMP). The goal of AMP is to provide a detailed blueprint for how the airport should look in the future, and how it can get

  13. Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elghali, Lucia; Clift, Roland; Sinclair, Philip; Panoutsou, Calliope; Bauen, Ausilio

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain operates; environmental performance, including, but not limited to, low carbon dioxide emissions over the complete fuel cycle; and social acceptability, with the benefits of using biomass recognised as outweighing any negative social impacts. This paper describes an approach to developing a methodology to establish a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems to provide practical advice for policy makers, planners and the bioenergy industry, and thus to support policy development and bioenergy deployment at different scales. The approach uses multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision-conferencing, to explore how such a process is able to integrate and reconcile the interests and concerns of diverse stakeholder groups

  14. Bioenergy in the United States: progress and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Beyea, J.

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change and air quality have increased interest in biomass and other energy sources that are potentially CO 2 -neutral and less polluting. Large-scale bioenergy development could indeed bring significant ecological benefits - or equally significant damage - depending on the specific paths taken. In particular, the land requirements for biomass production are potentially immense. Various entities in the United States have performed research; prepared cost-supply assessments, environmental impact assessments, life cycle analyses and externality impact assessments; and engaged in demonstration and development regarding biomass crops and other potential biomass energy feedstocks. These efforts have focused on various biomass wastes, forest management issues, and biomass crops, including both perennial herbaceous crops and fast-growing woody crops. Simultaneously, several regional and national groups of bioenergy stakeholders have issued consensus recommendations and guidelines for sustainable bioenergy development. It is a consistent conclusion from these efforts that displacing annual agricultural crops with native perennial biomass crops could - in addition to reducing fossil fuel use and ameliorating associated ecological problems - also help restore natural ecosystem functions in worked landscapes, and thereby preserve natural biodiversity. Conversely, if forests are managed and harvested more intensively - and/or if biomass crops displace more natural land cover such as forests and wetlands - it is likely that ecosystem functions would be impaired and biodiversity lost. (author)

  15. Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domac, J. [Energy Institute ' Hrvoje Pozar' , Zagreb (Croatia); Richards, K. [TV Energy Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom); Risovic, S. [Zagreb Univ., Faculty of Forestry, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2005-02-01

    Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, etc) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others. (Author)

  16. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  17. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  19. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  20. A systematic review of bioenergy life cycle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, Stefan; Guenther, Edeltraud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We conducted a systematic literature review of bioenergy LCAs. • We provide a detailed overview of GWP, AP, and EP for biomass electricity and heat. • We discuss methodological choices that can lead to variations in results. • Relevant choices are functional unit, allocation method, system boundary, and carbon modelling. - Abstract: On a global scale, bioenergy is highly relevant to renewable energy options. Unlike fossil fuels, bioenergy can be carbon neutral and plays an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass electricity and heat contribute 90% of total final biomass energy consumption, and many reviews of biofuel Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) have been published. However, only a small number of these reviews are concerned with electricity and heat generation from biomass, and these reviews focus on only a few impact categories. No review of biomass electricity and heat LCAs included a detailed quantitative assessment. The failure to consider heat generation, the insufficient consideration of impact categories, and the missing quantitative overview in bioenergy LCA reviews constitute research gaps. The primary goal of the present review was to give an overview of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. A systematic review was chosen as the research method to achieve a comprehensive and minimally biased overview of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. We conducted a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. There is a significant variability in results of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. Assumptions regarding the bioenergy system and methodological choices are likely reasons for extreme values. The secondary goal of this review is to discuss influencing methodological choices. No general consensus has been reached regarding the optimal functional unit, the ideal allocation of environmental impact between co-products, the definition of the system boundary